Joseph E. Johnston was a veteran of the
Mexican War (1846–1848), quartermaster general of the United States Army, a
Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865), a member of the U.S.
House of Representatives (1879–1881), and a U.S. railroad commissioner in the first
administration of U.S. president Grover Cleveland (1885–1889). The highest-ranking
U.S. Army officer to resign his commission at the start of the Civil War, Johnston
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