Encyclopedia Virginia: Colonial Government http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Wythe_George_1726_or_1727-1806 Tue, 12 Dec 2017 11:33:56 EST Wythe, George (1726 or 1727–1806) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wythe_George_1726_or_1727-1806 Tue, 12 Dec 2017 11:33:56 EST]]> /Ambler_Jaquelin_1742-1798 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:21:50 EST <![CDATA[Ambler, Jaquelin (1742–1798)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ambler_Jaquelin_1742-1798 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:21:50 EST]]> /Colonial_Virginia Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST <![CDATA[Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colonial_Virginia The colonial period in Virginia began in 1607 with the landing of the first English settlers at Jamestown and ended in 1776 with the establishment of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although a thriving Indian society had existed for thousands of years before the English arrived, war with the European settlers and the introduction of new diseases for which the Indians had no resistance spelled disaster for it. The English colonists, meanwhile, just barely survived, suffering through summer droughts and winter starvation. Salvation came to the colony in the form of smoking tobacco, or what King James I called a "vile and stinking custom," when John Rolfe cultivated a variety of tobacco that sold well in England. In 1619, a General Assembly convened, bringing limited self-government to America. That same year brought the first slaves to Virginia. For most of the 1600s, white indentured servants worked the colony's tobacco fields, but by 1705 the Virginia colony had become a slave society. Nearly all power was in the hands of white male landowners, who ran the government and, by law, belonged to the Church of England. Women who married and worked at home were considered "good wives"; those who refused such "proper" roles were considered troublesome. And while Virginia's ruling men did not encourage women to be independent, they nevertheless fought for their own independence, taking full part in the American Revolution (1775–1783).
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST]]>
/Bluett_Benjamin_1580-1621 Fri, 12 May 2017 09:47:48 EST <![CDATA[Bluett, Benjamin (1580–1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bluett_Benjamin_1580-1621 Fri, 12 May 2017 09:47:48 EST]]> /Carter_Charles_1732-1806 Wed, 19 Apr 2017 17:48:12 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Charles (1732–1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Charles_1732-1806 Charles Carter, a planter and member-elect of the Council of State, spent much of his adulthood managing Corotoman, the Lancaster County plantation he inherited from his father, John Carter. Later he inherited Shirley Plantation in Charles City County and relocated there after renovating its main house. He was a successful and wealthy planter and entrepreneur, owning more than 13,000 acres of land in thirteen counties at his death. Carter served as a member of the House of Burgesses from 1758 until the American Revolution (1775–1783). Carter supported the reaction against greater parliamentary regulation of colonial affairs and sat in the four Revolutionary Conventions that met in 1774 and 1775. Despite these efforts, he declined a seat on the Council of State in the new commonwealth of Virginia. He died in 1806.
Wed, 19 Apr 2017 17:48:12 EST]]>
/Beverley_William_ca_1696-1756 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:53:15 EST <![CDATA[Beverley, William (ca. 1696–1756)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beverley_William_ca_1696-1756 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:53:15 EST]]> /Beverley_Robert_ca_1740-1800 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:37:06 EST <![CDATA[Beverley, Robert (ca. 1740–1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beverley_Robert_ca_1740-1800 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:37:06 EST]]> /Abrahall_Robert_fl_1620s-1680s Wed, 29 Mar 2017 10:08:32 EST <![CDATA[Abrahall, Robert (fl. 1620s–1680s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Abrahall_Robert_fl_1620s-1680s Wed, 29 Mar 2017 10:08:32 EST]]> /Harvey_Sir_John_ca_1581_or_1582-by_1650 Mon, 13 Mar 2017 13:16:22 EST <![CDATA[Harvey, Sir John (ca. 1581 or 1582–by 1650)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harvey_Sir_John_ca_1581_or_1582-by_1650 Mon, 13 Mar 2017 13:16:22 EST]]> /Percy_George_1580-1632_or_1633 Wed, 28 Dec 2016 16:51:13 EST <![CDATA[Percy, George (1580–1632 or 1633)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Percy_George_1580-1632_or_1633 George Percy was one of the original Jamestown settlers and the author of two important primary accounts of the colony. He served as president of the Council (1609–1610) during the Starving Time, and briefly as deputy governor (1611). Born in Sussex, England, to the eighth earl of Northumberland, Percy hailed from a family of Catholic conspirators; his father died while imprisoned in the Tower of London, his uncle was beheaded, and his older brother, the ninth earl of Northumberland, was also imprisoned. While his accounts suggest that Percy was awed by the natural beauty of Virginia, he was nevertheless overwhelmed by the many problems the first colonists faced, including hunger, disease, internal dissention, and often-difficult relations with Virginia Indians. While president of the Council, he and his fellow colonists suffered through the Starving Time, initiated in part by the Indians' siege of Jamestown at the beginning of the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614). Through support from his older brother, Percy seems to have lived in relative comfort, but he also suffered from recurring illness, finally leaving Virginia in 1612. His second account of Jamestown, A Trewe Relacyon , was written in the mid-1620s with the intention of rebutting Captain John Smith's popular version of events in the colony. Percy died in the winter of 1632–1633, leaving no will.
Wed, 28 Dec 2016 16:51:13 EST]]>
/Carter_John_ca_1613-1670 Tue, 27 Dec 2016 14:24:46 EST <![CDATA[Carter, John (ca. 1613–1670)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_John_ca_1613-1670 John Carter was a member of the governor's Council and the House of Burgesses. His family had familial and business connections with the Virginia Company of London, and Carter left England for Virginia during the 1630s. In 1642 he began acquiring the extensive property on the north bank of the Rappahannock River that became the family seat known as Corotoman. Carter married five times and founded one of the greatest of the colonial Virginia families. During the 1640s and 1650s Carter served in the House of Burgesses, which elected him to the governor's Council in 1658. He was again a burgess in 1660, when Charles II was restored to the throne, and Governor Sir William Berkeley reappointed Carter, a royalist, to the Council. He remained a councillor until his death ten years later.
Tue, 27 Dec 2016 14:24:46 EST]]>
/Lewis_Fielding_1725-1781_or_1782 Tue, 20 Dec 2016 13:32:15 EST <![CDATA[Lewis, Fielding (1725–1781 or 1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_Fielding_1725-1781_or_1782 Fielding Lewis was a merchant, justice of the peace for Spotsylvania County (1749–1781), and member of the House of Burgesses (1760–1769) who helped to found the Fredericksburg Gun Manufactory during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Born at Warner Hall, his family's Gloucester County estate, he moved to Fredericksburg in the 1740s, helping to manage his father's store there. Lewis married George Washington's cousin and, after her death, Washington's sister, serving in the General Assembly and as a justice of the peace. He was known, in particular, for his financial acumen and sometimes advised his brother-in-law on investments. Early in the 1770s Lewis built for his family a large Georgian mansion (later named Kenmore) that was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970. In 1775, the third Revolutionary Convention tasked Lewis and his fellow merchant Charles Dick with establishing a weapons factory in Fredericksburg; by May 1777 the Fredericksburg Gun Manufactory produced about twenty muskets per week. The enterprise cost Lewis £7,000 of his own money, which the state never repaid. He died sometime late in 1781 or early in 1782.
Tue, 20 Dec 2016 13:32:15 EST]]>
/Burwell_Lewis_bap_1622-c_1652 Thu, 01 Dec 2016 16:44:36 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lewis (bap. 1622–ca. 1652)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lewis_bap_1622-c_1652 Thu, 01 Dec 2016 16:44:36 EST]]> /Burwell_Lewis_1651_or_1652-1710 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 16:45:43 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lewis (1651 or 1652–1710)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lewis_1651_or_1652-1710 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 16:45:43 EST]]> /Armistead_John_fl_1650s-1690s Mon, 28 Nov 2016 15:58:01 EST <![CDATA[Armistead, John (fl. 1650s–1690s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Armistead_John_fl_1650s-1690s John Armistead was a member of the governor's Council of Virginia late in the seventeenth century. A planter in Gloucester County, he also entered into several successful business ventures. Becoming active in politics, Armistead sat on the county court and served as sheriff. He opposed the tobacco cutting riots and favored English policies put in place after Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677). Armistead twice represented Gloucester in the House of Burgesses before the governor appointed him to the Council in 1688. Armistead relinquished his seat in 1691 when he refused to take the oaths to the new monarchs William and Mary. Although restored to his place later in the decade, Armistead did not rejoin the Council. His date of death is unknown.
Mon, 28 Nov 2016 15:58:01 EST]]>
/Burwell_Robert_1720-1777 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 14:45:01 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Robert (1720–1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Robert_1720-1777 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 14:45:01 EST]]> /Burwell_Lewis_d_1743 Tue, 22 Nov 2016 15:59:41 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lewis (d. 1743)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lewis_d_1743 Tue, 22 Nov 2016 15:59:41 EST]]> /Williamsburg_during_the_Colonial_Period Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:07:08 EST <![CDATA[Williamsburg during the Colonial Period]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Williamsburg_during_the_Colonial_Period Williamsburg was the capital of the Virginia colony from 1699 until 1779. Plotted on land first used by Virginia Indians, it was settled by the English during and just after the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632) and called Middle Plantation, for its location equidistant between the York and James rivers. In subsequent years, wealth and political prestige gradually shifted upriver from the first seat of English government, at Jamestown, and talk of moving the capital gained momentum during Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), when rebels burned the statehouse. The Crown did not agree to move the capital until after the establishment of the College of William and Mary at Middle Plantation, in 1693, and another fire at the statehouse, in 1698. In 1699, Middle Plantation became Williamsburg, after King William III, and the colony's new capital. At the behest of the General Assembly, officials laid out streets and began building a new statehouse. Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood oversaw the construction of a powder magazine (1715), the enlargement of Bruton Parish Church (1715), a public theater (1718), and the completion of the Governor's Palace (1722). When the statehouse burned and smallpox hit in 1748, officials briefly considered, but then rejected, the idea of moving the capital, paving the way for a boom in building and population growth. During the American Revolution (1775–1783), Virginia's royal governor dissolved the General Assembly and fled the city. After British troops invaded Virginia in 1779, Governor Thomas Jefferson moved the capital to Richmond.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:07:08 EST]]>
/Cary_Archibald_1721-1787 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:01:35 EST <![CDATA[Cary, Archibald (1721–1787)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cary_Archibald_1721-1787 Archibald Cary was a member of the Convention of 1776, Speaker of the Senate of Virginia (1776–1786), and one of the wealthiest and most influential men in Virginia during and after the American Revolution (1775–1783). Raised in Williamsburg and at his family home of Ampthill, in Chesterfield County, Cary probably attended the College of William and Mary, later working a large farm on land deeded to him from his father. He served in the House of Burgesses, representing Goochland County (1748–1749) and Chesterfield County (1756–1775) and in 1766 was named presiding judge of the Chesterfield County Court. He used his power to curtail the activities of local Baptists. Although Cary voted against Patrick Henry's Resolves on the Stamp Act in 1765, thinking them too inflammatory, he went on to unfailingly support colonial protests against the power of Parliament. In 1773 he was appointed to the Committee of Correspondence and, from 1774 to 1776, to five Revolutionary Conventions. He was a member of the committee that drafted the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the first state constitution. From 1776 until 1786 he served as Speaker of the Senate of Virginia, in many respects as powerful a voice as many of his contemporaries but little known outside Virginia. He died at Ampthill in 1787.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:01:35 EST]]>
/Dunmore_John_Murray_fourth_earl_of_c_1730-1809 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:54:23 EST <![CDATA[Dunmore, John Murray, fourth earl of (ca. 1730–1809)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dunmore_John_Murray_fourth_earl_of_c_1730-1809 John Murray, fourth earl of Dunmore, was Virginia's last royal governor. Dunmore, a member of the House of Lords, reluctantly assumed the office in 1771, not wanting to relinquish his position as governor of New York. He won support by asserting Virginia's land claims west of the Allegheny Mountains, but his impulsive nature alienated key politicians, and the lack of instructions from London hindered his ability to govern. Dunmore received a last measure of popularity in October 1774 when he led volunteers in a defeat of Indians at Point Pleasant on the state's western frontier, later known as Dunmore's War. Tensions between the colony and Great Britain increased rapidly, causing him to remove gunpowder from the public magazine in Williamsburg in April 1775. This action caused his authority to unravel, and he fled to Hampton Roads in June. On November 7 Dunmore declared martial law and offered to free any runaway slaves who supported royal authority. His troops lost the Battle of Great Bridge on December 9 and his fleet shelled Norfolk early in 1776. He left for Great Britain later in the year, where he supported the interests of Loyalist Virginians. In 1787 Dunmore became governor of the Bahamas, during which time he fell from royal favor. He died at his home in England in 1809.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:54:23 EST]]>
/Bland_Richard_1710-1776 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:53:02 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Richard (1710–1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Richard_1710-1776 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:53:02 EST]]> /Henry_Patrick_1736-1799 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:49:54 EST <![CDATA[Henry, Patrick (1736–1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Henry_Patrick_1736-1799 Patrick Henry was a lawyer, orator, and statesman whose career spanned the founding of the United States. An early critic of British authority and leader in the movement toward independence, Henry dedicated most of his life to Virginia politics. He served as a member of the House of Burgesses (1765–1774), as the first governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia (1776–1779), as a member of the House of Delegates (1779–1784; 1788–1791), and again as governor (1784–1786). He was a founding member of the Virginia Committee of Correspondence (1773) and a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses (1774–1776). He also attended the Virginia Conventions of 1774, March 1775, July–August 1775, May 1776, and 1788. He is best remembered, however, for the speech he delivered during the Virginia Convention of 1775 that famously ended with the words, "Give me liberty, or give me death!" Henry's Virginia contemporaries recognized him as "the man who gave the first impulse to the ball of revolution." Henry retired from public life in 1791 and declined invitations to serve on the Supreme Court, as secretary of state, and as a vice presidential candidate. Only a request from George Washington, made during the divisive conflict over the Alien and Sedition Acts and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, brought him back into the public arena. Henry won election to the General Assembly in the spring of 1799, but died before the House of Delegates convened that autumn.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:49:54 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786), founder of the University of Virginia (1819), governor of Virginia (1779–1781), and third president of the United States (1801–1809). Born at Shadwell, his parents' estate in Albemarle County, he attended the College of William and Mary and studied the law under the tutelage of George Wythe. In 1769, Jefferson began construction of Monticello, his home in Albemarle County, and for the rest of his life pursued an interest in architecture, which included design of Poplar Forest and the State Capitol. Jefferson also indulged a passion for science, serving as president of the American Philosophical Society (1797–1814) and publishing Notes on the State of Virginia (1795). After representing Albemarle County in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), Jefferson was a delegate to Virginia's five Revolutionary Conventions and served in the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776) and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He earned a reputation during the American Revolution (1775–1783) as a forceful advocate of revolutionary principles, articulated in A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774), the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking Up Arms (1775), and, most famously, the Declaration of Independence, approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. His two terms as governor were marked by British invasion and Jefferson's controversial flight to Poplar Forest. From 1784 to 1789, he served as a diplomat in France and there may have begun a sexual relationship with his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Jefferson served as secretary of state in the administration of George Washington (1790–1793) and as vice president under John Adams (1797–1801) before being elected president by the U.S. House of Representatives after a tie vote in the Electoral College. As president Jefferson arranged for the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the subsequent Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806). With James Madison, Jefferson helped found the Republican Party and advocated for states' rights and a small federal government, although as president he sometimes pushed the limits of his executive authority. In his retirement he founded the University of Virginia, which was chartered in 1819 and opened for classes in the spring of 1825. Jefferson died at Monticello on July 4, 1826, fifty years after the Declaration of Independence was approved. He is buried at Monticello.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST]]>
/Berkeley_John_ca_1560-1622 Tue, 15 Nov 2016 16:28:46 EST <![CDATA[Berkeley, John (ca. 1560–1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Berkeley_John_ca_1560-1622 John Berkeley was a member of the governor's Council and overseer of an ironworks in Virginia. Berkeley, born in Gloucestershire, England, came to the attention of the Virginia Company of London in 1621 because of his experience in iron smelting and forging. In July 1621, before he reached Virginia, he was appointed to the governor's Council. Upon arrival in the colony, Berkeley continued the construction of an ironworks near Falling Creek, in what is now Chesterfield County. Before he could begin production, Berkeley and twenty-six others at the ironworks were killed during the Powhatans' concerted uprising of March 22, 1622.
Tue, 15 Nov 2016 16:28:46 EST]]>
/Parish_in_Colonial_Virginia_The Mon, 14 Nov 2016 11:05:15 EST <![CDATA[Parish in Colonial Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Parish_in_Colonial_Virginia_The A parish in colonial Virginia was a unit of both civil and religious authority that covered a set geographical territory. Each Church of England parish in the colony was served by a single minister and governed by a vestry usually composed of local elites. As a religious institution, a parish contained a mother, or central, church, and frequently two or more so-called chapels of ease in outlying areas that the minister served on successive Sundays. As a civil institution, the parish vestry was charged with overseeing a wide range of responsibilities that included social welfare and presenting moral offenders to the courts. The contemporary understanding of parishes and vestries as institutions that deal primarily, if not exclusively, with internal parochial affairs is at odds with the extent of duties associated with the colonial parish. Indeed, according to the historian John Nelson, local government in early Virginia should be understood as "parish-county" government, these two "linked institutions sharing, dividing up, and intermingling their interests and responsibilities."
Mon, 14 Nov 2016 11:05:15 EST]]>
/Carter_Charles_1732-1796 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:18:15 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Charles (1732–1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Charles_1732-1796 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:18:15 EST]]> /Bland_Theodorick_bap_1630-1672 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:00:32 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Theodorick (bap. 1630–1672)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Theodorick_bap_1630-1672 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:00:32 EST]]> /Virginia_Company_of_London Thu, 10 Nov 2016 10:59:52 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Company of London]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Company_of_London The Virginia Company of London was a joint-stock company chartered by King James I in 1606 to establish a colony in North America. Such a venture allowed the Crown to reap the benefits of colonization—natural resources, new markets for English goods, leverage against the Spanish—without bearing the costs. Investors, meanwhile, were protected from catastrophic losses in the event of the project's failure. The company established a settlement at Jamestown in 1607, and over the next eighteen years, the Crown granted the company two new charters, democratizing its governance and reforming its financial model. What began as an enterprise of investors seeking a dividend was funded a decade later almost exclusively by a public lottery. By 1618 the company had found a way to use its most abundant resource—land—to tempt settlers to pay their own passage from England to the colony and then, after arrival, to pay the company a quitrent, or fee, to use the land. Still, the Virginia Company and the colony it oversaw struggled to survive. Disease, mismanagement, Indian attacks, and factionalism in London all took a toll until, in 1623, the Privy Council launched an investigation into the company's finances. A year later, the company's charter was revoked and the king assumed direct control of Virginia.
Thu, 10 Nov 2016 10:59:52 EST]]>
/Gooch_Sir_William_1681-1751 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 16:00:40 EST <![CDATA[Gooch, Sir William (1681–1751)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gooch_Sir_William_1681-1751 Sir William Gooch served as lieutenant governor of Virginia, the colony's chief administrator at the time, from 1727 until 1749, and is the namesake of Goochland County. Born in England, Gooch served in the army during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701­–1714) and later during a Jacobite uprising in Scotland. Appointed lieutenant governor by George I in 1727, Gooch was one of Virginia's ablest and most successful chief executives and was second only to Sir William Berkeley in the length of time he lived in the colony. Succeeding where his predecessors had failed, Gooch worked with, rather than against, Virginia's strong planter class to implement new policies. The most significant legislation Gooch engineered was the Tobacco Inspection Act of 1730, which created a network of warehouses that graded the quality of the harvest and destroyed low-quality product. The program, combined with market forces, helped spur profitable harvests. Gooch's tenure coincided with a period of prosperity and population growth most associated today with large plantation houses. Gooch was wounded in both ankles in the English attack on Cartagena in what is now Colombia, which he helped to lead in 1740, while still lieutenant governor; he subsequently suffered poor health for the rest of his life. A staunch member of the Church of England, he focused on what he perceived as threats from new Protestant denominations such as the Methodists and Baptists. He retired from political life and sailed back to England in 1749, where he died in 1751.
Wed, 09 Nov 2016 16:00:40 EST]]>
/Camm_John_bap_1717-1779 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:01:45 EST <![CDATA[Camm, John (bap. 1717–1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Camm_John_bap_1717-1779 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:01:45 EST]]> /Allen_Arthur_ca_1652-1710 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:28:33 EST <![CDATA[Allen, Arthur (ca. 1652–1710)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allen_Arthur_ca_1652-1710 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:28:33 EST]]> /Brooke_George_d_1782 Fri, 14 Oct 2016 12:03:51 EST <![CDATA[Brooke, George (d. 1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brooke_George_d_1782 George Brooke was a member of the House of Burgesses (1765, 1771, 1774), the Convention of 1776, and the Senate of Virginia (1776–1779), and served as treasurer of Virginia from 1779 until his death. Born in King William County, he moved to King and Queen County after his marriage and formed a mercantile partnership with one of his wife's relatives. He earned a reputation as a reliable businessman and was involved in settling the controversial and politically sensitive estate of Speaker John Robinson. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he sat in the Revolutionary Conventions, although he missed the vote for independence in 1776, and was paymaster to several Virginia regiments. At the end of his life he served as treasurer of Virginia, helping to supervise the transfer of the capital from Williamsburg to Richmond and to keep the state's fiscal affairs intact during British raids in 1781. He died in 1782.
Fri, 14 Oct 2016 12:03:51 EST]]>
/Chilton_Edward_1658-1707 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:36:45 EST <![CDATA[Chilton, Edward (1658–1707)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chilton_Edward_1658-1707 Edward Chilton served as attorney general of Virginia and was the coauthor of The Present State of Virginia, and the College (printed in 1727). He arrived in Virginia by 1682, when he served as a clerk for the governor's Council and the General Assembly. He also acquired several thousand acres of land. In 1694 Chilton returned to England, where he became a barrister. He remained involved with Virginia affairs and testified before the Board of Trade about conditions in the colony in 1696. The following year Chilton, along with James Blair and Henry Hartwell, prepared a report on the colony titled The Present State of Virginia, and the College. He requested and acquired the position of Barbados's attorney general in 1699. He died in Portsmouth, England, in 1707.
Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:36:45 EST]]>
/Cocke_William_1672-1720 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:58:52 EST <![CDATA[Cocke, William (1672–1720)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cocke_William_1672-1720 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:58:52 EST]]> /Dinwiddie_Robert_1692-1770 Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:48:41 EST <![CDATA[Dinwiddie, Robert (1692–1770)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dinwiddie_Robert_1692-1770 Robert Dinwiddie was a member of the governor's Council from 1742 to 1751 and then lieutenant governor of Virginia from 1751 to 1758. Born into a Scottish merchant family, Dinwiddie began his public career in Bermuda, where he worked as an Admiralty agent and collector of customs before earning a seat on the colony's governor's Council. In 1738, the Crown appointed Dinwiddie surveyor general for the southern part of America, and he lived in in Virginia from 1741 until 1745. He returned in 1751, this time as lieutenant governor and immediately shocked the colony by instituting a fee of one pistole for signing and sealing every patent conferring legal title to land. The House of Burgesses loudly objected and sent representatives to London. In 1754, the Crown found a compromise, upholding Dinwiddie's fee but only on patents of 100 acres or more. Controversy followed Dinwiddie into the French and Indian War (1754–1763). His policy of corporate and imperial advancement led to conflict with the French and the defeat of Virginia forces under George Washington at Fort Necessity in 1754. The politics of the resulting war made governing difficult for Dinwiddie, and he resigned in 1758, soon after defying a British order, handed down by Governor John Campbell, fourth earl of Loudoun, that put an embargo on all colonial exports. Dinwiddie returned to England and died there in 1770.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:48:41 EST]]>
/Brent_George_ca_1640-by_1_September_1700 Thu, 10 Mar 2016 17:09:37 EST <![CDATA[Brent, George (ca. 1640–by 1700)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brent_George_ca_1640-by_1_September_1700 George Brent was a prominent Catholic who served as acting attorney general of Virginia. His family suffered during the English Civil Wars, and early in the 1660s Brent left for Maryland. By 1670 he had settled near relatives in Stafford County, Virginia, where he became a successful attorney, businessman, tobacco planter, and land speculator. Brent held public office despite the strictures against office holding by Catholics and was the colony's acting attorney general from 1686 until 1688, when he was elected to the House of Burgesses. After England's Glorious Revolution unleashed anti-Catholic sentiments in the colonies, Brent's public career came to an end. During the 1690s he served as an agent for the Northern Neck proprietors, granting himself and his friends large tracts of land. At the time of his death by September 1700, he owned more than 15,000 acres in Virginia.
Thu, 10 Mar 2016 17:09:37 EST]]>
/George_I_1660-1727 Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:41:12 EST <![CDATA[George I (1660–1727)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_I_1660-1727 George I was king of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 until his death in 1727, and of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (also known as Hanover, after its capital), in present-day northern Germany, from 1698 until his death. The first of three Hanoverian monarchs in Britain, George I gained the throne after several royal deaths and a newly established accession order intended to secure a Protestant monarchy. He never fully learned to speak English and instead conducted government affairs mostly in French and his native German. His frequent trips to Hanover, as well as his controversial treatment of his ex-wife, caused many to scorn the foreign king. In the colonies, however, his reign was more applauded. Although the development of the British constitution by 1714 ensured that George I had little direct involvement in Virginia affairs, his almost thirteen years on the throne came during several defining developments in the colony's history: the transformation from indentured servitude to slavery as the primary source of plantation labor, the shift from sweet-scented to Oronoco tobacco as the dominant tobacco crop, and the beginning of what historians have called the "golden age" of Virginia politics. All of these developments can be attributed to the broader policies and people George I had at least a modest role in promoting. Historians often cite the peaceful royal succession following his sudden death in 1727 as his most significant legacy.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:41:12 EST]]>
/Hamor_Ralph_bap_1589-by_October_11_1626 Thu, 28 Jan 2016 16:40:19 EST <![CDATA[Hamor, Ralph (bap. 1589–by October 11, 1626)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hamor_Ralph_bap_1589-by_October_11_1626 Ralph Hamor was a secretary of the Virginia colony, member of the governor's Council, and author of A True Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia (1615). Baptized Raphe Hamor, he used that given name his entire life, although later references to him most often used a modernized spelling. Hamor was educated at Oxford and possibly Cambridge, and soon became involved in the Virginia Company of London, sailing to the colony in 1609. He served as its secretary until June 1614, when he likely returned to London. There he wrote A True Discourse, which offered the first published account of the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, as well as Rolfe's cultivation of tobacco, the martial administration of Sir Thomas Dale, and the establishment of the city of Henrico. As such, Hamor's book became an essential source for understanding Virginia, both then and now. He returned to Virginia in 1617 and prospered, joining the governor's Council in 1621, surviving the Indian attacks of 1622, and subsequently participating in the sometimes violent interactions with Virginia Indians that constituted the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632). He was tangentially involved in some of the controversy that surrounded the demise of the Virginia Company and remained on the Council until his death in 1626.
Thu, 28 Jan 2016 16:40:19 EST]]>
/An_Act_for_raising_levies_and_recruits_to_serve_in_the_present_expedition_against_the_French_on_the_Ohio_October_1754 Thu, 07 Jan 2016 13:12:34 EST <![CDATA[An Act for raising levies and recruits to serve in the present expedition against the French, on the Ohio (October 1754)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_raising_levies_and_recruits_to_serve_in_the_present_expedition_against_the_French_on_the_Ohio_October_1754 Thu, 07 Jan 2016 13:12:34 EST]]> /An_Act_for_better_regulating_and_training_the_Militia_August_1755 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:32:27 EST <![CDATA[An Act for better regulating and training the Militia (August 1755)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_better_regulating_and_training_the_Militia_August_1755 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:32:27 EST]]> /An_act_for_regulating_and_disciplining_the_Militia_May_5_1777 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:28:31 EST <![CDATA[An act for regulating and disciplining the Militia (May 5, 1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_regulating_and_disciplining_the_Militia_May_5_1777 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:28:31 EST]]> /Byrd_William_1674-1744 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 09:22:29 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, William (1674–1744)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_William_1674-1744 William Byrd, sometimes referred to as William Byrd II of Westover to distinguish him from relatives of the same name, was a planter, a surveyor, a member of the governor's Council (1709–1744), and a man of letters. Born in Virginia, Byrd was educated and practiced law in England. He returned to Virginia in 1705, after the death of his father. Shortly afterward he was appointed to the governor's Council, and in the 1720s he served as the London agent of the House of Burgesses. He helped survey the boundary between Virginia and North Carolina and established the town of Richmond on the north side of the James River. He was also a prolific writer, and is perhaps best known today for his diaries and the manuscript narratives of his surveying, both of which are frequently anthologized in textbooks of American literature. Byrd typified both the values of British colonial gentry and the ethos of an emerging American identity invested in the improvement of the self and of the colonial commonwealth.
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 09:22:29 EST]]>
/Olive_Branch_Petition_1775 Fri, 20 Nov 2015 08:03:56 EST <![CDATA[Olive Branch Petition (1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Olive_Branch_Petition_1775 Fri, 20 Nov 2015 08:03:56 EST]]> /Second_Charter_of_Virginia_1609 Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:13:14 EST <![CDATA[Second Charter of Virginia (1609)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Second_Charter_of_Virginia_1609 Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:13:14 EST]]> /Indentured_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Wed, 28 Oct 2015 15:08:38 EST <![CDATA[Indentured Servants in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indentured_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Indentured servants were men and women who signed a contract (also known as an indenture or a covenant) by which they agreed to work for a certain number of years in exchange for transportation to Virginia and, once they arrived, food, clothing, and shelter. Adults usually served for four to seven years and children sometimes for much longer, with most working in the colony's tobacco fields. With a long history in England, indentured servitude became, during most of the seventeenth century, the primary means by which Virginia planters filled their nearly inexhaustible need for labor. At first, the Virginia Company of London paid to transport servants across the Atlantic, but with the institution of the headright system in 1618, the company enticed planters and merchants to incur the cost with the promise of land. As a result, servants flooded into the colony, where they were greeted by deadly diseases and often-harsh conditions that killed a majority of newcomers and left the rest to the mercy of sometimes-cruel masters. The General Assembly passed laws regulating contract terms, as well as the behavior and treatment of servants. Besides benefiting masters with long indentures, these laws limited servant rights while still allowing servants to present any complaints in court. By the end of the seventeenth century, the number of new servants in Virginia had dwindled, and the colony's labor needs were largely met by enslaved Africans.
Wed, 28 Oct 2015 15:08:38 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_suppressing_outlying_slaves_1691 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:31:10 EST <![CDATA["An act for suppressing outlying slaves" (1691)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_suppressing_outlying_slaves_1691 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:31:10 EST]]> /Law_Prohibiting_Indentured_Servants_from_Hiring_Themselves_Out_1642-1643 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:29:23 EST <![CDATA[Law Prohibiting Indentured Servants from Hiring Themselves Out (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Law_Prohibiting_Indentured_Servants_from_Hiring_Themselves_Out_1642-1643 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:29:23 EST]]> /A_Black_Indentured_Servant_Sues_for_His_Freedom_1675 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:25:33 EST <![CDATA[A Black Indentured Servant Sues for His Freedom (1675)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Black_Indentured_Servant_Sues_for_His_Freedom_1675 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:25:33 EST]]> /_How_long_Servants_without_Indentures_shall_Serve_1657-1658 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:19:34 EST <![CDATA["How long Servants without Indentures shall Serve" (1658)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_How_long_Servants_without_Indentures_shall_Serve_1657-1658 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:19:34 EST]]> /Laws_Concerning_Indentured_Servants_1619 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:17:39 EST <![CDATA[Laws Concerning Indentured Servants (1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Laws_Concerning_Indentured_Servants_1619 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:17:39 EST]]> /_Eight_hundred_choise_persons_an_excerpt_from_A_Declaration_of_the_Supplies_intended_to_be_sent_to_Virginia_1620 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:11:49 EST <![CDATA["Eight hundred choise persons"; an excerpt from A Declaration of the Supplies intended to be sent to Virginia by the Virginia Company of London (1620)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Eight_hundred_choise_persons_an_excerpt_from_A_Declaration_of_the_Supplies_intended_to_be_sent_to_Virginia_1620 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:11:49 EST]]> /_An_Acte_towching_dyvers_Orders_for_Artificers_Laborers_Servantes_of_Husbandrye_and_Apprentises_1563 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:08:16 EST <![CDATA["An Acte towching dyvers Orders for Artificers Laborers Servantes of Husbandrye and Apprentises" (1563)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Acte_towching_dyvers_Orders_for_Artificers_Laborers_Servantes_of_Husbandrye_and_Apprentises_1563 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:08:16 EST]]> /Bland_Giles_bap_1647-1677 Fri, 09 Oct 2015 14:55:11 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Giles (bap. 1647–1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Giles_bap_1647-1677 Fri, 09 Oct 2015 14:55:11 EST]]> /Robinson_John_1705-1766 Mon, 28 Sep 2015 11:21:59 EST <![CDATA[Robinson, John (1705–1766)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robinson_John_1705-1766 John Robinson, one of the most powerful political leaders in colonial Virginia, served as Speaker of the House of Burgesses and treasurer from 1738 to 1766. His death revealed mismanagement of funds and led to a significant political crisis. Born in Middlesex County, Robinson attended school at the College of William and Mary and may have studied law. He first won election to the House of Burgesses in 1728 and began his long stint as Speaker a decade later. He ran the General Assembly's lower chamber along the lines of a modern floor leader and protected the House's interests against powerful opposition from lieutenant governors, the chief executives during his time. Though highly respected for his political acumen and his strengthening of the House of Burgesses, Robinson took two actions late in his career that hurt his reputation among historians. First, he opposed the Virginia Resolves in 1765, notably accusing Patrick Henry of speaking treasonous words against King George III. Second, he mishandled government funds while treasurer by augmenting his loans to Virginia's indebted elites with old paper money slated for destruction. Though these loans possibly kept the colony's economy from collapsing, a later investigation showed that the treasury accounts were more than £100,000 in arrears. Robinson's death in 1766 revealed the extent of his debt to the colony, which wasn't fully paid by his estate until 1781.
Mon, 28 Sep 2015 11:21:59 EST]]>
/An_excerpt_from_the_diary_of_George_Washington_January_28-31_1760 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:25:49 EST <![CDATA[An excerpt from the diary of George Washington (January 28–31, 1760)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_excerpt_from_the_diary_of_George_Washington_January_28-31_1760 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:25:49 EST]]> /_What_tyme_Indians_serve_1670 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 13:50:53 EST <![CDATA["What tyme Indians serve" (1670)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_What_tyme_Indians_serve_1670 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 13:50:53 EST]]> /Cary_Miles_d_1709 Thu, 14 May 2015 15:44:15 EST <![CDATA[Cary, Miles (d. 1709)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cary_Miles_d_1709 Miles Cary was a commander of the militia, justice of the peace, and member of the House of Burgesses, serving intermittently from 1682 until 1706. Born in Warwick County and educated in England, he was elected to the House of Burgesses in 1682 and 1684. Reelected in 1688, he served until 1706 with the exception of several assemblies. He became one of the most influential members of the General Assembly through service on important committees. Cary held other important administrative posts including clerk of the General Court, register of the Virginia Court of Vice Admiralty, and surveyor general of Virginia. A founding trustee of the College of William and Mary, he served on its board probably until his death and was rector for a pair of one-year terms beginning in 1695 and in 1704. He controlled nearly 2,000 acres of land in Warwick County, where he was one of the wealthiest and most influential citizens. He died in 1709, probably at his plantation in Warwick County.
Thu, 14 May 2015 15:44:15 EST]]>
/Burwell_Nathaniel_1750-1814 Thu, 18 Dec 2014 16:37:18 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Nathaniel (1750–1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Nathaniel_1750-1814 Nathaniel Burwell was appointed to the James City County Court, served in the county militia, represented James City County in the House of Delegates (1778–1779), and was elected to the Convention of 1788 to consider the proposed constitution of the United States. The son of Carter Burwell, Nathaniel Burwell spent part of his adulthood at Carter's Grove plantation in James City County. He was a major landholder in the region, owning small industrial operations such as an iron forge and two gristmills. Later he built Carter Hall in what became Clarke County.
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 16:37:18 EST]]>
/Carter_Robert_ca_1664-1732 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:43:27 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Robert (ca. 1664–1732)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Robert_ca_1664-1732 Robert Carter, also known as Robert "King" Carter, was a land baron, Speaker of the House of Burgesses (1696–1698), treasurer of the colony (1699–1705), and a member of the governor's Council (1700–1732). As senior member of the council, he served as president, or acting governor, from 1726 until 1727. Carter, as his nickname attests, was the richest and one of the most powerful Virginians of his day. Virginia-born, he inherited land from his father and his elder half-brother and spent much of the rest of his life accumulating more, most of it part of the Northern Neck Proprietary, for which he served as Virginia agent from 1702 until 1711 and from 1722 until 1732. At the time of his death, he held at least 295,000 acres of land, as well as numerous slaves. He also served as an agent for slave traders. Appointed to the Council by Governor Francis Nicholson, Carter nevertheless opposed Nicholson's, and later Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood's, policies, designed to assert royal control, sometimes at the expense of the interests of the great planters. Carter died in 1732, leaving a will that filled forty pages.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:43:27 EST]]>
/Byrd_William_1728-1777 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:38:33 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, William (1728–1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_William_1728-1777 William Byrd, sometimes referred to as William Byrd III of Westover to distinguish him from relatives of the same name, was a planter, soldier, a member of the House of Burgesses (1754–1756), and a member of the governor's Council (1756–1775). Born at the family estate of Westover, in Charles City County, Byrd studied law in England, where he gambled and began to accumulate debts that would last a lifetime. He wed Elizabeth Carter upon his return, but the marriage was unhappy and she died of a probable suicide in 1760. By then Byrd had been forced to sell off large parts of his estate, Belvidere, to settle debts. He also served in the military during this time, traveling widely and commanding first the 2nd Virginia Regiment and then succeeding George Washington at the head of the 1st. He married a second time, in 1761, and when the American Revolution (1775–1783) began, offered his services to the king. Dunmore's Proclamation (1775), which offered freedom to slaves who fought for the British, changed his loyalties. Commands were not offered, however, and in January 1777, Byrd killed himself.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:38:33 EST]]>
/Bacon_s_Rebellion_1676-1677 Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:30:13 EST <![CDATA[Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bacon_s_Rebellion_1676-1677 Bacon's Rebellion, fought from 1676 to 1677, began with a local dispute with the Doeg Indians on the Potomac River. Chased north by Virginia militiamen, who also attacked the otherwise uninvolved Susquehannocks, the Indians began raiding the Virginia frontier. The governor, Sir William Berkeley, persauded the General Assembly to adopt a plan that isolated the Susquehannocks while bringing in Indian allies on Virginia's side. Others saw in the Susquehannock War an opportunity for a general Indian war that would yield Indian slaves and lands, and would give vent to popular anti-Indian sentiment. They found a leader in Nathaniel Bacon, a recent arrival to Virginia and a member of the governor's Council. Bacon demanded a commission to fight the Indians; when none was forthcoming, he led "volunteers" against some of Virginia's closest Indian allies. This led to a civil war pitting Bacon's followers against Berkeley loyalists. The conflict was often bitter and personal—at one point, Berkeley bared his chest and dared Bacon to kill him—and involved the looting of both rebel and loyalist properties. Berkeley expelled Bacon from the Council, reinstated him, and then expelled him a second time. After the governor fled Jamestown for the Eastern Shore, he returned, only to be chased away by Bacon's army, which burned the capital. Bacon died suddenly in October 1676, but bitter fighting continued into January. The Crown dispatched troops to Virginia, which arrived shortly after the rebellion had been quelled. The causes of Bacon's Rebellion have long been disputed. Today it is generally regarded as part of a general crisis in Virginia's social, economic, and political arrangements. The argument that it should be seen as a revolt against English tyranny and a precursor to the American Revolution (1775–1783) has been discredited.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:30:13 EST]]>
/James_II_1633-1701 Wed, 17 Sep 2014 13:07:32 EST <![CDATA[James II (1633–1701)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/James_II_1633-1701 James II was king of England, Ireland, and—as James VII—Scotland from 1685 to 1688. He was the second son of Charles I, who was tried by Parliament and executed after the English Civil Wars (1642–1648). James spent much of his youth in exile in France and Spain; he returned to London in 1660 when his older brother was restored to the throne as Charles II. James maintained an active role in his brother's court and, as lord high admiral, administered the Royal Navy. In 1668 or 1669 James converted from Protestantism to Catholicism, a decision that would alter the course of his political life. His relations with Parliament, the Church of England, and the political nation soured soon after he took the throne in 1685. He was deposed in the so-called Glorious Revolution (1688–1689) led by his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband and cousin, William III of Orange, who would rule in James's stead as Mary II and William III. James II spent his later years in exile, again in France, leaving once to attempt, unsuccessfully, an invasion of Ireland in 1689–1690. He died in 1701 of a cerebral hemorrhage at the court-in-exile, Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
Wed, 17 Sep 2014 13:07:32 EST]]>
/George_III_1738-1820 Wed, 17 Sep 2014 12:16:06 EST <![CDATA[George III (1738–1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_III_1738-1820 George III was king of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760 to 1811. The third monarch from the House of Hanover, George was just twenty-two years old when he succeeded his grandfather, George II, as king in 1760. His reign was shaped by the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), the Irish Rebellion (1798), and the French Revolution (1783–1815), but he is best known as the "tyrant," called "unfit to be the ruler of a free people" in the Declaration of Independence (1776), who lost the American Revolution (1775–1783). In reality, George III supported his cabinet's authority and, with a few exceptions, influenced but did not dictate policy; once the fighting began, he counseled his ministers to be consistent in their opposition to the American rebellion until the defeat at Yorktown. American patriots, hostile British contemporaries, and nineteenth-century historians all painted George III as personally responsible for the conflict and its loss, but historical scholarship since the 1930s has overturned this anachronistic and overly personalized reading of the king. Despite the American loss, George III was popular among his subjects in the decades following the war, and the fiftieth year of his reign was celebrated countrywide in 1809–1810. In 1810, an attack of an illness, probably porphyria, which had plagued him for nearly two decades, robbed him of his sight, hearing, and sanity. On February 5, 1811, his son George, Prince of Wales, was appointed regent and ruled in his place until January 29, 1820, when George III died at Windsor Castle.
Wed, 17 Sep 2014 12:16:06 EST]]>
/Thorpe_George_bap_1576-1622 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 12:29:16 EST <![CDATA[Thorpe, George (bap. 1576–1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thorpe_George_bap_1576-1622 George Thorpe was an investor in the Virginia Company of London and a member of the governor's Council (1620–1622) who presented himself as an agent of Christian salvation for Virginia Indians. Born into a gentry family in Gloucestershire, he studied law at the Middle Temple and served briefly in Parliament (1614) before becoming a chief organizer of Berkeley Hundred, a society founded in 1618 and allotted land by the Crown for settlement in Virginia. A company of settlers sailed to the colony in 1619, but Thorpe and his fellow investors relieved the group's captain of his duties. Thorpe took charge of the plantation in Virginia and, at the behest of the Virginia Company, at least 10,000 acres of land set aside for a university, including an Indian college, east of present-day Richmond. Evidence suggests that Thorpe had previously cared for a Virginia Indian and, upon his arrival in the colony in May 1620, was motivated to befriend the Indians and convert them to Christianity. The next year, Thorpe informed company officials that he had secured a visit with Opechancanough, one of the most powerful chiefs of Tsenacomoco. Although Opechancanough accepted Thorpe's gift of a new house and led the Englishman to believe he might convert, he was actually planning a large-scale attack against English settlements on the James River. Thorpe was killed in those attacks on March 22, 1622.
Mon, 15 Sep 2014 12:29:16 EST]]>
/Burwell_Carter_1716-1756 Thu, 21 Aug 2014 17:25:29 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Carter (1716–1756)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Carter_1716-1756 Carter Burwell was a key member of the House of Burgesses who built Carter's Grove plantation. The heir of substantial estates from both his father and his grandfather Robert "King" Carter, he became a powerful figure in James City County politics. The constituency's voters elected him to the House of Burgesses in 1742. He served until 1755, chairing the influential Committee of Privileges and Elections and working as an important ally of John Robinson, the body's powerful speaker. He is best known for the Georgian home he had built at Carter's Grove, considered an important example of the era's architecture.
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 17:25:29 EST]]>
/A_Map_of_Virginia_With_a_Description_of_the_Countrey_the_Commodities_People_Government_and_Religion_by_John_Smith_1612 Mon, 11 Aug 2014 09:23:41 EST <![CDATA[A Map of Virginia. With a Description of the Countrey, the Commodities, People, Government and Religion by John Smith (1612)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Map_of_Virginia_With_a_Description_of_the_Countrey_the_Commodities_People_Government_and_Religion_by_John_Smith_1612 Mon, 11 Aug 2014 09:23:41 EST]]> /Allerton_Isaac_ca_1630-1702 Sat, 09 Aug 2014 07:14:13 EST <![CDATA[Allerton, Isaac (ca. 1630–1702)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allerton_Isaac_ca_1630-1702 Sat, 09 Aug 2014 07:14:13 EST]]> /A_True_relation_of_such_occurrences_and_accidents_of_note_as_hath_hapned_at_Virginia_since_the_first_planting_of_that_Collonyby_John_Smith_1608 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:12:16 EST <![CDATA[A True relation of such occurrences and accidents of note, as hath hapned at Virginia, since the first planting of that Collony by John Smith (1608)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_True_relation_of_such_occurrences_and_accidents_of_note_as_hath_hapned_at_Virginia_since_the_first_planting_of_that_Collonyby_John_Smith_1608 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:12:16 EST]]> /Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Short_Report_of_the_American_Journey_Which_Was_Made_from_the_2nd_of_October_of_Last_Year_to_the_First_of_December_of_this_Current_Year_1702_by_Franz_Louis_Michel_1702 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 11:30:16 EST <![CDATA[Arriving in Virginia; an excerpt from "Short Report of the American Journey, Which Was Made from the 2nd of October of Last Year to the First of December of this Current Year 1702" by Frantz Ludwig Michel (1702)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Short_Report_of_the_American_Journey_Which_Was_Made_from_the_2nd_of_October_of_Last_Year_to_the_First_of_December_of_this_Current_Year_1702_by_Franz_Louis_Michel_1702 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 11:30:16 EST]]> /_An_act_to_repeal_part_of_an_act_directing_the_trial_of_slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_negroes_mulattoes_or_indians_bond_or_free_1788 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:11:28 EST <![CDATA["An act to repeal part of an act, directing the trial of slaves committing capital crimes, and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them, and for the better government of negroes, mulattoes, or indians, bond or free" (1788)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_to_repeal_part_of_an_act_directing_the_trial_of_slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_negroes_mulattoes_or_indians_bond_or_free_1788 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:11:28 EST]]> /_An_act_about_the_casuall_killing_of_slaves_1669 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 09:33:25 EST <![CDATA["An act about the casuall killing of slaves" (1669)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_about_the_casuall_killing_of_slaves_1669 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 09:33:25 EST]]> /_The_gouernment_left_to_Captaine_Yearly_from_Book_4_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Thu, 17 Jul 2014 09:05:12 EST <![CDATA["The gouernment left to Captaine Yearly," from Book 4 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_gouernment_left_to_Captaine_Yearly_from_Book_4_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Thu, 17 Jul 2014 09:05:12 EST]]> /Smith_Chapter_12_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:25:46 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 12, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_Chapter_12_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:25:46 EST]]> /Chapters_10-11_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:21:02 EST <![CDATA[Chapters 10–11, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapters_10-11_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:21:02 EST]]> /Chapter_7_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Tue, 15 Jul 2014 11:47:32 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 7, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_7_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Tue, 15 Jul 2014 11:47:32 EST]]> /Smith_Chapter_2_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Thu, 10 Jul 2014 11:34:54 EST <![CDATA[Smith, Chapter 2, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_Chapter_2_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Thu, 10 Jul 2014 11:34:54 EST]]> /Chapter_1_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 09 Jul 2014 09:59:13 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 1, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_1_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 09 Jul 2014 09:59:13 EST]]> /_John_Smith_from_The_History_of_the_Worthies_of_England_by_Thomas_Fuller_1661 Mon, 07 Jul 2014 10:26:28 EST <![CDATA["John Smith," from The History of the Worthies of England by Thomas Fuller (1661)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_John_Smith_from_The_History_of_the_Worthies_of_England_by_Thomas_Fuller_1661 Mon, 07 Jul 2014 10:26:28 EST]]> /Third_Charter_of_Virginia_1612 Thu, 26 Jun 2014 16:54:43 EST <![CDATA[Third Charter of Virginia (1612)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Third_Charter_of_Virginia_1612 Thu, 26 Jun 2014 16:54:43 EST]]> /First_Charter_of_Virginia_1606 Thu, 26 Jun 2014 16:08:52 EST <![CDATA[First Charter of Virginia (1606)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/First_Charter_of_Virginia_1606 Thu, 26 Jun 2014 16:08:52 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Thorpe_to_Sir_Edwin_Sandys_June_27_1621 Thu, 26 Jun 2014 10:48:02 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Thorpe to Sir Edwin Sandys (June 27, 1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Thorpe_to_Sir_Edwin_Sandys_June_27_1621 Thu, 26 Jun 2014 10:48:02 EST]]> /Letter_from_the_Governor_s_Council_to_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_January_20_1623 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 12:01:20 EST <![CDATA[Letter from the Governor's Council to the Virginia Company of London (January 20, 1623)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_the_Governor_s_Council_to_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_January_20_1623 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 12:01:20 EST]]> /An_Ordinance_and_Constitution_of_Treasurer_and_Company_in_England_for_a_Council_and_Assembly_in_Virginia_1621 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:31:14 EST <![CDATA[An Ordinance and Constitution of Treasurer and Company in England for a Council and Assembly in Virginia (1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Ordinance_and_Constitution_of_Treasurer_and_Company_in_England_for_a_Council_and_Assembly_in_Virginia_1621 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:31:14 EST]]> /An_excerpt_from_A_Declaration_of_the_state_of_the_Colonie_and_Affaires_in_Virginia_1622 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:20:28 EST <![CDATA[An excerpt from A Declaration of the state of the Colonie and Affaires in Virginia (1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_excerpt_from_A_Declaration_of_the_state_of_the_Colonie_and_Affaires_in_Virginia_1622 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:20:28 EST]]> /_Ordinances_Directions_and_Instructions_to_Captaine_John_Woodleefe_by_Sir_William_Throckmorton_et_al_September_4_1619 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 08:55:33 EST <![CDATA["Ordinances Directions and Instructions to Captaine John Woodleefe" by Sir William Throckmorton, et al. (September 4, 1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Ordinances_Directions_and_Instructions_to_Captaine_John_Woodleefe_by_Sir_William_Throckmorton_et_al_September_4_1619 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 08:55:33 EST]]> /The_Original_Jamestown_Settlers_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Mon, 02 Jun 2014 21:23:04 EST <![CDATA[The Original Jamestown Settlers; an excerpt from The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Original_Jamestown_Settlers_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Mon, 02 Jun 2014 21:23:04 EST]]> /Jamestown_Settlement_Early Fri, 30 May 2014 11:27:18 EST <![CDATA[Jamestown Settlement, Early]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jamestown_Settlement_Early The Jamestown settlement, established in 1607, was the seat of England's first permanent colony in North America. After the failure of the Roanoke colonies, investors in the Virginia Company of London were anxious to find profit farther to the north, and in April 1607 three ships of settlers arrived at the Chesapeake Bay. The enterprise, fraught with disease, dissension, and determined Indian resistance, was a miserable failure at first. "The adventurers who ventured their capital lost it," the historian Edmund S. Morgan has written. "Most of the settlers who ventured their lives lost them. And so did most of the Indians who came near them." John Smith mapped out much of the Bay and established (sometimes violent) relations with the Powhatan Indians there. During the winter of 1609–1610, the colony nearly starved. The resupply ship Sea Venture, carrying much of Virginia's new leadership, was thought lost at sea. When it finally arrived in May 1610, fewer than a hundred colonists still survived. Discipline at Jamestown did not match the urgency of the moment until Sir Thomas Dale's arrival in 1611 and his full implementation of the strict Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall. By year's end, Dale had founded an outside settlement at Henrico, near what became Richmond. The introduction of saleable tobacco soon after helped secure the colony's economy, and as political power expanded into the James River Valley, the influence of Jamestown waned.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:27:18 EST]]>
/Custis_John_1678-1749 Wed, 28 May 2014 16:58:24 EST <![CDATA[Custis, John (1678–1749)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_John_1678-1749 John Custis was a member of the governor's Council and a tobacco planter often referred to as John Custis, of Williamsburg, to distinguish him from his grandfather, father, and other relatives of the same name. He is best known as Martha Dandridge Custis Washington's first father-in-law. The Northampton County native studied the tobacco trade in London in his early years, which helped him acquire a better economic understanding compared with his contemporaries. Custis married Frances Parke, and their relationship became known in Virginia lore for its quarrelsomeness, immortalized on his tombstone. The couple produced the heir Daniel Parke Custis, but after her death he fathered a son, John, with his slave Alice. Custis freed his son and gave him gifts of money, land, and slaves.
Wed, 28 May 2014 16:58:24 EST]]>
/Gates_Sir_Thomas_d_1622 Sun, 25 May 2014 12:00:57 EST <![CDATA[Gates, Sir Thomas (d. 1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gates_Sir_Thomas_d_1622 Sir Thomas Gates served as governor of Virginia in 1610 and then as lieutenant governor from 1611 until 1614. Born in the southwest of England, he served in the West Indies with Sir Francis Drake and fought with Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex, in Normandy and Cádiz, where Gates was knighted in 1596. Gates was an original investor in the Virginia Company of London and led an infantry company in the Netherlands until taking command of a massive resupply fleet to Virginia in 1609. Aboard the flagship Sea Venture, Gates and his crew were shipwrecked on Bermuda for nearly a year before finally making it to Virginia. There, Governor Gates encountered a colony on the brink of extinction, saved only by the timely arrival of a new governor, Thomas West, twelfth baron De La Warr. Advocating a strict, military-style regime, Gates instituted a set of rules that were expanded and, in 1612, published as For the Colony in Virginea Britannia. Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall, &c. He participated in sometimes brutal attacks on the Indians during the First Anglo-Powhatan War(1609–1614), and, in England, worked as a tireless advocate for the Virginia Company. Returning to Virginia in 1611, Gates stiffened Jamestown's defenses and, with Sir Thomas Dale, cleared much of the James River of Powhatan Indians. Gates died in the Netherlands in 1622.
Sun, 25 May 2014 12:00:57 EST]]>
/Runaway_Slaves_1642-1643 Mon, 05 May 2014 08:52:52 EST <![CDATA[Runaway Servants (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Runaway_Slaves_1642-1643 Mon, 05 May 2014 08:52:52 EST]]> /Jenings_Edmund_1659-1727 Sat, 22 Mar 2014 14:23:52 EST <![CDATA[Jenings, Edmund (1659–1727)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jenings_Edmund_1659-1727 Edmund Jenings served as Virginia's attorney general (ca. 1680–1691) and secretary of state (1696–1712), as well as on the governor's Council (1691–1726). As the president, or senior member, of that body, he also served as acting governor (1706–1710). Born and educated in England, Jenings came to Virginia with an introduction from the future King James II and an appointment to the post of attorney general. He became a political ally of Ralph Wormeley II and Richard Lee II, and helped his own political rise by marrying their relative, Frances Corbin. On the Council, Jenings tended to support the authority of royal governors, and although described by Robert Quary as "a man who is thought by all parties to be an indifferent person and unconcerned on either side," he made powerful enemies by defending the widely disliked Governor Francis Nicholson. After Nicholson's replacement died in office, Jenings served for four years as acting governor. He was largely ineffective, however, and during his later years he appeared to suffer from mental illness. When he became overwhelmed by debt, one of his political opponents, Robert "King" Carter, took over Jenings's management of the Northern Neck Proprietary, using that position to mortgage Jenings's land and property. In 1726, with another governor ill, the Council recommended Jenings's removal rather than let him serve again as acting governor. He died the next year.
Sat, 22 Mar 2014 14:23:52 EST]]>
/Richard_Kemp_ca_1600-ca_1650 Thu, 20 Mar 2014 05:23:25 EST <![CDATA[Kemp, Richard (ca. 1600–ca. 1650)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Richard_Kemp_ca_1600-ca_1650 Thu, 20 Mar 2014 05:23:25 EST]]> /Court_Ruling_on_Anthony_Johnson_and_His_Servant_1655 Mon, 10 Mar 2014 11:04:11 EST <![CDATA[Court Ruling on Anthony Johnson and His Servant (1655)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Court_Ruling_on_Anthony_Johnson_and_His_Servant_1655 Mon, 10 Mar 2014 11:04:11 EST]]> /Francis_Nicholson_1655-1728 Fri, 21 Feb 2014 10:55:31 EST <![CDATA[Nicholson, Francis (1655–1728)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Francis_Nicholson_1655-1728 Francis Nicholson served as lieutenant governor of the Dominion of New England (1688–1689), lieutenant governor of Virginia (1690–1692), governor of Maryland (1694–1698), governor of Virginia (1698–1705), governor of Nova Scotia (1712–1715), and governor of South Carolina (1721–1725). Born in Yorkshire, England, Nicholson began his military service around 1680, when he was stationed in Tangier, on the North African coast. A brief term of office in New England prepared him for appointment as lieutenant governor of Virginia in 1690, during which time he cultivated amicable relations with the local elites, including the Reverend James Blair. After serving for four years as governor of Maryland, Nicholson returned to Virginia as governor, although by this time his relations with Blair and others had soured. The Virginians recoiled at Nicholson's military gruffness and his uncouth public courtship of Lucy Burwell, daughter of Major Lewis Burwell of Gloucester County. In the meantime, the governor's attempts at reform threatened the power of such men as William Byrd I, so that several members of the governor's Council—including Nicholson's former ally, Blair—convinced the Crown to remove him. Still, Nicholson made important contributions to Virginia's military and economic stability, and played a leading role in the creation of the capital at Williamsburg. After serving as governor of Nova Scotia and then South Carolina, he died in London in 1728.
Fri, 21 Feb 2014 10:55:31 EST]]>
/Parke_Daniel_1669-1710 Tue, 18 Feb 2014 14:54:47 EST <![CDATA[Parke, Daniel (1669–1710)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Parke_Daniel_1669-1710 Daniel Parke was a Virginia politician who gained his first public office at age nineteen, when he was elected to the House of Burgesses for James City County (1688). By age twenty-six, he had acquired a seat on the governor's Council (1695–1697). He relocated to England in 1697. He served as an aide-de-camp to John Churchill, duke of Marlborough, during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), and carried news of Marlborough's victory at the Battle of Blenheim to Queen Anne in 1704. The queen rewarded Parke with a governorship in the Leeward Islands, a small island chain in the Caribbean, which he assumed in 1706. But Parke's accomplishments masked a darker side. Arrogant and at times violent, he became estranged from his wife and children in Virginia, had a number of extramarital relationships, and fathered offspring out of wedlock. Ultimately, Parke's sexual improprieties contributed to his political undoing. Residents of the Leeward Islands complained that he had "debauched" many of their wives and daughters, in addition to exceeding his authority as their governor; a bloody riot ended Parke's governorship, and his life, on December 7, 1710, when an angry mob pulled him from his home and murdered him.
Tue, 18 Feb 2014 14:54:47 EST]]>
/Spotswood_Alexander_1676-1740 Tue, 31 Dec 2013 10:15:31 EST <![CDATA[Spotswood, Alexander (1676–1740)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Spotswood_Alexander_1676-1740 Alexander Spotswood served as lieutenant governor of Virginia from 1710 until 1722, ruling robustly in the absence of Governor George Hamilton, earl of Orkney. Born in Tangier, Morocco, Spotswood moved with his mother to England in 1683 and joined the military in 1693. After a seventeen-year military career, Spotswood was commissioned lieutenant governor of Virginia. Spotswood initially sought to improve relations with American Indians through regulated trade, to end piracy, and to increase gubernatorial power. He frequently and publicly expressed his unbridled contempt for those members of the House of Burgesses and governor's Council who disagreed with his policies and practices. But by the end of his administration, Spotswood had shifted from seeking to impose imperial will on Virginians to becoming a Virginian himself. He constructed ironworks in Spotsylvania County, making him the largest iron producer in the thirteen colonies, and designed and constructed the Bruton Parish Church building, a Williamsburg powder magazine, and the Governor's Palace. He also served as deputy postmaster general for North America after 1730. He died in 1740 in Annapolis, Maryland, while raising troops for the British campaign against the Spanish in South America.
Tue, 31 Dec 2013 10:15:31 EST]]>
/Calthorpe_Christopher_ca_1560-1763 Fri, 13 Dec 2013 10:25:21 EST <![CDATA[Calthorpe, Christopher (ca. 1560–1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Calthorpe_Christopher_ca_1560-1763 Fri, 13 Dec 2013 10:25:21 EST]]> /Cheesman_John_ca_1598-by_1665 Mon, 25 Nov 2013 13:38:32 EST <![CDATA[Cheesman, John (ca. 1598–by 1665)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cheesman_John_ca_1598-by_1665 Mon, 25 Nov 2013 13:38:32 EST]]> /Wingfield_Edward_Maria_1550-1631 Sat, 02 Nov 2013 17:38:03 EST <![CDATA[Wingfield, Edward Maria (1550–1631)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wingfield_Edward_Maria_1550-1631 Edward Maria Wingfield was a founding member of the Virginia Company of London and the first president of the Council of Virginia, a group of Jamestown settlers appointed by the company to make local decisions for the colony. Born into a political and military family, Wingfield followed his uncle Jaques Wingfield to Ireland and spent many years fighting there during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. He studied law briefly, fought the Spanish in the Low Countries, returned to Ireland, and served in Parliament before retiring from military service in 1600. From then on he focused on colonization, helping his cousin Bartholomew Gosnold recruit members for the proposed colony in Virginia. Unlike most of the original investors named in the First Charter, Wingfield actually traveled to Virginia and served as the colony's first president. Wingfield was unable to keep the peace among the settlement's leaders—he and Captain John Smith clashed repeatedly—and he was deposed as president and sent back to England. There he wrote his Discourse on Virginia, defending himself against attacks and providing a valuable description of the colony's origins. He died in 1631, having remained active in the Virginia Company's efforts.
Sat, 02 Nov 2013 17:38:03 EST]]>
/West_Thomas_twelfth_baron_De_La_Warr_1577-1618 Sun, 27 Oct 2013 13:44:10 EST <![CDATA[West, Thomas, twelfth baron De La Warr (1576–1618)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/West_Thomas_twelfth_baron_De_La_Warr_1577-1618 Thomas West, twelfth baron De La Warr, served as the first governor of Virginia appointed by the Virginia Company of London, living in the colony only briefly but holding the title until his death. Born to a wealthy and well-connected Protestant family, De La Warr attended Oxford without taking a degree and served with his first cousin, Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex, in Ireland. After managing to escape the taint of Essex's failed rebellion against Queen Elizabeth, De La Warr invested in the Virginia Company and, after James I issued its second charter, was appointed governor and captain-general for life. He arrived at Jamestown in 1610 just in time to save the colony from abandonment. After establishing a strict, military-like regime and renewing a brutal campaign against the Indians, he left Virginia in March 1611 because of illness. De La Warr attempted to return to Virginia in 1618, having never relinquished his title of governor, but he died en route. Three of his brothers also lived in the colony, two of whom, Francis West and John West, also served as governor. The Delaware River was named for De La Warr.
Sun, 27 Oct 2013 13:44:10 EST]]>
/Keppel_William_Anne_second_earl_of_Albemarle_1702-1754 Sun, 27 Oct 2013 13:25:11 EST <![CDATA[Keppel, William Anne, second earl of Albemarle (1702–1754)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Keppel_William_Anne_second_earl_of_Albemarle_1702-1754 William Anne Keppel, second earl of Albemarle, served as governor of Virginia from 1737 until his death in 1754. His father was a confidant of William of Orange and later was made first earl of Albemarle. William Anne Keppel succeeded to his father's titles and estates in 1718. In a distinguished military career, he rose to the rank of lieutenant general and proved himself during the War of the Austrian Succession. Albemarle became ambassador to France in 1748 and a member of the Privy Council two years later. George II commissioned him governor of Virginia on November 4, 1737. Albemarle never went to America and instead employed lieutenant governors to administer the government in Williamsburg. Relations between Albemarle and his lieutenant governors were strained over their respective appointive powers, and he outmaneuvered them in making colonial appointments. These patronage policies undermined the lieutenant governors and contributed to increasing the importance of colonial assemblies and politicians. Unintentionally, Albemarle helped weaken imperial ties between the colony and England. He died in Paris on December 22, 1754.
Sun, 27 Oct 2013 13:25:11 EST]]>
/Howard_Francis_fifth_baron_Howard_of_Effingham_bap_1643-1695 Sun, 27 Oct 2013 13:00:35 EST <![CDATA[Howard, Francis, fifth baron Howard of Effingham (bap. 1643–1695)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Howard_Francis_fifth_baron_Howard_of_Effingham_bap_1643-1695 Francis Howard, fifth baron Howard of Effingham, served as royal governor of Virginia from 1683 until 1692, and during his tenure brought Virginia under stronger English control. Born into a prosperous rural family in Surrey County, England, Effingham inherited the barony Effingham unexpectedly in 1681. The title provided him influence at court and soon led to his appointment as governor of Virginia. The monarchy strove for firmer authority over its dominions, and Virginia drew special attention after Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677). Unlike his two predecessors, Effingham successfully asserted the power of the governor's office, constraining the House of Burgesses by taking away its right to name its clerk and removing two powerful opposition figures from the governor's Council. Eventually the gentry accepted tighter royal oversight. Effingham resided in Virginia for just five years of his tenure, with ill health forcing him to accept the appointment of a lieutenant governor in 1690. He died in 1695, in England.
Sun, 27 Oct 2013 13:00:35 EST]]>
/Custis_John_ca_1654-1714 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:15:46 EST <![CDATA[Custis, John (ca. 1654–1714)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_John_ca_1654-1714 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:15:46 EST]]> /Craford_William_d_by_April_15_1762 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:05:04 EST <![CDATA[Craford, William (d. by April 15, 1762)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Craford_William_d_by_April_15_1762 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:05:04 EST]]> /Corbyn_Henry_1628_or_1629-ca_1676 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 11:56:07 EST <![CDATA[Corbyn, Henry (1628 or 1629–ca. 1676)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Corbyn_Henry_1628_or_1629-ca_1676 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 11:56:07 EST]]> /Cole_William_1638_or_1639-1694 Thu, 05 Sep 2013 13:10:55 EST <![CDATA[Cole, William (1638 or 1639–1694)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cole_William_1638_or_1639-1694 Thu, 05 Sep 2013 13:10:55 EST]]> /Churchhill_William_b_1649-1710 Thu, 22 Aug 2013 16:25:10 EST <![CDATA[Churchhill, William (1649–1710)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Churchhill_William_b_1649-1710 Thu, 22 Aug 2013 16:25:10 EST]]> /Chiles_Walter_1609-after_July_6_1653 Thu, 22 Aug 2013 15:00:10 EST <![CDATA[Chiles, Walter (1609–after July 6, 1653)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chiles_Walter_1609-after_July_6_1653 Thu, 22 Aug 2013 15:00:10 EST]]> /Cary_Miles_bap_1623-1667 Wed, 21 Aug 2013 12:23:51 EST <![CDATA[Cary, Miles (bap. 1623–1667)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cary_Miles_bap_1623-1667 Wed, 21 Aug 2013 12:23:51 EST]]> /Capps_William_fl_1609-1630 Tue, 13 Aug 2013 09:44:42 EST <![CDATA[Capps, William (fl. 1609–1630)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Capps_William_fl_1609-1630 Tue, 13 Aug 2013 09:44:42 EST]]> /Berkeley_Norborne_baron_de_Botetourt_1717-1770 Fri, 09 Aug 2013 13:50:56 EST <![CDATA[Berkeley, Norborne, baron de Botetourt (1717–1770)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Berkeley_Norborne_baron_de_Botetourt_1717-1770 Norborne Berkeley, baron de Botetourt, was royal governor of Virginia from 1768 until his death in 1770. Born Norborne Berkeley in London, England, he served in the House of Commons from 1741 until 1764, when he procured the revival of the barony of Botetourt and became a member of the House of Lords. In 1768 King George III commissioned Botetourt royal governor of Virginia. Unlike his predecessor, Sir Jeffery Amherst, who had refused to reside in the colony, Botetourt moved to Williamsburg and lived there for almost two years. The new governor was well liked by Virginians, who believed that he disapproved of British policies; in reality, he advised the Crown to stand firm against colonial protests, and had supported taxing the colonists as a member of the House of Lords. Botetourt died on October 15, 1770, and was buried in the chapel at the College of William and Mary.
Fri, 09 Aug 2013 13:50:56 EST]]>
/Lewis_Burwell_d_by_1779 Wed, 31 Jul 2013 15:27:35 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lewis (d. by 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_Burwell_d_by_1779 Wed, 31 Jul 2013 15:27:35 EST]]> /_Women_Causing_Scandalous_Suites_to_be_Ducked_1662 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 11:18:51 EST <![CDATA["Women Causing Scandalous Suites to be Ducked" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Women_Causing_Scandalous_Suites_to_be_Ducked_1662 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 11:18:51 EST]]> /Bacon_Nathaniel_bap_1620-1692 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:43:16 EST <![CDATA[Bacon, Nathaniel (bap. 1620–1692)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bacon_Nathaniel_bap_1620-1692 Nathaniel Bacon, a member of the governor's Council, was often referred to as Nathaniel Bacon (the elder) in order to distinguish him from his namesake cousin, known as Nathaniel Bacon (the rebel) (1647–1676). Little is known about his early life. By 1653 Bacon had moved to Virginia. He settled in Isle of Wight County before moving to York County. In March 1656 Bacon represented York County in the House of Burgesses, and by December of that year he had become a member of the governor's Council, where he served for three years. After another term as a burgess in 1659, he had once again been named to the Council by August 1660. As the senior member of the Council by January 1682, on three separate occasions in the 1680s and early in 1690 he served as president and acting governor of the colony. Bacon had no children, and when he died on March 16, 1692, his niece Abigail Smith Burwell inherited his vast estate.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:43:16 EST]]>
/_An_Argument_Before_the_General_Court_of_Colonial_Virginia_1773 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 09:32:07 EST <![CDATA["An Argument Before the General Court of Colonial Virginia" (1773)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Argument_Before_the_General_Court_of_Colonial_Virginia_1773 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 09:32:07 EST]]> /_An_act_for_regulating_the_Elections_of_Burgesses_for_settling_their_Privileges_and_for_ascertaining_their_allowances_1705 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:01:25 EST <![CDATA["An act for regulating the Elections of Burgesses; for settling their Privileges; and for ascertaining their allowances" (1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_regulating_the_Elections_of_Burgesses_for_settling_their_Privileges_and_for_ascertaining_their_allowances_1705 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:01:25 EST]]> /Francis_Howard_to_William_Blathwayt_1687 Wed, 19 Jun 2013 11:53:40 EST <![CDATA[Francis Howard to William Blathwayt (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Francis_Howard_to_William_Blathwayt_1687 Wed, 19 Jun 2013 11:53:40 EST]]> /Account_of_the_Lottery_in_Leicester_by_Rogert_Hawfeilde_June_12_1618 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:57:29 EST <![CDATA[Account of the Lottery in Leicester by Rogert Hawfeilde (June 12, 1618)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Account_of_the_Lottery_in_Leicester_by_Rogert_Hawfeilde_June_12_1618 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:57:29 EST]]> /Relation_of_Juan_de_la_Carrera_March_1_1600 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:50:32 EST <![CDATA[Relation of Juan de la Carrera (March 1, 1600)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Relation_of_Juan_de_la_Carrera_March_1_1600 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:50:32 EST]]> /Newes_from_Virginia_The_lost_Flocke_Triumphant_by_Lord_Robert_Rich_1610 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:29:03 EST <![CDATA[Newes from Virginia. The lost Flocke Triumphant by Lord Robert Rich (1610)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Newes_from_Virginia_The_lost_Flocke_Triumphant_by_Lord_Robert_Rich_1610 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:29:03 EST]]> /_A_Declaration_of_the_State_of_the_Colonie_and_Affaires_in_Virginia_July_22_1620 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:17:50 EST <![CDATA["A Declaration of the State of the Colonie and Affaires in Virginia" (July 22, 1620)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Declaration_of_the_State_of_the_Colonie_and_Affaires_in_Virginia_July_22_1620 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:17:50 EST]]> /A_true_and_sincere_declaration_of_the_purpose_and_ends_of_the_plantation_begun_in_Virginia_by_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_1609 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 12:40:41 EST <![CDATA[A true and sincere declaration of the purpose and ends of the plantation begun in Virginia by the Virginia Company of London (1609)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_true_and_sincere_declaration_of_the_purpose_and_ends_of_the_plantation_begun_in_Virginia_by_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_1609 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 12:40:41 EST]]> /Letter_from_the_Council_of_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_to_the_Mayor_and_Aldermen_of_the_City_of_Norwich_December_4_1617 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:37:40 EST <![CDATA[Letter from the Council of the Virginia Company of London to the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Norwich (December 4, 1617)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_the_Council_of_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_to_the_Mayor_and_Aldermen_of_the_City_of_Norwich_December_4_1617 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:37:40 EST]]> /Petition_from_Alderman_Johnson_et_al_to_King_James_I_April_1623 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:43:47 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Alderman Johnson, et al., to King James I (April 1623)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Alderman_Johnson_et_al_to_King_James_I_April_1623 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:43:47 EST]]> /_Instructions_to_George_Yeardley_by_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_November_18_1618 Wed, 20 Mar 2013 09:02:40 EST <![CDATA["Instructions to George Yeardley" by the Virginia Company of London (November 18, 1618)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Instructions_to_George_Yeardley_by_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_November_18_1618 Wed, 20 Mar 2013 09:02:40 EST]]> /Runaway_Slaves_and_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:53:29 EST <![CDATA[Runaway Slaves and Servants in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Runaway_Slaves_and_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Runaway slaves and indentured servants were a persistent problem for landowners in colonial Virginia. They fled from abusive masters, to take a break from work, or in search of family members from whom they had been separated. Some servants were lured away by neighbors attempting to steal labor. Early court cases reveal that whites and blacks sometimes ran off together but that punishments for the latter could be much harsher. As early as 1643, the General Assembly passed laws that established penalties for runaway slaves and servants, regulated their movement, identified multiple offenders (by branding them or cutting their hair), and provided rewards for their capture. In October 1669, the burgesses admitted that these laws "have hitherto in greate parte proved ineffectuall," as slaves and servants continued to brave wide rivers, often dangerous Indians, and the storm-tossed Chesapeake Bay. They fled mostly into Maryland but sometimes as far north as New Netherland and New England. In 1705 a sweeping new law allowed planters to discipline slaves to death or, in some cases, to kill runaways without penalty. Robert "King" Carter sought and received permission to dismember his runaways. Beginning in 1736, landowners advertised in the Virginia Gazette for their runaways; they describe more than 3,500 fugitives from 1736 until 1783. These advertisements affirmed a lingering desire for freedom on the part of slaves.
Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:53:29 EST]]>
/General_Court_Responds_to_Runaway_Servants_and_Slaves_1640 Mon, 14 Jan 2013 16:21:46 EST <![CDATA[General Court Responds to Runaway Servants and Slaves (1640)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/General_Court_Responds_to_Runaway_Servants_and_Slaves_1640 Mon, 14 Jan 2013 16:21:46 EST]]> /_A_Report_of_a_Comittee_from_an_Assembly_Concerning_the_freedome_of_Elizabeth_Key_1656 Fri, 11 Jan 2013 09:34:02 EST <![CDATA["A Report of a Comittee from an Assembly Concerning the freedome of Elizabeth Key" (1656)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Report_of_a_Comittee_from_an_Assembly_Concerning_the_freedome_of_Elizabeth_Key_1656 Fri, 11 Jan 2013 09:34:02 EST]]> /Surrender_to_Parliament_Treaty_of_Jamestown Tue, 18 Sep 2012 11:46:52 EST <![CDATA[Surrender to Parliament (Treaty of Jamestown)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Surrender_to_Parliament_Treaty_of_Jamestown On March 12, 1652, Virginia governor Sir William Berkeley and the governor's Council agreed to a negotiated surrender to the forces sent out by the Commonwealth government of England under the authority of the English Parliament. By capitulating, Virginia relinquished its status as a royal colony and ceased its formal support of the Stuart royal family. The surrender came after the colony endured an embargo and a blockade, both ordered by the Commonwealth government of England. The colonial government negotiated relatively favorable terms for its surrender, although Berkeley was forced to step down as governor. Virginia would return to royal colony status in 1660 with the Restoration.
Tue, 18 Sep 2012 11:46:52 EST]]>
/Elections_in_Colonial_Virginia Fri, 31 Aug 2012 14:40:18 EST <![CDATA[Elections in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Elections_in_Colonial_Virginia Elections were an integral part of the colonial political system and used primarily to choose members of the House of Burgesses, the lower house of the General Assembly in Virginia, and less frequently to select members of the vestry in each Anglican parish. Building on customs and practices brought from England in the seventeenth century, Virginians developed their own unique electoral system, which allowed counties, towns, and colleges to be represented; defined who got to vote through an evolving franchise law; and governed the behavior of candidates and voters before and during elections. While wealthy planters won nearly all of these political contests, the electorate, which was composed of small-landowning and tenant farmers, responded to a variety of personal, neighborhood, parish, county, provincial, and imperial factors in deciding which members of the gentry to elect. In most places, incumbents easily won reelection, but in some constituencies at certain points in time, one set of elites challenged another, heated campaigning went on for months, members of the most prominent families suffered defeat, and outcomes were so close and contentious that they could only be resolved by the House of Burgesses in the capital at Williamsburg.
Fri, 31 Aug 2012 14:40:18 EST]]>
/The_General_Assembly_Convenes_1619 Wed, 08 Aug 2012 12:47:35 EST <![CDATA[The General Assembly Convenes (1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_General_Assembly_Convenes_1619 In this excerpt from the Journals of the House of Burgesses, the assembly's's first meeting on July 30, 1619, is described, with Governor Sir George Yeardley, the governor's Council, and the burgesses meeting in unicameral session in the church at Jamestown. After the Reverend Richard Bucke said a prayer to open the session, the assembly ruled on two of its new members' standing. Some spelling has been updated and contractions expanded.
Wed, 08 Aug 2012 12:47:35 EST]]>
/John_Nickson_Runs_Away_1687 Fri, 03 Aug 2012 09:31:03 EST <![CDATA[John Nickson Runs Away (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_Nickson_Runs_Away_1687 Fri, 03 Aug 2012 09:31:03 EST]]> /_Act_directing_the_trial_of_Slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_Negros_Mulattos_and_Indians_bond_or_free_1723 Wed, 01 Aug 2012 12:54:19 EST <![CDATA["An Act directing the trial of Slaves, committing capital crimes; and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them; and for the better government of Negros, Mulattos, and Indians, bond or free" ]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Act_directing_the_trial_of_Slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_Negros_Mulattos_and_Indians_bond_or_free_1723 In "An Act directing the trial of Slaves, committing capital crimes; and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them; and for the better government of Negros, Mulattos, and Indians, bond or free," passed by the General Assembly in the session of May 1723, Virginia's colonial government establishes laws with regards to the punishment of slaves and the overall government of slaves, free blacks, and Indians.
Wed, 01 Aug 2012 12:54:19 EST]]>
/Testimony_about_the_York_County_Conspiracy_1661 Fri, 20 Jul 2012 09:05:31 EST <![CDATA[Testimony about the York County Conspiracy (1661)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_about_the_York_County_Conspiracy_1661 In these depositions, taken in January 1661, several indentured servants, captured in an attempt to rebel in York County, explain what their plan was and how it should have been executed. The servants' overseer, John Parkes, also testified. Some spelling has been updated and contractions expanded.
Fri, 20 Jul 2012 09:05:31 EST]]>
/Jacob_Rowe_Sanctioned_in_Debate_over_Two_Penny_Bill_1758 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 17:27:48 EST <![CDATA[Jacob Rowe Sanctioned in Debate over Two Penny Bill (1758)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jacob_Rowe_Sanctioned_in_Debate_over_Two_Penny_Bill_1758 Debate in the House of Burgesses over the proposed Two Penny Bill turned nasty in September 1758. In the following excerpts from the Journal of the House of Burgesses, the Reverend Jacob Rowe is sanctioned and then apologizes for comments he made in a private conversation that were overhead by burgess William Kennon. The Two Penny Act of 1758 was signed into law by Lieutenant Governor Francis Fauquier, on behalf of George II, on October 12, 1758. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Tue, 17 Jul 2012 17:27:48 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Robert_King_Carter_to_William_Cage_1724 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 16:56:56 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert "King" Carter to William Cage (1724)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_King_Carter_to_William_Cage_1724 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 16:56:56 EST]]> /_An_act_concerning_Servants_and_Slaves_1705 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 10:28:39 EST <![CDATA["An act concerning Servants and Slaves" (1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_concerning_Servants_and_Slaves_1705 In "An act concerning Servants and Slaves," passed by the General Assembly in the session of October 1705, Virginia's colonial government collects old and establishes new laws with regards to indentured servants and slaves.
Tue, 17 Jul 2012 10:28:39 EST]]>
/_An_Act_for_Exempting_their_Majestyes_Protestant_Subjects_dissenting_from_the_Church_of_England_from_the_Penalties_of_certaine_Lawes_1688 Mon, 16 Jul 2012 15:43:20 EST <![CDATA["An Act for Exempting their Majestyes Protestant Subjects dissenting from the Church of England from the Penalties of certaine Lawes" (1688)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_for_Exempting_their_Majestyes_Protestant_Subjects_dissenting_from_the_Church_of_England_from_the_Penalties_of_certaine_Lawes_1688 Mon, 16 Jul 2012 15:43:20 EST]]> /_An_act_enabling_freemen_to_vote_for_burgesses_and_preventing_false_returnes_of_burgesses_1676 Fri, 08 Jun 2012 15:46:44 EST <![CDATA["An act enabling freemen to vote for burgesses and preventing false returnes of burgesses" (1676)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_enabling_freemen_to_vote_for_burgesses_and_preventing_false_returnes_of_burgesses_1676 The following law, "An act enabling freemen to vote for burgesses and preventing false returnes of burgesses," passed by the General Assembly in its June 1676 session, during the tumult of Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), defines the franchise as consisting of all freemen.
Fri, 08 Jun 2012 15:46:44 EST]]>
/Lee_s_Resolution_1776 Fri, 08 Jun 2012 15:20:24 EST <![CDATA[Lee's Resolution (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_s_Resolution_1776 Richard Henry Lee, a Virginia delegate to the Second Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, offered the following resolution on June 7, 1776. He was acting on instructions from the Virginia Convention, meeting in Williamsburg. Lee's resolution was seconded by John Adams, of Massachusetts, and approved by the Congress on July 2.
Fri, 08 Jun 2012 15:20:24 EST]]>
/The_Relation_of_the_Right_Honourable_the_Lord_D-La-Warre_Lord_Governour_and_Captaine_Generall_of_the_Colonie_planted_in_Virginea_1611 Mon, 04 Jun 2012 14:28:03 EST <![CDATA[Relation of the Right Honourable the Lord D-La-Warre, Lord Governour and Captaine Generall of the Colonie, planted in Virginea, The (1611)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Relation_of_the_Right_Honourable_the_Lord_D-La-Warre_Lord_Governour_and_Captaine_Generall_of_the_Colonie_planted_in_Virginea_1611 On June 25, 1611, Thomas West, twelfth baron De La Warr, governor of the Virginia colony, addressed this letter to his superiors at the Virginia Company of London. He had left Virginia with plans to recuperate from illness in the Bermuda islands, but a storm forced his fleet of ships west, first to the Azores and then to England. Back home, he felt obliged to explain his presence and the dismal state of the colony. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Mon, 04 Jun 2012 14:28:03 EST]]>
/Law_Regulating_Indentured_Servants_1643 Mon, 04 Jun 2012 11:09:32 EST <![CDATA[Law Regulating Indentured Servants (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Law_Regulating_Indentured_Servants_1643 Mon, 04 Jun 2012 11:09:32 EST]]> /Sir_Walter_Raleigh_s_Patent_to_Settle_Virginia_1584 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 15:27:38 EST <![CDATA[Sir Walter Raleigh's Patent to Settle Virginia (1584)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sir_Walter_Raleigh_s_Patent_to_Settle_Virginia_1584 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 15:27:38 EST]]> /Requesting_to_Hire_an_Indian_Servant_1711 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:21:48 EST <![CDATA[Requesting to Hire an Indian Servant (1711)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Requesting_to_Hire_an_Indian_Servant_1711 In the following petition to Virginia governor Alexander Spotswood, Richard Little Page (sometimes Littlepage) of New Kent County requests permission to hire two Pamunkey Indians to work for him as servants. He does so according to the provisions of a law, "Concerning Indians," passed by the General Assembly in its March 1662 (New Style) session. Spotswood then replies, granting Little Page's request. Some contractions have been expanded.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:21:48 EST]]>
/Irish_Servants_1654 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:09:49 EST <![CDATA[Irish Servants (1655)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Irish_Servants_1654 This law, passed by the General Assembly in its March 1655 (New Style) session, establishes the terms of service specifically for immigrants from Ireland who arrive in Virginia without indentures. During the March 1658 session, the assembly revised the law so "that at the end of the act these words are added, 'and all aliens to be included in this act.'" The law was repealed five years later, with special mention made of this final clause. Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:09:49 EST]]>
/_Against_Runnaway_Servants_1657-1658 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:00:50 EST <![CDATA["Against Runnaway Servants" (1658)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Against_Runnaway_Servants_1657-1658 In this law, "Against Runnaway Servants," passed in its March 1658 (New Style) session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants who ran away, while also making provisions for servants who believed they were being mistreated to seek justice in the courts. Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:00:50 EST]]>
/_An_Act_for_repealing_an_Act_for_Irish_Servants_1659 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:54:29 EST <![CDATA["An Act for repealing an Act for Irish Servants" (1660)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_for_repealing_an_Act_for_Irish_Servants_1659 This law, "An Act for repealing an Act for Irish Servants," passed by the General Assembly in its March 1660 (New Style) session, repeals an earlier act that established the terms of service specifically for immigrants from Ireland who arrived in Virginia without indentures.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:54:29 EST]]>
/_Cruelty_of_masters_prohibited_1661-1662 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:49:18 EST <![CDATA["Cruelty of masters prohibited" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Cruelty_of_masters_prohibited_1661-1662 In this law, "Cruelty of masters prohibited," passed in its March 1662 (New Style) session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants not being treated properly by their masters.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:49:18 EST]]>
/_Masters_of_Ships_to_provide_fower_months_provisions_1661-1662 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:45:59 EST <![CDATA["Masters of Ships to provide fower months provisions" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Masters_of_Ships_to_provide_fower_months_provisions_1661-1662 In this law, "Masters of Ships to provide fower months provisions," passed in its March 1662 (New Style) session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants not being treated properly during their passage from England to Virginia.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:45:59 EST]]>
/_An_act_lymiting_masters_dealing_with_their_servants_1676-1677 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:42:12 EST <![CDATA["An act lymiting masters dealing with their servants" (1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_lymiting_masters_dealing_with_their_servants_1676-1677 In this law, "An act lymiting masters dealing with their servants," passed in its February 1677 (New Style) session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants not being treated properly by their masters.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:42:12 EST]]>
/_Concerning_Indians_1661 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:38:35 EST <![CDATA["Concerning Indians" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Concerning_Indians_1661 In the following act, "Concerning Indians," passed in its March 1662 (New Style) session, the General Assembly attempts to regulate various interactions colonists have with the neighboring Virginia Indians.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:38:35 EST]]>
/The_humble_Petition_of_Jane_Dickenson_Widdowe_1624 Fri, 25 May 2012 14:22:25 EST <![CDATA[The humble Petition of Jane Dickenson Widdowe (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_humble_Petition_of_Jane_Dickenson_Widdowe_1624 In this petition to Virginia governor Sir Francis Wyatt and members of the governor's Council, dated March 30, 1624, Jane Dickenson pleads for her release from indentured servitude. Having been taken prisoner by Pamunkey Indians following Opechancanough's attack in 1622, she was ransomed by Dr. John Pott, to whom she then owed service for both herself and her husband, who was killed in the attack. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Fri, 25 May 2012 14:22:25 EST]]>
/A_Servant_Demands_his_Freedom_Dues_1624 Fri, 25 May 2012 14:05:51 EST <![CDATA[A Servant Demands his Freedom Dues (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Servant_Demands_his_Freedom_Dues_1624 On January 24, 1624, members of the General Court heard testimony in the case of an indentured servant called William Mutch who argued with his master over so-called freedom dues, or the payment servants customarily received upon completion of their contracts. In this case, Mutch contended that he was owed corn. Dr. John Pott, who provided the testimony, was a member of the General Court and later served as governor of the colony. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Fri, 25 May 2012 14:05:51 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_punishment_of_ffornication_and_seaverall_other_sins_and_offences_1696 Thu, 24 May 2012 11:31:39 EST <![CDATA["An act for punishment of ffornication and seaverall other sins and offences" (1696)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_punishment_of_ffornication_and_seaverall_other_sins_and_offences_1696 In this law, "An act for punishment of ffornication and seaverall other sins and offences," passed in its September 1696 session, the General Assembly addressed the perennial problems of swearing, drunkenness, and extramarital sex. The act is a revision of one passed in the April 1691 session.
Thu, 24 May 2012 11:31:39 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_the_more_effectuall_suppressing_the_severall_sins_and_offences_of_swaring_cursing_profaineing_Gods_holy_name_Sabbath_abuseing_drunkenness_ffornication_and_adultery_1691 Thu, 24 May 2012 11:22:03 EST <![CDATA["An act for the more effectuall suppressing the severall sins and offences of swaring, cursing, profaineing Gods holy name, Sabbath abuseing, drunkenness, ffornication, and adultery" (1691)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_the_more_effectuall_suppressing_the_severall_sins_and_offences_of_swaring_cursing_profaineing_Gods_holy_name_Sabbath_abuseing_drunkenness_ffornication_and_adultery_1691 In this law, "An act for the more effectuall suppressing the severall sins and offences of swaring, cursing, profaineing Gods holy name, Sabbath abuseing, drunkenness, ffornication, and adultery," passed in its April 1691 session, the General Assembly addressed the perennial problems of swearing, drunkenness, and extramarital sex. The act would be revised in the 1696 session.
Thu, 24 May 2012 11:22:03 EST]]>
/Declaration_of_Independence_1776 Mon, 21 May 2012 11:39:26 EST <![CDATA[Declaration of Independence (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Declaration_of_Independence_1776 On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, adopted the Declaration of Independence, written primarily by Virginia delegate Thomas Jefferson in committee with John Adams, of Massachusetts, Benjamin Franklin, of Pennsylvania, Robert R. Livingston, of New York, and Roger Sherman, of Connecticut. The Declaration followed a resolution, made by Virginia's Richard Henry Lee on June 7, that the Congress declare independence. The resolution was adopted on July 2, and the Declaration of Independence listed the Congress's grievances with George III. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 21 May 2012 11:39:26 EST]]>
/_An_Act_for_amending_the_Staple_of_Tobacco_and_for_preventing_Frauds_in_his_Majesty_s_Customs_1730 Thu, 17 May 2012 14:17:16 EST <![CDATA["An Act for amending the Staple of Tobacco; and for preventing Frauds in his Majesty's Customs" (1730)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_for_amending_the_Staple_of_Tobacco_and_for_preventing_Frauds_in_his_Majesty_s_Customs_1730 The following law, "An Act for amending the Staple of Tobacco; and for preventing Frauds in his Majesty's Customs," passed by the General Assembly in its May 1730 session, at the urging of Virginia lieutenant governor Sir William Gooch, outlined a controversial plan for the inspection of tobacco before it went to market. It was popularly known as the Tobacco Inspection Act.
Thu, 17 May 2012 14:17:16 EST]]>
/Parishes_and_Tithes_1643 Thu, 17 May 2012 13:26:28 EST <![CDATA[Parishes and Tithes (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Parishes_and_Tithes_1643 In its March 1643 session, the General Assembly repealed all former laws and passes a series of new laws that helped to clarify the intentions of its previous legislation. In this first act, the assembly explains the powers and obligations of the parish vestry and dictates taxes to be paid and the people—including enslaved African women—considered tithable, or eligible to be taxed. Some spelling has been modernized.
Thu, 17 May 2012 13:26:28 EST]]>
/Defining_the_Franchise_1646 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:53:27 EST <![CDATA[Defining the Franchise (1646)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Defining_the_Franchise_1646 The following law, passed by the General Assembly in its October 1646 session, requires all freemen to vote in elections of burgesses or face a fine. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:53:27 EST]]>
/Defining_the_Franchise_1655 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:50:11 EST <![CDATA[Defining the Franchise (1655)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Defining_the_Franchise_1655 The following law, passed by the General Assembly in its March 1655 session, articulates election procedures and defines the franchise. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:50:11 EST]]>
/_Election_of_burgesses_by_whome_1670 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:45:54 EST <![CDATA["Election of burgesses by whome" (1670)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Election_of_burgesses_by_whome_1670 The following law, "Election of burgesses by whome," passed by the General Assembly in its October 1670 session, defines the franchise as consisting of all property-holding "ffreeholders and housekeepers."
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:45:54 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_keeping_holy_the_13th_of_September_1663 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:41:44 EST <![CDATA["An act for keeping holy the 13th of September" (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_keeping_holy_the_13th_of_September_1663 In "An act for keeping holy the 13th of September," the General Assembly declares an annual holiday after a foiled attempt by servants in Gloucester County to rebel.
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:41:44 EST]]>
/Defining_the_Franchise_1656 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:39:28 EST <![CDATA[Defining the Franchise (1656)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Defining_the_Franchise_1656 The following law, passed by the General Assembly in its March 1656 session, revises a previous, more restrictive law to define the franchise as consisting of all freemen. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:39:28 EST]]>
/_An_Act_to_declare_who_shall_have_a_right_to_vote_in_the_Election_of_Burgesses_to_serve_in_the_General_Assembly_for_Counties_and_for_preventing_fraudulent_Conveiances_in_order_to_multiply_Votes_at_such_Elections_1736 Mon, 14 May 2012 11:46:49 EST <![CDATA["An Act to declare who shall have a right to vote in the Election of Burgesses to serve in the General Assembly, for Counties; and for preventing fraudulent Conveiances, in order to multiply Votes at such Elections" (1736)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_to_declare_who_shall_have_a_right_to_vote_in_the_Election_of_Burgesses_to_serve_in_the_General_Assembly_for_Counties_and_for_preventing_fraudulent_Conveiances_in_order_to_multiply_Votes_at_such_Elections_1736 The following law, "An Act to declare who shall have a right to vote in the Election of Burgesses to serve in the General Assembly, for Counties; and for preventing fraudulent Conveiances, in order to multiply Votes at such Elections," passed by the General Assembly in its August 1736 session, articulated the land-ownership requirements for voting. It also repealed a voting oath from a previous act and replaced it with another.
Mon, 14 May 2012 11:46:49 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_prevention_of_undue_election_of_Burgeses_1699 Mon, 14 May 2012 11:05:14 EST <![CDATA["An act for prevention of undue election of Burgeses" (1699)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_prevention_of_undue_election_of_Burgeses_1699 The following law, "An act for prevention of undue election of Burgeses" passed by the General Assembly in its April 1699 session, sets out the rules governing elections.
Mon, 14 May 2012 11:05:14 EST]]>
/_Concerning_secret_Marriages_1657-1658 Mon, 14 May 2012 10:55:50 EST <![CDATA["Concerning secret Marriages" (1658)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Concerning_secret_Marriages_1657-1658 In this law, "Concerning secret Marriages," passed in its 1658 session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants having children and marrying. For masters, this resulted in a loss of the women servants' labor, for which the law attempted to provide compensation. The act revises one passed during the 1643 session. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 10:55:50 EST]]>
/_By_the_King_A_Proclamation_For_Suppressing_Rebellion_and_Sedition_1775 Mon, 14 May 2012 10:27:20 EST <![CDATA["By the King, A Proclamation, For Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition" (1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_By_the_King_A_Proclamation_For_Suppressing_Rebellion_and_Sedition_1775 In this response to the so-called Olive Branch Petition, sent to the king by the Second Continental Congress on July 8, 1775, George III rejects the idea of reconciliation and declares the colonies to be in open rebellion. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 10:27:20 EST]]>
/_The_order_about_Jayle_birds_1670 Mon, 14 May 2012 09:22:36 EST <![CDATA["The order about Jayle birds" (1670)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_order_about_Jayle_birds_1670 On April 20, 1670, Virginia governor Sir William Berkeley and the governor's Council issued the following order, glossed in the record as "The order about Jayle birds," prohibiting the importation of certain English convicts as servants. The concern in part stems from the Gloucester County Conspiracy of 1663, in which a group of servants that included convicts allegedly plotted an insurrection. Some spelling has been updated and contractions expanded.
Mon, 14 May 2012 09:22:36 EST]]>
/A_Memoriall_Concerning_the_Mal-administrations_of_His_Excelly_Francis_Nicholson_Esqr_Her_Ma_ties_Lieut_and_Governour_Generall_of_Virginia_1703 Mon, 14 May 2012 09:13:59 EST <![CDATA[A Memoriall Concerning the Mal-administrations of His Excellency Francis Nicholson, Esqr., Her Ma'ties Lieut. and Governour Generall of Virginia (1703)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Memoriall_Concerning_the_Mal-administrations_of_His_Excelly_Francis_Nicholson_Esqr_Her_Ma_ties_Lieut_and_Governour_Generall_of_Virginia_1703 In May 1703, six members of the governor's Council— John Lightfoot, Matthew Page, Benjamin Harrison, Robert "King" Carter, James Blair, and Philip Ludwell—sent to the Crown the following list of grievances against Virginia governor Francis Nicholson. In April 1705 the Crown dismissed Nicholson, replacing him with Colonel Edward Nott. Some contractions have been expanded.
Mon, 14 May 2012 09:13:59 EST]]>
/Testimony_about_the_Gloucester_County_Conspiracy_1663 Mon, 14 May 2012 08:24:49 EST <![CDATA[Testimony about the Gloucester County Conspiracy (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_about_the_Gloucester_County_Conspiracy_1663 In these depositions, several indentured servants, captured in an attempt to rebel in Gloucester County, explain what their plan was and how it should have been executed. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 08:24:49 EST]]>
/The_General_Assembly_Adjourns_1776 Tue, 01 May 2012 10:55:46 EST <![CDATA[The General Assembly Adjourns (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_General_Assembly_Adjourns_1776 In this excerpt from the Journals of the House of Burgesses, the House of Burgesses is seen to dissolve as a lawmaking body and as the lower house of Virginia's General Assembly during the American Revolution (1775–1783). In the original manuscript, the House secretary wrote "Finis" in dramatically large letters. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Tue, 01 May 2012 10:55:46 EST]]>
/Instructions_from_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_to_the_First_Settlers_1606 Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:24:30 EST <![CDATA[Instructions from the Virginia Company of London to the First Settlers (1606)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Instructions_from_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_to_the_First_Settlers_1606 In these instructions, dated November 1606, the Virginia Company of London informs the men who would settle what became Jamestown of its priorities once they land. In particular, the company suggests how to look for a Northwest Passage, how to search for gold, and how to treat the Virginia Indians, whom it calls "naturals." Captain Christopher Newport and Bartholomew Gosnold are mentioned by name. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:24:30 EST]]>
/_An_act_declaring_all_the_acts_orders_and_proceedings_of_a_grand_assembly_held_att_James_Citty_in_the_month_of_June_1676_voyd_null_and_repealed_1677 Fri, 06 Apr 2012 13:48:38 EST <![CDATA["An act declaring all the acts, orders and proceedings of a grand assembly held att James Citty, in the month of June, 1676, voyd, null and repealed" (1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_declaring_all_the_acts_orders_and_proceedings_of_a_grand_assembly_held_att_James_Citty_in_the_month_of_June_1676_voyd_null_and_repealed_1677 The following law, "An act declaring all the acts, orders and proceedings of a grand assembly held att James Citty, in the month of June, 1676, voyd, null and repealed," passed by the General Assembly in its February 1677 session, voids all laws passed during the previous session, which had been held during the tumult of Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677).
Fri, 06 Apr 2012 13:48:38 EST]]>
/_An_act_to_repeale_a_former_law_makeing_Indians_and_others_ffree_1682 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 16:28:16 EST <![CDATA["An act to repeale a former law makeing Indians and others ffree" (1682)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_to_repeale_a_former_law_makeing_Indians_and_others_ffree_1682 In "An act to repeale a former law makeing Indians and others ffree," passed by the General Assembly in the session of November 1682, Virginia's colonial government attempts to clarify the definitions of indentured servants and slaves.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 16:28:16 EST]]>
/_Concerning_Hireing_of_Servants_1657-1658 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 15:34:10 EST <![CDATA["Concerning Hireing of Servants" (1658)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Concerning_Hireing_of_Servants_1657-1658 In this law, "Concerning Hireing of Servants," passed in its session of March 1657/58 (Old Style), the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants who ran away and hired themselves out to new, presumably more lenient, masters. The act revises one passed in the March 1642/43 session. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 15:34:10 EST]]>
/_English_running_away_with_negroes_1660-1661 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 15:28:33 EST <![CDATA["English running away with negroes" (1661)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_English_running_away_with_negroes_1660-1661 In this act, "English running away with negroes," passed by the General Assembly in the session of March 1660/61 (Old Style), colonial Virginia's government responds to the problem of runaway indentured servants and slaves.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 15:28:33 EST]]>
/_Negro_women_not_exempted_from_tax_1668 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:57:53 EST <![CDATA["Negro women not exempted from tax" (1668)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Negro_women_not_exempted_from_tax_1668 In the act "Negro women not exempted from tax," passed by the General Assembly in the session of September 1668, colonial Virginia's government attempted to better define the conditions by which free and enslaved African Americans were taxed.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:57:53 EST]]>
/Law_Regulating_Marriage_of_Indentured_Servants_1642-1643 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:55:12 EST <![CDATA[Law Regulating Marriage of Indentured Servants (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Law_Regulating_Marriage_of_Indentured_Servants_1642-1643 In this law, passed in the session of March 2, 1642/43 (Old Style), the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants having children and marrying. For masters, this resulted in a loss of the women servants' labor, for which the law attempted to provide compensation. The law was revised during the 1657/58 session.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:55:12 EST]]>
/Burgesses_for_the_Assembly_of_1619 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 13:49:01 EST <![CDATA[Burgesses for the Assembly of 1619]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burgesses_for_the_Assembly_of_1619 In this list are the twenty-two burgesses who gathered in Jamestown on July 30, 1619, for the first meeting of the unicameral General Assembly. The two representatives from Martin's Brandon, a plantation owned by Captain John Martin, were denied their seats when it was called to the attention of Governor Sir George Yeardley that a clause in Martin's land patent exempted him from England's uniform laws and from any laws passed by the General Assembly.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 13:49:01 EST]]>
/General_Court_Hears_Case_on_Witchcraft_1626 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 13:10:20 EST <![CDATA[General Court Hears Case on Witchcraft (1626)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/General_Court_Hears_Case_on_Witchcraft_1626 The following is a transcript of the proceedings of the General Court, meeting in Jamestown on September 11, 1626. The court heard evidence against Joan Wright of Surry County, who was accused by her neighbors of practicing witchcraft. She was acquitted in, perhaps, the earliest allegation of witchcraft on record against an English settler in North America. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 13:10:20 EST]]>
/_Women_servants_whose_common_imployment_is_working_in_the_ground_to_be_accompted_tythable_1662 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:49:25 EST <![CDATA["Women servants whose common imployment is working in the ground to be accompted tythable" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Women_servants_whose_common_imployment_is_working_in_the_ground_to_be_accompted_tythable_1662 In the act "Women servants whose common imployment is working in the ground to be accompted tythable," passed by the General Assembly in the session of December 1662, Virginia's colonial government attempted to better define the conditions by which free and enslaved African Americans were taxed.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:49:25 EST]]>
/Letter_from_the_Council_in_Virginia_to_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_1607 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:40:01 EST <![CDATA[Letter from the Council in Virginia to the Virginia Company of London (1607)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_the_Council_in_Virginia_to_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_1607 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:40:01 EST]]> /_An_act_declaring_that_baptisme_of_slaves_doth_not_exempt_them_from_bondage_1667 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:22:27 EST <![CDATA["An act declaring that baptisme of slaves doth not exempt them from bondage" (1667)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_declaring_that_baptisme_of_slaves_doth_not_exempt_them_from_bondage_1667 In "An act declaring that baptisme of slaves doth not exempt them from bondage," passed by the General Assembly in the session of September 1667, Virginia's colonial government attempted to better define the conditions by which people were enslaved or free.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:22:27 EST]]>
/_Women_servants_gott_with_child_by_their_masters_after_their_time_expired_to_be_sold_by_the_Churchwardens_for_two_yeares_for_the_good_of_the_parish_1662 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:18:39 EST <![CDATA["Women servants gott with child by their masters after their time expired to be sold by the Churchwardens for two yeares for the good of the parish" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Women_servants_gott_with_child_by_their_masters_after_their_time_expired_to_be_sold_by_the_Churchwardens_for_two_yeares_for_the_good_of_the_parish_1662 In this law, "Women servants gott with child by their masters after their time expired to be sold by the Churchwardens for two yeares for the good of the parish," passed in its December 1662 session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants having children by their masters.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:18:39 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_preventing_Negroes_Insurrections_1680 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:04:11 EST <![CDATA["An act for preventing Negroes Insurrections" (1680)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_preventing_Negroes_Insurrections_1680 On June 8, 1680, the General Assembly passed "An act for preventing Negroes Insurrections" in response to planters' concerns about rebellious slaves.
Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:04:11 EST]]>
/_Against_ffornication_1661-1662 Thu, 29 Mar 2012 16:38:05 EST <![CDATA["Against ffornication" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Against_ffornication_1661-1662 In this law, "Against ffornication," passed in its March 1662 session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants having sex that produced pregnancies that, in turn, cost masters money and labor.
Thu, 29 Mar 2012 16:38:05 EST]]>
/Phillip_Mongom_Accused_of_Stealing_Hogs_1659-1660 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 15:25:02 EST <![CDATA[Phillip Mongom Accused of Stealing Hogs (1660)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Phillip_Mongom_Accused_of_Stealing_Hogs_1659-1660 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 15:25:02 EST]]> /Virginia_Resolves_on_the_Stamp_Act_1765 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 13:27:33 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Resolves on the Stamp Act (1765)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Resolves_on_the_Stamp_Act_1765 Patrick Henry wrote the following five resolutions against the Stamp Act and introduced them to the House of Burgesses on May 29, 1765. The House passed them after a heated debate, but rescinded the fifth resolution the following day. This iteration of the Virginia Stamp Act resolves comes from a handwritten document that was found inside a small envelope that Henry included with his last will and testament.
Wed, 28 Mar 2012 13:27:33 EST]]>
/The_Deaths_of_Elizabeth_Abbott_and_Elias_Hinton_1624 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:18:53 EST <![CDATA[The Deaths of Elizabeth Abbott and Elias Hinton (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Deaths_of_Elizabeth_Abbott_and_Elias_Hinton_1624 In these depositions, delivered to the General Court on October 10, 1624, various indentured servants, masters, and other witnesses testify about the deaths of two servants—Elizabeth Abbott and Elias Hinton—at the hand of their master and mistress, John and Alice Proctor. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:18:53 EST]]>
/Edmund_Jenings_Removed_from_Governor_s_Council_1726 Fri, 09 Mar 2012 13:42:07 EST <![CDATA[Edmund Jenings Removed from Governor's Council (1726)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edmund_Jenings_Removed_from_Governor_s_Council_1726 In its meeting on June 25, 1726, the governor's Council, in consultation with Lieutenant Governor Hugh Drysdale, removed Edmund Jenings from his position on the Council. Jenings had long been absent from meetings, and his health, both physical and mental, was deteriorating. Drysdale, too, was ill, and Jenings, as senior member of the Council, was in line to serve as president, or acting governor, when Drysdale died. With Jenings's removal, his rival Robert "King" Carter served that role when Drysdale died on June 22, 1726.
Fri, 09 Mar 2012 13:42:07 EST]]>
/Proclamation_from_Governor_Nicholson_1690 Fri, 02 Mar 2012 16:38:21 EST <![CDATA[Proclamation from Governor Nicholson (1690)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Proclamation_from_Governor_Nicholson_1690 Fri, 02 Mar 2012 16:38:21 EST]]> /_An_Acte_against_Conjuration_Witchcrafte_and_dealing_with_evill_and_wicked_Spirits_1604 Fri, 24 Feb 2012 11:03:26 EST <![CDATA["An Acte against Conjuration Witchcrafte and dealing with evill and wicked Spirits" (1604)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Acte_against_Conjuration_Witchcrafte_and_dealing_with_evill_and_wicked_Spirits_1604 In this act, "An Acte against Conjuration Witchcrafte and dealing with evill and wicked Spirits," passed by Parliament in the session that began on March 19, 1603, and ended July 7, 1604, the English government, not for the first time, outlawed witchcraft. It was the this law, however, that authorities used to prosecute accused witches in Virginia. Some contractions have been expanded. The last witchcraft trial in the mainland colonies took place in 1730, and Parliament repealed the law in 1736. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Fri, 24 Feb 2012 11:03:26 EST]]>
/_Against_Runawayes_1669 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:59:51 EST <![CDATA["Against Runawayes" (1669)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Against_Runawayes_1669 In this act, "Against Runawayes," passed by the General Assembly in the session of October 1669, Virginia's colonial government responds to the problem of runaway indentured servants and slaves.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:59:51 EST]]>
/Denying_Free_Blacks_the_Right_to_Vote_1724_1735 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:56:21 EST <![CDATA[Denying Free Blacks the Right to Vote (1724, 1735)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Denying_Free_Blacks_the_Right_to_Vote_1724_1735 In this exchange of letters, the Board of Trade questions the appropriateness of a 1723 law in Virginia denying free blacks the right to vote. The Board's legal counsel, Richard West, raised his question in 1724, but the Board's secretary, Alured Popple, did not ask for an explanation until 1735, when he wrote to Virginia lieutenant governor William Gooch.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:56:21 EST]]>
/The_Case_of_Grace_Sherwood_1706 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:52:25 EST <![CDATA[The Case of Grace Sherwood (1706)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Case_of_Grace_Sherwood_1706 The following is a transcript of the proceedings of the Princess Anne County Court as it hears the case, in 1706, of Grace Sherwood on the charge of witchcraft. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded. The case is heard first in the county court, then in the General Court, and finally is removed back to the county court. There is the suggestion that it was once more heard by the General Court, but the courts records for that period are missing. Whatever the case, Sherwood is known to have survived her legal ordeal. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:52:25 EST]]>
/Governor_Effingham_Reveals_a_Planned_Slave_Insurrection_1687 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:11:45 EST <![CDATA[Governor Effingham Reveals a Planned Slave Insurrection (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Governor_Effingham_Reveals_a_Planned_Slave_Insurrection_1687 In the official record of the governor's Council for October 24, 1687, Virginia governor Francis Howard, baron Howard of Effingham, announces that Nicholas Spencer, the colony's secretary and a resident of Westmoreland County, had uncovered a conspiracy among the slaves there. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:11:45 EST]]>
/_An_Act_to_enable_the_inhabitants_of_this_Colony_to_discharge_their_public_dues_officers_fees_and_other_tobacco_debts_in_money_for_the_ensuing_year_1758 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:45:41 EST <![CDATA["An Act to enable the inhabitants of this Colony to discharge their public dues, officers fees, and other tobacco debts, in money, for the ensuing year" (1758)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_to_enable_the_inhabitants_of_this_Colony_to_discharge_their_public_dues_officers_fees_and_other_tobacco_debts_in_money_for_the_ensuing_year_1758 In "An Act to enable the inhabitants of this Colony to discharge their public dues, officers fees, and other tobacco debts, in money, for the ensuing year," better known as the Two Penny Act, the General Assembly responded to a second failure of the colony's tobacco crops by again allowing vestries and county courts to collect taxes and pay salaries in money calculated at the usual market price for tobacco rather than in tobacco at windfall rates. Lieutenant Governor Francis Fauquier signed the act into law, on behalf of George II, on October 12, 1758.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:45:41 EST]]>
/The_Two_Penny_Act_1755 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:44:20 EST <![CDATA["An act to enable the inhabitants of this colony to discharge their Tobacco debts in money, for this present year" (1755)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Two_Penny_Act_1755 In "An act to enable the inhabitants of this colony to discharge their Tobacco debts in money, for this present year," better known as the Two Penny Act, the General Assembly responded to the failure of the colony's tobacco crops by allowing vestries and county courts to collect taxes and pay salaries in money calculated at the usual market price for tobacco rather than in tobacco at windfall rates. Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie signed the act into law, on behalf of George II, on November 8, 1755.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:44:20 EST]]>
/_Man_Servants_getting_any_bastard_child_to_make_satisfaction_to_the_parish_after_their_service_ended_1662 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:30:04 EST <![CDATA["Man Servants getting any bastard child to make satisfaction to the parish after their service ended" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Man_Servants_getting_any_bastard_child_to_make_satisfaction_to_the_parish_after_their_service_ended_1662 In this law, "Man Servants getting any bastard child to make satisfaction to the parish after their service ended," passed in its December 1662 session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of male indentured servants having children while under contract.
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/_Negro_womens_children_to_serve_according_to_the_condition_of_the_mother_1662 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:12:43 EST <![CDATA["Negro womens children to serve according to the condition of the mother" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Negro_womens_children_to_serve_according_to_the_condition_of_the_mother_1662 In the act "Negro womens children to serve according to the condition of the mother," passed by the General Assembly in the session of December 1662, Virginia's colonial government attempted to better define the conditions by which people were enslaved or free.
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/_An_act_prohibiting_servants_to_goe_abroad_without_a_lycense_1663 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:10:53 EST <![CDATA["An act prohibiting servants to goe abroad without a lycence" (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_prohibiting_servants_to_goe_abroad_without_a_lycense_1663 In "An act prohibiting servants to goe abroad without a lycense," passed by the General Assembly in the session of September 1663, Virginia's colonial government responds to the problem of runaway indentured servants and slaves.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:10:53 EST]]>
/Punishment_for_the_Enslaved_Man_Sam_1688 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 13:47:59 EST <![CDATA[Punishment for the Enslaved Man Sam (1688)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Punishment_for_the_Enslaved_Man_Sam_1688 On April 26, 1688, the General Court found Sam, the slave of Richard Metcalfe of Westmoreland County, guilty in James City County of promoting a slave rebellion. His conviction came just six months or so after a suspected plot was discovered in Westmoreland County. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
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/Governor_s_Council_The Thu, 19 Jan 2012 09:50:28 EST <![CDATA[Governor's Council, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Governor_s_Council_The The governor's Council, also known as the Council of State or simply the Council, consisted of about a dozen of colonial Virginia's wealthiest and most prominent men. Beginning in the 1630s the Crown appointed Council members, although from 1652 to 1660 the General Assembly elected the members. Crown appointments were lifetime appointments. From 1625, when Virginia became a royal colony, until the outbreak of the American Revolution (1775–1783), the Council members advised the royal governor or his deputy, the lieutenant governor, on all executive matters. The Council and the governor together constituted the highest court in the colony, known initially as the Quarter Court and later as the General Court. The Council members also served as members of the General Assembly; from the first meeting of the assembly in 1619 until 1643 the governor, Council members, and burgesses all met in unicameral session. After 1643 the Council members met separately as the upper House of the General Assembly. The Virginia Constitution of 1776 effectively abolished the governor's Council and distributed its executive, judicial, and legislative functions to three separate bodies of men.
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