Encyclopedia Virginia: Indians, Virginia http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Don_LuA Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:36:46 EST Don Luís de Velasco / Paquiquineo (fl. 1561–1571) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Don_LuA Paquiquineo, later Don Luís de Velasco, was a Virginia Indian who encountered Spanish explorers on the Chesapeake Bay in 1561 and returned to Spain with them, either voluntarily or as a captive. There, he appeared before King Philip II and was granted permission to lead a Catholic mission back to the Chesapeake, a land the Spaniards believed the Indians called Ajacán. A brief stop in Mexico City turned into a years-long stay after Paquiquineo became ill. During that time he converted to Christianity, taking the name of the viceroy of New Spain (present-day Mexico), Don Luís de Velasco. After two failed attempts to return home with Dominican missionaries, Don Luís sailed again to Spain, where he joined a group of Jesuit priests, and finally landed on the James River in September 1570—more than nine years after he had left. He initially aided the Jesuits, but quickly reunited with his family and, in February 1571, led an ambush that killed the missionaries save for an altar boy, Alonso de Olmos. While contemporary Spanish chroniclers demonized Paquiquineo, at least one modern scholar has suggested that the violence may have been a symbolic and predictable reaction to violations of the Indians' gift-exchange economy. In 1572 the Spanish dispatched soldiers to Ajacán. They hanged a handful of Indians but did not find Paquiquineo, who subsequently disappeared from history. Based on Jamestown-era rumors, some historians have argued that Paquiquineo and Opechancanough were the same person.
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:36:46 EST]]>
/Gift_Exchange_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:34:06 EST <![CDATA[Gift Exchange in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gift_Exchange_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Algonquian-speaking Virginia Indians during the Late Woodland Period (AD 900–1650) practiced a gift-exchange economy. All Indians were required to give, accept, and, at a later date, reciprocate; failure to do so could lead to punishments of varying kinds. Rather than value the goods being exchanged, Indians valued the relationships of the people exchanging, with participants in the economy collecting personal debts rather than material wealth. In fact, goods were not owned but continuously passed from gift-giver to receiver. This system contrasted sharply with the commodity-exchange system with which Europeans were familiar, and each culture's unfamiliarity with the other's economy led to tensions and even violence. In 1571, a baptized Virginia Indian named Don Luís led a party that killed a group of Jesuit missionaries, an act of violence that can be best explained as a response to a violation of gift-exchange protocol. The Jesuits had declined to offer gifts to Don Luís's people while trading with neighboring groups, an act of humiliation that led to their deaths. At Roanoke, the Indians allowed such slights to pass, instead manipulating the English colonists for their own political advantage. At Jamestown, however, English ignorance of the gift exchange unleashed more violence, which was often symbolic. In one case, the mouths of English corpses were stuffed with bread, a repeated gift of sustenance for which the English had failed to reciprocate. The derisive term "Indian giver," the meaning of which has changed over time, has come to represent the frustration that resulted from each group's ignorance of the other's economic system.
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:34:06 EST]]>
/Segura_Juan_Baptista_de_1529-1571 Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:31:26 EST <![CDATA[Segura, Juan Baptista de (1529–1571)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Segura_Juan_Baptista_de_1529-1571 Juan Baptista de Segura was a priest and vice-provincial of the Jesuits in the Spanish province of La Florida. In 1570 he led a mission to the Chesapeake Bay and was killed the next year in an ambush led by Don Luís de Velasco (formerly Paquiquineo), a Virginia Indian who had converted to Christianity. Born in Toledo and educated at a time when Spanish clerics vigorously debated the best way of converting American Indians, Segura joined the Society of Jesus in 1556 and was ordained a priest the following year. Ten years after that he was named vice-provincial of the Jesuits in La Florida. An intellectual and idealist, Segura was also an indecisive leader who advised his superior that the Jesuits should abandon La Florida and then, just a few months later, organized a mission to the Chesapeake Bay. Segura insisted, against the advice of Florida governor Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, that the Jesuits did not need military protection on their mission. He instead placed his faith in Don Luís, who promised that the land he called Ajacán would be rich in potential converts and natural resources. Segura established his mission near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay in September 1570, but when Don Luís returned to his family, the Jesuits were without support. In February 1571 the Virginia Indian killed Segura and his fellow missionaries, leaving only an altar boy alive.
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:31:26 EST]]>
/Rappahannock_Tribe Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:33:52 EST <![CDATA[Rappahannock Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rappahannock_Tribe The Rappahannock tribe is a state- and federally recognized Indian tribe whose tribal area is located in Indian Neck in King and Queen County. In the late twentieth century, the tribe owned 140.5 acres of land and the Rappahannock Cultural Center and had about 500 members on its tribal roll.
Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:33:52 EST]]>
/Monacan_Indian_Nation Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:27:46 EST <![CDATA[Monacan Indian Nation]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Monacan_Indian_Nation The Monacan Indian Nation is a state- and federally recognized Indian tribe whose tribal area is located near Bear Mountain in Amherst County. The original territory of the Siouan-speaking tribe and its allies comprised more than half of present-day Virginia, including almost all of the Piedmont region and parts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Early in the twenty-first century about 1,600 Monacans belonged to the tribe, one of the oldest groups of indigenous people still existing in its ancestral homeland, and the only group in the state whose culture descends from Eastern Siouan speakers.
Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:27:46 EST]]>
/Eastern_Chickahominy_Tribe Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:23:46 EST <![CDATA[Eastern Chickahominy Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Eastern_Chickahominy_Tribe The Chickahominy Tribe Eastern Division is a state- and federally recognized Indian tribe located about twenty-five miles east of Richmond in New Kent County. Early in the twenty-first century its population numbered about 132 people, with 67 of those living in Virginia and the rest residing in other parts of the United States.
Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:23:46 EST]]>
/Chickahominy_Tribe Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:14:35 EST <![CDATA[Chickahominy Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chickahominy_Tribe The Chickahominy tribe is a state- and federally recognized Indian tribe located on 110 acres in Charles City County, midway between Richmond and Williamsburg. Early in the twenty-first century its population numbered about 875 people living within a five-mile radius of the tribal center, with several hundred more residing in other parts of the United States.
Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:14:35 EST]]>
/Upper_Mattaponi_Tribe Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:04:53 EST <![CDATA[Upper Mattaponi Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Upper_Mattaponi_Tribe The Upper Mattaponi tribe is a state- and federally recognized Indian tribe whose tribal grounds consist of thirty-two acres in King William County, near the upper reaches of the Mattaponi River. In 2009, the tribe consisted of 575 members, many of whom live in Virginia.
Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:04:53 EST]]>
/Nansemond_Tribe Mon, 11 Mar 2019 13:58:33 EST <![CDATA[Nansemond Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Nansemond_Tribe The Nansemond tribe is a state- and federally recognized Indian tribe whose members live mostly in the cities of Chesapeake and Suffolk. In 2009 about 200 Nansemond tribal members were registered in Virginia.
Mon, 11 Mar 2019 13:58:33 EST]]>
/Sound_in_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 12 Feb 2019 16:35:44 EST <![CDATA[Sound in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sound_in_Colonial_Virginia Sound in colonial Virginia came from a variety of sources, including nature, instruments, weapons, and voices, and played a significant role in how people perceived their environment. Information on the subject is scarce, and conclusions are drawn from references in letters, diaries, and rare published accounts. Because Americans lived closer to natural noises than many Europeans, these sounds took on greater importance. The wilderness was unfamiliar and possibly dangerous, so its sounds were described carefully, and its warning signals attended to. Human-generated sounds such as bells regulated life on remote plantations, while gunfire marked ceremonial occasions as well as warfare. The performance of music was an important part of theater and a popular pastime among amateurs, while the singing of hymns served as a unifying force among worshipers. Sound performed communal functions, but in various ways for different groups. For Virginia Indians, silence aided both hunting and ambushes, while the sound of war cries made a strong and lasting impression on English colonists. For enslaved African Americans, music was an integral part of culture and identity. Often played on European instruments, it accompanied religious rites but on other occasions could also satirize white culture. Over time vision became the dominant sense by which people formed an understanding of their environment. This may have come with the advent of print culture or Enlightenment thinking, although there were regional differences both in the way in which sound was perceived and in the timing of changes that took place in the area of sensory perceptions.
Tue, 12 Feb 2019 16:35:44 EST]]>
/Hold_To_Have_and_to_1900 Fri, 21 Sep 2018 10:29:17 EST <![CDATA[Hold, To Have and to (1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hold_To_Have_and_to_1900 To Have and to Hold (1900), the second novel by the Virginia-born writer Mary Johnston, was the prolific author's most popular work. An action-adventure story and romance set in Jamestown in 1621 and 1622, the novel uses the backdrop of colonial Virginia to tell its story, making characters of such noted figures as John Rolfe and Opechancanough, and dramatizing the latter's attack against the colony in 1622. The hero of To Have and to Hold is Captain Ralph Percy. Percy marries a woman he believes to be a penniless Puritan but who is actually a ward of King James and betrothed to the dastardly, suggestively named Lord Carnal. A series of often-unlikely adventures follows, involving swordplay, poison, haunted woods, pirates, and a tame but ferocious panther, until Percy and his wife, at one point separated, reunite. After being serialized in the Atlantic Monthly, To Have and to Hold was published in book form in 1900 and sold more than 135,000 copies in its first week. It was the best-selling novel of the year and the most successful popular novel in the United States between the publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852 and Gone with the Wind in 1936. Critics praised it lavishly and found its history to be unusually reliable. It was adapted for the stage and film. Despite the attention paid to Johnston in her day, however, few scholars study her books in the twenty-first century.
Fri, 21 Sep 2018 10:29:17 EST]]>
/Rolfe_John_d_1622 Fri, 21 Sep 2018 10:26:44 EST <![CDATA[Rolfe, John (d. 1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rolfe_John_d_1622 John Rolfe served as secretary and recorder general of Virginia (1614–1619) and as a member of the governor's Council (1614–1622). He is best known for having married Pocahontas in 1614 and for being the first to cultivate marketable tobacco in Virginia. Joined by his first wife, whose name is unknown, Rolfe sailed on the Sea Venture, a Virginia-bound ship that wrecked off the islands of Bermuda in 1609. There his wife gave birth to a daughter, but mother and child soon died. In Virginia, Rolfe turned to experimenting with tobacco, a plant first brought to England from Florida. The Virginia Indians planted a variety that was harsh to English smokers, so Rolfe developed a Spanish West Indies seed, Nicotiana tabacum, that became profitable and, indeed, transformed the colony's economy. In 1614, Rolfe married Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco. The marriage helped bring an end to the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614), but Pocahontas died in 1617 while visiting England with Rolfe and their son, Thomas. While in England, Rolfe penned A True Relation of the state of Virginia Lefte by Sir Thomas Dale Knight in May Last 1616 (1617), promoting the interests of the Virginia Company of London. Back in Virginia, he married Joane Peirce about 1619 and had a daughter, Elizabeth. He died in 1622.
Fri, 21 Sep 2018 10:26:44 EST]]>
/Starving_Time_The Thu, 28 Jun 2018 11:24:05 EST <![CDATA[Starving Time, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Starving_Time_The The Starving Time refers to the winter of 1609–1610 when about three-quarters of the English colonists in Virginia died of starvation or starvation-related diseases. In his unpublished account A Trewe Relacyon, George Percy, who served as president during these grim months, wrote that Englishmen felt "the sharpe pricke of hunger which noe man trewly descrybe butt he which hathe tasted the bitternesse thereof." Already for two years, the Jamestown colonists had died at alarming rates, mostly of summertime diseases. In 1609, the beginning of the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614) prompted the Indians to lay siege to the English fort, helping to provoke the famine. Settlers were forced to eat snakes, vipers, rats, mice, musk turtles, cats, dogs, horses, and perhaps even raptors. In addition, multiple gruesome stories suggest, and archaeological evidence has partially corroborated, that settlers devoured each other. The siege lifted in May 1610, and when the survivors of the Sea Venture wreck arrived in Virginia, they found just 60 gaunt remnants of the 240 people who had crowded the fort the previous November. Many observers argued that the colonists' idleness—their persistent refusal to work for their food—contributed to the famine. It is likely, though, that malnutrition and despair worked together to create symptoms that imitated laziness. In the end, Virginia survived, but just barely.
Thu, 28 Jun 2018 11:24:05 EST]]>
/Adams_Andrew_1905-1985 Tue, 27 Mar 2018 16:44:35 EST <![CDATA[Adams, Andrew (1905–1985)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Adams_Andrew_1905-1985 Tue, 27 Mar 2018 16:44:35 EST]]> /Colonial_Virginia Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST <![CDATA[Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colonial_Virginia The colonial period in Virginia began in 1607 with the landing of the first English settlers at Jamestown and ended in 1776 with the establishment of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although a thriving Indian society had existed for thousands of years before the English arrived, war with the European settlers and the introduction of new diseases for which the Indians had no resistance spelled disaster for it. The English colonists, meanwhile, just barely survived, suffering through summer droughts and winter starvation. Salvation came to the colony in the form of smoking tobacco, or what King James I called a "vile and stinking custom," when John Rolfe cultivated a variety of tobacco that sold well in England. In 1619, a General Assembly convened, bringing limited self-government to America. That same year brought the first slaves to Virginia. For most of the 1600s, white indentured servants worked the colony's tobacco fields, but by 1705 the Virginia colony had become a slave society. Nearly all power was in the hands of white male landowners, who ran the government and, by law, belonged to the Church of England. Women who married and worked at home were considered "good wives"; those who refused such "proper" roles were considered troublesome. And while Virginia's ruling men did not encourage women to be independent, they nevertheless fought for their own independence, taking full part in the American Revolution (1775–1783).
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST]]>
/Jefferson_s_Mound_Archaeological_Site Tue, 22 Nov 2016 17:01:47 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson's Mound Archaeological Site]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_s_Mound_Archaeological_Site Tue, 22 Nov 2016 17:01:47 EST]]> /Menokin Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:08:24 EST <![CDATA[Menokin]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Menokin Menokin, located in Richmond County, was the home of Francis Lightfoot Lee and his wife, Rebecca Tayloe Lee. Constructed from 1769 to 1771, the home sat on a 1,000-acre plantation and was a wedding gift from Rebecca Lee's father, John Tayloe II. The designer is unknown but may have been the English craftsman William Buckland, who also worked on George Mason's Gunston Hall. The Lees lived at Menokin on and off until their deaths in 1797, and two years later the house was inherited by John Tayloe III, who owned it until 1823. The property changed hands a number of times before falling into disrepair and being abandoned by the mid-twentieth century. In the 1960s, the Omohundro family, which inherited Menokin in 1935, removed the interior paneling and woodwork to protect it from damage; in 1995, T. Edgar Omohundro deeded the property to the Menokin Foundation. Beginning in 1985, archaeological investigations evaluated the site and dated its occupation back to the Rappahannock Indians, who lived and hunted there prior to the arrival of the English. In the early twenty-first century, the Menokin Foundation opened a visitors center and began plans to preserve the site by replacing the missing walls and roof with glass and steel.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:08:24 EST]]>
/Brent_Giles_ca_1652-1679 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:03:47 EST <![CDATA[Brent, Giles (ca. 1652–1679)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brent_Giles_ca_1652-1679 Giles Brent was a participant in Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677). A Catholic of both Indian and English heritage, he learned the Indian language from his mother, inherited all of his father's land, and became a prosperous young planter and militia captain. In July 1675 Brent served in a party that killed several Doeg Indians in retaliation for the Indians' having killed some white Virginians. He joined forces loyal to Nathaniel Bacon in order to battle the Pamunkey and collaborated with Bacon until the rebel leader turned his forces against the governor, Sir William Berkeley, in 1676 and laid siege to Jamestown. Brent then gathered approximately 1,000 men to confront Bacon's forces. When the men learned that Bacon had burned Jamestown, they deserted Brent. He died in Middlesex County on September 2, 1679.
Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:03:47 EST]]>
/Witchcraft_in_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 25 Oct 2016 12:11:32 EST <![CDATA[Witchcraft in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Witchcraft_in_Colonial_Virginia Witchcraft was a genuine concern for colonial Virginians. The colony's English settlers brought with them a strong belief in the devil's power and his presence in the New World. This belief was first manifested in the Jamestown colonists' early perceptions of the Virginia Indians, whom they believed to be devil worshippers. After 1622, some colonists began to accuse one another of practicing witchcraft. Though witchcraft cases in Virginia were less common and the sentences less severe than the more famous witch trials of Salem, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, evidence exists that about two dozen such trials took place in Virginia between 1626 and 1730. They ranged from civil defamation suits to criminal accusations. The most famous of these was the trial of Grace Sherwood of Princess Anne County, in which the judges determined her guilt by administering a water test. Records indicate that the last witchcraft trial in the mainland colonies took place in Virginia in 1730; five years later, Parliament repealed the Witchcraft Act of 1604, the statute under which British American colonists prosecuted accused witches. Since then, witchcraft has been largely forgotten as an aspect of life in colonial Virginia.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 12:11:32 EST]]>
/An_act_for_the_Seatinge_of_the_middle_Plantation_February_1_1632 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:40:30 EST <![CDATA[An act for the Seatinge of the middle Plantation (February 1, 1632)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_the_Seatinge_of_the_middle_Plantation_February_1_1632 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:40:30 EST]]> /Paleoindian_Period Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:04:45 EST <![CDATA[Paleoindian Period (16,000–8000 BC)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Paleoindian_Period The Paleoindian Period (16,000–8000 BC) came toward the end of the Ice Age, a time when the climate warmed and the largest mammals became extinct. Likely having originally migrated from Asia, the first people in Virginia were hunter-gatherers who left behind lithic, or stone, tools, often spearheads. At the Cactus Hill Archaeological Site in Sussex County, these date back to 16,000 BC, or well before the better-known Clovis culture. The so-called Paleoamericans likely banded together in groups of thirty to fifty and located themselves near high-quality stone resources, especially in Dinwiddie and Mecklenburg counties. While keeping a base camp, they may have established smaller settlements for more specialized tasks such as tool-making and hunting. The bands probably lacked central leadership, moved often, and traded with one another. Based on the religious practices of the later Virginia Indians, they likely were animists, investing various natural forces with spiritual power.
Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:04:45 EST]]>
/Cactus_Hill_Archaeological_Site Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:02:19 EST <![CDATA[Cactus Hill Archaeological Site]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cactus_Hill_Archaeological_Site Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:02:19 EST]]> /Custalow_George_F_Thunder_Cloud_1865-1949 Fri, 30 Sep 2016 14:24:42 EST <![CDATA[Custalow, George F. "Thunder Cloud" (1865–1949)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custalow_George_F_Thunder_Cloud_1865-1949 George F. "Thunder Cloud" Custalow was the chief of the Mattaponi tribe from 1914 until his death in 1949. Born in King William County in 1865, Custalow instituted educational and religious reform in his community and helped forge Mattaponi tribal identity. (Prior to his efforts, it was mistakenly believed that the Mattaponi were a branch of the Pamunkey, not a separate Powhatan tribe.) Under his leadership, a Mattaponi school opened on the reservation and tribal members founded the Mattaponi Indian Baptist Church. Custalow also campaigned with Pamunkey chief George Major Cook against legislation that restricted Virginia Indians' civil rights even further than the Virginia Act to Preserve Racial Integrity, which passed in 1924, already did. He died on the Mattaponi Indian Reservation on March 18, 1949.
Fri, 30 Sep 2016 14:24:42 EST]]>
/_On_the_Beauty_and_Fertility_of_America_chapter_14_of_A_Huguenot_Exile_in_Virginia_by_Durand_de_Dauphine_1687 Tue, 20 Sep 2016 11:31:17 EST <![CDATA["On the Beauty and Fertility of America"; chapter 14 of A Huguenot Exile in Virginia by Durand de Dauphiné (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_On_the_Beauty_and_Fertility_of_America_chapter_14_of_A_Huguenot_Exile_in_Virginia_by_Durand_de_Dauphine_1687 Tue, 20 Sep 2016 11:31:17 EST]]> /Crab_Orchard_Archaeological_Site Tue, 26 Jul 2016 16:02:46 EST <![CDATA[Crab Orchard Archaeological Site]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crab_Orchard_Archaeological_Site Tue, 26 Jul 2016 16:02:46 EST]]> /Indian_Enslavement_in_Virginia Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:25:04 EST <![CDATA[Indian Enslavement in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indian_Enslavement_in_Virginia Indians were enslaved in Virginia by settlers and traders from shortly after the founding of Jamestown until the end of the eighteenth century, peaking late in the seventeenth century and providing a workforce for English plantations and households. By this time the Atlantic slave trade was at its peak, flooding Virginia with cheaper African labor. African slavery took nearly a century to develop, however, and in the meantime those white Virginians who required men and women to work as servants or in tobacco fields mostly relied on indentured servants and enslaved Indians. Europeans sold guns for slaves in an existing indigenous trading market, and encouraged allied tribes to provide the slaves by targeting Indian groups on the periphery of English settlements (similar to African participation in the capture of slaves in Africa). While there are examples of continued enslavement of Indians throughout the early settlement period, mass enslavement typically coincided with the upheaval of war that led to Indian prisoners who could be sold as slaves. Virginia's laws were neither clear nor effective with respect to the enslavement of Indians, at times banning the practice and at other times encouraging it. Some scholars argue that Indian enslavement had declined by 1800 because Indians were prone to illness or escape, but others maintain that it was only when Indians, wracked by war and enslavement, could not provide a sufficient quantity of cheap workers that English colonists turned primarily to chattel African slavery. American Indians were most clearly deemed free by Virginia law early in the 1800s, and Indians who were unable to gain their freedom often became assimilated within the predominantly African slave communities.
Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:25:04 EST]]>
/Smith_John_bap_1580-1631 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:14:40 EST <![CDATA[Smith, John (bap. 1580–1631)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_John_bap_1580-1631 Captain John Smith was a soldier and writer who is best known for his role in establishing the Virginia colony at Jamestown, England's first permanent colony in North America. A farmer's son, Smith was a soldier of fortune in Europe before he joined the Virginia Company of London expedition of 1606–1607. At Jamestown, Smith served on the local council; explored and mapped the Chesapeake Bay; established a sometimes-contentious relationship with Powhatan, the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco; and was president of the colony from September 1609 to September 1610. He was unpopular among his fellow colonists, however, who forced his return to England in October 1610. Smith never returned to Virginia, but he did travel to and map a portion of the northeast coast of North America, which he named New England. Much of what is known about Smith's life comes from his own detailed and informative accounts of his experiences. Although many of his contemporaries considered him a braggart and he almost certainly embellished his own accomplishments, his narratives provide invaluable insights into English and native life during the Virginia colony's formative years.
Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:14:40 EST]]>
/Savage_Thomas_ca_1595-before_September_1633 Mon, 29 Feb 2016 11:05:43 EST <![CDATA[Savage, Thomas (ca. 1595–before September 1633)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Savage_Thomas_ca_1595-before_September_1633 Thomas Savage (sometimes spelled Salvage or Savadge) was an English interpreter of Indian languages. At age thirteen, he arrived at Jamestown in 1608 to work as a laborer, but was instead given by Captain Christopher Newport to Powhatan, the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco, a political alliance of twenty-eight to thirty-two Algonquian-speaking Virginia Indian groups. Savage remained with the Indians for almost three years, during which time he learned their language and became familiar with their customs. According to contemporary accounts, Savage was well treated and well liked by Powhatan, who often sent the boy to Jamestown to deliver messages to the English. After the outbreak of the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614), however, Savage feared for his safety among the Indians, and in 1610 he escaped to Jamestown. He remained in Virginia, where he established a successful career as an interpreter and settled on the Eastern Shore. He died in or before September 1633.
Mon, 29 Feb 2016 11:05:43 EST]]>
/Ely_Mound_Archaeological_Site Mon, 22 Feb 2016 13:50:05 EST <![CDATA[Ely Mound Archaeological Site]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ely_Mound_Archaeological_Site Mon, 22 Feb 2016 13:50:05 EST]]> /Southern_Claims_Commission_in_Virginia_The Fri, 18 Dec 2015 09:34:32 EST <![CDATA[Southern Claims Commission in Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Southern_Claims_Commission_in_Virginia_The The Southern Claims Commission was created by Congress on March 3, 1871, to compensate southern Unionists for property appropriated by the Union army during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Although claims for reimbursement had been made since early in the war, many in Congress had resisted authorizing their payment. They feared fraud and dismissed the sincerity of Unionism in the South. Once former Confederate states began to be readmitted to the Union, however, pressure mounted and the law passed. The act required the president to appoint three commissioners to "receive, examine, and consider the justice and validity" of claims for "stores and supplies" taken by the Union army in the Confederate states. The commissioners reported their decisions on each claim to Congress for approval and appropriation. Because the Union presence was so extensive in the state, Virginians submitted 3,197 claims, the second largest number after Tennessee. The claims from Virginia suggest the wide diversity of Unionism in the state during the war. White men often expressed their loyalty by opposing secession, while African Americans sought freedom from slavery and women worked within their traditional gender roles to assist the Union war effort. Over time, the Southern Claims Commission lost support and was seen as divisive. It finished its work in 1880.
Fri, 18 Dec 2015 09:34:32 EST]]>
/Anglo-Powhatan_War_Second_1622-1632 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 12:01:39 EST <![CDATA[Anglo-Powhatan War, Second (1622–1632)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anglo-Powhatan_War_Second_1622-1632 The Second Anglo-Powhatan War was fought from 1622 until 1632, pitting English colonists in Virginia against the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Tsenacomoco, led by Opitchapam and his brother (or close kinsman) Opechancanough. After the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614), which ended with the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, the English colony began to grow. The headright system begun in 1618 granted land to new immigrants who, in turn, sought to make their fortunes off tobacco. As English settlements pressed up the James River and toward the fall line, Indian leaders devised a plan to push them back and, in so doing, assert their supremacy over the newcomers. On March 22, 1622, Opechancanough led a series of coordinated surprise attacks that concentrated on settlements upriver from Jamestown and succeeded in killing nearly a third of the English population. Perhaps assuming that the English were sufficiently humiliated, he did not pursue a final destruction of the colony. What followed, then, was a ten-year war in which the English repeatedly attacked the Indian food supply. After the conflict's only full-scale battle, fought in 1624, colonists estimated that they had destroyed enough food to feed 4,000 men for a year. Peace finally arrived in 1632, but by then the balance of power in Virginia had tipped toward the English. The colonial population had grown significantly and Opechancanough's power waned.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 12:01:39 EST]]>
/Powhatan_d_1618 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:47:51 EST <![CDATA[Powhatan (d. 1618)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Powhatan_d_1618 Powhatan, whose given name was Wahunsonacock, was the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco, a political alliance of Virginia Indians whose core six groups all settled along the James, Mattaponi, and Pamunkey rivers. Introduced to the Jamestown colonists in 1607 as Powhatan, he was for a decade the most powerful point of contact for the English; in 1614, the marriage of his daughter, Pocahontas, to John Rolfe, helped end, at least temporarily, years of war. Coming to power in Powhatan, the Powhatan Indians' principal frontier town on the James River, Wahunsonacock likely was raised much as any other Algonquian-speaking Indian would have been—learning archery and hunting from the men of his village. By 1607, he was paramount chief of Tsenacomoco, having expanded it, through a combination of force and diplomacy, to between twenty-eight and thirty-two tribes and petty chiefdoms. Powhatan negotiated with the English, and especially John Smith, attempting to reach accommodation with the colonists and, when he could not, attempting to intimidate or kill them. In 1609, he moved his capital from Werowocomoco to Orapax, which was farther west, and intensified his efforts to kill Smith and expel the English. Pocahontas's marriage ended that stage of the conflict, and relations were peaceful until Powhatan's death in 1618. When his brother, Opechancanough, became leader of Tsenacomoco, he launched the attack that inaugurated the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632).
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:47:51 EST]]>
/Pocahontas_d_1617 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:38:59 EST <![CDATA[Pocahontas (d. 1617)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pocahontas_d_1617 Pocahontas was the daughter of Powhatan, paramount chief of an alliance of Virginia Indians in Tidewater Virginia. An iconic figure in American history, Pocahontas is largely known for saving the life of the Jamestown colonist John Smith and then romancing him—although both events are unlikely to be true. She did meet Smith several times, sometimes serving as Powhatan's silent figurehead and a symbolic liaison between the chief and the English colonists; she was not, however, a "princess" or a diplomat in any modern sense. Sometime around 1610, she married an Indian named Kocoum, and in 1613 she was captured by the English and confined at Jamestown, where she converted to Christianity and married the colonist John Rolfe. The marriage, approved by Powhatan, brought an end to the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614) and set the stage for Pocahontas's visit to London in 1616. At the request of the Virginia Company of London, she met both King James I and the bishop of London, after which she reunited briefly with Smith. Early in her return voyage to Virginia, she became ill and died at Gravesend in March 1617. In the centuries since, Pocahontas's life has slipped into myth, serving to represent Virginia's early claim to be the foundation-place of America. Many elite Virginians, meanwhile, have tenuously claimed her as a relative, even leading to a "Pocahontas clause" in the Racial Integrity Act of 1924.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:38:59 EST]]>
/Indians_in_Virginia Mon, 23 Nov 2015 11:36:25 EST <![CDATA[Indians in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indians_in_Virginia Indians have lived in the area now known as Virginia for thousands of years. Their histories, ancestral connections, and traditions are intertwined with the 6,000 square miles of Tidewater land the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Virginia called Tsenacomoco. The early inhabitants of Virginia were hunter-gatherers who followed the migratory patterns of animals. Over time, and as the region warmed, they settled into towns along riverbanks and outlined their homelands, developing intimate, balanced relationships with the animals, plants, and geographic formations. They hunted, fished, and farmed, and developed complex social and religious systems and vast trade networks. By the early 1600s, Virginia Indians lived in three broad cultural groups based on the language families found in the area: Algonquian, Iroquoian, and Siouan. Scholars know most about the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Tsenacomoco, who eventually grouped together into a paramount chiefdom. Led by Powhatan, the polity ultimately included twenty-eight to thirty-two small chiefdoms and tribes, stretching from the James to the Potomac rivers and encompassing much of Virginia's coastal plain. In 1607, Englishmen arrived and changed Indian life forever. In the midst of a severe drought, the colonists' demands for food and their inability to fully understand Indian cultural practices led in part to three protracted and violent conflicts over four decades, ending in 1646 with the Algonquian-speaking Indians largely subject to English rule. The General Assembly set aside land for the former tribes of Tsenacomoco, although in subsequent years some Indians were forced to move and some groups became dispersed. In the years that followed, they contributed to the developing American culture while working to maintain their own traditions during difficult periods of disease, hunger, forced relocations, and restrictive colonial and later statewide policies that curtailed their rights to travel unmolested through lands now occupied by settlers, to visit their traditional hunting and fishing grounds, and to testify in court on their own behalf. At the beginning of the twentieth century, a cultural renaissance bloomed and some scholars began to study Indian history more closely. At the same time, the General Assembly did much to deny Indian identity, including passing in 1924 the Act to Preserve Racial Integrity, which criminalized interracial marriage and separated Virginians into two simplified racial categories: white and colored. These wrongs were addressed in part by the Supreme Court's decision in Loving v. Virginia (1967) and by state legislation in the late 1980s that allowed Virginia Indians to change the racial designation on their birth certificates without cost. Virginia Indians in the twenty-first century actively cultivate their own culture while educating others about their history.
Mon, 23 Nov 2015 11:36:25 EST]]>
/Racial_Integrity_Laws_of_the_1920s Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:27:31 EST <![CDATA[Racial Integrity Laws (1924–1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Racial_Integrity_Laws_of_the_1920s Racial integrity laws were passed by the General Assembly to protect "whiteness" against what many Virginians perceived to be the negative effects of race-mixing. They included the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which prohibited interracial marriage and defined as white a person "who has no trace whatsoever of any blood other than Caucasian"; the Public Assemblages Act of 1926, which required all public meeting spaces to be strictly segregated; and a third act, passed in 1930, that defined as black a person who has even a trace of African American ancestry. This way of defining whiteness as a kind of purity in bloodline became known as the "one drop rule." These laws arrived at a time when a pseudo-science of white superiority called eugenics gained support by groups like the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, which argued that the mixing of whites, African Americans, and Virginia Indians could cause great societal harm, despite the fact that the races had been intermixed since European settlement. From his position as the state registrar of vital statistics, Walter A. Plecker micromanaged the racial classifications of Virginians, often worrying that blacks were attempting to pass as white. Virginia Indians were particularly incensed by the laws, and by Plecker in particular, because the state seemed intent on removing any legal recognition of Indian identity in favor of the broader category "colored." After one failed try, lawmakers largely achieved this goal in 1930, drawing negative reaction from the black press. The Racial Integrity Act remained on the books until 1967, when the U.S. Supreme Court, in Loving v. Virginia, found its prohibition of interracial marriage to be unconstitutional. In 2001, the General Assembly denounced the act, and eugenics, as racist.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:27:31 EST]]>
/Bermuda_Hundred_During_the_Colonial_Period Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:13:37 EST <![CDATA[Bermuda Hundred during the Colonial Period]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bermuda_Hundred_During_the_Colonial_Period Bermuda Hundred was established by Sir Thomas Dale in 1613 at the confluence of the James and Appomattox rivers. Virginia Indians had occupied the site for at least 10,000 years before Dale planted a settlement there. The term "hundred" comes from the English practice of locating ten towns, or tithings (groups of ten families), at a settlement. One of Bermuda Hundred's most famous residents was John Rolfe, who may have grown his first marketable tobacco there—Nicotiana tabacum, a West Indian plant with which he had been experimenting since 1612. Rolfe may have lived there with his wife Pocahontas, the daughter of the Powhatan Indians' paramount chief, Powhatan. The population of Bermuda Hundred, like that of other early English settlements in Virginia, was nearly wiped out by a massive assault orchestrated by one of Powhatan's successors, Opechancanough. The settlement survived, however, becoming one of Virginia's first ports in 1691, the site of a tobacco inspection in 1731, and the site of a new ferry to City Point in 1732. In 1738, the General Assembly considered Bermuda Hundred for the colony's new capital. After 1780, when Richmond became the new capital of Virginia, Bermuda Hundred began to decline.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:13:37 EST]]>
/Jamestown_Ter-Centennial_Exposition_of_1907 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:18:18 EST <![CDATA[Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition of 1907]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jamestown_Ter-Centennial_Exposition_of_1907 The Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition, marking the three hundredth anniversary of the founding of Jamestown and the Virginia colony by settlers from England, was held in Norfolk, Virginia, from April 26 to November 30, 1907. The event was one in a series of large fairs and expositions held across the United States, beginning with the 1893 World's Columbian Exhibition in Chicago, which commemorated the four hundredth anniversary of Christopher Columbus's landing in America. Such events were designed as international showcases for arts and technology and were often linked to important anniversaries in order to highlight the notion of historical "progress." More than its predecessors, the Jamestown exhibition emphasized athletics and military prowess, the latter drawing some protests. Among many dignitaries who visited the exposition were U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, the author Mark Twain, the educator Booker T. Washington, representatives from more than twenty nations abroad, and a number of foreign naval ships. Although the exhibition on African Americans was considered to be particularly successful, the event in general was a financial fiasco, plagued by poor management, overly ambitious plans, insufficient resources, and tight deadlines. The naval display, however, was impressive enough that in 1917 the exposition's site became home to Naval Air Station Hampton Roads (later Naval Station Norfolk).
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:18:18 EST]]>
/Preservation_of_Racial_Integrity_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:24:27 EST <![CDATA[Preservation of Racial Integrity (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Preservation_of_Racial_Integrity_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:24:27 EST]]> /Surnames_by_Counties_and_Cities_of_Mixed_Negroid_Virginia_Families_Striving_to_Pass_as_Indian_or_White_by_Walter_A_Plecker_ca_1943 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:04:19 EST <![CDATA[Surnames, by Counties and Cities, of Mixed Negroid Virginia Families Striving to Pass as "Indian" or White by Walter A. Plecker (ca. 1943)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Surnames_by_Counties_and_Cities_of_Mixed_Negroid_Virginia_Families_Striving_to_Pass_as_Indian_or_White_by_Walter_A_Plecker_ca_1943 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:04:19 EST]]> /Letter_from_Walter_A_Plecker_to_Local_Registrars_et_al_December_1943 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:51:21 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Walter A. Plecker to Local Registrars, et al. (December 1943)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Walter_A_Plecker_to_Local_Registrars_et_al_December_1943 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:51:21 EST]]> /_The_people_of_America_crye_oute_unto_us_an_excerpt_from_Discourse_on_Western_Planting_by_Richard_Hakluyt_the_younger_1584 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:09:56 EST <![CDATA["The people of America crye oute unto us"; an excerpt from Discourse on Western Planting by Richard Hakluyt (the younger) (1584)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_people_of_America_crye_oute_unto_us_an_excerpt_from_Discourse_on_Western_Planting_by_Richard_Hakluyt_the_younger_1584 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:09:56 EST]]> /Fifteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:47:32 EST <![CDATA[Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fifteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution The Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified on February 3, 1870, and granted the right to vote to African American men. It was the third of three amendments adopted during Reconstruction that profoundly altered American society, government, and politics. The Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished and prohibited slavery in the wake of the American Civil War (1861–1865), was ratified in December 1865, and the Fourteenth Amendment, which defined citizenship and guaranteed the rights of citizens, was ratified in July 1868. Specifically, the Fifteenth Amendment prevented the federal and state governments from using race or former servitude as an excuse not to allow its citizens to vote. At the time of the amendment's ratification in 1870, African Americans had already legally voted in Virginia, but during the next generation, with the use of a poll tax and other methods, that right would be chipped away. In 1901–1902, delegates to the state constitutional convention openly debated the best way to disfranchise blacks while not technically violating the Fifteenth Amendment. They largely succeeded and black voting rights were not fully restored until the 1960s.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:47:32 EST]]>
/Fourteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:44:33 EST <![CDATA[Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fourteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified on July 9, 1868, defined citizenship and guaranteed the rights of citizens. It was the second of three amendments adopted during Reconstruction that profoundly altered American society, government, and politics. The Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished and prohibited slavery in the wake of the American Civil War (1861–1865), was ratified in December 1865, and the Fifteenth Amendment, which granted the vote to African American men, was ratified in February 1870. The Fourteenth Amendment made all native-born men and women citizens and guaranteed them equal protection under the law. It included provisions to protect men's right to vote while abridging the rights of former Confederates. The General Assembly of Virginia refused to ratify the amendment until ratification became a precondition of regaining representation in Congress. The assembly voted in favor of the amendment on October 8, 1869, more than a year after it had become part of the Constitution. In Ex Parte State of Virginia (1880), the U.S. Supreme Court cited the Fourteenth Amendment when ruling that a Danville judge did not have the right to exclude African American men from serving on juries.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:44:33 EST]]>
/Basse_Nathaniel_bap_1589-1654 Fri, 09 Oct 2015 14:57:29 EST <![CDATA[Basse, Nathaniel (bap. 1589–1654)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Basse_Nathaniel_bap_1589-1654 Fri, 09 Oct 2015 14:57:29 EST]]> /Howell_Henry_E_1920-1997 Thu, 08 Oct 2015 17:10:21 EST <![CDATA[Howell, Henry E. (1920–1997)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Howell_Henry_E_1920-1997 Henry E. Howell served in the House of Delegates (1960–1962, 1964–1965) and the Senate of Virginia (1966–1971), representing the Norfolk area. He was lieutenant governor of Virginia from 1971 to 1974. Howell ran unsuccessfully for governor three times, losing in the Democratic runoff primary in 1969 and in the general elections of 1973 and 1977. Howell was a harsh critic of Virginia's conservative Democratic political organization headed by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. Howell's principal achievements were as a member of the General Assembly and as an attorney representing clients in federal courts and before the Virginia State Corporation Commission. Howell was an avowed populist, a champion of the ordinary citizen against big economic interests and their political allies. He challenged the poll tax and represented plaintiffs seeking greater representation for urban areas in the General Assembly. Howell also sued the governor to stop the commonwealth from deducting the amount of federal appropriations to "impacted area" school systems from the State's aid to those school systems. Howell's consumer advocacy included numerous rate cases that resulted in rebates from automobile insurance, electric power, and telephone companies. Howell campaigned for Democratic candidates in his later years and died in 1997.
Thu, 08 Oct 2015 17:10:21 EST]]>
/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1930 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 13:06:19 EST <![CDATA[Colored Persons and Indians Defined (1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1930 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 13:06:19 EST]]> /Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1887 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 12:49:51 EST <![CDATA[Colored Persons and Indians Defined (1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1887 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 12:49:51 EST]]> /Atha_Sorrells_v_A_T_Shields_Clerk_Petition_for_Mandamus_November_14_1924 Tue, 22 Sep 2015 12:15:59 EST <![CDATA[Atha Sorrells v. A. T. Shields, Clerk, Petition for Mandamus (November 14, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Atha_Sorrells_v_A_T_Shields_Clerk_Petition_for_Mandamus_November_14_1924 Tue, 22 Sep 2015 12:15:59 EST]]> /Strachey_William_1572-1621 Mon, 21 Sep 2015 10:18:10 EST <![CDATA[Strachey, William (1572–1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Strachey_William_1572-1621 William Strachey was a member of the Virginia Council, served as secretary and recorder for the colony from 1610 until 1611, and was one of the first historians of the Jamestown settlement. Educated at Cambridge and Gray's Inn, he wrote verse and befriended poets Ben Jonson and John Donne before serving a brief stint as secretary to the English ambassador at Constantinople (1606–1607). Strachey then returned to England, purchased two shares in the Virginia Company of London, and in 1609 sailed on the Sea Venture, the flagship of a resupply fleet bound for the colony. When a storm ran the ship aground on the Bermudas, he and his shipmates were stranded for nearly a year, but eventually managed to construct two small vessels, Patience and Deliverance, and arrived at Jamestown in May 1610. Strachey's account of the adventure, published in 1625 as A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates Knight, probably had served, years earlier, as source material for William Shakespeare's play The Tempest. In Virginia, Strachey was appointed to the Council and made its secretary and recorder, in which capacity the company requested that he produce an extensive account of the colony and its future prospects. When he completed The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia in 1612, the company declined to publish it. In the years since, however, it has become one of the most important sources of information on early Virginia Indian society, politics, and religion. Strachey died in poverty in London in 1621.
Mon, 21 Sep 2015 10:18:10 EST]]>
/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1924 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:43:07 EST <![CDATA[Colored Persons and Indians Defined (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1924 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:43:07 EST]]> /Pamunkey_Tribe Mon, 24 Aug 2015 11:10:45 EST <![CDATA[Pamunkey Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pamunkey_Tribe The Pamunkey tribe is an Indian tribe that the Commonwealth of Virginia has recognized since the seventeenth century. In 1983, while granting recognition to several other tribes, Virginia again acknowledged the Pamunkey tribe's status. In 2015, the federal government officially recognized the tribe. The tribe has a reservation located on the Pamunkey River in King William County and is one of the nation's oldest, dating back to 1646. Of the reservation's 1,200 acres, 500 are wetlands. In 2012 about eighty Pamunkey tribal members lived on the reservation, with many more residing in nearby Richmond and Newport News, as well as throughout Virginia and the United States. Pamunkey people have served in every American war and major conflict, beginning with the Revolutionary War (1775–1783).
Mon, 24 Aug 2015 11:10:45 EST]]>
/_What_tyme_Indians_serve_1670 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 13:50:53 EST <![CDATA["What tyme Indians serve" (1670)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_What_tyme_Indians_serve_1670 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 13:50:53 EST]]> /Opechancanough_d_1646 Thu, 07 May 2015 09:32:36 EST <![CDATA[Opechancanough (d. 1646)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Opechancanough_d_1646 Opechancanough was paramount chief of Tsenacomoco, a political alliance of Virginia Indians, and famously led massive assaults against the English colonists in 1622 and 1644. The younger brother (or cousin) of Powhatan, who was paramount chief at the time of the Jamestown landing in 1607, Opechancanough was possibly chief of the Youghtanund Indians and, as such, protected one of Tsenacomoco's most critical territories. Still, when another chief seduced his favorite wife, neither Opechancanough nor Powhatan had the power to return her. Although the colonist John Smith portrayed Opechancanough as immediately hostile to the English, the chief actually treated Smith well upon the Englishman's capture. As Powhatan aged, Opechancanough filled the apparent power vacuum, and while he did not immediately become paramount chief upon Powhatan's death in 1618, he appeared to wield the most power. He organized a large-scale assault on the English colonists in March 1622, starting the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632); another assault, this time in April 1644, inaugurated the much shorter Third Anglo-Powhatan War (1644–1646), which ended with Opechancanough's capture. Neither attack deterred English expansion, and Opechancanough died in English custody. By early in the 1700s, the defeated Powhatans were distancing themselves from his memory, and popular writing about him since has tended to downplay his military and diplomatic achievements.
Thu, 07 May 2015 09:32:36 EST]]>
/White_John_d_1593 Thu, 04 Dec 2014 17:14:26 EST <![CDATA[White, John (d. 1593)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/White_John_d_1593 John White was an English artist who in 1585 accompanied a failed colonizing expedition to Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina and who, in 1587, served as governor of a second failed expedition, which came to be known as the Lost Colony. As an artist attached to the first group of colonists, White produced watercolor portraits of Virginia Indians and scenes of their lives and activities. He rendered the local flora and fauna and, using the English polymath Thomas Hariot as a surveyor, created detailed maps of the North American coastline. He also joined Hariot and others on an exploration of the Chesapeake Bay and made contact there with the Chesapeake Indians. Many of White's paintings were published, sometimes in altered form, by Theodor de Bry as etchings in Hariot's illustrated edition of A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia (1590). They are the most accurate visual record of the New World by an artist of his generation. After the first colony failed, White led a second, which was intended for the Chesapeake but which settled again at Roanoke. The colonists included White's daughter, Elinor White Dare, who gave birth to Virginia Dare, the first English child born in America. A poor and unpopular leader, White agreed to be a messenger back to England to inform the colony's backers of the location change and a need for new supplies. Waylaid by the Spanish Armada, he did not return until 1590; the colonists had disappeared. White died three years later.
Thu, 04 Dec 2014 17:14:26 EST]]>
/Bacon_s_Rebellion_1676-1677 Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:30:13 EST <![CDATA[Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bacon_s_Rebellion_1676-1677 Bacon's Rebellion, fought from 1676 to 1677, began with a local dispute with the Doeg Indians on the Potomac River. Chased north by Virginia militiamen, who also attacked the otherwise uninvolved Susquehannocks, the Indians began raiding the Virginia frontier. The governor, Sir William Berkeley, persauded the General Assembly to adopt a plan that isolated the Susquehannocks while bringing in Indian allies on Virginia's side. Others saw in the Susquehannock War an opportunity for a general Indian war that would yield Indian slaves and lands, and would give vent to popular anti-Indian sentiment. They found a leader in Nathaniel Bacon, a recent arrival to Virginia and a member of the governor's Council. Bacon demanded a commission to fight the Indians; when none was forthcoming, he led "volunteers" against some of Virginia's closest Indian allies. This led to a civil war pitting Bacon's followers against Berkeley loyalists. The conflict was often bitter and personal—at one point, Berkeley bared his chest and dared Bacon to kill him—and involved the looting of both rebel and loyalist properties. Berkeley expelled Bacon from the Council, reinstated him, and then expelled him a second time. After the governor fled Jamestown for the Eastern Shore, he returned, only to be chased away by Bacon's army, which burned the capital. Bacon died suddenly in October 1676, but bitter fighting continued into January. The Crown dispatched troops to Virginia, which arrived shortly after the rebellion had been quelled. The causes of Bacon's Rebellion have long been disputed. Today it is generally regarded as part of a general crisis in Virginia's social, economic, and political arrangements. The argument that it should be seen as a revolt against English tyranny and a precursor to the American Revolution (1775–1783) has been discredited.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:30:13 EST]]>
/Thorpe_George_bap_1576-1622 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 12:29:16 EST <![CDATA[Thorpe, George (bap. 1576–1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thorpe_George_bap_1576-1622 George Thorpe was an investor in the Virginia Company of London and a member of the governor's Council (1620–1622) who presented himself as an agent of Christian salvation for Virginia Indians. Born into a gentry family in Gloucestershire, he studied law at the Middle Temple and served briefly in Parliament (1614) before becoming a chief organizer of Berkeley Hundred, a society founded in 1618 and allotted land by the Crown for settlement in Virginia. A company of settlers sailed to the colony in 1619, but Thorpe and his fellow investors relieved the group's captain of his duties. Thorpe took charge of the plantation in Virginia and, at the behest of the Virginia Company, at least 10,000 acres of land set aside for a university, including an Indian college, east of present-day Richmond. Evidence suggests that Thorpe had previously cared for a Virginia Indian and, upon his arrival in the colony in May 1620, was motivated to befriend the Indians and convert them to Christianity. The next year, Thorpe informed company officials that he had secured a visit with Opechancanough, one of the most powerful chiefs of Tsenacomoco. Although Opechancanough accepted Thorpe's gift of a new house and led the Englishman to believe he might convert, he was actually planning a large-scale attack against English settlements on the James River. Thorpe was killed in those attacks on March 22, 1622.
Mon, 15 Sep 2014 12:29:16 EST]]>
/Cook_George_Major_1860-1930 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 16:24:22 EST <![CDATA[Cook, George Major (1860–1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cook_George_Major_1860-1930 George Major Cook, also known as Wahunsacook or Wahansunacoke, served as chief of the Pamunkey Indians from 1902 until his death in 1930. Born on the Pamunkey Reservation in King William County in 1860, Cook had become one of the headmen of the tribe by 1888 and was elected chief in 1902. In 1917 he obtained rulings from the state attorney general that Virginia had no right to tax Indians living on the reservation or to draft members of the tribe for military service, thus reaffirming Pamunkey status as wards of the state. During the 1920s he opposed the Virginia Act to Preserve Racial Integrity, which effectively classified Virginians as either black or white. In speeches, newspaper articles, and visits to legislative committees and successive Virginia governors, Cook argued for the right of Virginia's Indians to maintain their distinct heritage and be correctly classified as Indians in official records. During the final year of his life, Cook led opposition to a proposal to exempt Indians on reservations from being classified as black because it did not protect those who lived off the reservations. He died at his home on the reservation on December 16, 1930.
Thu, 14 Aug 2014 16:24:22 EST]]>
/A_Map_of_Virginia_With_a_Description_of_the_Countrey_the_Commodities_People_Government_and_Religion_by_John_Smith_1612 Mon, 11 Aug 2014 09:23:41 EST <![CDATA[A Map of Virginia. With a Description of the Countrey, the Commodities, People, Government and Religion by John Smith (1612)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Map_of_Virginia_With_a_Description_of_the_Countrey_the_Commodities_People_Government_and_Religion_by_John_Smith_1612 Mon, 11 Aug 2014 09:23:41 EST]]> /A_True_relation_of_such_occurrences_and_accidents_of_note_as_hath_hapned_at_Virginia_since_the_first_planting_of_that_Collonyby_John_Smith_1608 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:12:16 EST <![CDATA[A True relation of such occurrences and accidents of note, as hath hapned at Virginia, since the first planting of that Collony by John Smith (1608)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_True_relation_of_such_occurrences_and_accidents_of_note_as_hath_hapned_at_Virginia_since_the_first_planting_of_that_Collonyby_John_Smith_1608 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:12:16 EST]]> /Smith_Chapter_2_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Thu, 10 Jul 2014 11:34:54 EST <![CDATA[Smith, Chapter 2, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_Chapter_2_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Thu, 10 Jul 2014 11:34:54 EST]]> /Chapter_1_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 09 Jul 2014 09:59:13 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 1, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_1_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 09 Jul 2014 09:59:13 EST]]> /_John_Smith_from_The_History_of_the_Worthies_of_England_by_Thomas_Fuller_1661 Mon, 07 Jul 2014 10:26:28 EST <![CDATA["John Smith," from The History of the Worthies of England by Thomas Fuller (1661)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_John_Smith_from_The_History_of_the_Worthies_of_England_by_Thomas_Fuller_1661 Mon, 07 Jul 2014 10:26:28 EST]]> /Letter_from_Luis_de_QuirA Mon, 30 Jun 2014 08:34:52 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Luis de Quirós and Juan Baptista de Segura to Juan de Hinistrosa (September 12, 1570)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Luis_de_QuirA Mon, 30 Jun 2014 08:34:52 EST]]> /Roanoke_Colonies_The Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:28:23 EST <![CDATA[Roanoke Colonies, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Roanoke_Colonies_The The Roanoke Colonies were an ambitious attempt by England's Sir Walter Raleigh to establish a permanent North American settlement with the purpose of harassing Spanish shipping, mining for gold and silver, discovering a passage to the Pacific Ocean, and Christianizing the Indians. After three voyages the enterprise ended in the mysterious disappearance of the "Lost Colony." The first voyage, a reconnaissance venture led by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe, landed in 1584 on the Outer Banks of present-day North Carolina and made mostly friendly contact there with the Algonquian-speaking Indians, even returning to England with two of them: Manteo and Wanchese. Boosted by Barlowe's positive report and Queen Elizabeth's grant to settle "Virginia," the second voyage, in 1585, established a fortified camp on Roanoke Island. John White and Thomas Hariot accompanied explorations of the mainland and the Chesapeake Bay, creating maps, paintings, and descriptions of native culture. But after less than a year in America and shortly after beheading the Indian chief Pemisapan (Wingina), the English abandoned the colony. They returned the next year, this time under White's leadership and intending to settle in the Chesapeake; instead, they reoccupied Roanoke. After White sailed to England to update Raleigh and obtain additional supplies, he was delayed by the Spanish Armada. By the time he returned in 1590, the colonists, including his granddaughter, Virginia Dare, had disappeared.
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/Letter_from_the_Governor_s_Council_to_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_January_20_1623 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 12:01:20 EST <![CDATA[Letter from the Governor's Council to the Virginia Company of London (January 20, 1623)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_the_Governor_s_Council_to_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_January_20_1623 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 12:01:20 EST]]> /An_excerpt_from_A_Declaration_of_the_state_of_the_Colonie_and_Affaires_in_Virginia_1622 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:20:28 EST <![CDATA[An excerpt from A Declaration of the state of the Colonie and Affaires in Virginia (1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_excerpt_from_A_Declaration_of_the_state_of_the_Colonie_and_Affaires_in_Virginia_1622 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:20:28 EST]]> /_Declaration_Edward_Waterhouse_s Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:05:48 EST <![CDATA[A Declaration of the State of the Colony and Affaires in Virginia (1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Declaration_Edward_Waterhouse_s A Declaration of the state of the Colonie and Affaires in Virginia. With a Relation of the barbarous Massacre in the time of peace and League, treacherously executed upon the English Infidels, 22 March last … (1622), written by Edward Waterhouse, was the Virginia Company of London's official publication about an assault by Virginia Indians on the English plantations along the James River that took place on March 22, 1622. The company's secretary, Waterhouse collected information from eyewitnesses and Virginia's governing officials and concluded that the surprise attack, which killed more than a quarter of the colony's population, was executed with the purpose of their "utter extirpation." Waterhouse describes a time, just prior to the attack, of "firme peace and amitie," when Indians and colonists freely mingled. He notes that the Indians used this to their advantage, insinuating themselves into the homes of colonists, using the colonists' own tools to "basely and barbarously" kill them, and then disappearing into the woods. Outraged that most Indians, and in particular their leader Opechancanough, had not accepted Christianity, Waterhouse declares that the attack justified a policy whereby the English "destroy them who sought to destroy us." The attack, and the company's response to it, marks a point at which colonists, no longer dependent on the Indians economically, began in earnest to kill them and seize their land.
Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:05:48 EST]]>
/Voyage_of_Anthony_Chester_1707 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:02:21 EST <![CDATA[Voyage of Anthony Chester (1707)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Voyage_of_Anthony_Chester_1707 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:02:21 EST]]> /_Of_such_a_dish_as_powdered_wife_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Mon, 02 Jun 2014 21:07:32 EST <![CDATA["Of such a dish as powdered wife"; an excerpt from The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Of_such_a_dish_as_powdered_wife_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Mon, 02 Jun 2014 21:07:32 EST]]> /Tsenacomoco_Powhatan_Paramount_Chiefdom Fri, 30 May 2014 17:53:06 EST <![CDATA[Tsenacomoco (Powhatan Paramount Chiefdom)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tsenacomoco_Powhatan_Paramount_Chiefdom Tsenacomoco, otherwise known as the Powhatan paramount chiefdom, was a political alliance of Algonquian-speaking Virginia Indians that occupied the area first settled by the English at Jamestown. The origins of Tsenacomoco date to the Late Woodland Period (AD 900–1650). By 1607, twenty-eight to thirty-two groups, each with its own chief, paid tribute to Powhatan, the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco. With boundaries that stretched from the James River to the Potomac and west to the fall line, Tsenacomoco had a population of around 15,000 people. The name of the paramount chiefdom was first reported by the early English settler William Strachey and, while some scholars disagree, it may be translated to mean "densely inhabited place." Living in riverside towns, the Indians of Tsenacomoco cleared land for farming and used the forests for hunting. The wide, slow-moving rivers, meanwhile, provided means for travel, trade, and war. After the English arrived in 1607, Powhatan attempted to subsume them into Tsenacomoco, and, when that failed, he fought them in the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614), which ended only with the marriage of his daughter Pocahontas to John Rolfe. A successor to Powhatan, Opechancanough, fought two more wars, both of them unsuccessful. With Opechancanough's death in 1646 came the end of Tsenacomoco.
Fri, 30 May 2014 17:53:06 EST]]>
/Towns_and_Town_Life_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 17:50:59 EST <![CDATA[Towns and Town Life in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Towns_and_Town_Life_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Much of what is known about towns and town life in early Virginia Indian society is drawn from archaeological investigation, the observations of English settlers, and the work of Captain John Smith, who between 1607 and 1609 explored and mapped the Chesapeake Bay area. Through a combination of these sources, we know that most Virginia Indian towns were located close to fertile soil and along waterways, which were both a source of food and drinking water and a means of transport. Towns generally conformed to one of two layouts: a dispersed settlement pattern, in which the houses were scattered according to which fields were being cultivated at the time; and a nucleated settlement pattern, in which a palisade surrounds a tightly packed group of houses. The latter layout was usually found in frontier areas, where the threat of attack by enemy tribes was greater. Indian towns were busy, intensely social places and each resident, regardless of age or sex, was expected to play a particular role. This resulted in a tight-knit community that could be supportive, but constricting. Privacy was limited, so great emphasis was placed on manners and politeness and on releasing tension through a nightly group activity like singing and dancing. The quality of life in Indian towns declined in Virginia after the English arrived and began to encroach on Indian land.
Fri, 30 May 2014 17:50:59 EST]]>
/Religion_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 17:31:30 EST <![CDATA[Religion in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Religion_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Knowledge of religion in early Virginia Indian society largely comes from English colonists like Captain John Smith, who stated that all Indians had "religion, Deare, and Bow and Arrowes." Because Smith and his countrymen almost exclusively dealt with the Powhatans of Tsenacomoco—an alliance of twenty-eight to thirty-two petty tribes and chiefdoms centered around the James, Mattaponi, and Pamunkey rivers—the most is known about them. The Powhatans worshipped a number of spirits, the most important of whom was Okee. Men cut their hair in imitation of Okee's. To assuage his anger in times of crisis or court his pleasure before the hunt, they made sacrifices. Other spirits included the benevolent Ahone, the Great Hare creator god, an unnamed female divinity, and the Sun god. In charge of managing relations with these various spirits were the kwiocosuk, or shamans, who lived apart from common Powhatans and wielded the society's ultimate authority. Quiocosins , or holy temples, housed the shamans and hosted various rituals. When weroances, or chiefs, died, they were reduced to bundles of bones and, for several years, stored in the temples. The Powhatans also had a variety of rituals associated with eating, hunting, male initiation, and the killing of prisoners of war. Smith described what appeared to be a "conjuration" and, on another occasion, a three-day dance that may have been a yearly harvest festival.
Fri, 30 May 2014 17:31:30 EST]]>
/Political_Organization_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 15:26:54 EST <![CDATA[Political Organization in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Political_Organization_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Political organization in early Virginia Indian society likely was similar across the several distinct and culturally diverse groups that lived in the area; however, due to the records left by the English colonists, the most is known about the Powhatan Indians of Tsenacomoco. The alliance's six core groups lived along the James, Mattaponi, and Pamunkey rivers, with their capital, Werowocomoco, situated on the present-day York River. Each constituent group consisted of one or more towns ruled by a weroance, or chief, whose position was inherited matrilineally. For guidance, the weroance consulted his council, or cockarouses, and whenever he acted he was first obligated to seek the approval of his one or more kwiocosuk, or shamans. The mamanatowick, or paramount chief, ruled all of Tsenacomoco and likely combined the authority of weroance and kwiocosuk. He lived an opulent and exalted life—bejeweling himself in necklaces, bracelets, and a crown and traveling with a fifty-man bodyguard—but he was not an absolute ruler. He, too, consulted his council and, lacking a standing army or police force, he was not always able to enforce his will on subordinates. In the end, the ultimate authority in Tsenacomoco was religious, not political. Although the paramount chief was seen to own all of the land and its wealth, the shamans were empowered to intervene with the gods, mollifying them with sacrifices on the occasion of famine, flood, or other disasters.
Fri, 30 May 2014 15:26:54 EST]]>
/Plecker_Walter_Ashby_1861-1947 Fri, 30 May 2014 15:23:29 EST <![CDATA[Plecker, Walter Ashby (1861–1947)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Plecker_Walter_Ashby_1861-1947 Walter Ashby Plecker was a physician and the first Virginia state registrar of vital statistics, a position he served in from 1912 to 1946. He was a staunch promoter of eugenics, a discredited movement aimed at scientifically proving white racial superiority and thereby justifying the marginalizing of non-white people. Employing Virginia's Act to Preserve Racial Integrity (1924), Plecker effectively separated Virginia citizens into two simplified racial categories: white and colored. The law, which remained in effect until 1967, when it was overturned by the United States Supreme Court in the case of Loving v. Virginia , required that a racial description of every person be recorded at birth, while criminalizing marriages between whites and non-whites. Plecker's policies used deceptive scientific evidence to deem blacks a lesser class of human beings, but they also targeted poor whites and anyone he or other eugenicists considered "feebleminded." Asserting that Virginia Indians were, in fact, "mixed-blooded negroes," Plecker also pressured state agencies into reclassifying Indians as "colored." The policy's legacy was effectively to erase "Indian" as an identity and has made it difficult for Virginia Indians to gain state and federal recognition.
Fri, 30 May 2014 15:23:29 EST]]>
/Personal_Names_by_Virginia_Indians_During_the_Precolonial_and_Colonial_Eras_Uses_of Fri, 30 May 2014 15:20:33 EST <![CDATA[Personal Names by Early Virginia Indians, Uses of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Personal_Names_by_Virginia_Indians_During_the_Precolonial_and_Colonial_Eras_Uses_of Early Virginia Indians—the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Tsenacomoco, in particular, and possibly other groups—used multiple personal names. Although these names had specific meanings, most were not translated by English colonists at Jamestown, and many of those meanings have been lost. Often, Indians held more than one name simultaneously, with different names used in different situations. Pocahontas, for instance, had a formal given name; a "secret," or highly personal name; and nicknames that were updated throughout her life, sometimes commenting on her personality or her position within the community. Indian men and boys were expected to earn names that described their feats as hunters and warriors. Chiefs, such as Powhatan, often took new names when assuming power and sometimes even changed their names again after that. After the mid-seventeenth century, Virginia Indians began to adopt English first names, which they sometimes paired with shortened versions of their Indian names.
Fri, 30 May 2014 15:20:33 EST]]>
/Desegregation_in_Public_Schools Fri, 30 May 2014 14:52:24 EST <![CDATA[Desegregation in Public Schools]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Desegregation_in_Public_Schools The desegregation of the public schools in Virginia began on February 2, 1959, and continued through early in the 1970s when the state government's attempts to resist desegregation ended. During this period, African Americans in Virginia pushed for desegregation primarily by filing lawsuits in federal courts throughout Virginia. This litigation was aimed at achieving court rulings forcing the state of Virginia and its local school districts to comply with the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 decision Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, mandating the desegregation of public schools. State and local officials, however, generally resisted efforts to bring about desegregation and utilized their political power to avoid and then minimize public school desegregation. Virginia's Indians, meanwhile, went without the benefit of any state-funded public education until 1963, almost a decade after Brown.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:52:24 EST]]>
/Bacon_Nathaniel_1647-1676 Fri, 30 May 2014 14:39:07 EST <![CDATA[Bacon, Nathaniel (1647–1676)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bacon_Nathaniel_1647-1676 Nathaniel Bacon was a member of the governor's Council and, in 1676, a leader of Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), a dramatic uprising against the governor that ended with Bacon's sudden death. Bacon was born and educated in England and moved to Virginia with his wife in 1674. A relative of both the governor, Sir William Berkeley, and his wealthy wife, Frances Culpeper Stephens Berkeley, the tall, handsome, and arrogant Bacon farmed land on the James River and, in 1675, was appointed to the Council. His rebellion erupted in a climate of political and economic uncertainty made worse by a series of Indian attacks. When the governor rebuked Bacon's attempt at reprisals, Bacon ignored him and was removed from the Council, after which he marched a militia to Jamestown. There, he was pardoned by the governor who then changed his mind, setting up a confrontation a few weeks later in which, at the House of Burgesses, Berkeley bared his chest and dared Bacon to shoot him. After issuing a declaration of grievance calling for a new assembly to be chosen under his own authority, Bacon marched his men to the lower Rappahannock River and attacked the friendly Pamunkey Indians. His subsequent siege of Jamestown provoked action from the English king, but Bacon died suddenly of dysentery on October 26, 1676. His rebellion remains one of the most controversial events in Virginia history.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:39:07 EST]]>
/Ashuaquid_fl_1607 Fri, 30 May 2014 14:31:10 EST <![CDATA[Ashuaquid (fl. 1607)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ashuaquid_fl_1607 Ashuaquid, an Arrohateck chief, was the head of a tribe consisting of about sixty warriors who resided in a town on the north bank of the James River about thirteen miles below the fall line, well within the territory that was part of Powhatan's original inheritance. Powhatan frequently placed a close relative, such as a son, brother, or sister, in such leadership positions, but evidence of Ashuaquid's relationship to Powhatan is lacking. In May 1607, Ashuaquid's tribe twice welcomed Christopher Newport and a small group of men who were exploring the upper reaches of the James River. Later, after learning that the colonists' fort at Jamestown had been attacked by Indians hostile to the settlers, Ashuaquid advised the colonists on who their enemies were and how to better defend against them. The Arrohateck tribe is last mentioned in William Strachey's record of his visit to Virginia in 1609. The Arrohateck site had been abandoned by 1611 and the fate of Ashuaquid is unknown.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:31:10 EST]]>
/Ann_fl_1706-1712 Fri, 30 May 2014 14:26:22 EST <![CDATA[Ann (fl. 1706–1712)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ann_fl_1706-1712 Ann was a Pamunkey chief and a successor to the most famous Pamunkey queen, Cockacoeske, who led the Pamunkey for thirty years until her death in 1686. Cockacoeske was succeeded by an unidentified niece, perhaps the leader whose mark and the name "Mrs. Betty, the Queen," appear on a petition requesting the confirmation of a sale of Pamunkey land to English subjects that was submitted to the General Court on October 22, 1701. Sparse documentation and the Powhatan Indians' practice of changing their names on important occasions have led to confusion in identifying the principal leaders of the Pamunkey. It has been conjectured that the niece who succeeded Cockacoeske, Mrs. Betty, and Ann were the same woman and that she changed her name to Ann after Queen Anne ascended the English throne in 1702. In the few records that bear the mark of Ann, she fought for the rights of her people. For example, eighteenth-century petitions that she and the great men of the Pamunkey submitted to the colonial government request that squatters on Indian land be removed, that ownership of tribal lands be confirmed, and that the annual tribute be reduced. Ann likely died about 1723.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:26:22 EST]]>
/Paint_Lick_Mountain_Pictograph_Archaeological_Site Fri, 30 May 2014 14:18:39 EST <![CDATA[Paint Lick Mountain Pictograph Archaeological Site]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Paint_Lick_Mountain_Pictograph_Archaeological_Site Fri, 30 May 2014 14:18:39 EST]]> /Marriage_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 14:11:31 EST <![CDATA[Marriage in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Marriage_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society What is known of marriage in early Virginia Indian society is limited to the observations of Jamestown colonists, visiting English observers, and later American historians, and is mostly applicable to the Algonquian-speaking Powhatans of Tsenacomoco, a paramount chiefdom of twenty-eight to thirty-two groups living in Tidewater Virginia. Marriage was crucial for survival in Indian society, because men and women needed to work as partners in order to accomplish their many daily and seasonal tasks. The man initiated courtship and looked for a woman who would perform her assigned tasks well. The woman could decline a marriage offer, but if she did choose to accept it, her parents also needed to approve the offer. The groom's parents, meanwhile, paid a bridewealth, or marriage payment, to the bride's parents to compensate them for her lost labor. Men were allowed to have additional wives, so long as the husband could afford to provide for them; for chiefs especially, these wives served as symbols of wealth. It is estimated that the paramount chief Powhatan (Wahunsonacock) had as many as one hundred wives during his lifetime. While a man's first marriage was expected to last for life, additional marriages were likely negotiated for shorter terms. Unless a woman was married to a chief, she was allowed to conduct extramarital affairs, provided she had her husband's permission (which was usually given). Punishment for dishonesty on this score could be severe, however. Virginia Indians held onto their marriage traditions long after contact with the English, and marriage between Indians and the English was rare.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:11:31 EST]]>
/Manners_and_Politeness_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 14:09:44 EST <![CDATA[Manners and Politeness in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Manners_and_Politeness_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Manners and politeness, as dictated by custom, were an important aspect of early Virginia Indian society. What is known about the subject is limited to the observations of Jamestown colonists, visiting English observers, and later American historians, and is mostly applicable to the Algonquian-speaking Powhatan Indians of Tsenacomoco, a paramount chiefdom of twenty-eight to thirty-two groups in Tidewater Virginia. Although regulation among the Virginia Indians tended to be informal, the line between good and bad manners was nevertheless clear and the consequences for crossing it were severe. The Powhatans did not tolerate interruptions in formal situations, and tended to refrain from speaking until the appropriate moment. In instances of minor personal conflict, they chose either to withdraw from the situation or to bear any imposition without complaint. Powhatan society had various outlets for aggression and frustration, but in the end, self-control, even under torture, was most valued.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:09:44 EST]]>
/Law_and_Justice_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 14:08:06 EST <![CDATA[Law and Justice in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Law_and_Justice_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Law and justice in early Virginia Indian society were not well understood by English observers, whose main concern was replacing the native system with their own. William Strachey wrote that the Indians ruled not by "posetive lawes," but by custom, and Henry Spelman, who lived among the Patawomeck Indians and spoke their language, wrote that he thought that the "Infidels wear [were] lawless" until he witnessed five of them brutally executed by being beaten and thrown into a fire. In fact, most of what is known about the laws and punishments among the Powhatan Indians can be reduced to a series of often graphically violent anecdotes in which men and women are killed for the crimes of infanticide, stealing, carrying on unsanctioned affairs, and even interrupting a weroance, or chief, while he is speaking. Powhatan custom demanded that revenge be exacted for wrongs against the person and against the chiefdom; the chiefs and paramount chief were powerless to intervene. This led to nearly constant, small-scale warfare, but it also caused problems with the English. Whenever a slight was made against an Indian, revenge was likely and was sometimes directed at the entire group rather than just at the individual. In the end, the English copied this practice, passing a law in 1641 giving colonists the power to hold otherwise innocent Indians hostage when the guilty party eluded capture.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:08:06 EST]]>
/Late_Woodland_Period_AD_900-1650 Fri, 30 May 2014 14:06:23 EST <![CDATA[Late Woodland Period (AD 900–1650)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Late_Woodland_Period_AD_900-1650 Fri, 30 May 2014 14:06:23 EST]]> /Languages_and_Interpreters_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 14:04:47 EST <![CDATA[Languages and Interpreters in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Languages_and_Interpreters_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Early Virginia Indians spoke dialects of Algic, Iroquoian, or Siouan, three large linguistic families that include many of the more than eight hundred indigenous languages in North America. Among Virginia's Algic-speakers were the Powhatan Indians, who lived in the Tidewater and encountered the Jamestown settlers in 1607. Little is known of their language—a form of Algic known as Virginia Algonquian—although Captain John Smith and William Strachey both composed influential vocabulary lists. The Nottoways and the Meherrins lived south of the James near the fall line and spoke Iroquoian. Although the Meherrin language was never recorded, it has been identified as Iroquoian based on geography. In 1820, John Wood interviewed the elderly Nottoway "queen" Edie Turner and created a word list that eventually was recognized as Iroquoian. Virginia's Siouan-speakers, meanwhile, largely lived west of the fall line and included the Monacans, the Mannahoacs, and the Saponis. Many Virginia Indians, encouraged by the requirements of trade, diplomacy, and warfare, spoke multiple languages, and when the English arrived, they and the Powhatans eagerly exchanged boys to learn each other's language and serve as interpreters. By the twentieth century, most if not all Virginia Indian languages had become extinct, meaning that no native speakers survived. In 2005, the Terrence Malick film The New World presented a form of Algonquian based on the Smith and Strachey lists and the work of the linguist Blair Rudes.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:04:47 EST]]>
/Hygiene_During_the_Pre-Colonial_Era_Personal Fri, 30 May 2014 13:56:25 EST <![CDATA[Hygiene Among Early Virginia Indians, Personal]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hygiene_During_the_Pre-Colonial_Era_Personal Early Virginia Indians practiced personal hygiene that included daily baths in all seasons and all weather. They also engaged in occasional sweat baths in sweat lodges, which likely were presided over by a priest and which they believed to be healthy and invigorating. Despite a lack of soap, elite Powhatan Indians washed their hands before eating, according to Jamestown colonists and other European observers, whose writings don't comment on the practices of common people. At least one late seventeenth century European traveler remarked on Virginia Indians who never washed their clothes, a practice that probably originated when they dressed in tough deerskin but which became less seemly after switching to European-style garb. Regardless, by modern standards, Virginia Indians were far more sanitary than the Europeans who arrived in 1607.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:56:25 EST]]>
/Huskanaw Fri, 30 May 2014 13:54:50 EST <![CDATA[Huskanaw]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Huskanaw The huskanaw was a rite of passage by which Virginia Indian boys became men. While such rituals were common among American Indian societies, the huskanaw was conducted by, among others, the Algonquian-speaking Powhatan Indians of Tsenacomoco, an alliance of twenty-eight to thirty-two petty tribes and chiefdoms centered around the James, Mattaponi, and Pamunkey rivers. Aligning it with various other religious rituals, they referred to the huskanaw as a sacrifice and told the Jamestown colonists that if they did not perform it their powerful god Okee would be angered and disrupt their hunting or cause natural disasters. Although the English colonists at first took this ceremony to be a literal sacrifice of boys, they quickly learned that the term was metaphorical. The word huskanaw refers to the youth of the initiates and to the fact that they were to be transformed into men.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:54:50 EST]]>
/Houses_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 13:51:51 EST <![CDATA[Houses in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Houses_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Houses in early Virginia Indian society became necessary after the Ice Age, when the Indians began depending less on the hunt for survival. Among the Powhatan Indians, especially, but elsewhere in the region, too, a house, or a yi-hakan in Algonquian, typically had a circular or oval floor plan and was rarely if ever longer than forty feet. (The Powhatans designed special houses for their weroances, or chiefs, and their kwiocosuk, or shamans.) Built by women, Indian houses consisted of long, bent sapling poles that were covered with either woven-reed mats or bark. They had a single door, which also served as the only source of light and ventilation. Construction was labor-intensive and time-consuming, and Englishmen, who often were hosted by the Powhatans, complained that they were dark, smoky, and flea-infested. Within a hundred years of the landing at Jamestown, the Indians had begun to adopt English-style houses, but adapted them to native methods and materials (building, for instance, bark-covered cabins). After another hundred years, Indian houses had become largely indistinguishable from those built by non-Indians.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:51:51 EST]]>
/Games_by_Early_Virginia_Indians_Uses_of Fri, 30 May 2014 13:45:34 EST <![CDATA[Games by Early Virginia Indians, Uses of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Games_by_Early_Virginia_Indians_Uses_of Early Virginia Indians played a variety of games, with some of these games reserved especially for men and others for women, girls, and boys. The men and boys had wrestling, footraces, and a game that resembled modern-day football, but the rules were never described in detail by the Jamestown colonists and later English settlers who observed them played among the Powhatan Indians. Gambling among Indian men, along with alcohol consumption, seems to have increased as a form of escapism with the arrival of the Europeans and was made worse by the availability of European trade goods. That behavior seems to have waned over time, however, and was not observed in the twentieth- or twenty-first-century Virginia Indian communities.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:45:34 EST]]>
/Fishing_and_Shellfishing_by_Early_Virginia_Indians Fri, 30 May 2014 13:44:02 EST <![CDATA[Fishing and Shellfishing by Early Virginia Indians]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fishing_and_Shellfishing_by_Early_Virginia_Indians Virginia Indians living around the Chesapeake Bay and other people living along the bays and rivers of the Chesapeake region have long relied on harvesting fish and shellfish. Lacking long-handled tongs, Indian boys encountered by the Jamestown colonists dived for oysters in the Chesapeake, in addition to gathering clams and mussels and turning the byproducts of consumption into jewelry. Hard clamshells were crafted into cylinders and beaded, and by the seventeenth century this so-called wampum was being used as money. Indians fished using rods, line, and bone crafted into fishhooks; in shallow water, they speared fish with javelins. Spying Atlantic sturgeon asleep on the water's surface, Indians sometimes noosed the giant fish, requiring them to hold on, at risk to life and limb, as the sturgeon darted and dived in an attempt to escape. Powhatan Indians also used small fires, set in hearths aboard canoes, to throw bright lights and attract fish close enough to the surface and to the boat to be speared. Weirs and V-shaped rock dams also trapped fish. Ill-equipped to feed themselves, the English colonists generally expressed surprise and admiration at the Virginia Indians' expertise in fishing, eventually hiring Indian men to do the job for them.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:44:02 EST]]>
/First_Anglo-Powhatan_War_1609-1614 Fri, 30 May 2014 13:41:56 EST <![CDATA[First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/First_Anglo-Powhatan_War_1609-1614 Fri, 30 May 2014 13:41:56 EST]]> /Fire_During_the_Pre-Colonial_Era_Uses_of Fri, 30 May 2014 13:39:42 EST <![CDATA[Fire by Early Virginia Indians, Uses of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fire_During_the_Pre-Colonial_Era_Uses_of For early Virginia Indians, fire was difficult to make, requiring a stick, a small piece of wood, and a lot of arm strength. As such, the Powhatans tended to keep their household fires going year round and even in the hottest weather. These indoor fires provided heat and produced smoke that repelled insects and hardened the reed mats that covered the houses, thus making the mats last longer. Separate fires were kept just outside the house for cooking. Absent draft animals and iron cutting tools, Virginia Indians used fire to burn into wood and shells to scrape away the resulting charcoal, a technique that could fell a tree and hollow out a canoe. Fire was the center of any ritual, religious or otherwise, that involved singing and dancing, and was used to punish and sometimes execute criminals and captives. On the hunt, Indian men used numerous small fires to direct herds of deer into smaller and smaller circles, making them easier to kill. The light from fires on boats even brought fish within spearing distance. The work of maintaining fires, especially household fires, often fell to women, which brought them constantly in and out of town and away from male supervision. The English colonists at Jamestown found this to be odd and concluded that Indian men were "lazy."
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:39:42 EST]]>
/Education_Early_Virginia_Indian Fri, 30 May 2014 13:35:10 EST <![CDATA[Education, Early Virginia Indian]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Education_Early_Virginia_Indian Early Virginia Indians educated their children for the purpose of preparing them to be adults. Boys and girls were expected to absorb the community's values, including stoicism in the face of hardship, and master the skills necessary to survive and thrive. For men that included hunting and warfare and for women collecting plants, building houses, and making household furnishings. English colonists had little to say about how Indian girls were reared, either out of lack of interest or because such knowledge was considered to be none of their business. Powhatan boys were trained in hunting and warfare by their fathers and older male relatives in order to win personal names, learn marksmanship, and earn the right to join the hunt. Between the ages of ten and fifteen, they engaged in the several-months-long huskanaw ritual, in which they were ritually—but not actually—killed and then given a drug which turned them briefly violent and ritually erased their memories of boyhood. The English colonists saw this sort of training for boys as frivolous; they believed that boys, instead of girls, should plant and farm. Although education practices among the Virginia Indians changed in the years after contact with the English, what remained was an ingrained reluctance to send their children outside the family for instruction.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:35:10 EST]]>
/Early_Archaic_Period Fri, 30 May 2014 13:32:31 EST <![CDATA[Early Archaic Period]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Early_Archaic_Period Fri, 30 May 2014 13:32:31 EST]]> /Domesticated_Plants_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society_Uses_of Fri, 30 May 2014 13:26:46 EST <![CDATA[Plants in Early Virginia Indian Society, Domesticated]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Domesticated_Plants_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society_Uses_of Virginia Indians began domesticating plants to be used as a food source following the Ice Age. As the climate warmed, their lives became less nomadic and the conditions improved for husbanding certain plants—sunflower, knotweed, and little barley at first, and then the so-called three sisters of maize, beans, and squash. Eastern North America is one of ten sites in the world where independent plant domestication occurred, but because of other abundant food sources in the Chesapeake Bay area, maize, or corn, was not widespread until as late as AD 1100. Plant domestication coincided with increasing populations, improved weapons technology, and more complex social and political systems. Already a high-status food among the Indians, maize was held in particularly high regard by the Jamestown colonists, who had never seen it before. Scholars disagree how much of the Indian diet it comprised, but it seems clear that only the highest-ranking of the Powhatan Indians of Tsenacomoco ate domesticated plants year-round.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:26:46 EST]]>
/Domesticated_Animals_During_the_Pre-Colonial_Era Fri, 30 May 2014 13:17:46 EST <![CDATA[Domesticated Animals by Early Virginia Indians, Uses of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Domesticated_Animals_During_the_Pre-Colonial_Era Virginia Indians did not domesticate animals, in large part, because good candidates for domestication did not live in the Eastern Woodlands of North America. The one exception was wolves, which the Indians domesticated into dogs. Likely about knee-high and with an average weight of twenty pounds, these animals were not specialized or even especially tame, and were used only in hunting land fowl such as wild turkey. According to the Jamestown colonists, the Powhatan Indians did not eat their dogs but may have sacrificed them ritually. With no horses or oxen, Powhatans were unable to clear forests easily or practice plow agriculture. English colonists concluded that the Indians were "lazy" and "backward"; in fact, they had great physical endurance, although many suffered from arthritis while relatively young. Colonists brought horses, cows, goats, pigs, and large dogs from England, but because most of these animals required grass or other pasture vegetation for grazing, the Indians did not adopt them. Pigs, however, were turned loose into the forest and hunted by both Indians and colonists.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:17:46 EST]]>
/Divorce_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 13:15:50 EST <![CDATA[Divorce in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Divorce_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Divorce was permitted, if not common, in early Virginia Indian society. What is known of the practice is limited to the observations of Jamestown colonists, visiting English observers, and later American historians, and applicable mostly to the Algonquian-speaking Powhatans and possibly speakers from other language families. A divorce among common married people could be obtained in cases of mere "disagreement." Because daily labor was divided between the sexes and every adult needed at least one opposite-sex partner to get all the work done, marriage was encouraged among the Indians as a means of survival. If a married person divorced or was widowed or abandoned, remarriage was therefore expected. If a spouse was captured and did not return, a divorce was assumed in order to encourage remarriage. The paramount chief Powhatan divorced each of his wives as soon as she gave him a child, sending her either to one of his under chiefs or back to her home, but eventually taking the child into his household. Among nonchiefs, the children were raised by one of the parents; accounts differ as to how custody was settled. English colonists reacted to the relative ease by which Virginia Indians obtained a divorce by characterizing them as sexually promiscuous. In the centuries following the settlement of Jamestown in 1607, however, divorce among the Indians came into line with English and new American practices, becoming much more difficult.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:15:50 EST]]>
/Diet_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 13:13:25 EST <![CDATA[Diet in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Diet_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Diet in early Virginia Indian society changed significantly from the Ice Age to the English colonists' landing at Jamestown in 1607, from initially relying more on meat to over time increasingly combining wild game, fish, nuts, and berries. The Indians' eating patterns were shaped by the seasons, and for the Powhatans there were five, not four. In the early and mid-spring (cattapeuk), they ate migrating fish and planted crops. From late in the spring until mid-summer (cohattayough), they split their time between the towns, where they weeded the fields, and the forests, where they foraged. Late summer (nepinough) was harvest time, and the autumn and early winter (taquitock) the occasion for feasts and religious rituals. This marked a second time in the year when the Indians abandoned their towns, this time for communal hunts. Meats were prepared and stored for the late winter and early spring (popanow), when shortages made life difficult and even dangerous. "They be all of them huge eaters," the colonist William Strachey observed of the Powhatans, but the Indians also lived intensely physical lives, requiring a large number of calories. Their metabolisms, meanwhile, were slow enough to store nutrients and then, during shortages, use them slowly while the people remained active. The colonist John Smith described the Powhatans as living "hand to mouth," but they were often better fed than the colonists with a diet that was low in fat, sugar, and salt, and high in protein and fiber.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:13:25 EST]]>
/Cooking_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 13:11:07 EST <![CDATA[Cooking in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooking_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Early Virginia Indians hunted, fished, and collected wild grains and berries, which they prepared in various ways. Meats were roasted, while grains and tubers were pounded into ashcakes and then baked. For many millennia, boiling water was difficult, but by the Late Woodland Period (AD 900–1600), technology had improved among the Powhatan Indians of Virginia such that a large ceramic stew pot became the focus of family eating. Roasted meats, shellfish, and wild berries were all added to the stew, which boiled throughout the day. Rather than prepare set meals, family members who spent the day gathering food or doing chores added to the stew as able and ate from it as necessary. Wild grains and, later, domesticated corn were harvested and baked into bread. The Powhatans generally avoided seasonings, including salt, and likely enjoyed food for its texture rather than its flavor. Although the Indians domesticated beans and squash, they ate more corn (maize) than any other crop, sucking unripe ears for their sweet juice, baking cornbread, or roasting it. They also made cooking wrappers, baskets, and mats out of the husks. What is known of Indian cooking in this period is based on research from paleobotanists and paleozoologists about what wild foods were available, as well as eye-witness accounts from English colonists. Most of these accounts concern the Algonquian-speaking Powhatans, but they likely apply to the speakers of Siouan and Iroquoian languages in Virginia.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:11:07 EST]]>
/Cockacoeske_d_by_July_1_1686 Fri, 30 May 2014 13:08:48 EST <![CDATA[Cockacoeske (d. by July 1, 1686)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cockacoeske_d_by_July_1_1686 Cockacoeske, also known as Cockacoeweske, was a Pamunkey chief, and a descendant of Opechancanough, brother of the paramount chief Powhatan. After the death of her husband, Totopotomoy, chief of the Pamunkey from about 1649 until 1656, Cockacoeske became queen of the Pamunkey. In 1676, a few months before the outbreak of Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), the insurrection's leader, Nathaniel Bacon, and his followers attacked the Pamunkey, took captives, and killed some of Cockacoeske's people. That summer she appeared before a committee of burgesses and governor's Council members in Jamestown to discuss the number of warriors she could provide to defend the colony against frontier tribes. She gave a speech reminding the colonists of Pamunkey warriors killed while fighting alongside the colonists. In February 1677 she asked the General Assembly for the release of Pamunkey who had been taken captive and for the restoration of Pamunkey property. An astute politician, Cockacoeske signed the Treaty of Middle Plantation on May 29, 1677, reuniting under her authority several tribes that had not been under Powhatan domination since 1646. Cockacoeske ruled the Pamunkey until her death in 1686.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:08:48 EST]]>
/Chauco_fl_1622-1623 Fri, 30 May 2014 13:06:01 EST <![CDATA[Chauco (fl. 1622–1623)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chauco_fl_1622-1623 Chauco was one of several Virginia Indians who saved the lives of English colonists by warning of Opechancanough's plans to attack their settlements on March 22, 1622. He is named in no more than two known documents, leaving details about his parentage, birth, death, and tribal affiliation unknown. It is possible that he was the person referred to in 1624 as Chacrow, an Indian who a decade earlier had lived with an English colonist and knew how to use a gun. The story of a Christian Indian who, like Pocahontas, helped the Virginia colonists survive the hostilities of their own people is a popular Virginia legend.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:06:01 EST]]>
/Ceramics_Virginia_Indian Fri, 30 May 2014 13:04:17 EST <![CDATA[Ceramics, Virginia Indian]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ceramics_Virginia_Indian Fri, 30 May 2014 13:04:17 EST]]> /Bridges_During_the_Pre-Colonial_Era Fri, 30 May 2014 12:57:56 EST <![CDATA[Bridges by Early Virginia Indians, Uses of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bridges_During_the_Pre-Colonial_Era Fri, 30 May 2014 12:57:56 EST]]> /Patawomeck_Tribe Fri, 30 May 2014 11:51:31 EST <![CDATA[Patawomeck Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Patawomeck_Tribe The Patawomeck tribe is a state-recognized Indian tribe based in Fredericksburg. Dating its presence on the south bank of the Potomac River to about AD 1300, the tribe lived relatively far from the English settlement at Jamestown but nevertheless played a major role in the politics and warfare of the early colonial period. In an effort to maintain its own independence, the Patawomeck tribe regularly played its more powerful Indian neighbors and the English colonists against one another. Tribal members traded food to starving colonists in 1609; hosted an English boy, Henry Spelman, for a time; and helped the English kidnap Pocahontas, daughter of the paramount chief Powhatan. Not only did the Patawomeck not participate in the weroance, or chief, Opechancanough's attack against the English in 1622, they possibly helped the English to poison Opechancanough the next year. (He survived.) English settlements did not encroach on Patawomeck land until the 1650s. At first the county courts and General Assembly defended the Patawomeck against bad English behavior that included an attempt to frame the Patawomeck weroance for murder in 1662. But just four years later, in 1666, the governor's Council called for the Patawomeck Indians' "utter destruction." The tribe disappeared from colonial records after that. In February 2010, the Commonwealth of Virginia granted the Patawomeck Indians state recognition, against the advice of the state-appointed Virginia Council on Indians.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:51:31 EST]]>
/Mattaponi_Tribe Fri, 30 May 2014 11:41:10 EST <![CDATA[Mattaponi Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mattaponi_Tribe The Mattaponi tribe is a state-recognized Indian tribe located on a 150-acre reservation that stretches along the borders of the Mattaponi River at West Point in King William County. Early in the twenty-first century the tribe included about 450 people, 75 of whom lived on the reservation.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:41:10 EST]]>
/Jamestown_Settlement_Early Fri, 30 May 2014 11:27:18 EST <![CDATA[Jamestown Settlement, Early]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jamestown_Settlement_Early The Jamestown settlement, established in 1607, was the seat of England's first permanent colony in North America. After the failure of the Roanoke colonies, investors in the Virginia Company of London were anxious to find profit farther to the north, and in April 1607 three ships of settlers arrived at the Chesapeake Bay. The enterprise, fraught with disease, dissension, and determined Indian resistance, was a miserable failure at first. "The adventurers who ventured their capital lost it," the historian Edmund S. Morgan has written. "Most of the settlers who ventured their lives lost them. And so did most of the Indians who came near them." John Smith mapped out much of the Bay and established (sometimes violent) relations with the Powhatan Indians there. During the winter of 1609–1610, the colony nearly starved. The resupply ship Sea Venture, carrying much of Virginia's new leadership, was thought lost at sea. When it finally arrived in May 1610, fewer than a hundred colonists still survived. Discipline at Jamestown did not match the urgency of the moment until Sir Thomas Dale's arrival in 1611 and his full implementation of the strict Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall. By year's end, Dale had founded an outside settlement at Henrico, near what became Richmond. The introduction of saleable tobacco soon after helped secure the colony's economy, and as political power expanded into the James River Valley, the influence of Jamestown waned.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:27:18 EST]]>
/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_A_True_Relation_of_such_occurrences_and_accidents_of_note_as_hath_hapned_in_Virginia_by_John_Smith_1608 Tue, 20 May 2014 13:31:09 EST <![CDATA[Arriving in Virginia; an excerpt from "A True Relation of such occurrences and accidents of note, as hath hapned in Virginia" by John Smith (1608)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_A_True_Relation_of_such_occurrences_and_accidents_of_note_as_hath_hapned_in_Virginia_by_John_Smith_1608 Tue, 20 May 2014 13:31:09 EST]]> /Letter_from_the_Rev_Joseph_Mead_to_Sir_Martin_Stuteville_January_23_1630 Thu, 15 May 2014 21:55:47 EST <![CDATA[Letter from the Rev. Joseph Mead to Sir Martin Stuteville (January 23, 1630)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_the_Rev_Joseph_Mead_to_Sir_Martin_Stuteville_January_23_1630 Thu, 15 May 2014 21:55:47 EST]]> /_Miss_Johnston_s_To_Have_and_to_Hold_February_10_1900 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:09:27 EST <![CDATA["Miss Johnston's 'To Have and to Hold'" (February 10, 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Miss_Johnston_s_To_Have_and_to_Hold_February_10_1900 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:09:27 EST]]> /Great_Awakening_in_Virginia_The Thu, 11 Jul 2013 14:20:03 EST <![CDATA[Great Awakening in Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Great_Awakening_in_Virginia_The The Great Awakening was the most significant cultural upheaval in colonial America. The term refers to a series of religious revivals that began early in the eighteenth century and led, eventually, to the disestablishment of the Church of England as the official church during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Triggered by the preaching of the Anglican itinerant George Whitefield, the Great Awakening began in New England and the Middle Colonies, where thousands converted to an evangelical faith centered on the experience of the "new birth" of salvation. It also featured intense, emotional scenes of penitential sinners and new converts being filled, as they saw it, with the Holy Spirit, with associated outcries, visions, dreams, and spirit journeys. The Great Awakening's effects in Virginia developed slowly, beginning early in the 1740s. By the 1760s, evangelical Presbyterians and Baptists were making major inroads among Virginians, and challenging the established church in the colony. Perhaps the most notable historical result of the Great Awakening in Virginia was the end of the state's establishment of religion, which was ultimately accomplished through the Act for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786). The cause of religious freedom was championed politically by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, but it depended on the popular support of legions of evangelicals, especially Baptists.
Thu, 11 Jul 2013 14:20:03 EST]]>
/Andros_Sir_Edmund_1637-ca_1714 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:28:06 EST <![CDATA[Andros, Sir Edmund (1637–ca. 1714)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Andros_Sir_Edmund_1637-ca_1714 Sir Edmund Andros served as governor of Virginia from 1692 until 1698. Born in London, Andros enjoyed ties to the family of Charles II, served in the army, was appointed governor of New York by the future James II in 1674 and in 1686 of the Dominion of New England. His stay in New England was unpopular enough that he ended up imprisoned before returning to England. During the Glorious Revolution (1688) he supported William of Orange, who appointed him governor of Virginia with the hopes that he would aid New York during King William's War (1689–1697) and raise the salaries of the Anglican clergy. Andros's efforts were hindered by the war's effect on the tobacco trade; when prices fell, so did the salaries of clergymen, who were paid in the crop. Forced to battle with the clergymen's leader, James Blair, Andros raised salaries some but not enough. In the meantime, he subtly extended royal power in Virginia, tying the colony's laws closer to England's. Just staying in power despite a host of political enemies, Andros left office due to poor health, leaving Virginia in 1699. He served as lieutenant governor of Guernsey before dying in England sometime around 1714.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:28:06 EST]]>
/Ralph_Lane_on_the_Killing_of_Pemisapan_an_excerpt_from_An_account_of_the_particularities_of_the_imployments_of_the_English_men_left_in_Virginia_1589 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 11:44:42 EST <![CDATA[Ralph Lane on the Killing of Pemisapan; an excerpt from "An account of the particularities of the imployments of the English men left in Virginia" (1589)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ralph_Lane_on_the_Killing_of_Pemisapan_an_excerpt_from_An_account_of_the_particularities_of_the_imployments_of_the_English_men_left_in_Virginia_1589 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 11:44:42 EST]]> /Letter_from_Antonio_de_Abalia_to_the_Council_of_Indies_October_23_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:54:11 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Antonio de Abalia to the Council of Indies (October 23, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Antonio_de_Abalia_to_the_Council_of_Indies_October_23_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:54:11 EST]]> /La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_25_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:52:19 EST <![CDATA[La Trinidad Expedition Log (August 25, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_25_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:52:19 EST]]> /La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_24_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:50:30 EST <![CDATA[La Trinidad Expedition Log (August 24, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_24_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:50:30 EST]]> /La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_14_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:48:50 EST <![CDATA[La Trinidad Expedition Log (August 14, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_14_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:48:50 EST]]> /List_of_People_on_La_Trinidad_Expedition_August_1_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:46:39 EST <![CDATA[List of People on La Trinidad Expedition (August 1, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/List_of_People_on_La_Trinidad_Expedition_August_1_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:46:39 EST]]> /Instructions_from_Pedro_Menendez_de_Aviles_to_Pedro_de_Coronas_et_al_August_1_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:42:42 EST <![CDATA[Instructions from Pedro Menéndez de Avilés to Pedro de Coronas, et al. (August 1, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Instructions_from_Pedro_Menendez_de_Aviles_to_Pedro_de_Coronas_et_al_August_1_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:42:42 EST]]> /Relation_of_Bartolome_Martinez_October_24_1610 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 12:56:57 EST <![CDATA[Relation of Bartolomé Martínez (October 24, 1610)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Relation_of_Bartolome_Martinez_October_24_1610 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 12:56:57 EST]]> /Letter_from_Juan_Rogel_to_Francis_Borgia_1572 Tue, 12 Mar 2013 12:00:05 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Juan Rogel to Francis Borgia (August 28, 1572)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Juan_Rogel_to_Francis_Borgia_1572 Tue, 12 Mar 2013 12:00:05 EST]]> /Review_of_To_Have_and_to_Hold_April_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:46:45 EST <![CDATA[Review of To Have and to Hold (April 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Review_of_To_Have_and_to_Hold_April_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:46:45 EST]]> /_Mary_Johnston_in_Her_Home_by_Annie_Kendrick_Walker_March_24_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:42:16 EST <![CDATA["Mary Johnston in Her Home" by Annie Kendrick Walker (March 24, 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mary_Johnston_in_Her_Home_by_Annie_Kendrick_Walker_March_24_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:42:16 EST]]> /_A_Book_Very_Like_To_Have_and_to_Hold_by_L_F_A_Maulsby_June_9_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:36:49 EST <![CDATA["A Book Very Like 'To Have and to Hold'" by L. F. A. Maulsby (June 9, 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Book_Very_Like_To_Have_and_to_Hold_by_L_F_A_Maulsby_June_9_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:36:49 EST]]> /_Miss_Johnston_s_Virginia_by_Thomas_Dixon_Jr_November_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:33:12 EST <![CDATA["Miss Johnston's Virginia" by Thomas Dixon Jr. (November 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Miss_Johnston_s_Virginia_by_Thomas_Dixon_Jr_November_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:33:12 EST]]> /The_Case_of_Wahanganoche_an_excerpt_from_the_Journals_of_the_House_of_Burgesses_of_Virginia_1662 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:22:24 EST <![CDATA[The Case of Wahanganoche; an excerpt from the Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Case_of_Wahanganoche_an_excerpt_from_the_Journals_of_the_House_of_Burgesses_of_Virginia_1662 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:22:24 EST]]> /_An_act_concerning_the_building_of_a_ffort_October_1665 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:18:16 EST <![CDATA["An act concerning the building of a ffort" (October 1665)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_concerning_the_building_of_a_ffort_October_1665 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:18:16 EST]]> /_An_act_concerning_Indians_October_1665 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:16:12 EST <![CDATA["An act concerning Indians" (October 1665)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_concerning_Indians_October_1665 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:16:12 EST]]> /_An_act_concerning_the_Northerne_Indians_September_1663 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:12:56 EST <![CDATA["An act concerning the Northerne Indians" (September 1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_concerning_the_Northerne_Indians_September_1663 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:12:56 EST]]> /Chapter_33_In_Which_My_Friend_Becomes_My_Foe_an_excerpt_from_To_Have_and_to_Hold_by_Mary_Johnston_1900 Wed, 13 Feb 2013 11:52:33 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 33: "In Which My Friend Becomes My Foe"; an excerpt from To Have and to Hold by Mary Johnston (1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_33_In_Which_My_Friend_Becomes_My_Foe_an_excerpt_from_To_Have_and_to_Hold_by_Mary_Johnston_1900 Wed, 13 Feb 2013 11:52:33 EST]]> /Treaty_Ending_the_Third_Anglo-Powhatan_War_1646 Fri, 25 Jan 2013 16:14:58 EST <![CDATA[Treaty Ending the Third Anglo-Powhatan War (1646)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Treaty_Ending_the_Third_Anglo-Powhatan_War_1646 Fri, 25 Jan 2013 16:14:58 EST]]> /Articles_of_Peace_1677 Fri, 25 Jan 2013 15:08:35 EST <![CDATA[Articles of Peace (1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Articles_of_Peace_1677 Fri, 25 Jan 2013 15:08:35 EST]]> /Thomas_Harriot_on_the_Diseases_that_Ravaged_Indian_Towns_an_excerpt_from_A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_1588 Thu, 10 Jan 2013 10:56:23 EST <![CDATA[Diseases that Ravaged Indian Towns; an excerpt from A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia by Thomas Hariot (1588)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Harriot_on_the_Diseases_that_Ravaged_Indian_Towns_an_excerpt_from_A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_1588 Thu, 10 Jan 2013 10:56:23 EST]]> /Thomas_Harriot_on_the_Indians_of_Ossomocomuck_an_excerpt_from_A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_1588 Thu, 10 Jan 2013 09:34:21 EST <![CDATA[The Indians of Ossomocomuck; an excerpt from A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia by Thomas Hariot (1588)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Harriot_on_the_Indians_of_Ossomocomuck_an_excerpt_from_A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_1588 Thu, 10 Jan 2013 09:34:21 EST]]> /Meeting_Granganimeo_an_excerpt_from_The_first_voyage_made_to_the_coasts_of_America_by_Arthur_Barlowe_1589 Wed, 09 Jan 2013 16:08:43 EST <![CDATA[Meeting Granganimeo; an excerpt from "The first voyage made to the coasts of America" by Arthur Barlowe (1589)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meeting_Granganimeo_an_excerpt_from_The_first_voyage_made_to_the_coasts_of_America_by_Arthur_Barlowe_1589 Wed, 09 Jan 2013 16:08:43 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Benjamin_Smith_Barton_1809 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 09:05:31 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Benjamin Smith Barton (September 21, 1809)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Benjamin_Smith_Barton_1809 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 09:05:31 EST]]> /Letter_with_Enclosure_from_Peter_S_DuPonceau_to_Thomas_Jefferson_1820 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 10:29:24 EST <![CDATA[Letter (with Enclosure) from Peter S. DuPonceau to Thomas Jefferson (July 13, 1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_with_Enclosure_from_Peter_S_DuPonceau_to_Thomas_Jefferson_1820 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 10:29:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_Peter_S_DuPonceau_to_Thomas_Jefferson_1820 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 10:09:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Peter S. DuPonceau to Thomas Jefferson (July 12, 1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Peter_S_DuPonceau_to_Thomas_Jefferson_1820 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 10:09:44 EST]]> /_A_true_Description_of_the_People_of_their_Collour_Constitution_and_Disposition_their_Apparrell_an_excerpt_fromThe_Historie_of_Travaile_into_Virginia_Britannia_by_William_Strachey_1849 Thu, 13 Dec 2012 12:02:05 EST <![CDATA["A true description of the people, of their cullour, attire, ornaments, constitutions, dispositions, etc."; an excerpt from The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia by William Strachey (1612, pub. 1849)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_true_Description_of_the_People_of_their_Collour_Constitution_and_Disposition_their_Apparrell_an_excerpt_fromThe_Historie_of_Travaile_into_Virginia_Britannia_by_William_Strachey_1849 Thu, 13 Dec 2012 12:02:05 EST]]> /_A_Dictionarie_of_the_Indian_Language_an_excerpt_from_Historie_and_Travaile_into_Virginia_Britannia_by_William_Strachey_1612 Thu, 13 Dec 2012 11:58:10 EST <![CDATA["A Dictionarie of the Indian Language"; an excerpt from The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia by William Strachey (1612, pub. 1849)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Dictionarie_of_the_Indian_Language_an_excerpt_from_Historie_and_Travaile_into_Virginia_Britannia_by_William_Strachey_1612 Thu, 13 Dec 2012 11:58:10 EST]]> /Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Observations_gathered_out_of_a_Discourse_of_the_Plantation_of_the_Southerne_Colonie_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy_1625 Thu, 13 Dec 2012 10:22:27 EST <![CDATA[Arriving in Virginia; an excerpt from "Observations gathered out of a Discourse of the Plantation of the Southerne Colonie in Virginia" by George Percy (1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Observations_gathered_out_of_a_Discourse_of_the_Plantation_of_the_Southerne_Colonie_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy_1625 Thu, 13 Dec 2012 10:22:27 EST]]> /The_Dying_Time_an_excerpt_from_Observations_gathered_out_of_a_Discourse_of_the_Plantation_of_the_Southerne_Colonie_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 16:00:52 EST <![CDATA[The Dying Time; an excerpt from "Observations gathered out of a Discourse of the Plantation of the Southerne Colonie in Virginia" by George Percy (1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Dying_Time_an_excerpt_from_Observations_gathered_out_of_a_Discourse_of_the_Plantation_of_the_Southerne_Colonie_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 16:00:52 EST]]> /John_Smith_and_Pocahontas_in_England_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Thu, 01 Nov 2012 15:15:54 EST <![CDATA[John Smith and Pocahontas in England; an excerpt from The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_Smith_and_Pocahontas_in_England_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Thu, 01 Nov 2012 15:15:54 EST]]> /John_Smith_s_Letter_to_Queen_Anne_an_excerpt_fromThe_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Thu, 01 Nov 2012 14:37:18 EST <![CDATA[John Smith's Letter to Queen Anne; an excerpt fromThe Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_Smith_s_Letter_to_Queen_Anne_an_excerpt_fromThe_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Thu, 01 Nov 2012 14:37:18 EST]]> /_Act_directing_the_trial_of_Slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_Negros_Mulattos_and_Indians_bond_or_free_1723 Wed, 01 Aug 2012 12:54:19 EST <![CDATA["An Act directing the trial of Slaves, committing capital crimes; and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them; and for the better government of Negros, Mulattos, and Indians, bond or free" ]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Act_directing_the_trial_of_Slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_Negros_Mulattos_and_Indians_bond_or_free_1723 In "An Act directing the trial of Slaves, committing capital crimes; and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them; and for the better government of Negros, Mulattos, and Indians, bond or free," passed by the General Assembly in the session of May 1723, Virginia's colonial government establishes laws with regards to the punishment of slaves and the overall government of slaves, free blacks, and Indians.
Wed, 01 Aug 2012 12:54:19 EST]]>
/_20_and_odd_Negroes_an_excerpt_from_a_letter_from_John_Rolfe_to_Sir_Edwin_Sandys_1619_1620 Thu, 12 Jul 2012 14:19:22 EST <![CDATA["Twenty and odd Negroes"; an excerpt from a letter from John Rolfe to Sir Edwin Sandys (1619/1620)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_20_and_odd_Negroes_an_excerpt_from_a_letter_from_John_Rolfe_to_Sir_Edwin_Sandys_1619_1620 In this excerpt from a letter to Sir Edwin Sandys, treasurer of the Virginia Company of London, the Jamestown colonist John Rolfe describes events in the Virginia colony. These include the first meeting of the General Assembly, a murder trial, and a controversy involving the Indian-language interpreter Captain Henry Spelman. He also notes the arrival of "20. and odd Negroes," the first Africans in Virginia. In greater detail he recounts a visit to Jamestown by a Patawomeck elder Iopassus (Japazaws), who in 1613 had been responsible for delivering Rolfe's since-deceased wife Pocahontas into the hands of Captain Samuel Argall. Now Iopassus appeared to be engaging in diplomacy independent of Powhatan, Opechancanough, and the Indians of Tsenacomoco. The letter is dated "January 1619/1620," the two years reflecting both the Old (Julian) Calendar and the New (Gregorian) Calendar. Some spelling has been updated and contractions expanded.
Thu, 12 Jul 2012 14:19:22 EST]]>
/Letter_from_John_Rolfe_to_Sir_Thomas_Dale_1614 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 15:37:17 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Rolfe to Sir Thomas Dale (1614)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Rolfe_to_Sir_Thomas_Dale_1614 In his letter to Virginia deputy governor Sir Thomas Dale, Jamestown colonist John Rolfe asks permission to marry Pocahontas, the daughter of Powhatan, the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco. The letter was first published in Ralph Hamor's A True Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia, and the Success of the Affaires There till the 18 of June 1614 (1615).
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 15:37:17 EST]]>
/Requesting_to_Hire_an_Indian_Servant_1711 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:21:48 EST <![CDATA[Requesting to Hire an Indian Servant (1711)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Requesting_to_Hire_an_Indian_Servant_1711 In the following petition to Virginia governor Alexander Spotswood, Richard Little Page (sometimes Littlepage) of New Kent County requests permission to hire two Pamunkey Indians to work for him as servants. He does so according to the provisions of a law, "Concerning Indians," passed by the General Assembly in its March 1662 (New Style) session. Spotswood then replies, granting Little Page's request. Some contractions have been expanded.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:21:48 EST]]>
/_Concerning_Indians_1661 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:38:35 EST <![CDATA["Concerning Indians" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Concerning_Indians_1661 In the following act, "Concerning Indians," passed in its March 1662 (New Style) session, the General Assembly attempts to regulate various interactions colonists have with the neighboring Virginia Indians.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:38:35 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_keeping_holy_the_13th_of_September_1663 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:41:44 EST <![CDATA["An act for keeping holy the 13th of September" (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_keeping_holy_the_13th_of_September_1663 In "An act for keeping holy the 13th of September," the General Assembly declares an annual holiday after a foiled attempt by servants in Gloucester County to rebel.
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:41:44 EST]]>
/_Their_devilish_plot_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 Mon, 14 May 2012 10:21:34 EST <![CDATA["Their devilish plot"; an excerpt from The History of Virginia by Robert Beverley (1722)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Their_devilish_plot_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 In this excerpt from The History of Virginia (1722)—an expansion of The History and Present State of Virginia (1705)—Robert Beverley Jr. describes the Gloucester County Conspiracy (1663), also known as the Servants' Plot and Birkenhead's Rebellion, in which a group of indentured servants planned a revolt in Gloucester County.
Mon, 14 May 2012 10:21:34 EST]]>
/Testimony_about_the_Gloucester_County_Conspiracy_1663 Mon, 14 May 2012 08:24:49 EST <![CDATA[Testimony about the Gloucester County Conspiracy (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_about_the_Gloucester_County_Conspiracy_1663 In these depositions, several indentured servants, captured in an attempt to rebel in Gloucester County, explain what their plan was and how it should have been executed. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 08:24:49 EST]]>
/Instructions_from_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_to_the_First_Settlers_1606 Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:24:30 EST <![CDATA[Instructions from the Virginia Company of London to the First Settlers (1606)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Instructions_from_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_to_the_First_Settlers_1606 In these instructions, dated November 1606, the Virginia Company of London informs the men who would settle what became Jamestown of its priorities once they land. In particular, the company suggests how to look for a Northwest Passage, how to search for gold, and how to treat the Virginia Indians, whom it calls "naturals." Captain Christopher Newport and Bartholomew Gosnold are mentioned by name. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:24:30 EST]]>
/_An_act_to_repeale_a_former_law_makeing_Indians_and_others_ffree_1682 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 16:28:16 EST <![CDATA["An act to repeale a former law makeing Indians and others ffree" (1682)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_to_repeale_a_former_law_makeing_Indians_and_others_ffree_1682 In "An act to repeale a former law makeing Indians and others ffree," passed by the General Assembly in the session of November 1682, Virginia's colonial government attempts to clarify the definitions of indentured servants and slaves.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 16:28:16 EST]]>
/_This_starveing_Tyme_an_excerpt_from_A_Trewe_Relacyon_of_the_procedeings_and_ocurrentes_of_Momente_which_have_hapned_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:44:44 EST <![CDATA["This starveing Tyme"; an excerpt from "A Trewe Relacyon of the procedeings and ocurrentes of Momente which have hapned in Virginia" by George Percy]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_This_starveing_Tyme_an_excerpt_from_A_Trewe_Relacyon_of_the_procedeings_and_ocurrentes_of_Momente_which_have_hapned_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:44:44 EST]]> /_The_maner_of_their_language_an_excerpt_from_Map_of_Virginia_With_a_Description_of_the_Countrey_the_Commodities_People_Government_and_Religion_by_John_Smith_1612 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:15:25 EST <![CDATA["The maner of their language"; an excerpt from "Map of Virginia. With a Description of the Countrey, the Commodities, People, Government and Religion" by John Smith (1612)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_maner_of_their_language_an_excerpt_from_Map_of_Virginia_With_a_Description_of_the_Countrey_the_Commodities_People_Government_and_Religion_by_John_Smith_1612 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:15:25 EST]]> /_Of_ther_Tounes_amp_buildinges_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:36:29 EST <![CDATA["Of ther Tounes & buildinges"; an excerpt from "Relation of Virginia, 1609" by Henry Spelman (1613)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Of_ther_Tounes_amp_buildinges_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:36:29 EST]]> /_Of_ther_servis_to_ther_gods_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:36:02 EST <![CDATA["Of ther servis to ther gods"; an excerpt from "Relation of Virginia, 1609" by Henry Spelman (1613)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Of_ther_servis_to_ther_gods_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:36:02 EST]]> /_Ther_maner_of_visitinge_the_sicke_with_the_fation_of_ther_buriall_if_they_dye_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:35:31 EST <![CDATA["Ther maner of visitinge the sicke with the fation of ther buriall if they dye"; an excerpt from "Relation of Virginia, 1609" by Henry Spelman (1613)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Ther_maner_of_visitinge_the_sicke_with_the_fation_of_ther_buriall_if_they_dye_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:35:31 EST]]> /_Now_the_name_ther_children_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:34:51 EST <![CDATA["How the name ther children"; an excerpt from "Relation of Virginia, 1609" by Henry Spelman (1613)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Now_the_name_ther_children_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:34:51 EST]]> /Justice_and_Execution_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:34:17 EST <![CDATA[Justice and Execution; an excerpt from "Relation of Virginia, 1609" by Henry Spelman (1613)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Justice_and_Execution_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:34:17 EST]]> /_Ther_maner_of_mariing_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:33:32 EST <![CDATA["Ther maner of mariing"; an excerpt from "Relation of Virginia, 1609" by Henry Spelman (1613)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Ther_maner_of_mariing_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:33:32 EST]]> /_He_sould_me_to_him_for_a_towne_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:32:49 EST <![CDATA["He sould me to him for a towne"; an excerpt from "Relation of Virginia, 1609" by Henry Spelman (1613)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_He_sould_me_to_him_for_a_towne_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:32:49 EST]]> /_In_wishing_him_well_he_killed_him_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Juan_Rogel_ca_1611 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:56:15 EST <![CDATA["In wishing him well, he killed him"; excerpt from Relation of Juan Rogel (ca. 1611)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_In_wishing_him_well_he_killed_him_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Juan_Rogel_ca_1611 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:56:15 EST]]> /_Nottoway_Indians_from_Gentleman_s_Magazine_1821 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:31:08 EST <![CDATA["Nottoway Indians" from Gentleman's Magazine (1821)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Nottoway_Indians_from_Gentleman_s_Magazine_1821 In this short dispatch from London's Gentleman's Magazine, originally printed in 1821, an anonymous writer—probably John Wood, a mathematics professor at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg—recounts his visit to a community of Nottoway Indians in Southampton County. He mistakenly describes the Nottoways' language as "Powhattan," which is to say Algonquian, and even Celtic; in fact, Wood's word list made its way from Thomas Jefferson to Stephen DuPonceau, who identified it as likely Iroquoian. In his short piece, Wood also comments on the Virginia Indians' religion.
Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:31:08 EST]]>
/The_Huskanaw_Ritual_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:54:30 EST <![CDATA[The Huskanaw Ritual; an excerpt from The History of Virginia by Robert Beverley (1722)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Huskanaw_Ritual_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 In this excerpt from The History of Virginia (1722)—an expansion of History and Present State of Virginia (1705)—Robert Beverley describes the male-initiation rite known as the huskanaw among the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Tsenacomoco and Tidewater Virginia.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:54:30 EST]]>
/Revenge_upon_the_Indians_an_excerpt_from_A_Trewe_Relacyon_of_the_procedeings_and_ocurrentes_of_Momente_which_have_hapned_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy Mon, 14 Nov 2011 16:16:05 EST <![CDATA[Revenge upon the Indians; an excerpt from "A Trewe Relacyon of the procedeings and ocurrentes of Momente which have hapned in Virginia" by George Percy]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Revenge_upon_the_Indians_an_excerpt_from_A_Trewe_Relacyon_of_the_procedeings_and_ocurrentes_of_Momente_which_have_hapned_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy Mon, 14 Nov 2011 16:16:05 EST]]> /The_First_Anglo-Powhatan_War_Begins_an_excerpt_from_A_Trewe_Relacyon_of_the_procedeings_and_ocurrentes_of_Momente_which_have_hapned_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy Mon, 07 Nov 2011 14:23:11 EST <![CDATA[The First Anglo-Powhatan War Begins; an excerpt from "A Trewe Relacyon of the procedeings and ocurrentes of Momente which have hapned in Virginia" by George Percy]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_First_Anglo-Powhatan_War_Begins_an_excerpt_from_A_Trewe_Relacyon_of_the_procedeings_and_ocurrentes_of_Momente_which_have_hapned_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy Mon, 07 Nov 2011 14:23:11 EST]]>