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Maps and Geographic Curiosities in Notes on the State of Virginia

A Map of the country between Albemarle Sound, and Lake Erie, comprehending the whole of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and Pennsylvania, with parts of several other of the United States of America.

This foldout map is from Thomas Jefferson's copy of the first London edition of Notes on the State of Virginia, published in 1787. Titled A Map of the country between Albemarle Sound, and Lake Erie, comprehending the whole of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and Pennsylvania, with parts of several other of the United States of America, the map gives a detailed rendering of the waterways, mountains, counties, and other geographic features in that region. Virginia's border extends all the way to the Ohio River in this map. Jefferson divided the western lands beyond Virginia into five states: "Kentuckey," "Franklan" (present-day Tennessee), and three other areas designated as "A New State." Jefferson prepared this map and based it on several earlier ones: the Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia, co-authored by his father, Peter Jefferson, and first published in 1753; William Scull's 1770 map of Pennsylvania; and Thomas Hutchins's A New Map of the Western Parts of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina, published in 1778. When Jefferson sent his map to the engraver in London, he included those older maps for reference. He also sent Henry Mouzon's map of North Carolina, published in 1775. At upper right, Jefferson's new map is described as being based on the older ones, though "additions have been made where they could be made on sure ground."

Citation: Notes on the State of Virginia. A 1787 .J45. Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

Original Author: Thomas Jefferson, mapmaker; S. J. Neele, engraver; John Stockdale, publisher

Created: 1787

Medium: Hand-colored engraving

Courtesy of University of Virginia Special Collections

A Sketch of Several Forts by the Scioto River

A foldout drawing details several forts along the Scioto River in present-day Ohio.The unknown mapmaker measured the structures in terms of a pole, a surveyor's tool five and a half yards in length. In 1787 this region became part of the new Northwest Territory, an incorporated territory of the United States that encompassed present-day Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota. Virginia was granted a large tract of land between the Scioto and Little Miami rivers in the Northwest Territory to be used to pay bounties to Virginia veterans of the Revolutionary War.

This hand-drawn sketch was tipped into Thomas Jefferson's copy of the 1787 London edition of his Notes on the State of Virginia. (Jefferson may have inserted the illustration himself.) An engraved version of the drawing was incorporated into the 1853 edition of Notes brought to press in Richmond by Jefferson's grandson and executor, Thomas Jefferson Randolph.

Citation: Notes on the State of Virginia. A 1787 .J45. Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

Original Author: Unknown

Created: ca. 1787–1826

Medium: Pen-and-ink and wash drawing

Courtesy of University of Virginia Special Collections

A Sketch of several antient Fortifications, situate on the Little Miami River &c.

A foldout drawing titled A Sketch of several antient Fortifications, situate on the Little Miami River &c. details the location of old earthen forts on or near the Litte Miami River, a tributary of the Ohio River in present-day southwestern Ohio. The diagram, created by the Philadelphia draftsman Charles de Krafft, gives technical information and specifications on the fortifications, describing them as "from 5 to 10 feet high, measuring generally upwards of 30 ft. across." In 1787 this region became part of the new Northwest Territory, an incorporated territory of the United States that encompassed present-day Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota. Virginia was granted a large tract of land between the Scioto and Little Miami rivers in the Northwest Territory to be used to pay bounties to Virginia veterans of the Revolutionary War.

At an unknown date, this hand-drawn sketch was tipped into Thomas Jefferson's copy of the 1787 London edition of his Notes on the State of Virginia. (Jefferson may have inserted the illustration himself.) An engraved version of the drawing was incorporated into the 1853 edition of Notes brought to press in Richmond by Jefferson's grandson and executor, Thomas Jefferson Randolph.

Citation: Notes on the State of Virginia. A 1787 .J45. Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

Original Author: Charles de Krafft

Created: ca. 1787–1804

Medium: Pen-and-ink and wash drawing

Courtesy of University of Virginia Special Collections

Plan of Madison and Amen's Caverns

A foldout drawing titled Plan of Madison and Amen's Caverns, maps the interior of two limestone caverns—Madison's Cave and Amen's Cave (now called Grand Caverns)—in the Shenandoah Valley. At right, a key marks specific locations inside Amen's Cave, with fanciful names given to match geological formations. The map indicates where there are stairs to navigate difficult sections of the cave. Visitors are advised that "To visit all parts of this wonderfull cavern will take up (in going & returning) a distance of 2000 yards." At an unknown date, this hand-drawn sketch, based on a survey of the caves made by J. Peck, was tipped into Thomas Jefferson's copy of the 1787 London edition of his Notes on the State of Virginia. (Jefferson may have inserted the illustration himself.) An engraved version of the drawing was incorporated into the 1853 edition of Notes, which was brought to press in Richmond by Jefferson's grandson and executor, Thomas Jefferson Randolph.

Citation: Notes on the State of Virginia. A 1787 .J45. Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

Original Author: J. Peck, surveyor

Created: ca. 1787–1826

Medium: Pen-and-ink and wash drawing

Courtesy of University of Virginia Special Collections

An Eye-Draught of the Mammoth Cave, in Warren County. [Ky]

A foldout drawing titled An Eye-Draught of the Mammoth Cave, in Warren County [Ky], maps the dimensions of, minerals found in, and locations of springs in Mammoth Cave in southern Kentucky. The diagram pinpoints the whereabouts of large deposits of saltpetre, a naturally occurring nitrate crucial for the production of gunpowder. At an unknown date, this hand-drawn sketch was tipped into Thomas Jefferson's copy of the 1787 London edition of his Notes on the State of Virginia. (Jefferson may have inserted the illustration himself.) An engraved version of the drawing was incorporated into the 1853 edition of Notes brought to press in Richmond by Jefferson's grandson and executor, Thomas Jefferson Randolph.

Citation: Notes on the State of Virginia. A 1787 .J45. Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

Original Author: C. W. Short for William Short

Created: ca. 1787–1826

Medium: Pen-and-ink and wash drawing

Courtesy of University of Virginia Special Collections

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  • A Map of the country between Albemarle Sound, and Lake Erie, comprehending the whole of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and Pennsylvania, with parts of several other of the United States of America.

    This foldout map is from Thomas Jefferson's copy of the first London edition of Notes on the State of Virginia, published in 1787. Titled A Map of the country between Albemarle Sound, and Lake Erie, comprehending the whole of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and Pennsylvania, with parts of several other of the United States of America, the map gives a detailed rendering of the waterways, mountains, counties, and other geographic features in that region. Virginia's border extends all the way to the Ohio River in this map. Jefferson divided the western lands beyond Virginia into five states: "Kentuckey," "Franklan" (present-day Tennessee), and three other areas designated as "A New State." Jefferson prepared this map and based it on several earlier ones: the Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia, co-authored by his father, Peter Jefferson, and first published in 1753; William Scull's 1770 map of Pennsylvania; and Thomas Hutchins's A New Map of the Western Parts of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina, published in 1778. When Jefferson sent his map to the engraver in London, he included those older maps for reference. He also sent Henry Mouzon's map of North Carolina, published in 1775. At upper right, Jefferson's new map is described as being based on the older ones, though "additions have been made where they could be made on sure ground."

    Citation: Notes on the State of Virginia. A 1787 .J45. Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

    Original Author: Thomas Jefferson, mapmaker; S. J. Neele, engraver; John Stockdale, publisher

    Created: 1787

    Medium: Hand-colored engraving

    Courtesy of University of Virginia Special Collections

  • A Sketch of Several Forts by the Scioto River

    A foldout drawing details several forts along the Scioto River in present-day Ohio.The unknown mapmaker measured the structures in terms of a pole, a surveyor's tool five and a half yards in length. In 1787 this region became part of the new Northwest Territory, an incorporated territory of the United States that encompassed present-day Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota. Virginia was granted a large tract of land between the Scioto and Little Miami rivers in the Northwest Territory to be used to pay bounties to Virginia veterans of the Revolutionary War.

    This hand-drawn sketch was tipped into Thomas Jefferson's copy of the 1787 London edition of his Notes on the State of Virginia. (Jefferson may have inserted the illustration himself.) An engraved version of the drawing was incorporated into the 1853 edition of Notes brought to press in Richmond by Jefferson's grandson and executor, Thomas Jefferson Randolph.

    Citation: Notes on the State of Virginia. A 1787 .J45. Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

    Original Author: Unknown

    Created: ca. 1787–1826

    Medium: Pen-and-ink and wash drawing

    Courtesy of University of Virginia Special Collections

  • A Sketch of several antient Fortifications, situate on the Little Miami River &c.

    A foldout drawing titled A Sketch of several antient Fortifications, situate on the Little Miami River &c. details the location of old earthen forts on or near the Litte Miami River, a tributary of the Ohio River in present-day southwestern Ohio. The diagram, created by the Philadelphia draftsman Charles de Krafft, gives technical information and specifications on the fortifications, describing them as "from 5 to 10 feet high, measuring generally upwards of 30 ft. across." In 1787 this region became part of the new Northwest Territory, an incorporated territory of the United States that encompassed present-day Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota. Virginia was granted a large tract of land between the Scioto and Little Miami rivers in the Northwest Territory to be used to pay bounties to Virginia veterans of the Revolutionary War.

    At an unknown date, this hand-drawn sketch was tipped into Thomas Jefferson's copy of the 1787 London edition of his Notes on the State of Virginia. (Jefferson may have inserted the illustration himself.) An engraved version of the drawing was incorporated into the 1853 edition of Notes brought to press in Richmond by Jefferson's grandson and executor, Thomas Jefferson Randolph.

    Citation: Notes on the State of Virginia. A 1787 .J45. Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

    Original Author: Charles de Krafft

    Created: ca. 1787–1804

    Medium: Pen-and-ink and wash drawing

    Courtesy of University of Virginia Special Collections

  • Plan of Madison and Amen's Caverns

    A foldout drawing titled Plan of Madison and Amen's Caverns, maps the interior of two limestone caverns—Madison's Cave and Amen's Cave (now called Grand Caverns)—in the Shenandoah Valley. At right, a key marks specific locations inside Amen's Cave, with fanciful names given to match geological formations. The map indicates where there are stairs to navigate difficult sections of the cave. Visitors are advised that "To visit all parts of this wonderfull cavern will take up (in going & returning) a distance of 2000 yards." At an unknown date, this hand-drawn sketch, based on a survey of the caves made by J. Peck, was tipped into Thomas Jefferson's copy of the 1787 London edition of his Notes on the State of Virginia. (Jefferson may have inserted the illustration himself.) An engraved version of the drawing was incorporated into the 1853 edition of Notes, which was brought to press in Richmond by Jefferson's grandson and executor, Thomas Jefferson Randolph.

    Citation: Notes on the State of Virginia. A 1787 .J45. Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

    Original Author: J. Peck, surveyor

    Created: ca. 1787–1826

    Medium: Pen-and-ink and wash drawing

    Courtesy of University of Virginia Special Collections

  • An Eye-Draught of the Mammoth Cave, in Warren County. [Ky]

    A foldout drawing titled An Eye-Draught of the Mammoth Cave, in Warren County [Ky], maps the dimensions of, minerals found in, and locations of springs in Mammoth Cave in southern Kentucky. The diagram pinpoints the whereabouts of large deposits of saltpetre, a naturally occurring nitrate crucial for the production of gunpowder. At an unknown date, this hand-drawn sketch was tipped into Thomas Jefferson's copy of the 1787 London edition of his Notes on the State of Virginia. (Jefferson may have inserted the illustration himself.) An engraved version of the drawing was incorporated into the 1853 edition of Notes brought to press in Richmond by Jefferson's grandson and executor, Thomas Jefferson Randolph.

    Citation: Notes on the State of Virginia. A 1787 .J45. Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

    Original Author: C. W. Short for William Short

    Created: ca. 1787–1826

    Medium: Pen-and-ink and wash drawing

    Courtesy of University of Virginia Special Collections