Encyclopedia Virginia: Law and Court Cases http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Wythe_George_1726_or_1727-1806 Tue, 12 Dec 2017 11:33:56 EST Wythe, George (1726 or 1727–1806) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wythe_George_1726_or_1727-1806 Tue, 12 Dec 2017 11:33:56 EST]]> /Barbour_Philip_Pendleton_1783-1841 Mon, 11 Dec 2017 13:24:54 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, Philip Pendleton (1783–1841)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_Philip_Pendleton_1783-1841 Philip Pendleton Barbour was a member of the House of Delegates (1812–1814), Speaker of the House of Representatives (1821–1823), president of the Convention of 1829–1830, a federal district court judge (1830–1836), and an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1836–1841). Born in Orange County, Barbour studied law with St. George Tucker and practiced briefly in Kentucky before returning to Virginia. He served for two years in the General Assembly and then in Congress, from 1814 to 1825. His older brother, James Barbour, also was a prominent politician, serving as governor and then in the U.S. Senate, but their political philosophies diverged over time. Whereas James Barbour came to support a federal bank and federally supported internal improvement projects, Philip Pendleton Barbour remained a staunch Jeffersonian conservative, emphasizing states' rights and limited government. Even while his brother served in the cabinet of President John Quincy Adams, Philip Pendleton Barbour loudly opposed the administration. After the election of Andrew Jackson, Barbour won appointment as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. His time on the bench was short and devoted to undoing the work of Chief Justice John Marshall, who advocated for a broad interpretation of the Constitution. Barbour died in 1841.
Mon, 11 Dec 2017 13:24:54 EST]]>
/Wythe_The_Death_of_George_1806 Thu, 30 Nov 2017 11:07:25 EST <![CDATA[Wythe, The Death of George (1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wythe_The_Death_of_George_1806 George Wythe, a prominent judge and professor who signed the Declaration of Independence, died in Richmond on June 8, 1806. He had become violently ill after eating breakfast on May 25 with Lydia Broadnax and Michael Brown, both free African Americans. On May 27, George Wythe Sweeney Jr., Wythe's great-nephew, attempted to cash a check bearing Wythe's forged signature and was arrested soon after. Brown died on June 1, and by that time Wythe had come to believe that he, Brown, and Broadnax had been poisoned by Sweeney. Before dying he amended his will to disinherit Sweeney. The Richmond Hustings Court found sufficient evidence against Sweeney to refer forgery and murder charges to the District Court, where Sweeney was tried in September. Defended by two friends of George Wythe, including Edmund Randolph, he was acquitted of murder and found guilty on two of four counts of forgery. Sweeney's prison sentence was set aside, however, and he soon left the state. Many in Richmond and across the country had come to assume that Sweeney was guilty of murder and the trial garnered significant press attention. While the Richmond Enquirer claimed that the verdict was the result of Virginia's prohibition of African American testimony against white defendants, later historians have pointed to the purely circumstantial nature of the evidence.
Thu, 30 Nov 2017 11:07:25 EST]]>
/Burns_Anthony_The_Trial_of_1854 Tue, 14 Nov 2017 11:24:50 EST <![CDATA[Burns, Anthony, The Trial of (1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burns_Anthony_The_Trial_of_1854 The trial of Anthony Burns, a fugitive slave from Virginia, occurred in Boston, Massachusetts, during the spring of 1854. Hired out in Richmond, Burns had saved money and stowed away on a ship to Boston, where he worked in a clothing store. A letter home to his brother unintentionally revealed his location, and when it was intercepted, Burns's owner, Charles F. Suttle, traveled north and claimed Burns under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Approved as part of the Compromise of 1850, the law was designed to strengthen federal protections for southerners attempting recover slaves who had fled to free states. Members of the Boston Vigilance Committee, a group of antislavery activists who were committed to resisting the law, made an attempt to free Burns from custody. The rescue effort was unsuccessful, and a guard was killed in the process. In the trial, Burns's lawyers argued that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional and that Burns was not actually the man whom Suttle claimed to own. On June 1, 1854, Judge Edward Greely Loring ruled against Burns, who was afterward transported to Norfolk, Virginia, on a U.S. Revenue Cutter. Antislavery activists later purchased his freedom, and he became a minister, dying in Canada in 1862. None of those responsible for the guard's death was convicted, and many southerners believed that, in spite of the Fugitive Slave Act's successful enforcement, the Burns affair proved that northerners could not be trusted to fulfill their constitutional obligations.
Tue, 14 Nov 2017 11:24:50 EST]]>
/Free_Blacks_in_Colonial_Virginia Thu, 26 Oct 2017 09:18:09 EST <![CDATA[Free Blacks in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Free_Blacks_in_Colonial_Virginia Thu, 26 Oct 2017 09:18:09 EST]]> /William_Daniel_Jr_1806-1873 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:19:12 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, William Jr. (1806–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/William_Daniel_Jr_1806-1873 William Daniel Jr. was a member of the House of Delegates (1831–1832, 1835–1836, 1838) and served as a judge of the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals (1847– 1865). Born in Winchester, Daniel earned a law degree from the University of Virginia and practiced in Lynchburg. He represented Campbell County in the House of Delegates, and during the slavery debate of 1831–1832 spoke against a proposal to free children born to enslaved mothers. Elected to the Supreme Court of Appeals in 1846, he sat on the bench through the American Civil War (1861–1865) issuing respected rulings on equity jurisprudence and property rights. In 1861, he wrote an opinion in Baker v. Wise, Governor, which upheld a Virginia law that required state inspectors to verify that ships owned out of state and bound for the North did not harbor fugitive slaves. After the war Daniel resumed his law practice in Lynchburg and died in nearby Nelson County in 1873.
Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:19:12 EST]]>
/VIRGINIA_In_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_MARCH_16_1798 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:00:11 EST <![CDATA[VIRGINIA: In the High Court of Chancery, MARCH 16, 1798.]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/VIRGINIA_In_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_MARCH_16_1798 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:00:11 EST]]> /_An_Act_to_Explain_and_Amend_an_Act_Entitled_An_Act_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_Slavery_March_29_1788 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:53:24 EST <![CDATA["An Act to Explain and Amend an Act Entitled 'An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery'" (March 29, 1788)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_to_Explain_and_Amend_an_Act_Entitled_An_Act_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_Slavery_March_29_1788 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:53:24 EST]]> /PLEASANTS_against_PLEASANTS_Nov_r_Term_1798 Fri, 09 Jun 2017 12:00:07 EST <![CDATA[PLEASANTS against PLEASANTS. Nov'r. Term 1798.]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/PLEASANTS_against_PLEASANTS_Nov_r_Term_1798 Fri, 09 Jun 2017 12:00:07 EST]]> /Robert_Carter_III_s_Deed_of_Gift_August_1_1791 Wed, 03 May 2017 10:47:14 EST <![CDATA[Robert Carter III's Deed of Gift (August 1, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robert_Carter_III_s_Deed_of_Gift_August_1_1791 Wed, 03 May 2017 10:47:14 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Tobias_Lear_April_12_1791 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 13:02:31 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Tobias Lear (April 12, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Tobias_Lear_April_12_1791 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 13:02:31 EST]]> /_An_ACT_concerning_descendants_of_indians_and_other_persons_of_mixed_blood_not_being_free_negroes_or_mulattoes_February_25_1833 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 11:39:11 EST <![CDATA["An ACT concerning descendants of indians and other persons of mixed blood, not being free negroes or mulattoes" (February 25, 1833)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_concerning_descendants_of_indians_and_other_persons_of_mixed_blood_not_being_free_negroes_or_mulattoes_February_25_1833 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 11:39:11 EST]]> /An_ACT_providing_for_the_voluntary_enslavement_of_the_free_negroes_of_the_commonwealth_February_18_1856 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:44:38 EST <![CDATA[An ACT providing for the voluntary enslavement of the free negroes of the commonwealth (February 18, 1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_providing_for_the_voluntary_enslavement_of_the_free_negroes_of_the_commonwealth_February_18_1856 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:44:38 EST]]> /An_ACT_for_the_Voluntary_Enslavement_of_Free_Negroes_without_compensation_to_the_Commonwealth_March_28_1861 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:29:53 EST <![CDATA[An ACT for the Voluntary Enslavement of Free Negroes, without compensation to the Commonwealth (March 28, 1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_for_the_Voluntary_Enslavement_of_Free_Negroes_without_compensation_to_the_Commonwealth_March_28_1861 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:29:53 EST]]> /An_act_to_amend_an_act_entitled_quot_an_act_reducing_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_quot_1832 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:58:34 EST <![CDATA[An act to amend an act entitled, "an act reducing into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes, and for other purposes" (1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_to_amend_an_act_entitled_quot_an_act_reducing_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_quot_1832 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:58:34 EST]]> /An_Act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_24_1804 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:47:39 EST <![CDATA[An Act further declaring what shall be deemed unlawful meetings of slaves (January 24, 1804)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_24_1804 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:47:39 EST]]> /An_Act_to_amend_the_act_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_April_7_1831 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:50:19 EST <![CDATA[An Act to amend the act concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes (April 7, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_amend_the_act_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_April_7_1831 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:50:19 EST]]> /Bailey_Odessa_Pittard_1906-1994 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:27:24 EST <![CDATA[Bailey, Odessa Pittard (1906–1994)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bailey_Odessa_Pittard_1906-1994 Odessa Pittard Bailey was a civic leader in western Virginia. In 1944, after her appointment to the Roanoke Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court, she became the first woman in Virginia's history to hold a judicial post higher than justice of the peace or county trial justice. She helped found the Virginia Council of Juvenile Court Judges and served as its president from 1947 to 1948. After leaving the bench in 1948, she was appointed to several state commissions dealing with crime and social work. Bailey participated in Democratic Party politics, and as president of the Virginia Federation of Women's Clubs she lobbied for increased state funding to help disadvantaged children and the mentally ill. After her husband's death in 1957, Bailey ran a travel agency in Roanoke. She later moved to California, where she died in 1994.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:27:24 EST]]>
/Willoughby_Westel_1830-1897 Mon, 20 Feb 2017 08:51:54 EST <![CDATA[Willoughby, Westel (1830–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Willoughby_Westel_1830-1897 Westel Willoughby was a lawyer, a Union officer in a New York regiment during the American Civil War (1861–1865), and judge of the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals from 1869 until a new constitution was adopted in 1870. Born and educated in New York, Willoughby helped raise the 137th New York Volunteer Regiment and was severely wounded at the Battle of Chancellorsville (1863). He resigned his commission a few months later but stayed in Virginia, serving as the commonwealth's attorney of Alexandria County (later Arlington County) from 1864 to 1869, when he was appointed first as a judge of the Ninth Circuit and then of the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals. He cast the deciding vote in a case that allowed an Alexandria railroad that had sided with the Confederacy to contest a sale of the line's assets during the Civil War. In private practice he defended the federal government's efforts to resist compensating the Lee family for the seizure of their Arlington estate. Willoughby made several unsuccessful runs for office as a Republican. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1897.
Mon, 20 Feb 2017 08:51:54 EST]]>
/Daniel_Peter_V_1784-1860 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:00:59 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Peter V. (1784–1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Peter_V_1784-1860 Peter V. Daniel was a member of the House of Delegates (1808–1810) and the Council of State (1812–1836), a U.S. district court judge (1836–1841), and an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1841–1860). Born in Stafford County to a wealthy family, Daniel was educated at the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University) and studied law in Richmond with Edmund Randolph. (He later married Randolph's daughter.) Daniel was elected to the House of Delegates in 1808 as an advocate of states' rights and limited government, and that year he mortally wounded John Seddon in a duel fought in Maryland. He served on the Council of State for more than two decades, serving as president from 1818, making him acting governor in the absence of the chief executive. After the death of Associate Justice Philip Pendleton Barbour, a fellow Virginian, Daniel won confirmation to the seat after a fight in the U.S. Senate. On the bench, Daniel was sharply conservative, at times provincial, and often acerbic and witty in his opinions. He was a strong supporter of slavery and wrote a separate, even more strongly worded opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford(1857). He died in 1860.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:00:59 EST]]>
/An_Ordinance_for_providing_arms_and_ammunition_for_the_use_of_this_colony_July_1775 Wed, 30 Nov 2016 12:16:11 EST <![CDATA[An Ordinance for providing arms and ammunition for the use of this colony (July 1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Ordinance_for_providing_arms_and_ammunition_for_the_use_of_this_colony_July_1775 Wed, 30 Nov 2016 12:16:11 EST]]> /Clayton_John_ca_1666-1737 Tue, 15 Nov 2016 16:32:50 EST <![CDATA[Clayton, John (ca. 1666–1737)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clayton_John_ca_1666-1737 Tue, 15 Nov 2016 16:32:50 EST]]> /Bland_Anna_Bennett_d_1687 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 16:58:28 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Anna Bennett (d. 1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Anna_Bennett_d_1687 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 16:58:28 EST]]> /Two_Penny_Acts_1755_1758 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:06:52 EST <![CDATA[Two Penny Acts (1755, 1758)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Two_Penny_Acts_1755_1758 The General Assembly adopted the Two Penny Acts of 1755 and 1758 as temporary relief measures in response to the failure of the Virginia colony's tobacco crops. Tobacco was Virginia's principal export, but it also backed the colony's currency, and these crop failures threatened Virginia's system of taxation for support of local and provincial government, including the parishes and clergy of the Church of England. The Two Penny Acts allowed vestries and county courts to collect taxes and pay salaries in money calculated at the usual market price for tobacco rather than in tobacco at windfall rates. Although it reduced their annual salaries, relatively few Virginia clergymen objected to the 1755 act, which expired after ten months. They were less amenable to the second act, however. Reverend Jacob Rowe spoke so vehemently against it that he was forced to apologize to the House of Burgesses. Reverend John Camm, meanwhile, took the protest to London and succeeded in having the act revoked, which set up a conflict between Lieutenant Governor Francis Fauquier and the power of the Crown. When clergymen sued for their back wages, the controversy known as the Parsons' Cause erupted and became a precedent for resistance to English authority.
Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:06:52 EST]]>
/_An_ACT_to_punish_certain_thefts_and_forgeries_December_31_1806 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:15:57 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to punish certain thefts and forgeries" (December 31, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_punish_certain_thefts_and_forgeries_December_31_1806 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:15:57 EST]]> /Witchcraft_in_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 25 Oct 2016 12:11:32 EST <![CDATA[Witchcraft in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Witchcraft_in_Colonial_Virginia Witchcraft was a genuine concern for colonial Virginians. The colony's English settlers brought with them a strong belief in the devil's power and his presence in the New World. This belief was first manifested in the Jamestown colonists' early perceptions of the Virginia Indians, whom they believed to be devil worshippers. After 1622, some colonists began to accuse one another of practicing witchcraft. Though witchcraft cases in Virginia were less common and the sentences less severe than the more famous witch trials of Salem, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, evidence exists that about two dozen such trials took place in Virginia between 1626 and 1730. They ranged from civil defamation suits to criminal accusations. The most famous of these was the trial of Grace Sherwood of Princess Anne County, in which the judges determined her guilt by administering a water test. Records indicate that the last witchcraft trial in the mainland colonies took place in Virginia in 1730; five years later, Parliament repealed the Witchcraft Act of 1604, the statute under which British American colonists prosecuted accused witches. Since then, witchcraft has been largely forgotten as an aspect of life in colonial Virginia.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 12:11:32 EST]]>
/Letter_from_William_Wirt_to_Elizabeth_Gamble_Wirt_July_13_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:01:12 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William Wirt to Elizabeth Gamble Wirt (July 13, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_Wirt_to_Elizabeth_Gamble_Wirt_July_13_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:01:12 EST]]> /An_act_ascertaining_the_place_for_erecting_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_February_8_1693 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:48:37 EST <![CDATA[An act ascertaining the place for erecting the College of William and Mary in Virginia (February 8, 1693)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_ascertaining_the_place_for_erecting_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_February_8_1693 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:48:37 EST]]> /An_act_for_the_Seatinge_of_the_middle_Plantation_February_1_1632 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:40:30 EST <![CDATA[An act for the Seatinge of the middle Plantation (February 1, 1632)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_the_Seatinge_of_the_middle_Plantation_February_1_1632 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:40:30 EST]]> /Jefferson_Thomas_and_the_Practice_of_Law Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:07:34 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and the Practice of Law]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_the_Practice_of_Law Thomas Jefferson's life in the law has been generally overlooked, despite the years he devoted to its practice and the impact it had on the American Revolution (1775–1783) and subsequent generations. Admitted to the Virginia bar in 1765 after more than two years of reading law under the tutelage of George Wythe, Jefferson practiced before the General Court in Williamsburg, specializing in land cases. By the time Edmund Randolph took over his practice in 1774, he had handled more than 900 matters, with clients ranging from common farmers and indentured servants to the most powerful and wealthy of the colony's planter elite. In Bolling v. Bolling (1771) and Blair v. Blair (1772) he became involved in the private, often sensational affairs of the gentry, while in Howell v. Netherland (1770) he attempted to win the freedom of a mixed-race man he believed to be illegally bound to servitude. Jefferson was influenced by an English tradition distinguishing between common law—a tradition preserved by courts through precedent—and natural law, or rights ordained by God. In this way, his legal training left its mark on his revolutionary writings, in particular the "Summary View of the Rights of British America" (1774) and the Declaration of Independence (1776). Following the Revolution, he used these principles to campaign for legal reform in Virginia, drafting, among many other bills, the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786).
Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:07:34 EST]]>
/U_S_Senate_Resolution_39_June_13_2005 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:08:50 EST <![CDATA[U.S. Senate Resolution 39 (June 13, 2005)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/U_S_Senate_Resolution_39_June_13_2005 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:08:50 EST]]> /Cohabitation_Act_of_1866 Thu, 18 Aug 2016 15:05:24 EST <![CDATA[Cohabitation Act of 1866]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cohabitation_Act_of_1866 The Cohabitation Act of 1866, passed by the General Assembly on February 27, 1866, legalized the marriages of formerly enslaved people in Virginia and declared their children to be legitimate. Because slave marriages were neither legally recognized nor protected, Governor Francis H. Pierpont recommended that the General Assembly of the Restored government of Virginia, which had remained loyal to the United States during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and had abolished slavery, pass a law to legalize and protect their existing marriages. With the end of the war, the Restored government's jurisdiction extended across the state, and in 1866 the General Assembly in Richmond passed the law legitimizing such marriages and the children who resulted from them.
Thu, 18 Aug 2016 15:05:24 EST]]>
/Bryan_Albert_V_1899-1984 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:57:36 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, Albert V. (1899–1984)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_Albert_V_1899-1984 Albert V. Bryan was a federal district court and circuit court of appeals judge during a crucial period in the fight over public school desegregation. After serving as the commonwealth's attorney in Alexandria from 1928 until 1947, he was appointed a federal judge of the Eastern District of Virginia. Although he supported segregation Bryan stuck closely to legal precedents established by the U.S. Supreme Court. He ruled in favor of continued school segregation in 1952. After Brown v. Board of Education reversed his ruling in 1954, however, Bryan began following the new precedent, though in a manner that slowed implementation. His subsequent decisions on Massive Resistance delayed, but did not stop, desegregation of Virginia schools. In 1961 he was appointed to the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals. Adhering again to Supreme Court precedent, in 1969 Bryan struck down state tuition grants to students attending segregated private schools. He retired from the federal bench in 1971 and died in 1984.
Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:57:36 EST]]>
/Judges_of_the_Supreme_Court_of_Virginia Tue, 10 May 2016 14:20:22 EST <![CDATA[Judges of the Supreme Court of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judges_of_the_Supreme_Court_of_Virginia Tue, 10 May 2016 14:20:22 EST]]> /Farmer_Frances_1909-1993 Mon, 02 May 2016 16:05:42 EST <![CDATA[Farmer, Frances (1909–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farmer_Frances_1909-1993 Frances Farmer was a law librarian and the first female law professor at the University of Virginia. Born in Charlotte County, Farmer studied history and then law before becoming a law librarian at the University of Richmond in 1938 and the University of Virginia in 1942. She took charge of cataloguing and then greatly expanding the School of Law's collection, helping to develop the school's alumni association as a fund-raising tool. In 1959, she served a one-year term as president of the American Association of Law Libraries. Four years later she was elected to the general faculty and, in 1969, made a full professor. During her tenure the law library grew from fewer than 40,000 to more than 300,000 volumes. Farmer retired in 1976 and died in 1993.
Mon, 02 May 2016 16:05:42 EST]]>
/Gabriel_s_Conspiracy_1800 Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:02:35 EST <![CDATA[Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gabriel_s_Conspiracy_1800 Gabriel's Conspiracy was a plan by enslaved African American men to attack Richmond and destroy slavery in Virginia. Although thwarted, it remains one of the half-dozen most important insurrection plots in the history of North American slavery. Named after an enslaved blacksmith who emerged as the most significant leader of the plot, Gabriel's Conspiracy originated during the spring and summer of 1800 in a Henrico County neighborhood north of Richmond and extended primarily across Hanover County into Caroline County and south toward Petersburg. Two slave men betrayed the plot just hours before a torrential rainstorm prevented the conspirators from gathering on the night of August 30, 1800. In response, Virginia authorities arrested and prosecuted more than seventy enslaved men for insurrection and conspiracy. Twenty-six of those found guilty were hanged and eight more were transported, or sold outside of the state, while another suspected conspirator committed suicide before his arraignment. A small number of free blacks were also implicated and one was prosecuted. The alleged involvement of two Frenchmen in the plot provided fodder for Federalist attacks on Thomas Jefferson's candidacy for the presidency that year. The aborted uprising also provoked refinements in the state's slave laws at the next meeting of the General Assembly, including the adoption of transportation as an alternative to capital punishment for some slave offenders and calls for an end to private manumissions and for the deportation of free blacks.
Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:02:35 EST]]>
/Dobie_Armistead_M_1881-1962 Thu, 21 Apr 2016 15:50:31 EST <![CDATA[Dobie, Armistead M. (1881–1962)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dobie_Armistead_M_1881-1962 Armistead M. Dobie served as the second dean of the University of Virginia School of Law (1932–1939), a judge of the Western District of Virginia (1939), and a judge on the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals (1939–1956). Born in Norfolk, he was educated at the University of Virginia and briefly practiced law in Saint Louis, Missouri, before joining the faculty of his alma mater. During World War I (1914–1918), he served twice in France. After returning to the University of Virginia, he introduced the case method of instruction and authored the Handbook of Federal Jurisdiction and Procedure (1928). A talented speaker with a shrill voice, Dobie was a popular presence at the university, as a witty lecturer and a speaker at football pep rallies. His time on the federal bench was marked by a ruling in favor of true equality between black and white schools in Corbin et al. v. County School Board of Pulaski County, Virginia, et al. (1949). In 1952, he was one of three judges that upheld racial segregation in public education in Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County. A long battle with depression forced Dobie's retirement in 1956; he died in Charlottesville in 1962.
Thu, 21 Apr 2016 15:50:31 EST]]>
/Thomas_s_Administrator_v_Bettie_Thomas_Lewis_June_16_1892 Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:13:59 EST <![CDATA[Thomas's Administrator v. Bettie Thomas Lewis (June 16, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_s_Administrator_v_Bettie_Thomas_Lewis_June_16_1892 Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:13:59 EST]]> /_Bettie_Thomas-Lewis_from_the_Richmond_Times_June_19_1892 Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:04:57 EST <![CDATA["Bettie Thomas-Lewis" from the Richmond Times (June 19, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Bettie_Thomas-Lewis_from_the_Richmond_Times_June_19_1892 Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:04:57 EST]]> /Burns_Anthony_1834-1862 Mon, 21 Mar 2016 09:26:59 EST <![CDATA[Burns, Anthony (1834–1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burns_Anthony_1834-1862 Anthony Burns was a fugitive slave from Virginia who, while living in Boston in 1854, became the principal in a famous court case brought in an effort to extradite him back to the South. Born in Stafford County, Burns was the property of the merchant Charles F. Suttle, who later hired him out to William Brent, of Falmouth. In 1854, Burns escaped slavery and traveled to Boston, where he wrote a letter back to one of his brothers. Intercepted by Suttle, the letter revealed Burns's whereabouts, and Suttle and Brent themselves traveled to Boston and claimed Burns under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. The subsequent rendition trial sparked the interest of antislavery activists, and an attempt at freeing Burns by force killed a federal marshal. Burns eventually lost his case and was sold to a man in North Carolina. Boston activists later purchased his freedom, however, and he attended school in Ohio and lectured on his experiences. He ended up in Canada, where he died in 1862 from health problems related to his post-trial confinement.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 09:26:59 EST]]>
/AN_ACT_to_restrict_the_jurisdiction_of_the_Court_of_Claims_July_4_1864 Wed, 27 Jan 2016 09:23:46 EST <![CDATA[AN ACT to restrict the jurisdiction of the Court of Claims (July 4, 1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/AN_ACT_to_restrict_the_jurisdiction_of_the_Court_of_Claims_July_4_1864 Wed, 27 Jan 2016 09:23:46 EST]]> /Bigelow_v_Forrest_December_1869 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:55:31 EST <![CDATA[Bigelow v. Forrest (December 1869)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bigelow_v_Forrest_December_1869 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:55:31 EST]]> /McVeigh_v_United_States_1871 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:54:29 EST <![CDATA[McVeigh v. United States (1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/McVeigh_v_United_States_1871 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:54:29 EST]]> /Speech_by_John_C_Underwood_January_16_1868 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:51:04 EST <![CDATA[Speech by John C. Underwood (January 16, 1868)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_John_C_Underwood_January_16_1868 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:51:04 EST]]> /Underwood_v_McVeigh_April_23_1873 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:47:02 EST <![CDATA[Underwood v. McVeigh (April 23, 1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Underwood_v_McVeigh_April_23_1873 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:47:02 EST]]> /An_Act_for_raising_levies_and_recruits_to_serve_in_the_present_expedition_against_the_French_on_the_Ohio_October_1754 Thu, 07 Jan 2016 13:12:34 EST <![CDATA[An Act for raising levies and recruits to serve in the present expedition against the French, on the Ohio (October 1754)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_raising_levies_and_recruits_to_serve_in_the_present_expedition_against_the_French_on_the_Ohio_October_1754 Thu, 07 Jan 2016 13:12:34 EST]]> /An_Act_for_better_regulating_and_training_the_Militia_August_1755 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:32:27 EST <![CDATA[An Act for better regulating and training the Militia (August 1755)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_better_regulating_and_training_the_Militia_August_1755 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:32:27 EST]]> /An_act_for_regulating_and_disciplining_the_Militia_May_5_1777 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:28:31 EST <![CDATA[An act for regulating and disciplining the Militia (May 5, 1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_regulating_and_disciplining_the_Militia_May_5_1777 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:28:31 EST]]> /Resolution_of_the_U_S_House_of_Representatives_January_30_1866 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 14:58:23 EST <![CDATA[Resolution of the U.S. House of Representatives (January 30, 1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Resolution_of_the_U_S_House_of_Representatives_January_30_1866 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 14:58:23 EST]]> /Ex_Parte_Virginia_1880 Fri, 18 Dec 2015 09:10:43 EST <![CDATA[Ex Parte Virginia (1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ex_Parte_Virginia_1880 In Ex Parte Virginia, decided on March 1, 1880, the U.S. Supreme Court confirmed congressional authority to enforce African Americans' rights to serve on juries in state courts. The case began when a Pittsylvania County judge named James D. Coles was indicted in a U.S. district court for violating the federal Civil Rights Act of 1875 by excluding black men from juries. Ex Parte Virginia was handed down on the same day as two other important decisions: Strauder v. West Virginia, which declared that states could not limit jury service to white men, and Virginia v. Rives, which prohibited federal courts from claiming jurisdiction over a state case when the state court excluded African Americans from the jury. In Ex Parte Virginia, the Supreme Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which guarantees citizens equal protection under the law, authorized Congress to require that states not exclude African Americans from juries. In these three related cases, the Supreme Court broadly interpreted the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments and declared that their purpose was to prohibit states from limiting the civil rights of African American citizens or treating them in a different or inferior manner from white citizens. Following the ruling, many state judges found other means to exclude African Americans from jury service.
Fri, 18 Dec 2015 09:10:43 EST]]>
/Underwood_John_C_1809-1873 Sun, 13 Dec 2015 13:03:45 EST <![CDATA[Underwood, John C. (1809–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Underwood_John_C_1809-1873 John C. Underwood was one of the most conspicuous antislavery activists in Virginia during the 1850s, one of the first members of the Republican Party in Virginia, a federal judge from 1863 to 1873, and the president of the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868. Born in New York, Underwood practiced law before moving to Virginia. There his condemnations of slavery were such that his wife, a cousin of the future Confederate general Thomas J. Jackson, worried for his safety. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), President Abraham Lincoln appointed Underwood a federal judge for the eastern district of Virginia. His actions on the bench often appeared to be politically motivated and included repeated efforts to confiscate the estates of Confederates in order to destroy slavery and apply what he called "retributive justice." After the war, he admitted that he could pack a jury, if necessary, to convict the former Confederate president, Jefferson Davis, of treason. He also publicly endorsed African American suffrage and full citizenship rights for freedpeople. Toward that end, he served as president of the constitutional convention that met in 1867–1868, during which he argued, unsuccessfully, that women, too, should be granted full suffrage rights. Underwood remained on the bench in his later years, earning a reputation as an outspoken radical and one who was often contemptuous of his critics. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1873.
Sun, 13 Dec 2015 13:03:45 EST]]>
/Contract_and_Recommendation_for_William_Buckland_1755_1759 Wed, 09 Dec 2015 09:56:17 EST <![CDATA[Contract and Recommendation for William Buckland (1755; 1759)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Contract_and_Recommendation_for_William_Buckland_1755_1759 Wed, 09 Dec 2015 09:56:17 EST]]> /Buck_v_Bell_1927 Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:31:32 EST <![CDATA[Buck v. Bell (1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Buck_v_Bell_1927 In Buck v. Bell, decided on May 2, 1927, the U.S. Supreme Court, by a vote of 8 to 1, affirmed the constitutionality of Virginia's law allowing state-enforced sterilization. After being raised by foster parents and allegedly raped by their nephew, the appellant, Carrie Buck, was deemed feebleminded and promiscuous. In 1924, Buck was committed to the Virginia State Colony for Epileptics and Feeble-Minded, near Lynchburg, and there ordered sterilized. The Virginia law allowing the procedure had been passed in 1924 and responded to fifty years of scholarly debate over whether certain social problems, including shiftlessness, poverty, and prostitution, were inherited and ultimately could be eliminated through selective sterilization. Looking to test the law's legality before engaging in widespread sterilization, the colony superintendent, Albert S. Priddy, made sure his order was appealed. The Amherst County Circuit Court and the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals both ruled in the colony's favor, and in 1927 the U.S. Supreme Court agreed. In an infamous opinion, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. noted that Carrie Buck, her mother, and her daughter were all suspected of being feebleminded, declaring, "Three generations of imbeciles are enough." The opinion was never overturned and led to a marked increase in sterilizations across the United States. At the Nuremberg Trials, Nazi defendants cited Buck v. Bell in their own defense. Virginia repealed the law in 1974 and in 2002 apologized to its victims.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:31:32 EST]]>
/Racial_Integrity_Laws_of_the_1920s Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:27:31 EST <![CDATA[Racial Integrity Laws (1924–1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Racial_Integrity_Laws_of_the_1920s Racial integrity laws were passed by the General Assembly to protect "whiteness" against what many Virginians perceived to be the negative effects of race-mixing. They included the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which prohibited interracial marriage and defined as white a person "who has no trace whatsoever of any blood other than Caucasian"; the Public Assemblages Act of 1926, which required all public meeting spaces to be strictly segregated; and a third act, passed in 1930, that defined as black a person who has even a trace of African American ancestry. This way of defining whiteness as a kind of purity in bloodline became known as the "one drop rule." These laws arrived at a time when a pseudo-science of white superiority called eugenics gained support by groups like the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, which argued that the mixing of whites, African Americans, and Virginia Indians could cause great societal harm, despite the fact that the races had been intermixed since European settlement. From his position as the state registrar of vital statistics, Walter A. Plecker micromanaged the racial classifications of Virginians, often worrying that blacks were attempting to pass as white. Virginia Indians were particularly incensed by the laws, and by Plecker in particular, because the state seemed intent on removing any legal recognition of Indian identity in favor of the broader category "colored." After one failed try, lawmakers largely achieved this goal in 1930, drawing negative reaction from the black press. The Racial Integrity Act remained on the books until 1967, when the U.S. Supreme Court, in Loving v. Virginia, found its prohibition of interracial marriage to be unconstitutional. In 2001, the General Assembly denounced the act, and eugenics, as racist.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:27:31 EST]]>
/DeJarnette_Joseph_Spencer_1866-1957 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 10:01:06 EST <![CDATA[DeJarnette, Joseph S. (1866–1957)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/DeJarnette_Joseph_Spencer_1866-1957 Joseph S. DeJarnette was a physician and eugenicist who performed hundreds of involuntary sterilizations at Western State Hospital in Staunton. DeJarnette's early career fit the reform ethos of the Progressive period and he modernized treatment of patients as superintendent of the hospital. He also began to advocate for forced sterilizations, which he believed would improve society. DeJarnette testified in the landmark case Buck v. Bell (1927), in which the U.S. Supreme Court upheld Virginia's sterilization statute. He took pride in the state's aggressive approach to sterilization, but felt the state was not acting fast enough and publicly admired Nazi Germany's more ambitious plan. DeJarnette defended sterilization and racial segregation until his death in 1957. In 2001 the General Assembly denounced and expressed regret over Virginia's eugenics program.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 10:01:06 EST]]>
/Corbin_Percy_Casino_1888-1952 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:52:19 EST <![CDATA[Corbin, Percy C. (1888–1952)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Corbin_Percy_Casino_1888-1952 Percy C. Corbin was a civil rights activist. A lawsuit he filed on behalf of his son, Corbin et al. v. County School Board of Pulaski County, Virginia, et al. (1950), led to one of only six successful lawsuits supported by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in its legal campaign to equalize school facilities before Brown v. Board of Education (1954). A Texas native and physician, Corbin established his practice in the town of Pulaski, where he helped combat an influenza outbreak in 1918 and attracted both black and white clients. Corbin fought to equalize school facilities and was active in the local black community. He died in 1952.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:52:19 EST]]>
/Campbell_Preston_White_1874-1954 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:42:53 EST <![CDATA[Campbell, Preston W. (1874–1954)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Campbell_Preston_White_1874-1954 Preston W. Campbell was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902, commonwealth's attorney for Washington County (1911–1914), a judge of the Twenty-third Circuit (1914–1924), and a judge on the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals (1924–1946), serving as the court's chief justice from 1931 until his retirement. Born in Abingdon, Campbell studied law there and practiced in the town for fourteen years. At the Convention of 1901–1902, called in large part to disenfranchise Virginia's blacks and poor whites, he supported the depoliticizing of county school superintendents but spoke little during the proceedings. As a Supreme Court justice he penned 528 opinions, the most memorable of which was his solo dissent in Staples v. Gilmer (1945). Campbell argued that in calling a constitutional convention, the General Assembly could not place limits on what the delegates considered. Campbell retired from the bench in 1946 and died in 1954.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:42:53 EST]]>
/Butts_Evelyn_Thomas_1924-1993 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:38:31 EST <![CDATA[Butts, Evelyn Thomas (1924–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Butts_Evelyn_Thomas_1924-1993 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:38:31 EST]]> /Buck_Carrie_Elizabeth_1906-1983 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:23:07 EST <![CDATA[Buck, Carrie (1906–1983)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Buck_Carrie_Elizabeth_1906-1983 Carrie Buck was the first person involuntarily sterilized under Virginia's eugenics laws. In 1920 her mother was diagnosed as feebleminded—a diagnosis based less on a medical finding than on the doctors' perception of her sexual behavior—and committed to the Virginia State Colony for Epileptics and Feeble-Minded in Lynchburg. Buck moved in with a foster family and in 1923 became pregnant, claiming that the foster family's nephew raped her. The teenager was similarly deemed epileptic and feebleminded and placed at the colony after she gave birth in 1924. The colony's superintendent decided to use Buck as a test case for the state's new sterilization law. In Buck v. Bell (1927), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Virginia's law was constitutional and that Buck should be sterilized. Her sterilization was the first of approximately 8,300 performed under state law between 1927 and 1972. After her release from the colony Buck, in sharp contrast to her diagnosis, lived an active life until her death in 1983.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:23:07 EST]]>
/Bell_John_Hendren_1883-1934 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:29:12 EST <![CDATA[Bell, John H. (1883–1934)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bell_John_Hendren_1883-1934 John H. Bell was a prominent eugenicist and physician in Virginia. A member of the American Medical Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Virginia Academy of Science, and the Medical Society of Virginia, Bell advocated the forced sterilization of people believed to be incompetent. Appointed superintendent of the State Colony for Epileptics and Feeble-Minded, in Lynchburg, Bell became a principal in the lawsuit arranged by the former superintendent to test Virginia's 1924 legislation allowing for forced sterilization. Carrie Elizabeth Buck, a patient at the colony, had been selected for the test case. In its landmark ruling in Buck v. Bell, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of Virginia's law. Bell performed the operation on Buck himself. Bell continued to produce pamphlets defending eugenics until his death.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:29:12 EST]]>
/Aiken_Archibald_Murphey_1888-1971 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:14:40 EST <![CDATA[Aiken, Archibald M. (1888–1971)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Aiken_Archibald_Murphey_1888-1971 Archibald M. Aiken was a lawyer and judge of the Danville Corporation Court who opposed desegregation. During the Danville civil rights protests of 1963 Aiken gained national notoriety after confronting the demonstrators and issuing an injunction to ban most forms of public protest in the city. He convened a special grand jury, which indicted three protest leaders for conspiring to incite "the colored population of the State to acts of violence and war against the white population." Controversial, stubborn, and outspoken, Aiken continued to fight against integration throughout the 1960s. He died of a heart attack in 1971.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:14:40 EST]]>
/Indentured_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Wed, 28 Oct 2015 15:08:38 EST <![CDATA[Indentured Servants in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indentured_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Indentured servants were men and women who signed a contract (also known as an indenture or a covenant) by which they agreed to work for a certain number of years in exchange for transportation to Virginia and, once they arrived, food, clothing, and shelter. Adults usually served for four to seven years and children sometimes for much longer, with most working in the colony's tobacco fields. With a long history in England, indentured servitude became, during most of the seventeenth century, the primary means by which Virginia planters filled their nearly inexhaustible need for labor. At first, the Virginia Company of London paid to transport servants across the Atlantic, but with the institution of the headright system in 1618, the company enticed planters and merchants to incur the cost with the promise of land. As a result, servants flooded into the colony, where they were greeted by deadly diseases and often-harsh conditions that killed a majority of newcomers and left the rest to the mercy of sometimes-cruel masters. The General Assembly passed laws regulating contract terms, as well as the behavior and treatment of servants. Besides benefiting masters with long indentures, these laws limited servant rights while still allowing servants to present any complaints in court. By the end of the seventeenth century, the number of new servants in Virginia had dwindled, and the colony's labor needs were largely met by enslaved Africans.
Wed, 28 Oct 2015 15:08:38 EST]]>
/Beach_S_Ferguson_1828-1893 Wed, 28 Oct 2015 15:00:03 EST <![CDATA[Beach, S. Ferguson (1828–1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beach_S_Ferguson_1828-1893 S. Ferguson Beach was a member of the Convention of 1864 and a U.S. attorney. Born in Connecticut, he taught school before moving to Alexandria, where he opened a law practice. During the American Civil War (1861–1865) Beach was an outspoken Unionist. In 1864 he was one of seventeen delegates, and the only attorney, elected to the Convention of 1864, called by the Restored government to draft a new state constitution. Although records indicate that he was a slave holder himself in 1860, Beach voted in favor of a provision to abolish slavery. Later that year Beach argued in court that, according to Virginia law, an African American should not be allowed to testify against his white client. Beach's political views tended in favor of African American civil rights, however, and after the war he became a Republican. In 1868, President Andrew Johnson appointed Beach U.S. attorney for the district of Virginia, and in that position he successfully argued before the U.S. Supreme Court on behalf of former Confederates whose property had been seized and auctioned during the Civil War. These cases helped force the federal government to pay the family of Robert E. Lee for the seized Arlington estate. Beach died in Baltimore in 1893.
Wed, 28 Oct 2015 15:00:03 EST]]>
/Loving_v_Virginia_1967 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 14:22:25 EST <![CDATA[Loving v. Virginia (1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Loving_v_Virginia_1967 In Loving v. Virginia, decided on June 12, 1967, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously struck down Virginia's law prohibiting interracial marriages as a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. The appellants, Richard and Mildred Loving, of Caroline County, had married in Washington, D.C., in June 1958 and then returned to Virginia, where they were arrested. After pleading guilty, they were forced to leave the state. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed motions and appeals on their behalf beginning in 1963, and after the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals ruled against the Lovings in 1966, the U.S. Supreme Court heard their arguments. The case came after nearly 300 years of legislation in Virginia regulating interracial marriage and carefully defining which citizens could legally claim to be white. Two U.S. Supreme Court cases, Pace v. Alabama (1883) and Maynard v. Hill (1888), upheld the constitutionality of such laws. In 1924, the Act to Preserve Racial Integrity banned interracial marriage in Virginia while defining a white person as someone who had no discernible nonwhite ancestry. It was this law that the U.S. Supreme Court ruling said denied Virginians' "fundamental freedom" to marry. Loving v. Virginia is a landmark case, both in the history of race relations in the United States and in the ongoing political and cultural dispute over the proper definition of marriage.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 14:22:25 EST]]>
/When_Marriages_No_Void_for_Want_of_Authority_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:43:45 EST <![CDATA[When Marriages Not Void for Want of Authority (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/When_Marriages_No_Void_for_Want_of_Authority_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:43:45 EST]]> /Person_Performing_Ceremony_of_Marriage_Between_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:41:57 EST <![CDATA[Person Performing Ceremony of Marriage Between; How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Person_Performing_Ceremony_of_Marriage_Between_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:41:57 EST]]> /Celebrating_Marriage_without_License_or_etc_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:40:33 EST <![CDATA[Celebrating Marriage without License, or, etc.; How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Celebrating_Marriage_without_License_or_etc_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:40:33 EST]]> /Marriage_of_White_Person_with_Colored_Person_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:38:35 EST <![CDATA[Marriage of White Person with Colored Person, How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Marriage_of_White_Person_with_Colored_Person_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:38:35 EST]]> /Marriage_within_Prohibited_Degrees_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:36:42 EST <![CDATA[Marriage within Prohibited Degrees, How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Marriage_within_Prohibited_Degrees_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:36:42 EST]]> /_An_ACT_providing_additional_protection_for_the_slave_property_of_citizens_of_this_commonwealth_1856 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:34:33 EST <![CDATA["An ACT providing additional protection for the slave property of citizens of this commonwealth" (1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_providing_additional_protection_for_the_slave_property_of_citizens_of_this_commonwealth_1856 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:34:33 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_amend_an_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_1795 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:29:48 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to amend an act, intituled, 'An act to reduce into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes, and for other purposes'" (1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_amend_an_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_1795 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:29:48 EST]]> /Preservation_of_Racial_Integrity_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:24:27 EST <![CDATA[Preservation of Racial Integrity (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Preservation_of_Racial_Integrity_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:24:27 EST]]> /General_Provisions_as_to_Slaves_1860 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:14:52 EST <![CDATA[General Provisions as to Slaves (1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/General_Provisions_as_to_Slaves_1860 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:14:52 EST]]> /An_act_declaring_what_persons_shall_be_deemed_mulattoes_October_1785 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:10:57 EST <![CDATA[An act declaring what persons shall be deemed mulattoes (October 1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_declaring_what_persons_shall_be_deemed_mulattoes_October_1785 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:10:57 EST]]> /An_act_declaring_who_shall_not_bear_office_in_this_country_October_1705 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:07:33 EST <![CDATA[An act declaring who shall not bear office in this country (October 1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_declaring_who_shall_not_bear_office_in_this_country_October_1705 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:07:33 EST]]> /_An_act_for_suppressing_outlying_slaves_1691 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:31:10 EST <![CDATA["An act for suppressing outlying slaves" (1691)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_suppressing_outlying_slaves_1691 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:31:10 EST]]> /Law_Prohibiting_Indentured_Servants_from_Hiring_Themselves_Out_1642-1643 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:29:23 EST <![CDATA[Law Prohibiting Indentured Servants from Hiring Themselves Out (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Law_Prohibiting_Indentured_Servants_from_Hiring_Themselves_Out_1642-1643 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:29:23 EST]]> /A_Black_Indentured_Servant_Sues_for_His_Freedom_1675 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:25:33 EST <![CDATA[A Black Indentured Servant Sues for His Freedom (1675)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Black_Indentured_Servant_Sues_for_His_Freedom_1675 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:25:33 EST]]> /Indenture_between_the_Four_Adventurers_of_Berkeley_Hundred_and_Robert_Coopy_of_North_Nibley_1619 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:22:21 EST <![CDATA[Indenture between the Four Adventurers of Berkeley Hundred and Robert Coopy of North Nibley (1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indenture_between_the_Four_Adventurers_of_Berkeley_Hundred_and_Robert_Coopy_of_North_Nibley_1619 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:22:21 EST]]> /_How_long_Servants_without_Indentures_shall_Serve_1657-1658 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:19:34 EST <![CDATA["How long Servants without Indentures shall Serve" (1658)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_How_long_Servants_without_Indentures_shall_Serve_1657-1658 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:19:34 EST]]> /Laws_Concerning_Indentured_Servants_1619 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:17:39 EST <![CDATA[Laws Concerning Indentured Servants (1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Laws_Concerning_Indentured_Servants_1619 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:17:39 EST]]> /Woman_Suffrage_in_Virginia Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:03:36 EST <![CDATA[Woman Suffrage in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Woman_Suffrage_in_Virginia The woman suffrage movement, which sought voting rights for women, began in Virginia as early as 1870. In 1909, its most vocal supporters organized around the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia, which joined with national groups in an effort to change state and local laws and pass an amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The Nineteenth Amendment, which gave women the right to vote, was passed in Congress in 1919 and ratified by the states a year later. Virginia, however, delayed its ratification until 1952. By then, women had been voting and, slowly, winning elected office in the state for more than 30 years.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:03:36 EST]]>
/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1930 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 13:06:19 EST <![CDATA[Colored Persons and Indians Defined (1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1930 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 13:06:19 EST]]> /Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1887 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 12:49:51 EST <![CDATA[Colored Persons and Indians Defined (1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1887 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 12:49:51 EST]]> /Separation_of_Races_1926 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 12:46:22 EST <![CDATA[Separation of Races (1926)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Separation_of_Races_1926 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 12:46:22 EST]]> /Atha_Sorrells_v_A_T_Shields_Clerk_Petition_for_Mandamus_November_14_1924 Tue, 22 Sep 2015 12:15:59 EST <![CDATA[Atha Sorrells v. A. T. Shields, Clerk, Petition for Mandamus (November 14, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Atha_Sorrells_v_A_T_Shields_Clerk_Petition_for_Mandamus_November_14_1924 Tue, 22 Sep 2015 12:15:59 EST]]> /Equal_Suffrage_League_of_Virginia_1909-1920 Thu, 03 Sep 2015 15:02:54 EST <![CDATA[Equal Suffrage League of Virginia (1909–1920)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Equal_Suffrage_League_of_Virginia_1909-1920 The Equal Suffrage League of Virginia was an organization of white women dedicated to securing for women the right to vote. Aligned with the national woman suffrage movement, the league worked for more than ten years lobbying the public and the General Assembly alike, until its efforts paid off when three-fourths of the United States state legislatures ratified the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920. The league failed, however, to persuade the Virginia General Assembly, which did not vote to ratify until 1952.
Thu, 03 Sep 2015 15:02:54 EST]]>
/Thomas_s_Administrator_v_Bettie_Thomas_Lewis_1892 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 14:20:13 EST <![CDATA[Thomas's Administrator v. Bettie Thomas Lewis (1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_s_Administrator_v_Bettie_Thomas_Lewis_1892 In Thomas's Administrator v. Bettie Thomas Lewis, decided on June 16, 1892, the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals upheld a decision by the Richmond City Court of Chancery to honor the deathbed wishes of William A. Thomas. Evidence suggested that Thomas, a white man, desired that his property be inherited by his daughter, Bettie Thomas Lewis, whose mother had been one of Thomas's former slaves. Thomas did not leave a will, and the administrators of his estate, which was valued at about $225,000, challenged the inheritance. They argued that too few witnesses testified to Thomas's intent and that their testimony—including that of Fannie Coles, who was described in a brief as "a pariah of mixed blood"—was not sufficiently credible. The Supreme Court of Appeals, however, credited a number of white witnesses who generally corroborated Coles and described Coles herself, who lived with Thomas and his daughter, as "intelligent" and "agreeable." The ruling awarded Lewis the bulk of her father's estate and made her, according to the Richmond Times, "the richest colored woman in Virginia.
Tue, 01 Sep 2015 14:20:13 EST]]>
/An_Act_to_amend_and_re-enact_the_9th_section_of_chapter_103_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_for_1860_1866 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 12:03:48 EST <![CDATA[An Act to amend and re-enact the 9th section of chapter 103 of the Code of Virginia for 1860 (1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_amend_and_re-enact_the_9th_section_of_chapter_103_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_for_1860_1866 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 12:03:48 EST]]> /An_Act_to_amend_and_re-enact_section_49_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_1887_1910 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:59:58 EST <![CDATA[An Act to amend and re-enact section 49 of the Code of Virginia, 1887 (1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_amend_and_re-enact_section_49_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_1887_1910 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:59:58 EST]]> /Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1924 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:43:07 EST <![CDATA[Colored Persons and Indians Defined (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1924 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:43:07 EST]]> /An_Act_to_provide_for_the_immediate_registration_of_all_births_and_deaths_1912 Wed, 26 Aug 2015 11:34:46 EST <![CDATA[An Act to provide for the immediate registration of all births and deaths (1912)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_provide_for_the_immediate_registration_of_all_births_and_deaths_1912 Wed, 26 Aug 2015 11:34:46 EST]]> /Vagrancy_Act_of_1866 Tue, 25 Aug 2015 15:14:14 EST <![CDATA[Vagrancy Act of 1866]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Vagrancy_Act_of_1866 The Vagrancy Act of 1866, passed by the General Assembly on January 15, 1866, forced into employment, for a term of up to three months, any person who appeared to be unemployed or homeless. If so-called vagrants ran away and were recaptured, they would be forced to work for no compensation while wearing balls and chains. More formally known as the Act Providing for the Punishment of Vagrants, the law came shortly after the American Civil War (1861–1865), when hundreds of thousands of African Americans, many of them just freed from slavery, wandered in search of work and displaced family members. As such, the act criminalized freedpeople attempting to rebuild their lives and perhaps was intended to contradict Governor Francis H. Pierpont's public statement discouraging punitive legislation. Shortly after its passage, the commanding general in Virginia, Alfred H. Terry, issued a proclamation declaring that the law would reinstitute "slavery in all but its name" and forbidding its enforcement. Proponents argued that the law applied to all people regardless of race, but the resulting controversy, along with other southern laws restricting African American rights, helped lead to military rule in the former Confederacy and congressional Reconstruction. It is unknown to what degree it was ever enforced, but the Vagrancy Act remained law in Virginia until 1904.
Tue, 25 Aug 2015 15:14:14 EST]]>
/George_L_Christian_s_note_in_the_Virginia_Law_Journal_April_1880 Tue, 30 Jun 2015 15:25:10 EST <![CDATA[George L. Christian's note in the Virginia Law Journal (April 1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_L_Christian_s_note_in_the_Virginia_Law_Journal_April_1880 Tue, 30 Jun 2015 15:25:10 EST]]> /_An_act_to..._legalize_the_Marriages_of_Colored_Persons_now_cohabiting_as_Husband_and_Wife_1866 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 13:58:02 EST <![CDATA["An act to … legalize the Marriages of Colored Persons now cohabiting as Husband and Wife" (1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_to..._legalize_the_Marriages_of_Colored_Persons_now_cohabiting_as_Husband_and_Wife_1866 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 13:58:02 EST]]> /Chapter_28_quot_Chancellor_Wythe_apos_s_Death_quot_an_excerpt_from_The_Two_Parsons_by_George_Wythe_Munford_1884 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 12:58:17 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 28: "Chancellor Wythe's Death"; an excerpt from The Two Parsons by George Wythe Munford (1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_28_quot_Chancellor_Wythe_apos_s_Death_quot_an_excerpt_from_The_Two_Parsons_by_George_Wythe_Munford_1884 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 12:58:17 EST]]> /Ex_Parte_State_of_Virginia_1879 Fri, 22 May 2015 09:40:26 EST <![CDATA[Ex Parte State of Virginia (March 1, 1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ex_Parte_State_of_Virginia_1879 Fri, 22 May 2015 09:40:26 EST]]> /An_ACT_to_define_feeble-mindedness_1916 Wed, 20 May 2015 10:51:15 EST <![CDATA[An ACT to define feeble-mindedness (1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_to_define_feeble-mindedness_1916 Wed, 20 May 2015 10:51:15 EST]]> /Jefferson_Davis_s_Imprisonment Thu, 14 May 2015 14:05:48 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson Davis's Imprisonment]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Davis_s_Imprisonment Union cavalrymen arrested former Confederate president Jefferson Davis near Irwinville, Georgia, on May 10, 1865. Davis was taken into custody as a suspect in the assassination of United States president Abraham Lincoln, but his arrest and two-year imprisonment at Fort Monroe in Virginia raised significant questions about the political course of Reconstruction (1865–1877). Debate over Davis's fate tended to divide between those who favored a severe punishment of the former Confederate political leaders and those who favored a more conciliatory approach. When investigators failed to establish a link between Davis and the Lincoln assassins, the U.S. government charged him instead with treason. U.S. president Andrew Johnson's impeachment hearings delayed the trial, however, and in the end the government granted Davis amnesty.
Thu, 14 May 2015 14:05:48 EST]]>
/Thirteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution_The Wed, 03 Dec 2014 16:52:31 EST <![CDATA[Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thirteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution_The The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution abolished and permanently prohibited the reintroduction of slavery throughout the country. Congress submitted it to the states on January 31, 1865, and it was ratified on December 6, 1865. It was the first of three amendments adopted during Reconstruction that profoundly altered American society, government, and politics. The Fourteenth Amendment that defined citizenship and guaranteed the rights of citizens was ratified in July 1868, and the Fifteenth Amendment that granted the vote to African American men was ratified in February 1870.
Wed, 03 Dec 2014 16:52:31 EST]]>
/Buchanan_Archibald_C_1890-1979 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:29:43 EST <![CDATA[Buchanan, Archibald C. (1890–1979)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Buchanan_Archibald_C_1890-1979 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:29:43 EST]]> /Morgan_v_Virginia Mon, 20 Oct 2014 14:38:24 EST <![CDATA[Morgan v. Virginia (1946)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_v_Virginia In Morgan v. Virginia, decided on June 3, 1946, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down a Virginia law requiring racial segregation on commercial interstate buses as a violation of the commerce clause of the U.S. Constitution. The appellant, Irene Morgan, was riding a Greyhound bus from Hayes Store, in Gloucester County, to Baltimore, Maryland, in 1944 when she was arrested and convicted in Saluda for refusing to give up her seat to a white person. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) filed appeals on her behalf, and after the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals ruled against Morgan in 1945, the U.S. Supreme Court heard her arguments. The case came near the end of a string of decisions, dating back to 1878, in which various courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court, had found that the commerce clause did not support state laws that regulated commercial interstate passenger travel. Morgan v. Virginia was not a typical civil rights case in that it did not comment on a state's right to segregate whites from blacks. Still, Morgan's refusal to give up her seat foreshadowed Rosa Parks's more famous action a decade later and marked an early and important victory in the civil rights movement.
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 14:38:24 EST]]>
/_quot_Memoir_of_the_Author_quot_from_Decisions_of_Cases_in_Virginia_by_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_by_Benjamin_Blake_Minor_1852 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:35:01 EST <![CDATA["Memoir of the Author," from Decisions of Cases in Virginia by the High Court of Chancery by Benjamin Blake Minor (1852)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Memoir_of_the_Author_quot_from_Decisions_of_Cases_in_Virginia_by_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_by_Benjamin_Blake_Minor_1852 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:35:01 EST]]> /Trial_of_George_Wythe_Sweeney_June_2_and_23_1806 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:33:23 EST <![CDATA[Trial of George Wythe Sweeney (June 2 and 23, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Trial_of_George_Wythe_Sweeney_June_2_and_23_1806 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:33:23 EST]]> /_quot_Oration_Pronounced_at_the_Funeral_of_George_Wythe_quot_1806 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:28:30 EST <![CDATA["Oration Pronounced at the Funeral of George Wythe" (1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Oration_Pronounced_at_the_Funeral_of_George_Wythe_quot_1806 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:28:30 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_December_10_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:47:34 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (December 10, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_December_10_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:47:34 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_December_4_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:12:11 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William DuVal (December 4, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_December_4_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:12:11 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_November_21_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:05:24 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (November 21, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_November_21_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:05:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_July_17_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:58:16 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William DuVal (July 17, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_July_17_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:58:16 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_July_12_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:49:50 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (July 12, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_July_12_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:49:50 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_29_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:40:51 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (June 29, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_29_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:40:51 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_22_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:26:58 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William DuVal (June 22, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_22_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:26:58 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_14_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:19:00 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William DuVal (June 14, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_14_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:19:00 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_19_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:17:41 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William DuVal (June 19, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_19_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:17:41 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_19_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:16:04 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (June 19, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_19_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:16:04 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_8_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:36:59 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (June 8, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_8_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:36:59 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_4_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:23:22 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (June 4, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_4_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:23:22 EST]]> /Aggie_Mary_fl_1728-1731 Thu, 07 Aug 2014 15:02:35 EST <![CDATA[Aggie, Mary (fl. 1728–1731)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Aggie_Mary_fl_1728-1731 Mary Aggie was a slave who became a principal in a court case that changed Virginia's statute law. Although unsuccessful in suing for her freedom in 1728, she demonstrated her belief in Christianity to the satisfaction of the presiding judge, Lieutenant Governor William Gooch. In 1730 she was convicted by the York County court of oyer and terminer of stealing from her owner, which ordinarily would have doomed her to death or severe corporal punishment. In 1731, however, Gooch had her case sent to the General Court, where he hoped she could secure the benefit of clergy, a privilege in English law dating back centuries in which literate persons could escape death or the severest penalties for first convictions on most capital offenses. Before a final verdict could be rendered, on May 6, 1731, Gooch and the governor's Council pardoned Aggie on the condition that she would be sold out of the colony. The General Assembly referred to Aggie's cases in passing a law on July 1, 1732, that allowed virtually all Virginians to plead benefit of clergy except in certain cases, a privilege that continued for another sixty years.
Thu, 07 Aug 2014 15:02:35 EST]]>
/Loving_v_Virginia_June_12_1967 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:19:24 EST <![CDATA[Loving v. Virginia (June 12, 1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Loving_v_Virginia_June_12_1967 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:19:24 EST]]> /_An_act_to_repeal_part_of_an_act_directing_the_trial_of_slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_negroes_mulattoes_or_indians_bond_or_free_1788 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:11:28 EST <![CDATA["An act to repeal part of an act, directing the trial of slaves committing capital crimes, and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them, and for the better government of negroes, mulattoes, or indians, bond or free" (1788)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_to_repeal_part_of_an_act_directing_the_trial_of_slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_negroes_mulattoes_or_indians_bond_or_free_1788 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:11:28 EST]]> /_An_act_about_the_casuall_killing_of_slaves_1669 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 09:33:25 EST <![CDATA["An act about the casuall killing of slaves" (1669)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_about_the_casuall_killing_of_slaves_1669 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 09:33:25 EST]]> /Harper_v_Virginia_State_Board_of_Elections_March_24_1966 Tue, 08 Jul 2014 14:15:36 EST <![CDATA[Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections (March 24, 1966)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harper_v_Virginia_State_Board_of_Elections_March_24_1966 Tue, 08 Jul 2014 14:15:36 EST]]> /Virginia_Statute_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1786 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:23:23 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Statute_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1786 The Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom was drafted by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the General Assembly on January 16, 1786, before being signed into law three days later. The statute affirms the rights of Virginians to choose their faiths without coercion; separates church and state; and, while acknowledging the right of future assemblies to change the law, concludes that doing so would "be an infringement of a natural right." Jefferson's original bill "for establishing religious freedom," drafted in 1777 and introduced in 1779, was tabled in the face of opposition among powerful members of the established Church of England. Then, in 1784, a resolution calling for a tax to support all Christian sects excited such opposition that James Madison saw an opportunity to reintroduce Jefferson's bill. It passed both houses of the General Assembly with minimal changes to its text. One of the most eloquent statements of religious freedom ever written, the statute influenced both the drafting of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the United States Supreme Court's understanding of religious freedom. Jefferson considered it one of his crowning achievements and a necessary bulwark against tyranny.
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:23:23 EST]]>
/Fugitive_Slave_Laws Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:09:49 EST <![CDATA[Fugitive Slave Laws]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fugitive_Slave_Laws Fugitive slave laws provided slaveowners and their agents with the legal right to reclaim runaways from other jurisdictions. Those states or jurisdictions were required to deliver the fugitives. As early as 1643, the United Colonies of New England had required the return of runaways, and, after the American Revolution (1775–1783), the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 contained similar protections for slaveowners. The U.S. Constitution included a Fugitive Slave Clause, which was agreed to without dissent at the Constitutional Convention. Following a dispute between Pennsylvania and Virginia, Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, which clarified the processes by which slaveowners could claim their property and was designed to balance the competing interests of free and slave states. In 1823, the law was upheld by Massachusetts in a case regarding a Virginia runaway, and then upheld again by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 expanded the number of federal officials empowered to act in fugitive-slave cases, but by this time, public opinion, at least in antislavery hotbeds such as Boston, Massachusetts, had turned against such laws. Thus a captured Virginia slave named Shadrach Minkins was rescued in 1851 and spirited north to Canada, but in 1854, authorities foiled an attempted rescue of the Virginia runaway slave Anthony Burns. Compromise soon became impossible, and enforcement of the law effectively ended with the onset of the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:09:49 EST]]>
/The_Constitution_of_the_United_States_1787-1992 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:00:07 EST <![CDATA[The Constitution of the United States (1787–1992)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Constitution_of_the_United_States_1787-1992 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:00:07 EST]]> /An_Act_to_admit_the_State_of_Virginia_to_Representation_in_the_Congress_of_the_United_States_January_26_1870 Thu, 19 Jun 2014 10:30:04 EST <![CDATA[An Act to admit the State of Virginia to Representation in the Congress of the United States (January 26, 1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_admit_the_State_of_Virginia_to_Representation_in_the_Congress_of_the_United_States_January_26_1870 Thu, 19 Jun 2014 10:30:04 EST]]> /Cochran_Herbert_Green_1885-1969 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 13:31:30 EST <![CDATA[Cochran, Herbert G. (1885–1969)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cochran_Herbert_Green_1885-1969 Herbert G. Cochran served as judge of the Norfolk Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court (1925–1954) and helped establish the modern juvenile court system in Virginia. He held the controversial belief that the welfare of defendant juveniles was paramount and that incarceration contributed to recidivism. During his three decades on the bench he emphasized individual treatment of defendants and pioneered the use of family counseling and probation. Cochran, along with Richmond's James Hoge Ricks and Roanoke's Odessa Pittard Bailey, turned the focus of the courts to rehabilitating young offenders. His activism helped reform juvenile justice systems across the country, serving on national boards and helping craft Massachusetts's laws.
Thu, 05 Jun 2014 13:31:30 EST]]>
/Morgan_v_Virginia_June_3_1946 Tue, 03 Jun 2014 17:05:50 EST <![CDATA[Morgan v. Virginia (June 3, 1946)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_v_Virginia_June_3_1946 Tue, 03 Jun 2014 17:05:50 EST]]> /Desegregation_in_Public_Schools Fri, 30 May 2014 14:52:24 EST <![CDATA[Desegregation in Public Schools]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Desegregation_in_Public_Schools The desegregation of the public schools in Virginia began on February 2, 1959, and continued through early in the 1970s when the state government's attempts to resist desegregation ended. During this period, African Americans in Virginia pushed for desegregation primarily by filing lawsuits in federal courts throughout Virginia. This litigation was aimed at achieving court rulings forcing the state of Virginia and its local school districts to comply with the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 decision Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, mandating the desegregation of public schools. State and local officials, however, generally resisted efforts to bring about desegregation and utilized their political power to avoid and then minimize public school desegregation. Virginia's Indians, meanwhile, went without the benefit of any state-funded public education until 1963, almost a decade after Brown.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:52:24 EST]]>
/Law_and_Justice_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 14:08:06 EST <![CDATA[Law and Justice in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Law_and_Justice_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Law and justice in early Virginia Indian society were not well understood by English observers, whose main concern was replacing the native system with their own. William Strachey wrote that the Indians ruled not by "posetive lawes," but by custom, and Henry Spelman, who lived among the Patawomeck Indians and spoke their language, wrote that he thought that the "Infidels wear [were] lawless" until he witnessed five of them brutally executed by being beaten and thrown into a fire. In fact, most of what is known about the laws and punishments among the Powhatan Indians can be reduced to a series of often graphically violent anecdotes in which men and women are killed for the crimes of infanticide, stealing, carrying on unsanctioned affairs, and even interrupting a weroance, or chief, while he is speaking. Powhatan custom demanded that revenge be exacted for wrongs against the person and against the chiefdom; the chiefs and paramount chief were powerless to intervene. This led to nearly constant, small-scale warfare, but it also caused problems with the English. Whenever a slight was made against an Indian, revenge was likely and was sometimes directed at the entire group rather than just at the individual. In the end, the English copied this practice, passing a law in 1641 giving colonists the power to hold otherwise innocent Indians hostage when the guilty party eluded capture.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:08:06 EST]]>
/Cornish_Richard_alias_Richard_Williams_d_after_January_3_1625 Tue, 27 May 2014 15:02:52 EST <![CDATA[Cornish, Richard alias Richard Williams (d. after January 3, 1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cornish_Richard_alias_Richard_Williams_d_after_January_3_1625 Tue, 27 May 2014 15:02:52 EST]]> /Green_Charles_C_et_al_v_County_School_Board_of_New_Kent_County_Virginia Thu, 22 May 2014 16:34:01 EST <![CDATA[Green, Charles C. et al. v. County School Board of New Kent County, Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Green_Charles_C_et_al_v_County_School_Board_of_New_Kent_County_Virginia Charles C. Green et al. v. County School Board of New Kent County, Virginia, was a 1968 United States Supreme Court decision that ordered school districts to abolish dual systems of education for black and white students, placing on them an "affirmative duty" to integrate their schools genuinely. The pressure for such a ruling had mounted in the years since the Court's landmark decisions in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) and Brown II (1955), which had declared separate schools to be "inherently unequal" but did not define the process by which schools would be desegregated. Virginia officials had responded to Brown with the Massive Resistance movement, in some cases shutting down public schools rather than integrating them. Incremental desegregation occurred when federal courts forced those schools to reopen in 1959, although schools in Prince Edward County did not reopen until 1964. But in New Kent County, school board officials instituted bureaucratic delays while also placing the burden of desegregation on black families through a "freedom of choice" plan. Not until the Supreme Court struck down most "freedom of choice" plans in Green did Virginia school districts implement full desegregation.
Thu, 22 May 2014 16:34:01 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_regulating_conveyances_1785 Sat, 17 May 2014 15:09:10 EST <![CDATA["An act for regulating conveyances" (1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_regulating_conveyances_1785 Sat, 17 May 2014 15:09:10 EST]]> /Runaway_Slaves_1642-1643 Mon, 05 May 2014 08:52:52 EST <![CDATA[Runaway Servants (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Runaway_Slaves_1642-1643 Mon, 05 May 2014 08:52:52 EST]]> /Morgan_v_Commonwealth_June_6_1945 Wed, 30 Apr 2014 14:30:32 EST <![CDATA[Morgan v. Commonwealth (June 6, 1945)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_v_Commonwealth_June_6_1945 Wed, 30 Apr 2014 14:30:32 EST]]> /Chapter_161A_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:53:22 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 161A of the Code of Virginia § 4097z–dd (1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_161A_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:53:22 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Mallory_to_A_S_Priddy_November_5_1917 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:42:09 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Mallory to A. S. Priddy (November 5, 1917)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Mallory_to_A_S_Priddy_November_5_1917 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:42:09 EST]]> /Chapter_46B_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:37:48 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 46B of the Code of Virginia § 1095h–m (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_46B_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:37:48 EST]]> /Notice_of_Appeal_October_3_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:51:24 EST <![CDATA[Notice of Appeal (October 3, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Notice_of_Appeal_October_3_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:51:24 EST]]> /Petition_to_Commit_Carrie_Buck_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:48:29 EST <![CDATA[Petition to Commit Carrie Buck (January 23, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_to_Commit_Carrie_Buck_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:48:29 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_CXCII_of_the_Code_of_1873 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:34:45 EST <![CDATA[Chapter CXCII of the Code of Virginia (1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_CXCII_of_the_Code_of_1873 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:34:45 EST]]> /Chapter_357_of_Acts_and_Joint_Resolutions_Amending_the_Constitution_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_Virginia_1910 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:04:21 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 357 of Acts and Joint Resolutions (Amending the Constitution) of the General Assembly of the State of Virginia (1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_357_of_Acts_and_Joint_Resolutions_Amending_the_Constitution_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_Virginia_1910 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:04:21 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_17_of_Acts_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_1866 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:54:24 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 17 of Acts of the General Assembly of the State of Virginia (1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_17_of_Acts_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_1866 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:54:24 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_CIX_of_the_Code_of_1849 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:36:48 EST <![CDATA[Chapter CIX of the Code of Virginia (1849)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_CIX_of_the_Code_of_1849 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:36:48 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_CIII_of_the_Code_of_1860 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:10:01 EST <![CDATA[Chapter CIII of the Code of Virginia (1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_CIII_of_the_Code_of_1860 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:10:01 EST]]> /Carrie_Buck_Committed_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:19:50 EST <![CDATA[Carrie Buck Committed (January 23, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carrie_Buck_Committed_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:19:50 EST]]> /Petition_to_Sterilize_Carrie_Buck_September_10_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:15:28 EST <![CDATA[Petition to Sterilize Carrie Buck (September 10, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_to_Sterilize_Carrie_Buck_September_10_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:15:28 EST]]> /Carrie_Buck_Adjudged_Feeble-minded_or_Epileptic_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:11:58 EST <![CDATA[Carrie Buck Adjudged "Feeble-minded or Epileptic" (January 23, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carrie_Buck_Adjudged_Feeble-minded_or_Epileptic_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:11:58 EST]]> /Judgment_Against_Carrie_Buck_April_13_1925 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:08:44 EST <![CDATA[Judgment Against Carrie Buck (April 13, 1925)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judgment_Against_Carrie_Buck_April_13_1925 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:08:44 EST]]> /Loving_v_Commonwealth_March_7_1966 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:46:56 EST <![CDATA[Loving v. Commonwealth (March 7, 1966)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Loving_v_Commonwealth_March_7_1966 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:46:56 EST]]> /Excerpts_from_a_Transcript_of_Oral_Arguments_in_Loving_v_Virginia_April_10_1967 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:31:45 EST <![CDATA[Excerpts from a Transcript of Oral Arguments in Loving v. Virginia (April 10, 1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpts_from_a_Transcript_of_Oral_Arguments_in_Loving_v_Virginia_April_10_1967 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:31:45 EST]]> /Kinney_v_The_Commonwealth_October_3_1878 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:11:41 EST <![CDATA[Kinney v. the Commonwealth (October 3, 1878)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Kinney_v_The_Commonwealth_October_3_1878 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:11:41 EST]]> /Opinion_of_Judge_Leon_M_Bazile_January_22_1965 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:00:46 EST <![CDATA[Opinion of Judge Leon M. Bazile (January 22, 1965)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Opinion_of_Judge_Leon_M_Bazile_January_22_1965 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:00:46 EST]]> /Judgment_Against_Richard_and_Mildred_Loving_January_6_1959 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:52:14 EST <![CDATA[Judgment Against Richard and Mildred Loving (January 6, 1959)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judgment_Against_Richard_and_Mildred_Loving_January_6_1959 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:52:14 EST]]> /Naim_v_Naim_June_13_1955 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:51:16 EST <![CDATA[Naim v. Naim (June 13, 1955)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Naim_v_Naim_June_13_1955 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:51:16 EST]]> /Hill_Oliver_W_1907-2007 Tue, 25 Mar 2014 10:18:41 EST <![CDATA[Hill, Oliver W. (1907–2007)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hill_Oliver_W_1907-2007 Oliver W. Hill was an African American attorney and civil rights activist. As the lead attorney for the Virginia State Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Hill and his colleagues filed more legal challenges to segregation than any other lawyers in the South and successfully undermined segregation and discrimination in all walks of southern life. Born in Richmond, Hill earned his law degree in 1933 at Howard University, where he met Thurgood Marshall, a future NAACP lawyer and U.S. Supreme Court associate justice. In coordination with Marshall, then special counsel for the NAACP, Hill argued on behalf of black teachers in Norfolk who received less pay than white teachers for equal work. After winning a federal appeals court ruling in 1940, Hill became an NAACP attorney in Virginia. He was one of the leading lawyers in Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward, one of five suits that were consolidated into the Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954). In the landmark decision, the Supreme Court declared segregation in public education unconstitutional. Hill believed political activism went hand in hand with the legal assault on segregation, and ran repeatedly for political office as a way to encourage African Americans to register and vote. In 1948, Hill became the first African American elected to the Richmond city council since 1894. He retired from the law in 1998 and died at his home in Richmond in 2007.
Tue, 25 Mar 2014 10:18:41 EST]]>
/Court_Ruling_on_Anthony_Johnson_and_His_Servant_1655 Mon, 10 Mar 2014 11:04:11 EST <![CDATA[Court Ruling on Anthony Johnson and His Servant (1655)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Court_Ruling_on_Anthony_Johnson_and_His_Servant_1655 Mon, 10 Mar 2014 11:04:11 EST]]> /Minkins_Shadrach_d_1875 Mon, 03 Mar 2014 17:59:59 EST <![CDATA[Minkins, Shadrach (d. 1875)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Minkins_Shadrach_d_1875 Shadrach Minkins was an enslaved man who escaped from his owner in Norfolk in 1850, was arrested as a fugitive the following year in Boston, Massachusetts, and was rescued there by antislavery activists. Born into slavery, Minkins had various owners before being sold to John DeBree, a career naval officer, in 1849. He worked as a house servant for DeBree until making his escape in May 1850. Originally called Sherwood and then Shadrach, Minkins adopted the name Frederick in Boston, where he waited tables at an upscale restaurant. After passage of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, DeBree sent a slave catcher to Boston, and Minkins was arrested on February 15, 1851. Hundreds of antislavery activists gathered outside the courtroom where Minkins was being held, and a group of about twenty black men eventually broke through the doors and rescued Minkins, spiriting him through the streets of Boston and arranging for his journey to Canada. Minkins's escape became a national cause célèbre, with abolitionists rejoicing and the administration of President Millard Fillmore fuming. After arriving in Montreal, Minkins reverted to the name Shadrach and adopted the last name Minkins. He married an Irish woman, had four children, and ran a barbershop until his death in 1875.
Mon, 03 Mar 2014 17:59:59 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Edmund_Pendleton_August_13_1776 Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:55:56 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Edmund Pendleton (August 13, 1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Edmund_Pendleton_August_13_1776 Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:55:56 EST]]> /Thomas_Jefferson_s_Argument_in_Howell_v_Netherland_1770 Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:48:24 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Jefferson's Argument in Howell v. Netherland (1770)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Jefferson_s_Argument_in_Howell_v_Netherland_1770 Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:48:24 EST]]> /Attorneys_General_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 16:09:22 EST <![CDATA[Attorneys General of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Attorneys_General_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 16:09:22 EST]]> /Moton_School_Strike_and_Prince_Edward_County_School_Closings Tue, 21 Jan 2014 10:28:18 EST <![CDATA[Moton School Strike and Prince Edward County School Closings]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Moton_School_Strike_and_Prince_Edward_County_School_Closings On April 23, 1951, students at Robert Russa Moton High School in the town of Farmville, in Prince Edward County, walked out of school to protest the conditions of their education, which they claimed were vastly inferior to those enjoyed by white students at nearby Farmville High School. The strike, led by student Barbara Johns, is considered by many historians to signal the start of the desegregation movement in America and resulted in a court case that was later bundled with other, similar cases into Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court decided Brown by mandating public-school desegregation, and Virginia state leaders responded with an official policy of Massive Resistance. When, on January 19, 1959, both a federal and a state court simultaneously ruled the state's actions unconstitutional, the Prince Edward County Board of Supervisors closed its public schools rather than integrate them. They stayed shuttered for five years. Another U.S. Supreme Court decision—Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward—finally forced the county's schools to reopen in 1964.
Tue, 21 Jan 2014 10:28:18 EST]]>
/Pollard_John_Garland_1871-1937 Tue, 07 Jan 2014 12:40:56 EST <![CDATA[Pollard, John Garland (1871–1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pollard_John_Garland_1871-1937 John Garland Pollard was a progressive Democrat who served as delegate to the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902, attorney general of Virginia (1914–1918), and governor (1930–1934). Handpicked by Harry F. Byrd Sr. to be his gubernatorial successor, Pollard left a legacy as governor that was clouded by the fact that he took office on the eve of the Great Depression. While independent-minded, Pollard was never able to get fully out from under the thumb of Byrd (supposedly he would remark while patting his belly that he had become so rotund by "swallowing the Byrd machine"). Byrd's control over Pollard and Virginia's political environment was particularly evident in the initiative to legalize alcohol when Byrd went around Pollard to senator William M. Tuck to gather the General Assembly together in order to push through a state referendum to repeal Prohibition and establish the state-run Alcoholic Beverage Control Board. Outside of politics, Pollard was an educator and member of several public and philanthropic commissions and organizations. As a practicing attorney, he wrote Pollard's Code of Virginia, which became an often-consulted reference work on the laws of Virginia. He also served briefly as a professor of constitutional law and history at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg. In 1936 Pollard helped to found the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts in Richmond, the first state art museum in the United States, and served as president of the museum's board of directors.
Tue, 07 Jan 2014 12:40:56 EST]]>
/Cooper_Susannah_Sanders_d_after_9_June_1751 Wed, 11 Sep 2013 10:44:05 EST <![CDATA[Cooper, Susannah Sanders (d. after June 9, 1751)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooper_Susannah_Sanders_d_after_9_June_1751 Wed, 11 Sep 2013 10:44:05 EST]]> /Bolling_Robert_1738-1775 Wed, 14 Aug 2013 10:18:38 EST <![CDATA[Bolling, Robert (1738–1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bolling_Robert_1738-1775 Robert Bolling was a poet, a member of the House of Burgesses (1761–1765), the sheriff of Buckingham County, and a member of the county court (1761–1775). Trained as a lawyer, he nearly fought a duel with William Byrd (1728–1777), a judge on the General Court, when Bolling accused the judges of bias in a murder case. Bolling was also involved in a suit brought by his youngest brother over an inheritance. The younger Bolling was represented by George Wythe, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and Robert Bolling by Thomas Jefferson, the Declaration's author. Bolling is best known as a poet, however. He published more poetry than any other colonial American between 1759 and 1775, including the grotesque "Neanthe" (ca. 1763), which reflected elements of Italian traditions, colonial Virginia folklore, and English poetry. In addition, during the failed courtship of his distant cousin, Bolling kept a journal, "A Circumstantial Account," which provides a unique view of eighteenth-century Virginia gentry. Bolling died suddenly in 1775 while attending the Virginia Convention of July–August 1775.
Wed, 14 Aug 2013 10:18:38 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Eugene_Davis_to_Thomas_H_Key_November_1850 Tue, 06 Aug 2013 09:35:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Eugene Davis to Thomas H. Key (November 1850)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Eugene_Davis_to_Thomas_H_Key_November_1850 Tue, 06 Aug 2013 09:35:44 EST]]> /Billy_fl_1770s-1780s Fri, 12 Jul 2013 12:26:46 EST <![CDATA[Billy (fl. 1770s–1780s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Billy_fl_1770s-1780s Billy was an enslaved African American who became a principal in a court case during the American Revolution (1775–1783). In 1781, the Prince William County Court indicted him for waging war against the state from a British armed ship. Despite his testimony that he had been forced to board the vessel against his will and had never taken up arms on behalf of the British, the court convicted Billy of treason and sentenced him to be hanged. Two dissenting judges argued to Governor Thomas Jefferson that a slave, being a noncitizen, could not commit treason. Billy received a gubernatorial reprieve, and the General Assembly pardoned him on June 14, 1781. What happened to him after that is not known. Billy made his mark on history because his trial forced white leaders to confront the logic of slavery. Excluded from the protections conferred by citizenship, he was ultimately shielded from execution because Virginia's law of treason could not logically apply to him.
Fri, 12 Jul 2013 12:26:46 EST]]>
/_An_Argument_Before_the_General_Court_of_Colonial_Virginia_1773 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 09:32:07 EST <![CDATA["An Argument Before the General Court of Colonial Virginia" (1773)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Argument_Before_the_General_Court_of_Colonial_Virginia_1773 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 09:32:07 EST]]> /_An_Act_declaring_tenants_of_lands_or_slaves_in_taille_to_hold_the_same_in_fee_simple_1776 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:43:13 EST <![CDATA["An Act declaring tenants of lands or slaves in taille to hold the same in fee simple" (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_declaring_tenants_of_lands_or_slaves_in_taille_to_hold_the_same_in_fee_simple_1776 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:43:13 EST]]> /_An_act_for_regulating_the_Elections_of_Burgesses_for_settling_their_Privileges_and_for_ascertaining_their_allowances_1705 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:01:25 EST <![CDATA["An act for regulating the Elections of Burgesses; for settling their Privileges; and for ascertaining their allowances" (1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_regulating_the_Elections_of_Burgesses_for_settling_their_Privileges_and_for_ascertaining_their_allowances_1705 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:01:25 EST]]> /The_Case_of_Wahanganoche_an_excerpt_from_the_Journals_of_the_House_of_Burgesses_of_Virginia_1662 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:22:24 EST <![CDATA[The Case of Wahanganoche; an excerpt from the Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Case_of_Wahanganoche_an_excerpt_from_the_Journals_of_the_House_of_Burgesses_of_Virginia_1662 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:22:24 EST]]> /_An_act_concerning_the_building_of_a_ffort_October_1665 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:18:16 EST <![CDATA["An act concerning the building of a ffort" (October 1665)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_concerning_the_building_of_a_ffort_October_1665 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:18:16 EST]]> /_An_act_concerning_Indians_October_1665 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:16:12 EST <![CDATA["An act concerning Indians" (October 1665)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_concerning_Indians_October_1665 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:16:12 EST]]> /_An_act_concerning_the_Northerne_Indians_September_1663 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:12:56 EST <![CDATA["An act concerning the Northerne Indians" (September 1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_concerning_the_Northerne_Indians_September_1663 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:12:56 EST]]> /Runaway_Slaves_and_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:53:29 EST <![CDATA[Runaway Slaves and Servants in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Runaway_Slaves_and_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Runaway slaves and indentured servants were a persistent problem for landowners in colonial Virginia. They fled from abusive masters, to take a break from work, or in search of family members from whom they had been separated. Some servants were lured away by neighbors attempting to steal labor. Early court cases reveal that whites and blacks sometimes ran off together but that punishments for the latter could be much harsher. As early as 1643, the General Assembly passed laws that established penalties for runaway slaves and servants, regulated their movement, identified multiple offenders (by branding them or cutting their hair), and provided rewards for their capture. In October 1669, the burgesses admitted that these laws "have hitherto in greate parte proved ineffectuall," as slaves and servants continued to brave wide rivers, often dangerous Indians, and the storm-tossed Chesapeake Bay. They fled mostly into Maryland but sometimes as far north as New Netherland and New England. In 1705 a sweeping new law allowed planters to discipline slaves to death or, in some cases, to kill runaways without penalty. Robert "King" Carter sought and received permission to dismember his runaways. Beginning in 1736, landowners advertised in the Virginia Gazette for their runaways; they describe more than 3,500 fugitives from 1736 until 1783. These advertisements affirmed a lingering desire for freedom on the part of slaves.
Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:53:29 EST]]>
/General_Court_Responds_to_Runaway_Servants_and_Slaves_1640 Mon, 14 Jan 2013 16:21:46 EST <![CDATA[General Court Responds to Runaway Servants and Slaves (1640)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/General_Court_Responds_to_Runaway_Servants_and_Slaves_1640 Mon, 14 Jan 2013 16:21:46 EST]]> /_A_Report_of_a_Comittee_from_an_Assembly_Concerning_the_freedome_of_Elizabeth_Key_1656 Fri, 11 Jan 2013 09:34:02 EST <![CDATA["A Report of a Comittee from an Assembly Concerning the freedome of Elizabeth Key" (1656)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Report_of_a_Comittee_from_an_Assembly_Concerning_the_freedome_of_Elizabeth_Key_1656 Fri, 11 Jan 2013 09:34:02 EST]]> /Testimony_in_the_Trial_of_Gabriel_October_6_1800 Wed, 03 Oct 2012 11:57:26 EST <![CDATA[Testimony in the Trial of Gabriel (October 6, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_in_the_Trial_of_Gabriel_October_6_1800 Wed, 03 Oct 2012 11:57:26 EST]]> /_A_Proclamation_by_the_President_of_the_United_States_February_18_1851 Tue, 28 Aug 2012 13:09:50 EST <![CDATA["A Proclamation by the President of the United States" (February 18, 1851)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Proclamation_by_the_President_of_the_United_States_February_18_1851 Tue, 28 Aug 2012 13:09:50 EST]]> /The_General_Assembly_Convenes_1619 Wed, 08 Aug 2012 12:47:35 EST <![CDATA[The General Assembly Convenes (1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_General_Assembly_Convenes_1619 In this excerpt from the Journals of the House of Burgesses, the assembly's's first meeting on July 30, 1619, is described, with Governor Sir George Yeardley, the governor's Council, and the burgesses meeting in unicameral session in the church at Jamestown. After the Reverend Richard Bucke said a prayer to open the session, the assembly ruled on two of its new members' standing. Some spelling has been updated and contractions expanded.
Wed, 08 Aug 2012 12:47:35 EST]]>
/John_Nickson_Runs_Away_1687 Fri, 03 Aug 2012 09:31:03 EST <![CDATA[John Nickson Runs Away (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_Nickson_Runs_Away_1687 Fri, 03 Aug 2012 09:31:03 EST]]> /_Act_directing_the_trial_of_Slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_Negros_Mulattos_and_Indians_bond_or_free_1723 Wed, 01 Aug 2012 12:54:19 EST <![CDATA["An Act directing the trial of Slaves, committing capital crimes; and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them; and for the better government of Negros, Mulattos, and Indians, bond or free" ]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Act_directing_the_trial_of_Slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_Negros_Mulattos_and_Indians_bond_or_free_1723 In "An Act directing the trial of Slaves, committing capital crimes; and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them; and for the better government of Negros, Mulattos, and Indians, bond or free," passed by the General Assembly in the session of May 1723, Virginia's colonial government establishes laws with regards to the punishment of slaves and the overall government of slaves, free blacks, and Indians.
Wed, 01 Aug 2012 12:54:19 EST]]>
/_An_ACT_to_amend_the_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:36:47 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to amend the act intituled, 'An act to reduce into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes'" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_amend_the_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:36:47 EST]]> /_An_ACT_concerning_patroles_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:32:11 EST <![CDATA["An ACT concerning patroles" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_concerning_patroles_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:32:11 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_establish_a_guard_in_the_city_of_Richmond_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:26:52 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to establish a guard in the city of Richmond" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_establish_a_guard_in_the_city_of_Richmond_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:26:52 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_empower_the_governor_to_transport_slaves_condemned_when_it_shall_be_deemed_expedient_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:20:42 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to empower the governor to transport slaves condemned, when it shall be deemed expedient" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_empower_the_governor_to_transport_slaves_condemned_when_it_shall_be_deemed_expedient_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:20:42 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_arm_the_militia_of_certain_towns_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:16:26 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to arm the militia of certain towns" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_arm_the_militia_of_certain_towns_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:16:26 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_purchase_Pharoah_and_Tom_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:11:20 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to purchase Pharoah and Tom" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_purchase_Pharoah_and_Tom_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:11:20 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_amend_the_several_laws_concerning_slaves_1806 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 12:38:21 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to amend the several laws concerning slaves" (1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_amend_the_several_laws_concerning_slaves_1806 The following legislation, "An ACT to amend the several laws concerning slaves," was passed by the General Assembly on January 25, 1806, and prohibits the importation of slaves to Virginia and requires that any freed slaves leave the state within twelve months.
Tue, 31 Jul 2012 12:38:21 EST]]>
/Testimony_about_the_York_County_Conspiracy_1661 Fri, 20 Jul 2012 09:05:31 EST <![CDATA[Testimony about the York County Conspiracy (1661)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_about_the_York_County_Conspiracy_1661 In these depositions, taken in January 1661, several indentured servants, captured in an attempt to rebel in York County, explain what their plan was and how it should have been executed. The servants' overseer, John Parkes, also testified. Some spelling has been updated and contractions expanded.
Fri, 20 Jul 2012 09:05:31 EST]]>
/Jacob_Rowe_Sanctioned_in_Debate_over_Two_Penny_Bill_1758 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 17:27:48 EST <![CDATA[Jacob Rowe Sanctioned in Debate over Two Penny Bill (1758)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jacob_Rowe_Sanctioned_in_Debate_over_Two_Penny_Bill_1758 Debate in the House of Burgesses over the proposed Two Penny Bill turned nasty in September 1758. In the following excerpts from the Journal of the House of Burgesses, the Reverend Jacob Rowe is sanctioned and then apologizes for comments he made in a private conversation that were overhead by burgess William Kennon. The Two Penny Act of 1758 was signed into law by Lieutenant Governor Francis Fauquier, on behalf of George II, on October 12, 1758. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Tue, 17 Jul 2012 17:27:48 EST]]>
/_An_act_concerning_Servants_and_Slaves_1705 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 10:28:39 EST <![CDATA["An act concerning Servants and Slaves" (1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_concerning_Servants_and_Slaves_1705 In "An act concerning Servants and Slaves," passed by the General Assembly in the session of October 1705, Virginia's colonial government collects old and establishes new laws with regards to indentured servants and slaves.
Tue, 17 Jul 2012 10:28:39 EST]]>
/_20_and_odd_Negroes_an_excerpt_from_a_letter_from_John_Rolfe_to_Sir_Edwin_Sandys_1619_1620 Thu, 12 Jul 2012 14:19:22 EST <![CDATA["Twenty and odd Negroes"; an excerpt from a letter from John Rolfe to Sir Edwin Sandys (1619/1620)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_20_and_odd_Negroes_an_excerpt_from_a_letter_from_John_Rolfe_to_Sir_Edwin_Sandys_1619_1620 In this excerpt from a letter to Sir Edwin Sandys, treasurer of the Virginia Company of London, the Jamestown colonist John Rolfe describes events in the Virginia colony. These include the first meeting of the General Assembly, a murder trial, and a controversy involving the Indian-language interpreter Captain Henry Spelman. He also notes the arrival of "20. and odd Negroes," the first Africans in Virginia. In greater detail he recounts a visit to Jamestown by a Patawomeck elder Iopassus (Japazaws), who in 1613 had been responsible for delivering Rolfe's since-deceased wife Pocahontas into the hands of Captain Samuel Argall. Now Iopassus appeared to be engaging in diplomacy independent of Powhatan, Opechancanough, and the Indians of Tsenacomoco. The letter is dated "January 1619/1620," the two years reflecting both the Old (Julian) Calendar and the New (Gregorian) Calendar. Some spelling has been updated and contractions expanded.
Thu, 12 Jul 2012 14:19:22 EST]]>
/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 Tue, 12 Jun 2012 14:32:24 EST <![CDATA[Anti-Lynching Law of 1928]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 The Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, signed by Virginia governor Harry Flood Byrd Sr. on March 14, 1928, was the first measure in the nation that defined lynching specifically as a state crime. The bill's enactment marked the culmination of a campaign waged by Louis Isaac Jaffé, the editor of the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, who responded more forcefully than any other white Virginian to an increase in mob violence in the mid-1920s. Jaffé's efforts, however, which earned him a Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing in 1929, came to fruition only after the state's political and business leadership recognized that mob violence was a threat to their efforts to attract business and industry. Ironically, no white person was ever convicted of lynching an African American under the law.
Tue, 12 Jun 2012 14:32:24 EST]]>
/_An_act_enabling_freemen_to_vote_for_burgesses_and_preventing_false_returnes_of_burgesses_1676 Fri, 08 Jun 2012 15:46:44 EST <![CDATA["An act enabling freemen to vote for burgesses and preventing false returnes of burgesses" (1676)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_enabling_freemen_to_vote_for_burgesses_and_preventing_false_returnes_of_burgesses_1676 The following law, "An act enabling freemen to vote for burgesses and preventing false returnes of burgesses," passed by the General Assembly in its June 1676 session, during the tumult of Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), defines the franchise as consisting of all freemen.
Fri, 08 Jun 2012 15:46:44 EST]]>
/Law_Regulating_Indentured_Servants_1643 Mon, 04 Jun 2012 11:09:32 EST <![CDATA[Law Regulating Indentured Servants (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Law_Regulating_Indentured_Servants_1643 Mon, 04 Jun 2012 11:09:32 EST]]> /Contract_to_Teach_Indentured_Servant_a_Trade_1680 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:44:25 EST <![CDATA[Contract to Teach Indentured Servant a Trade (1680)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Contract_to_Teach_Indentured_Servant_a_Trade_1680 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:44:25 EST]]> /Contract_to_Provide_Indentured_Servant_1654 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:41:50 EST <![CDATA[Contract to Provide Indentured Servant (1654)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Contract_to_Provide_Indentured_Servant_1654 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:41:50 EST]]> /Contract_for_Servant_without_an_Indenture_1665 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:38:58 EST <![CDATA[Contract for Servant without an Indenture (1665)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Contract_for_Servant_without_an_Indenture_1665 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:38:58 EST]]> /The_Mistreatment_of_Servant_Charetie_Dallen_1649 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:36:25 EST <![CDATA[The Mistreatment of Servant Charetie Dallen (1649)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Mistreatment_of_Servant_Charetie_Dallen_1649 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:36:25 EST]]> /An_Attack_on_the_Mistress_Elizabeth_Bowen_1679 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:26:01 EST <![CDATA[An Attack on the Mistress Elizabeth Bowen (1679)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Attack_on_the_Mistress_Elizabeth_Bowen_1679 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:26:01 EST]]> /Irish_Servants_1654 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:09:49 EST <![CDATA[Irish Servants (1655)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Irish_Servants_1654 This law, passed by the General Assembly in its March 1655 (New Style) session, establishes the terms of service specifically for immigrants from Ireland who arrive in Virginia without indentures. During the March 1658 session, the assembly revised the law so "that at the end of the act these words are added, 'and all aliens to be included in this act.'" The law was repealed five years later, with special mention made of this final clause. Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:09:49 EST]]>
/_Against_Runnaway_Servants_1657-1658 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:00:50 EST <![CDATA["Against Runnaway Servants" (1658)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Against_Runnaway_Servants_1657-1658 In this law, "Against Runnaway Servants," passed in its March 1658 (New Style) session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants who ran away, while also making provisions for servants who believed they were being mistreated to seek justice in the courts. Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:00:50 EST]]>
/_An_Act_for_repealing_an_Act_for_Irish_Servants_1659 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:54:29 EST <![CDATA["An Act for repealing an Act for Irish Servants" (1660)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_for_repealing_an_Act_for_Irish_Servants_1659 This law, "An Act for repealing an Act for Irish Servants," passed by the General Assembly in its March 1660 (New Style) session, repeals an earlier act that established the terms of service specifically for immigrants from Ireland who arrived in Virginia without indentures.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:54:29 EST]]>
/_Cruelty_of_masters_prohibited_1661-1662 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:49:18 EST <![CDATA["Cruelty of masters prohibited" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Cruelty_of_masters_prohibited_1661-1662 In this law, "Cruelty of masters prohibited," passed in its March 1662 (New Style) session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants not being treated properly by their masters.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:49:18 EST]]>
/_Masters_of_Ships_to_provide_fower_months_provisions_1661-1662 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:45:59 EST <![CDATA["Masters of Ships to provide fower months provisions" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Masters_of_Ships_to_provide_fower_months_provisions_1661-1662 In this law, "Masters of Ships to provide fower months provisions," passed in its March 1662 (New Style) session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants not being treated properly during their passage from England to Virginia.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:45:59 EST]]>
/_An_act_lymiting_masters_dealing_with_their_servants_1676-1677 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:42:12 EST <![CDATA["An act lymiting masters dealing with their servants" (1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_lymiting_masters_dealing_with_their_servants_1676-1677 In this law, "An act lymiting masters dealing with their servants," passed in its February 1677 (New Style) session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants not being treated properly by their masters.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:42:12 EST]]>
/The_humble_Petition_of_Jane_Dickenson_Widdowe_1624 Fri, 25 May 2012 14:22:25 EST <![CDATA[The humble Petition of Jane Dickenson Widdowe (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_humble_Petition_of_Jane_Dickenson_Widdowe_1624 In this petition to Virginia governor Sir Francis Wyatt and members of the governor's Council, dated March 30, 1624, Jane Dickenson pleads for her release from indentured servitude. Having been taken prisoner by Pamunkey Indians following Opechancanough's attack in 1622, she was ransomed by Dr. John Pott, to whom she then owed service for both herself and her husband, who was killed in the attack. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Fri, 25 May 2012 14:22:25 EST]]>
/A_Servant_Demands_his_Freedom_Dues_1624 Fri, 25 May 2012 14:05:51 EST <![CDATA[A Servant Demands his Freedom Dues (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Servant_Demands_his_Freedom_Dues_1624 On January 24, 1624, members of the General Court heard testimony in the case of an indentured servant called William Mutch who argued with his master over so-called freedom dues, or the payment servants customarily received upon completion of their contracts. In this case, Mutch contended that he was owed corn. Dr. John Pott, who provided the testimony, was a member of the General Court and later served as governor of the colony. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Fri, 25 May 2012 14:05:51 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_punishment_of_ffornication_and_seaverall_other_sins_and_offences_1696 Thu, 24 May 2012 11:31:39 EST <![CDATA["An act for punishment of ffornication and seaverall other sins and offences" (1696)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_punishment_of_ffornication_and_seaverall_other_sins_and_offences_1696 In this law, "An act for punishment of ffornication and seaverall other sins and offences," passed in its September 1696 session, the General Assembly addressed the perennial problems of swearing, drunkenness, and extramarital sex. The act is a revision of one passed in the April 1691 session.
Thu, 24 May 2012 11:31:39 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_the_more_effectuall_suppressing_the_severall_sins_and_offences_of_swaring_cursing_profaineing_Gods_holy_name_Sabbath_abuseing_drunkenness_ffornication_and_adultery_1691 Thu, 24 May 2012 11:22:03 EST <![CDATA["An act for the more effectuall suppressing the severall sins and offences of swaring, cursing, profaineing Gods holy name, Sabbath abuseing, drunkenness, ffornication, and adultery" (1691)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_the_more_effectuall_suppressing_the_severall_sins_and_offences_of_swaring_cursing_profaineing_Gods_holy_name_Sabbath_abuseing_drunkenness_ffornication_and_adultery_1691 In this law, "An act for the more effectuall suppressing the severall sins and offences of swaring, cursing, profaineing Gods holy name, Sabbath abuseing, drunkenness, ffornication, and adultery," passed in its April 1691 session, the General Assembly addressed the perennial problems of swearing, drunkenness, and extramarital sex. The act would be revised in the 1696 session.
Thu, 24 May 2012 11:22:03 EST]]>
/_An_Act_for_amending_the_Staple_of_Tobacco_and_for_preventing_Frauds_in_his_Majesty_s_Customs_1730 Thu, 17 May 2012 14:17:16 EST <![CDATA["An Act for amending the Staple of Tobacco; and for preventing Frauds in his Majesty's Customs" (1730)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_for_amending_the_Staple_of_Tobacco_and_for_preventing_Frauds_in_his_Majesty_s_Customs_1730 The following law, "An Act for amending the Staple of Tobacco; and for preventing Frauds in his Majesty's Customs," passed by the General Assembly in its May 1730 session, at the urging of Virginia lieutenant governor Sir William Gooch, outlined a controversial plan for the inspection of tobacco before it went to market. It was popularly known as the Tobacco Inspection Act.
Thu, 17 May 2012 14:17:16 EST]]>
/Defining_the_Franchise_1646 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:53:27 EST <![CDATA[Defining the Franchise (1646)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Defining_the_Franchise_1646 The following law, passed by the General Assembly in its October 1646 session, requires all freemen to vote in elections of burgesses or face a fine. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:53:27 EST]]>
/Defining_the_Franchise_1655 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:50:11 EST <![CDATA[Defining the Franchise (1655)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Defining_the_Franchise_1655 The following law, passed by the General Assembly in its March 1655 session, articulates election procedures and defines the franchise. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:50:11 EST]]>
/_Election_of_burgesses_by_whome_1670 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:45:54 EST <![CDATA["Election of burgesses by whome" (1670)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Election_of_burgesses_by_whome_1670 The following law, "Election of burgesses by whome," passed by the General Assembly in its October 1670 session, defines the franchise as consisting of all property-holding "ffreeholders and housekeepers."
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:45:54 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_keeping_holy_the_13th_of_September_1663 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:41:44 EST <![CDATA["An act for keeping holy the 13th of September" (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_keeping_holy_the_13th_of_September_1663 In "An act for keeping holy the 13th of September," the General Assembly declares an annual holiday after a foiled attempt by servants in Gloucester County to rebel.
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:41:44 EST]]>
/Defining_the_Franchise_1656 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:39:28 EST <![CDATA[Defining the Franchise (1656)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Defining_the_Franchise_1656 The following law, passed by the General Assembly in its March 1656 session, revises a previous, more restrictive law to define the franchise as consisting of all freemen. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:39:28 EST]]>
/_An_Act_to_declare_who_shall_have_a_right_to_vote_in_the_Election_of_Burgesses_to_serve_in_the_General_Assembly_for_Counties_and_for_preventing_fraudulent_Conveiances_in_order_to_multiply_Votes_at_such_Elections_1736 Mon, 14 May 2012 11:46:49 EST <![CDATA["An Act to declare who shall have a right to vote in the Election of Burgesses to serve in the General Assembly, for Counties; and for preventing fraudulent Conveiances, in order to multiply Votes at such Elections" (1736)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_to_declare_who_shall_have_a_right_to_vote_in_the_Election_of_Burgesses_to_serve_in_the_General_Assembly_for_Counties_and_for_preventing_fraudulent_Conveiances_in_order_to_multiply_Votes_at_such_Elections_1736 The following law, "An Act to declare who shall have a right to vote in the Election of Burgesses to serve in the General Assembly, for Counties; and for preventing fraudulent Conveiances, in order to multiply Votes at such Elections," passed by the General Assembly in its August 1736 session, articulated the land-ownership requirements for voting. It also repealed a voting oath from a previous act and replaced it with another.
Mon, 14 May 2012 11:46:49 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_prevention_of_undue_election_of_Burgeses_1699 Mon, 14 May 2012 11:05:14 EST <![CDATA["An act for prevention of undue election of Burgeses" (1699)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_prevention_of_undue_election_of_Burgeses_1699 The following law, "An act for prevention of undue election of Burgeses" passed by the General Assembly in its April 1699 session, sets out the rules governing elections.
Mon, 14 May 2012 11:05:14 EST]]>
/_Concerning_secret_Marriages_1657-1658 Mon, 14 May 2012 10:55:50 EST <![CDATA["Concerning secret Marriages" (1658)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Concerning_secret_Marriages_1657-1658 In this law, "Concerning secret Marriages," passed in its 1658 session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants having children and marrying. For masters, this resulted in a loss of the women servants' labor, for which the law attempted to provide compensation. The act revises one passed during the 1643 session. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 10:55:50 EST]]>
/_The_order_about_Jayle_birds_1670 Mon, 14 May 2012 09:22:36 EST <![CDATA["The order about Jayle birds" (1670)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_order_about_Jayle_birds_1670 On April 20, 1670, Virginia governor Sir William Berkeley and the governor's Council issued the following order, glossed in the record as "The order about Jayle birds," prohibiting the importation of certain English convicts as servants. The concern in part stems from the Gloucester County Conspiracy of 1663, in which a group of servants that included convicts allegedly plotted an insurrection. Some spelling has been updated and contractions expanded.
Mon, 14 May 2012 09:22:36 EST]]>
/Testimony_about_the_Gloucester_County_Conspiracy_1663 Mon, 14 May 2012 08:24:49 EST <![CDATA[Testimony about the Gloucester County Conspiracy (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_about_the_Gloucester_County_Conspiracy_1663 In these depositions, several indentured servants, captured in an attempt to rebel in Gloucester County, explain what their plan was and how it should have been executed. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 08:24:49 EST]]>
/An_Act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_1786 Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:31:15 EST <![CDATA[An Act for establishing religious Freedom (1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_1786 "An Act for establishing religious Freedom" was drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1777, introduced into the House of Delegates in 1779, reintroduced in 1785, and finally adopted by the full General Assembly on January 16, 1786. This manuscript version of what has come to be known as the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom was signed alongside three other laws on January 19. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:31:15 EST]]>
/Debate_and_Passage_of_An_act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_in_the_House_of_Delegates_and_the_Senate_of_Virginia_1785-1786 Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:37:32 EST <![CDATA[Debate and Passage of "An act for establishing religious Freedom" in the House of Delegates and the Senate of Virginia (1785–1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Debate_and_Passage_of_An_act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_in_the_House_of_Delegates_and_the_Senate_of_Virginia_1785-1786 In these excerpts from the Journal of the House of Delegates and the Journal of the Senate of the Commonwealth of Virginia, the General Assembly debates and finally passes the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom, originally drafted by Thomas Jefferson.
Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:37:32 EST]]>
/A_Bill_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1779 Thu, 19 Apr 2012 14:17:28 EST <![CDATA[A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom (1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Bill_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1779 A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1777, was introduced to the House of Delegates on June 12, 1779, but eventually tabled. James Madison reintroduced a slightly different version in 1785, which was passed by the General Assembly on January 16, 1786.
Thu, 19 Apr 2012 14:17:28 EST]]>
/Justices_of_the_United_States_Supreme_Court_from_Virginia Thu, 12 Apr 2012 13:42:52 EST <![CDATA[Justices of the United States Supreme Court from Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Justices_of_the_United_States_Supreme_Court_from_Virginia Thu, 12 Apr 2012 13:42:52 EST]]> /_An_act_declaring_all_the_acts_orders_and_proceedings_of_a_grand_assembly_held_att_James_Citty_in_the_month_of_June_1676_voyd_null_and_repealed_1677 Fri, 06 Apr 2012 13:48:38 EST <![CDATA["An act declaring all the acts, orders and proceedings of a grand assembly held att James Citty, in the month of June, 1676, voyd, null and repealed" (1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_declaring_all_the_acts_orders_and_proceedings_of_a_grand_assembly_held_att_James_Citty_in_the_month_of_June_1676_voyd_null_and_repealed_1677 The following law, "An act declaring all the acts, orders and proceedings of a grand assembly held att James Citty, in the month of June, 1676, voyd, null and repealed," passed by the General Assembly in its February 1677 session, voids all laws passed during the previous session, which had been held during the tumult of Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677).
Fri, 06 Apr 2012 13:48:38 EST]]>
/_Concerning_Hireing_of_Servants_1657-1658 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 15:34:10 EST <![CDATA["Concerning Hireing of Servants" (1658)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Concerning_Hireing_of_Servants_1657-1658 In this law, "Concerning Hireing of Servants," passed in its session of March 1657/58 (Old Style), the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants who ran away and hired themselves out to new, presumably more lenient, masters. The act revises one passed in the March 1642/43 session. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 15:34:10 EST]]>
/_English_running_away_with_negroes_1660-1661 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 15:28:33 EST <![CDATA["English running away with negroes" (1661)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_English_running_away_with_negroes_1660-1661 In this act, "English running away with negroes," passed by the General Assembly in the session of March 1660/61 (Old Style), colonial Virginia's government responds to the problem of runaway indentured servants and slaves.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 15:28:33 EST]]>
/_Negro_women_not_exempted_from_tax_1668 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:57:53 EST <![CDATA["Negro women not exempted from tax" (1668)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Negro_women_not_exempted_from_tax_1668 In the act "Negro women not exempted from tax," passed by the General Assembly in the session of September 1668, colonial Virginia's government attempted to better define the conditions by which free and enslaved African Americans were taxed.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:57:53 EST]]>
/Law_Regulating_Marriage_of_Indentured_Servants_1642-1643 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:55:12 EST <![CDATA[Law Regulating Marriage of Indentured Servants (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Law_Regulating_Marriage_of_Indentured_Servants_1642-1643 In this law, passed in the session of March 2, 1642/43 (Old Style), the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants having children and marrying. For masters, this resulted in a loss of the women servants' labor, for which the law attempted to provide compensation. The law was revised during the 1657/58 session.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:55:12 EST]]>
/General_Court_Hears_Case_on_Witchcraft_1626 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 13:10:20 EST <![CDATA[General Court Hears Case on Witchcraft (1626)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/General_Court_Hears_Case_on_Witchcraft_1626 The following is a transcript of the proceedings of the General Court, meeting in Jamestown on September 11, 1626. The court heard evidence against Joan Wright of Surry County, who was accused by her neighbors of practicing witchcraft. She was acquitted in, perhaps, the earliest allegation of witchcraft on record against an English settler in North America. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 13:10:20 EST]]>
/_Women_servants_whose_common_imployment_is_working_in_the_ground_to_be_accompted_tythable_1662 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:49:25 EST <![CDATA["Women servants whose common imployment is working in the ground to be accompted tythable" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Women_servants_whose_common_imployment_is_working_in_the_ground_to_be_accompted_tythable_1662 In the act "Women servants whose common imployment is working in the ground to be accompted tythable," passed by the General Assembly in the session of December 1662, Virginia's colonial government attempted to better define the conditions by which free and enslaved African Americans were taxed.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:49:25 EST]]>
/_An_act_declaring_that_baptisme_of_slaves_doth_not_exempt_them_from_bondage_1667 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:22:27 EST <![CDATA["An act declaring that baptisme of slaves doth not exempt them from bondage" (1667)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_declaring_that_baptisme_of_slaves_doth_not_exempt_them_from_bondage_1667 In "An act declaring that baptisme of slaves doth not exempt them from bondage," passed by the General Assembly in the session of September 1667, Virginia's colonial government attempted to better define the conditions by which people were enslaved or free.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:22:27 EST]]>
/_Women_servants_gott_with_child_by_their_masters_after_their_time_expired_to_be_sold_by_the_Churchwardens_for_two_yeares_for_the_good_of_the_parish_1662 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:18:39 EST <![CDATA["Women servants gott with child by their masters after their time expired to be sold by the Churchwardens for two yeares for the good of the parish" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Women_servants_gott_with_child_by_their_masters_after_their_time_expired_to_be_sold_by_the_Churchwardens_for_two_yeares_for_the_good_of_the_parish_1662 In this law, "Women servants gott with child by their masters after their time expired to be sold by the Churchwardens for two yeares for the good of the parish," passed in its December 1662 session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants having children by their masters.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:18:39 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_preventing_Negroes_Insurrections_1680 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:04:11 EST <![CDATA["An act for preventing Negroes Insurrections" (1680)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_preventing_Negroes_Insurrections_1680 On June 8, 1680, the General Assembly passed "An act for preventing Negroes Insurrections" in response to planters' concerns about rebellious slaves.
Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:04:11 EST]]>
/An_act_for_exempting_the_different_societies_of_Dissenters_from_contributing_to_the_support_and_maintenance_of_the_church_as_by_law_established_and_its_ministers_and_for_other_purposes_therein_mentioned_1776 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 11:31:09 EST <![CDATA[An act for exempting the different societies of Dissenters from contributing to the support and maintenance of the church as by law established, and its ministers, and for other purposes therein mentioned (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_exempting_the_different_societies_of_Dissenters_from_contributing_to_the_support_and_maintenance_of_the_church_as_by_law_established_and_its_ministers_and_for_other_purposes_therein_mentioned_1776 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 11:31:09 EST]]> /_Against_ffornication_1661-1662 Thu, 29 Mar 2012 16:38:05 EST <![CDATA["Against ffornication" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Against_ffornication_1661-1662 In this law, "Against ffornication," passed in its March 1662 session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants having sex that produced pregnancies that, in turn, cost masters money and labor.
Thu, 29 Mar 2012 16:38:05 EST]]>
/Phillip_Mongom_Accused_of_Stealing_Hogs_1659-1660 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 15:25:02 EST <![CDATA[Phillip Mongom Accused of Stealing Hogs (1660)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Phillip_Mongom_Accused_of_Stealing_Hogs_1659-1660 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 15:25:02 EST]]> /The_Deaths_of_Elizabeth_Abbott_and_Elias_Hinton_1624 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:18:53 EST <![CDATA[The Deaths of Elizabeth Abbott and Elias Hinton (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Deaths_of_Elizabeth_Abbott_and_Elias_Hinton_1624 In these depositions, delivered to the General Court on October 10, 1624, various indentured servants, masters, and other witnesses testify about the deaths of two servants—Elizabeth Abbott and Elias Hinton—at the hand of their master and mistress, John and Alice Proctor. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:18:53 EST]]>
/The_Virginia_Declaration_of_Rights_First_Draft_1776 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 09:47:57 EST <![CDATA[The Virginia Declaration of Rights, First Draft (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Virginia_Declaration_of_Rights_First_Draft_1776 This transcript is of a copy, made in an unknown hand, of the first draft of the Virginia Declaration of Rights, which was written by George Mason. The final version of the declaration was incorporated into the state constitution of 1776 and was retained in all subsequent state constitutions. Some spelling has been modernized.
Wed, 28 Mar 2012 09:47:57 EST]]>
/Proclamation_from_Governor_Nicholson_1690 Fri, 02 Mar 2012 16:38:21 EST <![CDATA[Proclamation from Governor Nicholson (1690)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Proclamation_from_Governor_Nicholson_1690 Fri, 02 Mar 2012 16:38:21 EST]]> /_An_Acte_against_Conjuration_Witchcrafte_and_dealing_with_evill_and_wicked_Spirits_1604 Fri, 24 Feb 2012 11:03:26 EST <![CDATA["An Acte against Conjuration Witchcrafte and dealing with evill and wicked Spirits" (1604)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Acte_against_Conjuration_Witchcrafte_and_dealing_with_evill_and_wicked_Spirits_1604 In this act, "An Acte against Conjuration Witchcrafte and dealing with evill and wicked Spirits," passed by Parliament in the session that began on March 19, 1603, and ended July 7, 1604, the English government, not for the first time, outlawed witchcraft. It was the this law, however, that authorities used to prosecute accused witches in Virginia. Some contractions have been expanded. The last witchcraft trial in the mainland colonies took place in 1730, and Parliament repealed the law in 1736. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Fri, 24 Feb 2012 11:03:26 EST]]>
/_Against_Runawayes_1669 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:59:51 EST <![CDATA["Against Runawayes" (1669)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Against_Runawayes_1669 In this act, "Against Runawayes," passed by the General Assembly in the session of October 1669, Virginia's colonial government responds to the problem of runaway indentured servants and slaves.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:59:51 EST]]>
/Denying_Free_Blacks_the_Right_to_Vote_1724_1735 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:56:21 EST <![CDATA[Denying Free Blacks the Right to Vote (1724, 1735)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Denying_Free_Blacks_the_Right_to_Vote_1724_1735 In this exchange of letters, the Board of Trade questions the appropriateness of a 1723 law in Virginia denying free blacks the right to vote. The Board's legal counsel, Richard West, raised his question in 1724, but the Board's secretary, Alured Popple, did not ask for an explanation until 1735, when he wrote to Virginia lieutenant governor William Gooch.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:56:21 EST]]>
/The_Case_of_Grace_Sherwood_1706 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:52:25 EST <![CDATA[The Case of Grace Sherwood (1706)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Case_of_Grace_Sherwood_1706 The following is a transcript of the proceedings of the Princess Anne County Court as it hears the case, in 1706, of Grace Sherwood on the charge of witchcraft. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded. The case is heard first in the county court, then in the General Court, and finally is removed back to the county court. There is the suggestion that it was once more heard by the General Court, but the courts records for that period are missing. Whatever the case, Sherwood is known to have survived her legal ordeal. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:52:25 EST]]>
/Civil_Rights_Act_of_1964 Tue, 31 Jan 2012 14:15:46 EST <![CDATA[Civil Rights Act of 1964]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Civil_Rights_Act_of_1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a landmark piece of national legislation, not only for the civil rights movement but for the emerging women's movement of the 1960s. It officially outlawed discrimination in public accommodations and employment and established the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights and the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission to enforce those provisions. In contrast to earlier civil rights measures, it included a ban on employment discrimination on the basis of gender, as well as race, color, and religion, making it the most comprehensive civil rights bill in American history and giving the revived women's movement new legal—and moral—weight. Yet, in an ironic twist, the legislation banned gender discrimination only because of the efforts of Howard W. Smith, U.S. representative from Virginia, a leader of the Conservative Coalition in Congress, and an opponent of civil rights. His tireless attempts to defeat the bill—including adding "sex" as grounds for illegal discrimination, which he believed would guarantee the bill's failure—resulted in a more expansive bill passing.
Tue, 31 Jan 2012 14:15:46 EST]]>
/_An_Act_to_enable_the_inhabitants_of_this_Colony_to_discharge_their_public_dues_officers_fees_and_other_tobacco_debts_in_money_for_the_ensuing_year_1758 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:45:41 EST <![CDATA["An Act to enable the inhabitants of this Colony to discharge their public dues, officers fees, and other tobacco debts, in money, for the ensuing year" (1758)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_to_enable_the_inhabitants_of_this_Colony_to_discharge_their_public_dues_officers_fees_and_other_tobacco_debts_in_money_for_the_ensuing_year_1758 In "An Act to enable the inhabitants of this Colony to discharge their public dues, officers fees, and other tobacco debts, in money, for the ensuing year," better known as the Two Penny Act, the General Assembly responded to a second failure of the colony's tobacco crops by again allowing vestries and county courts to collect taxes and pay salaries in money calculated at the usual market price for tobacco rather than in tobacco at windfall rates. Lieutenant Governor Francis Fauquier signed the act into law, on behalf of George II, on October 12, 1758.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:45:41 EST]]>
/The_Two_Penny_Act_1755 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:44:20 EST <![CDATA["An act to enable the inhabitants of this colony to discharge their Tobacco debts in money, for this present year" (1755)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Two_Penny_Act_1755 In "An act to enable the inhabitants of this colony to discharge their Tobacco debts in money, for this present year," better known as the Two Penny Act, the General Assembly responded to the failure of the colony's tobacco crops by allowing vestries and county courts to collect taxes and pay salaries in money calculated at the usual market price for tobacco rather than in tobacco at windfall rates. Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie signed the act into law, on behalf of George II, on November 8, 1755.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:44:20 EST]]>
/_Man_Servants_getting_any_bastard_child_to_make_satisfaction_to_the_parish_after_their_service_ended_1662 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:30:04 EST <![CDATA["Man Servants getting any bastard child to make satisfaction to the parish after their service ended" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Man_Servants_getting_any_bastard_child_to_make_satisfaction_to_the_parish_after_their_service_ended_1662 In this law, "Man Servants getting any bastard child to make satisfaction to the parish after their service ended," passed in its December 1662 session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of male indentured servants having children while under contract.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:30:04 EST]]>
/_Negro_womens_children_to_serve_according_to_the_condition_of_the_mother_1662 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:12:43 EST <![CDATA["Negro womens children to serve according to the condition of the mother" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Negro_womens_children_to_serve_according_to_the_condition_of_the_mother_1662 In the act "Negro womens children to serve according to the condition of the mother," passed by the General Assembly in the session of December 1662, Virginia's colonial government attempted to better define the conditions by which people were enslaved or free.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:12:43 EST]]>
/_An_act_prohibiting_servants_to_goe_abroad_without_a_lycense_1663 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:10:53 EST <![CDATA["An act prohibiting servants to goe abroad without a lycence" (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_prohibiting_servants_to_goe_abroad_without_a_lycense_1663 In "An act prohibiting servants to goe abroad without a lycense," passed by the General Assembly in the session of September 1663, Virginia's colonial government responds to the problem of runaway indentured servants and slaves.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:10:53 EST]]>
/Punishment_for_the_Enslaved_Man_Sam_1688 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 13:47:59 EST <![CDATA[Punishment for the Enslaved Man Sam (1688)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Punishment_for_the_Enslaved_Man_Sam_1688 On April 26, 1688, the General Court found Sam, the slave of Richard Metcalfe of Westmoreland County, guilty in James City County of promoting a slave rebellion. His conviction came just six months or so after a suspected plot was discovered in Westmoreland County. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 13:47:59 EST]]>
/Lawes_Divine_Morall_and_Martiall Fri, 20 Jan 2012 15:39:22 EST <![CDATA[Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lawes_Divine_Morall_and_Martiall Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall, the rules and regulations issued in Jamestown beginning in 1610 and 1611, are the earliest extant English-language body of laws in the western hemisphere. It was not a legal code in the modern sense. No legislation created it, and no court enforced it. The laws were orders that the governor, appointed by the Virginia Company of London that settled and managed the colony between 1607 and 1624, issued to regulate the conduct of its members, employees, and servants. The laws recognized none of the principles of the English common law and did not provide for jury trials, even though the royal charters of the company specified that residents of the colony were entitled to all the rights of Englishmen.
Fri, 20 Jan 2012 15:39:22 EST]]>
/Governor_s_Council_The Thu, 19 Jan 2012 09:50:28 EST <![CDATA[Governor's Council, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Governor_s_Council_The The governor's Council, also known as the Council of State or simply the Council, consisted of about a dozen of colonial Virginia's wealthiest and most prominent men. Beginning in the 1630s the Crown appointed Council members, although from 1652 to 1660 the General Assembly elected the members. Crown appointments were lifetime appointments. From 1625, when Virginia became a royal colony, until the outbreak of the American Revolution (1775–1783), the Council members advised the royal governor or his deputy, the lieutenant governor, on all executive matters. The Council and the governor together constituted the highest court in the colony, known initially as the Quarter Court and later as the General Court. The Council members also served as members of the General Assembly; from the first meeting of the assembly in 1619 until 1643 the governor, Council members, and burgesses all met in unicameral session. After 1643 the Council members met separately as the upper House of the General Assembly. The Virginia Constitution of 1776 effectively abolished the governor's Council and distributed its executive, judicial, and legislative functions to three separate bodies of men.
Thu, 19 Jan 2012 09:50:28 EST]]>
/Wreck_of_the_Old_97 Thu, 09 Sep 2010 11:54:12 EST <![CDATA[Wreck of the Old 97]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wreck_of_the_Old_97 The wreck of the Old 97 occurred on September 27, 1903, when the Southern Railway freight train called the Fast Mail (or "Old 97") left the tracks and crashed at the Stillhouse Trestle outside Danville, Virginia, killing eleven people. The accident became a sensation, with thousands of spectators at the scene, newspaper stories, and even a series of musical ballads, the most popular of which became a hit on the country music charts in 1924.
Thu, 09 Sep 2010 11:54:12 EST]]>