Battle of Bull Run
Confederate colonel J. E. B. Stuart, at right, leads a cavalry charge against Union forces during the First Battle of Manassas, or Bull Run, on July 21, 1861. The Confederate cavalry is shown here breaking through the lines of the 11th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment, a Zouave unit noted for its unusual attire, including fezzes, which was based on the uniforms of French colonial troops in Algeria. Though the artist depicted the Zouaves in red pantaloons, they were actually wearing blue trousers that day. At this early date in the war uniforms had not been standardized, and some of the Confederates wore dark blue U.S. Army uniforms, which led to confusion in the ranks and casualities caused by friendly fire.