Media: Slideshow

Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America

Walter A. Plecker

A 1935 photograph shows Walter A. Plecker at his desk at the Bureau of Vital Statistics, a department created in 1912 by the Virginia General Assembly to oversee the registration of all births, deaths, and marriages in the state. Plecker was the first registrar of the bureau and continued in that post until 1946. A white supremacist who feared the mixing of the races, Plecker pressed for passage of the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, a law that required the registration of all Virginians in order to establish their race as either "white" or "non-white," and thereby prevent interracial marriage and the so-called "mongrelization" of the white race.

Original Author: Richmond Times-Dispatch

Created: January 8, 1935

Medium: Photograph

Courtesy of the Richmond Times-Dispatch

Earnest Sevier Cox Scientist and Explorer

Earnest Sevier Cox, a dedicated white supremacist, poses in a rugged outfit and bears a rifle in this portrait that defines him as a "Scientist and Explorer." Cox traveled around Africa from 1910 to 1913 to study the conditions of black Africans and the racial policies of the colonial powers. This photograph may have been taken in the African outback, but it is also possible that it was made later in a photo studio—there are clear signs that the image has been altered. This is the final page in a promotional brochure titled Earnest Sevier Cox, Specialist in the World-Wide Color-Problem (1930). Cox lectured and wrote widely about his travels and racial theories, and in 1922 he cofounded the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, an organization devoted to the strict separation of the races.

Citation: Earnest Sevier Cox, Specialist on the World-Wide Color-Problem, Broadside 1930 .E27, Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

Original Author: Earnest Sevier Cox

Created: 1930

Medium: Promotional brochure

Courtesy of Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

John Powell

John Powell, a Richmond-born composer and pianist, clutches an American flag in this news service photograph from 1920. Two years later, he and Ernest Sevier Cox, a self-styled ethnologist, organized the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, which were committed to maintaining the purity of the white race.

Original Author: Bain News Service

Created: April 23, 1920

Medium: Glass-plate negative

Courtesy of Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division

Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America Application

This is an application form to join Virginia Post 1 of the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, a Richmond-based, nationwide organization devoted to the strict separation of the races. The organization was cofounded by Earnest Sevier Cox, a self-styled ethnographer, and John Powell, a composer, pianist, and professor at the University of Virginia. The applicant was required to state his marital status, church affiliation, and whether he belonged to any secret or fraternal order. The application also required personal endorsements and a ten dollar membership fee, which would be returned if the applicant were rejected.

Original Author: Virginia Post No. 1, Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America

Created: ca. 1920s

Medium: Application form

Courtesy of University of Virginia Special Collections

Editorial from the Newport News Daily Press

A detail from an editorial titled "Integrity of the Anglo-Saxon Race," published in the March 15, 1925, edition of the Newport News Daily Press, announces the creation of a local branch of the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America. Walter Scott Copeland, the editor of the newspaper, expresses his opinion that the men heading this white supremacist organization are "taking every possible precaution to preserve the integrity of the white race. Copeland argues "this organization is not unfriendly to the negro race," citing their creed, "I believe in the supremacy of the white race in the United States of America, without racial prejudices or hatreds."

Citation: Walter Scott Copeland Papers, 1880–1954. Accession #5497. Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

Original Author: Walter Scott Copeland

Created: March 15, 1925

Medium: Newspaper article

Courtesy of University of Virginia Special Collections

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  • Walter A. Plecker

    A 1935 photograph shows Walter A. Plecker at his desk at the Bureau of Vital Statistics, a department created in 1912 by the Virginia General Assembly to oversee the registration of all births, deaths, and marriages in the state. Plecker was the first registrar of the bureau and continued in that post until 1946. A white supremacist who feared the mixing of the races, Plecker pressed for passage of the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, a law that required the registration of all Virginians in order to establish their race as either "white" or "non-white," and thereby prevent interracial marriage and the so-called "mongrelization" of the white race.

    Original Author: Richmond Times-Dispatch

    Created: January 8, 1935

    Medium: Photograph

    Courtesy of the Richmond Times-Dispatch

  • Earnest Sevier Cox Scientist and Explorer

    Earnest Sevier Cox, a dedicated white supremacist, poses in a rugged outfit and bears a rifle in this portrait that defines him as a "Scientist and Explorer." Cox traveled around Africa from 1910 to 1913 to study the conditions of black Africans and the racial policies of the colonial powers. This photograph may have been taken in the African outback, but it is also possible that it was made later in a photo studio—there are clear signs that the image has been altered. This is the final page in a promotional brochure titled Earnest Sevier Cox, Specialist in the World-Wide Color-Problem (1930). Cox lectured and wrote widely about his travels and racial theories, and in 1922 he cofounded the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, an organization devoted to the strict separation of the races.

    Citation: Earnest Sevier Cox, Specialist on the World-Wide Color-Problem, Broadside 1930 .E27, Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

    Original Author: Earnest Sevier Cox

    Created: 1930

    Medium: Promotional brochure

    Courtesy of Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

  • John Powell

    John Powell, a Richmond-born composer and pianist, clutches an American flag in this news service photograph from 1920. Two years later, he and Ernest Sevier Cox, a self-styled ethnologist, organized the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, which were committed to maintaining the purity of the white race.

    Original Author: Bain News Service

    Created: April 23, 1920

    Medium: Glass-plate negative

    Courtesy of Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division

  • Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America Application

    This is an application form to join Virginia Post 1 of the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, a Richmond-based, nationwide organization devoted to the strict separation of the races. The organization was cofounded by Earnest Sevier Cox, a self-styled ethnographer, and John Powell, a composer, pianist, and professor at the University of Virginia. The applicant was required to state his marital status, church affiliation, and whether he belonged to any secret or fraternal order. The application also required personal endorsements and a ten dollar membership fee, which would be returned if the applicant were rejected.

    Original Author: Virginia Post No. 1, Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America

    Created: ca. 1920s

    Medium: Application form

    Courtesy of University of Virginia Special Collections

  • Editorial from the Newport News Daily Press

    A detail from an editorial titled "Integrity of the Anglo-Saxon Race," published in the March 15, 1925, edition of the Newport News Daily Press, announces the creation of a local branch of the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America. Walter Scott Copeland, the editor of the newspaper, expresses his opinion that the men heading this white supremacist organization are "taking every possible precaution to preserve the integrity of the white race. Copeland argues "this organization is not unfriendly to the negro race," citing their creed, "I believe in the supremacy of the white race in the United States of America, without racial prejudices or hatreds."

    Citation: Walter Scott Copeland Papers, 1880–1954. Accession #5497. Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

    Original Author: Walter Scott Copeland

    Created: March 15, 1925

    Medium: Newspaper article

    Courtesy of University of Virginia Special Collections