Encyclopedia Virginia: Senators of Virginia (U.S.) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Archer_William_Segar_1789-1855 Thu, 25 Jul 2019 15:05:23 EST Archer, William Segar (1789–1855) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Archer_William_Segar_1789-1855 William Segar Archer was a member of the House of Delegates (1812–1814, 1818–1819), the U.S. House of Representatives (1820–1835), and the U.S. Senate (1841–1847). Born in Amelia County and educated at the College of William and Mary, Archer began his political career early and represented his constituents as a conservative, states' rights Republican. He supported President Andrew Jackson but broke with him over his handling of the Nullification Crisis of 1832–1833. By the 1840s he had joined the Whig Party, and as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee he opposed the annexation of Texas but favored the expansion of slavery into the Southwest. He lost elections to be a delegate at the constitutional conventions of 1829–1830 and 1850 and generally opposed their attempts at democratic reform. He died in 1855.
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/Nicholas_Wilson_Cary_1761-1820 Mon, 14 May 2018 14:53:32 EST <![CDATA[Nicholas, Wilson Cary (1761–1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Nicholas_Wilson_Cary_1761-1820 Wilson Cary Nicholas was a member of the Convention of 1788, member of the U.S. Senate (1799–1804) and the U.S. House of Representatives (1807–1809), and governor of Virginia (1814–1816). Born in Williamsburg to a prominent political family, Nicholas was educated at the College of William and Mary and served as an officer of volunteers during the American Revolution (1775–1783). In 1780 he moved to a plantation in Albemarle County and represented the county in the House of Delegates from 1788 to 1789 and from 1794 to 1799. Nicholas voted to ratify the U.S. Constitution in the Convention of 1788, supporting Republicanism in the style of his friend Thomas Jefferson while also earning a reputation as a political moderate. The two worked together on revising what became the Virginia Resolutions (1798), asserting states' right to nullify federal laws they deem unconstitutional. In the Senate, Nicholas supported the Louisiana Purchase and in Congress he advocated for war with Great Britain. As governor, he was charged with defending Virginia when war finally did break out and paying for that defense once the war ended. He later served as president of the Richmond branch of the Bank of the United States but his own personal financial trouble, combined with the Panic of 1819, led to his personal and professional downfall. He defaulted on two $10,000 notes, endorsed by Jefferson, and resigned in disgrace. He died in 1820.
Mon, 14 May 2018 14:53:32 EST]]>
/Byrd_Harry_Flood_Sr_1887-1966 Wed, 30 Aug 2017 14:21:49 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, Harry F. (1887–1966)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Harry_Flood_Sr_1887-1966 Harry F. Byrd served as a Virginia state senator (1915–1925), governor (1926–1930), and United States senator (1933–1965), was the father of a U.S. senator, and for forty years led the Democratic political machine known as the Byrd Organization. By virtue of both his service and power, he was one of the most prominent Virginians of the twentieth century. But much of that power was wielded in mostly vain opposition to the New Deal's big-government programs and the civil rights legislation of the 1960s. As governor he instituted a popular downsizing of state government that increased efficiency, but the end of his career was marked by his now-infamous "massive resistance" to federally mandated school desegregation.
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/Barbour_James_1775-1842 Thu, 02 Feb 2017 15:59:53 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, James (1775–1842)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_James_1775-1842 James Barbour was Speaker of the House of Delegates (1809–1812), the governor of Virginia (1812–1814), a member of the U.S. Senate (1815–1825) and its president pro tempore (1819), and the secretary of war (1825–1828) and minister plenipotentiary to Great Britain (1828–1829) in the administration of President John Quincy Adams. Born in Orange County, he read law in Richmond and married his first cousin, Lucy Maria Johnson. (Barbour's younger brother, Philip Pendleton Barbour, married Johnson's sister.) As a member of the General Assembly, Barbour was a states'-rights conservative, but that changed over time. He became governor after George William Smith died in the Richmond Theatre fire, and his management of state affairs during the War of 1812 made him more appreciative of the need for a strong executive. In the U.S. Senate Barbour supported a federal bank and federally financed internal improvements and served in Adams's Federalist administration that was loudly opposed by many Jeffersonian Virginians, including Barbour's own brother, then in the U.S. House of Representatives. After the election of Andrew Jackson, Barbour retired to his estate, Barboursville, where he focused on innovative farming techniques. He helped to organize the Whig Party in Virginia in opposition to Jackson's policies. He died in 1842.
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/Lee_Richard_Henry_1732-1794 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:39:48 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Richard Henry (1732–1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Richard_Henry_1732-1794 Richard Henry Lee was a planter, merchant, politician, and a member of the prominent Lee family of Virginia. Son of Thomas Lee, Richard Henry Lee pursued his father's interest in westward expansion and was a key political figure during the American Revolution (1775–1783): it was Lee who, at the Second Continental Congress in 1776, made the motion to declare independence from Britain. Lee began his career as a justice of the peace for Westmoreland County (1757); he later served as a member of the House of Burgesses (1758–1775), the House of Delegates (1777, 1780, 1785), and the United States Senate (1789–1792). He also represented Virginia at the two Continental Congresses (1774–1779, 1784–1787) and served as president of Congress in 1784. In 1792 Lee retired from public service, citing his poor health. He passed away two years later at Chantilly-on-the-Potomac, his estate in the Northern Neck of Virginia. Lee was mired in controversy throughout his political career, and his legacy has been influenced in part by his enemies. But Lee's prominent role in the events that shaped Virginia and the nation in the mid- to late seventeenth century cannot be denied; it places him high on the list of America's forgotten founders.
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/Tyler_John_1790-1862 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:54:20 EST <![CDATA[Tyler, John (1790–1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tyler_John_1790-1862 John Tyler was the tenth president of the United States. The son of a Virginia governor, Tyler had already been a member of the House of Delegates and the Council of State before being elected to Congress in 1816. After serving as governor of Virginia, the assembly elected him to the United States Senate. A slaveholder and Democrat, he supported states' rights and limited government. He broke with Andrew Jackson early in the 1830s over what he viewed as an alarming increase in federal power. Tyler joined the Whig Party and won the vice presidency in 1840 on a ticket with William Henry Harrison. Following Harrison's death in April 1841, Tyler became the first vice president to assume office after the death of the chief executive. His support of states' rights clashed with his party's prevailing belief in a stronger government, nearly causing the collapse of his administration. Tyler found some success in foreign affairs, but he left the White House in 1845 unpopular and expelled from the Whig Party. As the secession crisis intensified early in 1861, Tyler presided over the ill-fated Peace Conference to head off armed conflict. He served as a delegate to the Virginia convention that addressed the state's response to the crisis, ultimately voting for secession in April 1861. The following November Tyler won election to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before his term began.
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/Mahone_William_1826-1895 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:02:29 EST <![CDATA[Mahone, William (1826–1895)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mahone_William_1826-1895 William Mahone was a Confederate general, Virginia senator (1863–1865), railroad tycoon, U.S. senator (1881–1887), and leader of the short-lived Readjuster Party. Known by his nickname, "Little Billy," Mahone was, in the words of a contemporary, "short in stature, spare almost to emaciation, with [a] long beard, and keen, restless eyes." He attended the Virginia Military Institute on scholarship, worked as a railroad engineer, and eventually became president of the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he distinguished himself at the Battle of the Crater (1864), leading a successful counterattack that also involved the massacre of surrendered black troops. After the war, Mahone founded the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio Railroad, which, before it failed, served his business interests in Norfolk and Southside Virginia. In 1881, he was elected to the United States Senate as a member of the Readjuster Party, an unlikely coalition of poor whites and African Americans interested in repudiating a portion of the massive state debt and, in so doing, restoring social services such as free public education. One of the most successful biracial political coalitions in the New South, the Readjusters held power until 1886, when Mahone lost his Senate seat. A gubernatorial bid in 1889 failed, and Mahone died in Washington, D.C., in 1895.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:02:29 EST]]>
/Eppes_John_Wayles_1772-1823 Thu, 14 Apr 2016 16:59:39 EST <![CDATA[Eppes, John Wayles (1772–1823)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Eppes_John_Wayles_1772-1823 John Wayles Eppes was a member of the House of Delegates (1801–1803), the U.S. House of Representatives (1803–1811, 1813–1815), and the U.S. Senate (1817–1819). Related through his mother to Martha Wayles Skelton, the wife of Thomas Jefferson, Eppes was close to Jefferson. He lived with him in Philadelphia while Jefferson served as secretary of state and secretly copied for him James Madison's notes on the Constitutional Convention of 1787. In 1797 he married Jefferson's daughter Maria (also Mary or Polly) Jefferson. Eppes served four terms in Congress before being unseated by John Randolph of Roanoke, with whom he had a difficult relationship. Once on the floor of the House, Randolph called Eppes a liar and the two almost fought a duel. On another occasion, Eppes acted as a second to a fellow congressman who shot another congressman in a duel. Eppes regained his seat from Randolph in 1813 but lost it again in 1815. Two years later the General Assembly elected him to the U.S. Senate, although ill health forced him to resign in 1819. Eppes died at his Mill Brook estate, in Buckingham and Cumberland counties, in 1823.
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/Daniel_John_Warwick_1842-1910 Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:36:45 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, John Warwick (1842–1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_John_Warwick_1842-1910 John Warwick Daniel served as a member of the House of Delegates (1869–1872), of the Senate of Virginia (1875–1881), of the House of Representatives (1885–1887), of the U.S. Senate (1887–1910), and of the Convention of 1901–1902. Daniel earned the nickname "The Lame Lion of Lynchburg" after the American Civil War (1861–1865), when he suffered an injury that required him to use a crutch for the rest of his life. A gifted writer and orator, Daniel memorialized the Confederate war effort and spoke out against Reconstruction. He began his political career as a Conservative, became a prominent Funder late in the 1870s, and then in the 1880s helped rebuild the Democratic Party. At the Convention of 1901–1902, called to revise the state constitution, Daniel chaired the important Committee on the Elective Franchise. At first advocating less-onerous suffrage restrictions, he ultimately pushed for a more aggressive path that disfranchised most African Americans in Virginia, along with large numbers of poorer white citizens. Daniel spent his last years as an elder statesman of the Democratic Party, and died in 1910.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:36:45 EST]]>
/Burch_Thomas_Granville_1869-1951 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:24:44 EST <![CDATA[Burch, T. G. (1869–1951)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burch_Thomas_Granville_1869-1951 T. G. Burch was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1931–1946) and briefly served in the U.S. Senate (1946). As a congressman he represented an eight-county district in southern Virginia along the North Carolina border. Reapportionment added a ninth county beginning with the 74th Congress. A colleague of the conservative Democratic U.S. senator Harry F. Byrd, Burch was briefly considered by Byrd and his advisers as a gubernatorial candidate for the 1937 election; however, Burch's unorthodox plan for teacher pay upset the Byrd Organization, which removed him from the inner circle of Virginia politics.
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/Glass_Carter_1858-1946 Thu, 20 Aug 2015 08:46:03 EST <![CDATA[Glass, Carter (1858–1946)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Glass_Carter_1858-1946 Carter Glass, a Democrat, served in the Senate of Virginia (1899–1902), as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902, and in the U.S. House of Representatives (1902–1918) and the U.S. Senate (1920–1946). He also served as secretary of the treasury (1918–1920) in the administration of President Woodrow Wilson. Often referred to as the father of the Federal Reserve banking system, he authored the Glass-Steagall Act of 1932—co-sponsored by Representative Henry B. Steagall, of Alabama—and the Banking Act of 1933. Born in Lynchburg, Glass left school early to work as a newspaper reporter. By 1888, he owned the Lynchburg News and later bought another Lynchburg paper, edited by his father, and consolidated the two. Small in stature but always outspoken, Glass educated himself in finance after being appointed to the House Banking and Currency Committee, carefully reconciling many competing interests into a workable Federal Reserve bill. In the U.S. Senate, he set aside a distaste for machine politics in return for, among other things, support in a run for president; he twice sought but never won the nomination. During the Great Depression, he joined Senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. in opposing President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal. At the start of World War II (1939–1945), however, he supported the president's efforts to prepare the nation for possible entry into the war. Glass died in office in 1946.
Thu, 20 Aug 2015 08:46:03 EST]]>
/Carlile_John_S_1817-1878 Thu, 08 Jan 2015 16:10:14 EST <![CDATA[Carlile, John S. (1817–1878)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carlile_John_S_1817-1878 John S. Carlile was a member of the Convention of 1850–1851, the U.S. House of Representatives (1856–1858), the Convention of 1861, the First and Second Wheeling Conventions of 1861, and the United States Senate (1861–1865). As an active and outspoken participant in the Convention of 1850, he supported democratic reforms that invested western Virginia with more political power. In Congress, he supported the rights of slave owners, but as a delegate to the state convention during the secession crisis of 1861, he vehemently opposed leaving the Union, calling secession "a crime against God." The convention voted to secede anyway, and during the American Civil War (1861–1865), Carlile became a U.S. senator representing the Restored government of Virginia. In Washington, D.C., he helped shepherd the West Virginia statehood bill through Congress, only to vote against it in 1862, citing the bill's requirement that the new state adopt a plan of gradual emancipation. While Carlile remained in the Senate until 1865, he had so angered—and confused—his new West Virginia constituents that his political career was largely over. He died on his farm near Clarksburg in 1878.
Thu, 08 Jan 2015 16:10:14 EST]]>
/Barbour_John_S_1820-1892 Tue, 02 Sep 2014 10:19:45 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, John S. (1820–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_John_S_1820-1892 John S. Barbour served as a United States senator, but his biggest effect on Virginia's political history came from his organizational skills. Barbour hailed from a politically active family and joined the House of Delegates in his twenties. After four years in the General Assembly, the Orange and Alexandria Railroad (later the Virginia Midland Railway) named him its president. Barbour held the position for thirty-four years. He began his rivalry with fellow transportation leader and politician William Mahone when railroad consolidation accelerated after the American Civil War (1861–1865). He reentered politics in 1880 when the Funder wing of the Conservative Party nominated him for Congress, winning the first of three terms. Three years later he became state chairman of the party, now called the Democratic Party, and led it to convincing win in that year's elections over Mahone's Readjuster Party. By emphasizing white supremacy and animosity to Mahone's political power while accepting the Readjusters' financial reforms, Barbour engineered the start of the Democrats' nearly century-long domination of Virginia politics.
Tue, 02 Sep 2014 10:19:45 EST]]>
/Byrd_Harry_Flood_Jr_1914- Sun, 22 Jun 2014 10:47:25 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, Harry Flood Jr. (1914–2013)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Harry_Flood_Jr_1914- Harry F. Byrd Jr. represented Virginia in the United States Senate from 1965 to 1983 after serving seventeen years in the Senate of Virginia. A member of one of Virginia's most powerful political families, Byrd took over the Senate seat from his father in 1965. Byrd, however, was also something of a dissident, quitting the Democratic Party in 1970 to run as an Independent. In addition to his career in politics, Byrd followed his father into journalism as well, serving as editor and publisher of the Winchester Star from 1935 to 1981 and as publisher of the Harrisonburg Daily News-Record from 1939 to 2001. He died in 2013.
Sun, 22 Jun 2014 10:47:25 EST]]>
/Willey_Waitman_T_1811-1900 Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:46:21 EST <![CDATA[Willey, Waitman T. (1811–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Willey_Waitman_T_1811-1900 Waitman T. Willey was a delegate to the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1850–1851, a delegate to the Virginia Convention of 1861 that voted to secede from the Union, a United States senator from the Restored government of Virginia (1861–1863), and, alongside Peter G. Van Winkle, one of the first two United States senators from West Virginia (1863–1871). A native of western Virginia, he was instrumental in the formation of the new state of West Virginia during the American Civil War (1861–1865). As a member of the U.S. Senate, he authored the Willey Amendment in 1863—a compromise on the question of the freedom of the state's African Americans that extinguished his hopes for compensated emancipation. Instead, it decreed that slaves younger than twenty-one years old on July 4, 1863, would become free once they reached that age. The compromise assured West Virginia's acceptance into the Union.
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/An_Act_to_admit_the_State_of_Virginia_to_Representation_in_the_Congress_of_the_United_States_January_26_1870 Thu, 19 Jun 2014 10:30:04 EST <![CDATA[An Act to admit the State of Virginia to Representation in the Congress of the United States (January 26, 1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_admit_the_State_of_Virginia_to_Representation_in_the_Congress_of_the_United_States_January_26_1870 Thu, 19 Jun 2014 10:30:04 EST]]> /Spong_William_Belser_Jr_1920-1997 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 17:34:25 EST <![CDATA[Spong, William Belser Jr. (1920–1997)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Spong_William_Belser_Jr_1920-1997 William Belser Spong Jr. was a Virginia lawyer and politician who served in the House of Delegates (1954–1955), the Senate of Virginia (1956–1966), and the United States Senate (1966–1973). He was born in Portsmouth on September 29, 1920, to William Belser Spong and Emily Nichols Spong. He attended public schools in Portsmouth and attended Hampden-Sydney College before receiving a law degree from the University of Virginia in 1947. Spong served in the 93rd Bomber Group of the Eighth Air Force during World War II (1939–1945). He was admitted to the Virginia Bar in 1947 and practiced law in Portsmouth. At the same time he lectured in law and government at the College of William and Mary.
Fri, 25 Apr 2014 17:34:25 EST]]>
/Martin_Thomas_Staples_1847-1919 Thu, 06 Mar 2014 15:16:17 EST <![CDATA[Martin, Thomas Staples (1847–1919)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Martin_Thomas_Staples_1847-1919 Thomas Staples Martin was a railroad attorney, a longtime U.S. senator from Virginia (serving from 1895 until 1919), and an architect of the state Democratic Party machine that during his time was known as the Martin Organization. A quiet, behind-the-scenes political player, Martin rose through the party ranks largely due to his influence with powerful railroad interests. Under the leadership of Martin's mentor, John S. Barbour Jr., Democrats reestablished control of state politics that, since Reconstruction (1865–1877), had been in the hands of Republicans and Readjusters. Then, in 1893, in a huge and unexpected upset, Martin defeated former Confederate general and Virginia governor Fitzhugh Lee for election to Barbour's U.S. Senate seat, allowing him to take control of the party and, to a large extent, the state. Accused by his critics of bribery and corruption, Martin stayed in power and managed to rise to the position of Senate Majority Leader at least in part because of his pragmatic willingness to forge coalitions between the competing conservative and progressive wings of the Democratic Party. As a result, Martin's political machine and its successor, the Byrd Organization, dominated Virginia politics until the 1960s.
Thu, 06 Mar 2014 15:16:17 EST]]>
/Robb_Charles_S_1939- Sun, 05 Jan 2014 13:27:07 EST <![CDATA[Robb, Charles S. (1939– )]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robb_Charles_S_1939- Charles S. "Chuck" Robb served as lieutenant governor (1978–1982) and governor of Virginia (1982–1986) and for two terms as U.S. senator (1989–2001). The son-in-law of U.S. president Lyndon B. Johnson, Robb entered Virginia politics as a "celebrity" without the customary résumé of serving in lower office. A Democrat, Robb was instrumental in reviving his party's fortunes in the state after a period of Republican dominance. His election in 1981 ushered in the first of three consecutive Democratic governorships. A moderate, Robb also played a role in national politics, moving his party to the center but never seeking national office himself. His promising career was tarnished by a series of scandals and he was ultimately defeated for reelection in 2000.
Sun, 05 Jan 2014 13:27:07 EST]]>
/Robertson_A_Willis_1887-1971 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 09:56:34 EST <![CDATA[Robertson, A. Willis (1887–1971)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robertson_A_Willis_1887-1971 A. Willis Robertson served in the Senate of Virginia (1916–1922), the United States House of Representatives (1933–1946), and the United States Senate (1946–1966). His career closely paralleled that of his friend and mentor, Harry F. Byrd, the leader of the Democratic Party in Virginia. They were born within two weeks of each other and only a few streets apart in Martinsburg, West Virginia, in 1887. They began their service in the Virginia state senate on the same day in 1916, and arrived at the United States Congress—Byrd to the Senate, Robertson to the House—on the same day in 1933. Though he stood with Byrd on many issues, including civil rights, Robertson asserted his independence from Byrd's political machine, the Byrd Organization, throughout his twenty-year senatorial career. Robertson differed from Byrd in his views on foreign policy and in his support of Democratic presidential candidate Adlai Stevenson in 1952 and 1956; in addition, Robertson was not a strong supporter of Byrd's Massive Resistance policy. In 1966 Robertson lost his Senate seat to William B. Spong, a more liberal Democrat from Portsmouth.
Sun, 05 Jan 2014 09:56:34 EST]]>
/Swanson_Claude_A_1862-1939 Sat, 28 Dec 2013 10:54:53 EST <![CDATA[Swanson, Claude A. (1862–1939)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Swanson_Claude_A_1862-1939 Claude A. Swanson was a powerful Democratic Party leader and one of the most successful Virginia politicians of his era. He served seven terms in the United States House of Representatives (1893–1906), was governor of Virginia from 1906 until 1910, and U.S. senator from 1910 until 1933. In addition, Swanson served as secretary of the United States Navy under U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt from 1933 until his death in 1939. While in the House, Swanson presided over a raucous time in state politics that culminated in the adoption of the state Constitution of 1902 that was notorious for its disfranchisement of African Americans and poor whites in spite of the universal suffrage called for by the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1870). As governor, he instituted a number of progressive reforms and continued to advance those reforms, as well as his belief in a strong U.S. Navy while in the U.S. Senate and in Roosevelt's cabinet.
Sat, 28 Dec 2013 10:54:53 EST]]>
/Members_of_the_United_States_Senate_from_Virginia Mon, 17 Sep 2012 10:31:04 EST <![CDATA[Members of the United States Senate from Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Members_of_the_United_States_Senate_from_Virginia Mon, 17 Sep 2012 10:31:04 EST]]>