Encyclopedia Virginia: Revolution and Early Republic (1763–1823) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Barbour_Philip_Pendleton_1783-1841 Mon, 11 Dec 2017 13:24:54 EST Barbour, Philip Pendleton (1783–1841) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_Philip_Pendleton_1783-1841 Philip Pendleton Barbour was a member of the House of Delegates (1812–1814), Speaker of the House of Representatives (1821–1823), president of the Convention of 1829–1830, a federal district court judge (1830–1836), and an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1836–1841). Born in Orange County, Barbour studied law with St. George Tucker and practiced briefly in Kentucky before returning to Virginia. He served for two years in the General Assembly and then in Congress, from 1814 to 1825. His older brother, James Barbour, also was a prominent politician, serving as governor and then in the U.S. Senate, but their political philosophies diverged over time. Whereas James Barbour came to support a federal bank and federally supported internal improvement projects, Philip Pendleton Barbour remained a staunch Jeffersonian conservative, emphasizing states' rights and limited government. Even while his brother served in the cabinet of President John Quincy Adams, Philip Pendleton Barbour loudly opposed the administration. After the election of Andrew Jackson, Barbour won appointment as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. His time on the bench was short and devoted to undoing the work of Chief Justice John Marshall, who advocated for a broad interpretation of the Constitution. Barbour died in 1841.
Mon, 11 Dec 2017 13:24:54 EST]]>
/Lee_Henry_1787-1837 Fri, 08 Dec 2017 16:50:48 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Henry (1787–1837)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Henry_1787-1837 Fri, 08 Dec 2017 16:50:48 EST]]> /Lee_Henry_1756-1818 Fri, 08 Dec 2017 16:44:43 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Henry (1756–1818)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Henry_1756-1818 Henry Lee, also known as Light-Horse Harry Lee or Henry Lee III, was an officer in the Continental and U.S. armies, a representative from Virginia to the Confederation Congress (1786–1788) and the U.S. House of Representatives (1799–1801), a member of the House of Delegates (1789–1791), the governor of Virginia (1791–1794), and the master of Stratford Hall. Born in Prince William County and educated at Princeton, he was the father of eight children who survived to adulthood, including Henry Lee IV, Charles Carter Lee, and Robert E. Lee. A gifted cavalryman, Lee distinguished himself in the American Revolution (1775–1783), fighting under generals George Washington and Nathanael Greene. After the war, Lee played an active role in state and national politics, but his ambitions were undermined by disastrous land deals and financial mismanagement. He served time in debtor's prison, and in 1812, an encounter with an anti-Federalist mob in Baltimore left him disfigured and ailing. After traveling abroad to escape his creditors, Lee died in Georgia in 1818.
Fri, 08 Dec 2017 16:44:43 EST]]>
/Wythe_The_Death_of_George_1806 Thu, 30 Nov 2017 11:07:25 EST <![CDATA[Wythe, The Death of George (1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wythe_The_Death_of_George_1806 George Wythe, a prominent judge and professor who signed the Declaration of Independence, died in Richmond on June 8, 1806. He had become violently ill after eating breakfast on May 25 with Lydia Broadnax and Michael Brown, both free African Americans. On May 27, George Wythe Sweeney Jr., Wythe's great-nephew, attempted to cash a check bearing Wythe's forged signature and was arrested soon after. Brown died on June 1, and by that time Wythe had come to believe that he, Brown, and Broadnax had been poisoned by Sweeney. Before dying he amended his will to disinherit Sweeney. The Richmond Hustings Court found sufficient evidence against Sweeney to refer forgery and murder charges to the District Court, where Sweeney was tried in September. Defended by two friends of George Wythe, including Edmund Randolph, he was acquitted of murder and found guilty on two of four counts of forgery. Sweeney's prison sentence was set aside, however, and he soon left the state. Many in Richmond and across the country had come to assume that Sweeney was guilty of murder and the trial garnered significant press attention. While the Richmond Enquirer claimed that the verdict was the result of Virginia's prohibition of African American testimony against white defendants, later historians have pointed to the purely circumstantial nature of the evidence.
Thu, 30 Nov 2017 11:07:25 EST]]>
/Boone_Daniel_1734-1820 Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:26:45 EST <![CDATA[Boone, Daniel (1734–1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boone_Daniel_1734-1820 Daniel Boone was a legendary frontiersman and a member of the House of Delegates (1781–1782, 1787–1788, 1791). Born in Pennsylvania the son of Quakers, he moved to North Carolina as a young man. His first long hunting trip was in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. Boone briefly lived in Culpeper County after the Cherokee War drove him north, and by the end of the decade he was making regular trips to Kentucky. In 1775 he was hired to cut a road from present-day Tennessee, through the Cumberland Gap, to the Kentucky River—what came to be known as the Wilderness Road. His fame as a woodsman grew, enhanced by violent run-ins with Indians and the embellishments of writers. In 1780 he was elected to the House of Delegates from the newly created Fayette County (in what later became the state of Kentucky). Boone moved several times, ran a store, and twice more won election to the House of Delegates. In 1799 the Spanish granted him land in what was then Louisiana and what later became Missouri. He died there in 1820.
Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:26:45 EST]]>
/Stratford_Hall Tue, 21 Nov 2017 14:25:40 EST <![CDATA[Stratford Hall]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Stratford_Hall Stratford Hall is a 1,500-acre plantation located in Westmoreland County on the Potomac River. The politician and planter Thomas Lee purchased the land for Stratford in 1717; although no records exist to indicate when the house was built, construction likely began in 1738 and was completed sometime in the 1740s. The plantation was home to two signers of the Declaration of Independence—Richard Henry Lee and Francis Lightfoot Lee—and was the birthplace of the Confederate general Robert E. Lee. Thomas Lee's descendants lived at Stratford until the 1820s, when Henry Lee IV sold the plantation to cover his debts. Since 1929, the Robert E. Lee Memorial Association, or RELMA, has owned Stratford Hall.
Tue, 21 Nov 2017 14:25:40 EST]]>
/Brown_Abram_d_1840 Mon, 09 Oct 2017 15:10:39 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Abram (d. 1840)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Abram_d_1840 Abram Brown was a Baptist lay leader in Charles City County who helped found Elam Baptist Church in 1818. Born free, Brown farmed on land he inherited from his father and was wealthy compared to most African Americans of his day. He joined a Baptist church in Petersburg but soon after established a separate church on his Charles City County land and took a leadership role in his local religious community. In 1818 he transferred the land to the church, thus taking credit as founder of Elam Baptist Church. Little else is known about Brown's life. He had at least eight children, many of whom, along with their own children and grandchildren, played important roles in the African American community of Charles City County. Brown died in 1840.
Mon, 09 Oct 2017 15:10:39 EST]]>
/Ambler_Jaquelin_1742-1798 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:21:50 EST <![CDATA[Ambler, Jaquelin (1742–1798)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ambler_Jaquelin_1742-1798 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:21:50 EST]]> /Boxley_George_ca_1780-1865 Mon, 11 Sep 2017 16:09:29 EST <![CDATA[Boxley, George (ca. 1780–1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boxley_George_ca_1780-1865 George Boxley was an antislavery leader who allegedly conspired to help slaves revolt in 1816. Born in Spotsylvania County, he farmed and ran a general store and himself owned slaves. His motivations for turning against slavery in 1815 remain unclear, although speculation has included everything from personal grievances to religious delusions. Boxley's plans were exposed, a number of slaves were arrested, and he turned himself in. What resulted was the largest prosecution for insurrection between Gabriel's Conspiracy in 1800 and Nat Turner's Revolt in 1831. With the help of his wife, Boxley escaped jail and spent the next several years on the run, outwitting bounty hunters. He finally settled in Hamilton County, Indiana, where he died in 1865.
Mon, 11 Sep 2017 16:09:29 EST]]>
/Ogilvie_James_1773-1820 Thu, 31 Aug 2017 14:14:49 EST <![CDATA[Ogilvie, James (1773–1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ogilvie_James_1773-1820 James Ogilvie was a schoolteacher who became a celebrity orator, ultimately spending twelve years traveling throughout the United States, England, and Scotland advocating for oratory as a primary medium of communication. Born and educated in Scotland, he came to Virginia in 1793 to teach at the Fredericksburg Academy. There his avowed atheism and radical republicanism made him a controversial figure, but over fifteen years traveling throughout central Virginia he proved both an effective and successful teacher. After delivering two dozen lectures in the State Capitol from 1803 to 1804, Ogilvie abandoned teaching for oratory in 1808. He traveled up and down the East Coast selling tickets to a series of eloquent, educational lectures on "moral and philosophical subjects." He quickly became one of the most famous men in America, renowned for his speaking skills. In 1813 he announced a plan to create temporary schools of oratory, an effort that had some success in South Carolina but few other places. Then in 1816 he published a collection of essays and autobiography, Philosophical Essays, that was a critical failure and he left the United States for the British Isles. He died in 1820, likely by his own hand.
Thu, 31 Aug 2017 14:14:49 EST]]>
/Bowser_James_b_ca_1730 Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:29:01 EST <![CDATA[Bowser, James (b. ca. 1730)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowser_James_b_ca_1730 James Bowser was a Continental army soldier during the American Revolution (1775–1783), one of about 5,000 African Americans to serve in the Patriots' army or navy. Born in Nansemond County, Bowser probably first joined the army in 1778 or 1779, fighting in Pennsylvania and then Virginia. He likely was present at the siege of Yorktown. There were two James Bowsers from Virginia, probably related, who fought during the war and distinguishing their lives has become difficult. Bowser was fifty-three when he left the army, and the date and place of his death are unknown.
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:29:01 EST]]>
/Fire_Richmond_Theatre_1811 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 15:19:02 EST <![CDATA[Fire, Richmond Theatre (1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fire_Richmond_Theatre_1811 The Richmond Theatre fire, on December 26, 1811, caused the deaths of more than seventy people, including the governor of Virginia. At the time it was the deadliest urban disaster in American history. The five-year-old brick theater, located at the corner of H (later Broad) and Twelfth streets, housed performances by the South Carolina–based Placide and Green Company of actors, who played Richmond from August to December that year. On the night of the fire, more than 600 people, or about 6 percent of the city's population, packed the poorly designed and poorly constructed building to watch two full-length plays. At the end of the first act of the second play a lit chandelier was mistakenly raised, catching backdrops and then the roof on fire. Those patrons who sat in the two levels of raised boxes were forced to exit down a single, narrow, winding staircase, which soon collapsed. Others threw themselves out second- and third-story windows. George William Smith, elected governor less than three weeks earlier, was among the listed dead, which included at least fifty-four women and many of Richmond's wealthy elites. Their bodies were interred on the site, and over the crypt the city built Monumental Church, a structure designed by the architect Robert Mills.
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 15:19:02 EST]]>
/Washington_George_and_Slavery Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:50:15 EST <![CDATA[Washington, George and Slavery]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_George_and_Slavery George Washington owned enslaved people from age eleven until his death, when his will promised his slaves freedom. His actions and private statements suggest a long evolution in his stance on slavery, based on experience and a possible awakening of conscience. Born in 1732, Washington came of age in a time when large-scale tobacco planting, carried out by enslaved labor, dominated the economy and society of colonial Virginia. Washington made no official public statements on slavery or emancipation as a Virginia legislator, as a military officer, or as president of the United States. As a young man he acted as most of his slaveholding peers did—making full and lawful use of slave labor, buying and selling slaves, and even raffling off a debtor's slaves, including children, to recoup a loan. His marriage brought many slaves under his control, but he did not legally own these "dower" slaves. After the American Revolution (1775–1783) his private statements became more in line with abolitionist goals than with the economic and political positions of his Virginia peers, until he reached the point, around 1789, when his "regret" over slavery grew so strong that he eventually rewrote his will with provisions to free slaves. Washington was the only southern Founding Father to free all his slaves.
Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:50:15 EST]]>
/George_Washington_1732-1799 Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:45:05 EST <![CDATA[Washington, George (1732–1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_Washington_1732-1799 George Washington served as commander in chief of the Continental army during the American Revolution (1775–1783), as president of the United States Constitutional Convention (1787), and as first president of the United States (1789–1797). Born to a family of middling wealth, Washington's formal education ended when he was about fifteen. Thanks to his half-brother's marriage into the wealthy Fairfax family, Washington acquired social polish, a taste for aristocratic living, and connections to Virginia's political elite. Long months on the frontier as a surveyor toughened the young Washington, preparing him for service in Virginia's militia during the French and Indian War (1754–1763). He held positions of command at a remarkably young age. Marriage to Martha Custis brought him great wealth. Increasingly restive under British taxation and trade restrictions, Washington took a leading role in the nascent revolutionary movement after British regulars killed colonists and seized private property at the battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts in April 1775. As commander in chief, he led American forces for the entire eight-year war, losing more battles than he won but managing to keep the army together under the most difficult circumstances. By the middle of the war, he was already hailed as the "Father of His Country." His enormous prestige after the war led to his being chosen to lead the Constitutional Convention and to his election as first president.
Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:45:05 EST]]>
/Slave_Literacy_and_Education_in_Virginia Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:59:20 EST <![CDATA[Slave Literacy and Education in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Literacy_and_Education_in_Virginia Many enslaved African Americans in Virginia learned to read and write, either on their own or at the behest of their masters. As many as 5 percent of slaves may have been literate by the start of the American Revolution (1775–1783), their educations often tied to religious instruction. Many slaveholders viewed Christian teaching as their duty, and converts to the Church of England were required to be literate enough to read a catechism. The Anglican bishop Edmund Gibson and the minister Dr. Thomas Bray both promoted slave education in America with the Associates of Dr. Bray founding a number of schools, including in Williamsburg and Fredericksburg. Virginia law never explicitly prohibited the education of slaves, but in the years after Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800), the General Assembly made it more difficult. Elite whites worried that slaves who could read and write could travel through white society more easily and be exposed to ideas of freedom, making them more inclined to rebel. The gathering of slaves for the purpose of education was prohibited, so individuals stole away to learn on their own, often at great personal risk. During the antebellum period, the percentage of literate slaves had doubled to 10 percent. The laws became even stricter after Nat Turner's Revolt in 1831—Turner was a literate preacher—but during and after the American Civil War (1861–1865) freedpeople quickly established their own schools. Literacy rates rose to 30 percent and then, by 1910, to as high as 70 percent.
Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:59:20 EST]]>
/Madison_Dolley_1768-1849 Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:05:09 EST <![CDATA[Madison, Dolley (1768–1849)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Madison_Dolley_1768-1849 Dolley Madison was the wife of James Madison, the architect of the U.S. Constitution and fourth president of the United States (1809­–1817). She was the third woman to serve as what is now called "first lady," and her imprint as the national hostess defined the role until the more activist Eleanor Roosevelt broke Madison's ceremonial model. It was during her years in the White House that Madison gained her fame as a shrewd and graceful politician who could win the hearts of those who opposed her husband, and the greatest Washington hostess of the first quarter of the nineteenth century. She is also known for saving a portrait of George Washington during the War of 1812. After the end of James Madison's second term in the White House, the couple returned to live at their plantation, Montpelier, in Orange County, where they remained until James Madison died in 1836. From 1836 to 1844, Dolley Madison resided both in Washington, D.C., and at Montpelier, after which she spent the last five and a half years of her life in Washington. She was criticized by abolitionists for continuing to own slaves but remained a prominent national figure even while facing serious financial struggles. Along with Elizabeth Hamilton, the wife of Alexander Hamilton, she was the last surviving member of the founding generation, admired and esteemed for both her own contributions and those of her husband. She died in 1849 in Washington, where she was buried. Her remains were later moved to the Madison family cemetery at Montpelier.
Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:05:09 EST]]>
/VIRGINIA_In_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_MARCH_16_1798 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:00:11 EST <![CDATA[VIRGINIA: In the High Court of Chancery, MARCH 16, 1798.]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/VIRGINIA_In_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_MARCH_16_1798 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:00:11 EST]]> /_An_Act_to_Explain_and_Amend_an_Act_Entitled_An_Act_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_Slavery_March_29_1788 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:53:24 EST <![CDATA["An Act to Explain and Amend an Act Entitled 'An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery'" (March 29, 1788)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_to_Explain_and_Amend_an_Act_Entitled_An_Act_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_Slavery_March_29_1788 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:53:24 EST]]> /Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Claypool_s_American_May_25_1796 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:45:55 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement for the Capture of Oney Judge, Claypoole's American (May 25, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Claypool_s_American_May_25_1796 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:45:55 EST]]> /PLEASANTS_against_PLEASANTS_Nov_r_Term_1798 Fri, 09 Jun 2017 12:00:07 EST <![CDATA[PLEASANTS against PLEASANTS. Nov'r. Term 1798.]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/PLEASANTS_against_PLEASANTS_Nov_r_Term_1798 Fri, 09 Jun 2017 12:00:07 EST]]> /Deed_of_Gift_Robert_Carter_III_s Fri, 05 May 2017 11:35:46 EST <![CDATA[Deed of Gift, Robert Carter III's]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Deed_of_Gift_Robert_Carter_III_s Robert Carter III's Deed of Gift was a legal document, signed on August 1, 1791, and presented in Northumberland District Court on September 5, that set out provisions to free 452 enslaved men and woman. By the time those provisions were fulfilled, more than three decades later, between 500 and 600 were freed, probably the largest emancipation by an individual in the United States before 1860. Carter was a member of one of the wealthiest families in Virginia and inherited hundreds of slaves. Perhaps because of a religious conversion, he turned against slavery during and after the American Revolution (1775–1783). His plan to free his own slaves was carefully designed to conform to state law and to be gradual. Adults would be freed in small groups each year based on their age, children would be freed when they became adults, and the elderly would be allowed to independently farm on Carter's Nomony Hall estate for the remainder of their lives. In 1793, Carter moved to Baltimore, leaving the process in the hands of the Baptist minister Benjamin Dawson. He later sold his remaining slaves to Dawson. After Carter's death in 1804, Carter's heirs sued the minister to stop the manumissions but lost an 1808 ruling by the Virginia Court of Appeals. The scholar Andrew Levy has noted that Carter's Deed of Gift has not simply been forgotten but actively ignored. Perhaps in response to his complaint, a roadside marker dedicated to the deed was erected in Northumberland County in 2016.
Fri, 05 May 2017 11:35:46 EST]]>
/Carter_Robert_1728-1804 Fri, 05 May 2017 11:32:43 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Robert (1728–1804)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Robert_1728-1804 Robert Carter, also known as Robert Carter III and Councillor Carter, was a member of Virginia's Council of State (1758–1776) who, after a religious conversion, emancipated more than five hundred of his enslaved African Americans. Heir to a fortune in land and slaves built by his grandfather, Robert "King" Carter, Carter studied law in London before returning to Virginia in 1751. His contemporaries remarked on his lack of learning and social grace, and he twice ran unsuccessfully for the House of Burgesses, receiving only a handful of votes each time. Through the influence of his wife's uncle, Carter was appointed to the Council. In 1763, he served on the Virginia Committee of Correspondence, and in 1766 drafted the Council's response to the Stamp Act. In 1777, he converted to evangelical Christianity, aligning himself with the Baptists. In 1788, he converted again, this time to the teachings of the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg. On August 1, 1791, he took the legal steps to gradually manumit, or free, more than 500 of his slaves, the largest individual emancipation before 1860. After the death of his wife, Carter moved to Baltimore, Maryland, where he died in 1804.
Fri, 05 May 2017 11:32:43 EST]]>
/Custis_John_Parke_1754-1781 Thu, 04 May 2017 15:02:32 EST <![CDATA[Custis, John Parke (1754–1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_John_Parke_1754-1781 John Parke Custis was a planter and member of the House of Delegates (1778–1781). After the death of his father, Daniel Parke Custis, his mother, Martha Dandridge Custis, married George Washington and moved the family to Mount Vernon. Washington became Custis's guardian and the administrator of his large inheritance. Custis was never a strong student (one of his teachers described him as "exceedingly indolent") and left King's College in New York City without earning a degree. Back in Virginia he managed his extensive landholdings and served in the House of Delegates, where during the American Revolution (1775–1783) he criticized the conduct of the war but often did not attend the assembly's sessions. Custis served with his stepfather at the siege of Yorktown (1781) and died of illness a few months later.
Thu, 04 May 2017 15:02:32 EST]]>
/Robert_Carter_III_s_Deed_of_Gift_August_1_1791 Wed, 03 May 2017 10:47:14 EST <![CDATA[Robert Carter III's Deed of Gift (August 1, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robert_Carter_III_s_Deed_of_Gift_August_1_1791 Wed, 03 May 2017 10:47:14 EST]]> /Ferdinando_Fairfax_Plan_for_liberating_the_negroes_within_the_united_states_December_1_1790 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 14:06:44 EST <![CDATA[Ferdinando Fairfax, "Plan for liberating the negroes within the united states" (December 1, 1790)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ferdinando_Fairfax_Plan_for_liberating_the_negroes_within_the_united_states_December_1_1790 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 14:06:44 EST]]> /Virginia_Gazette_and_General_Advertiser_September_28_1791 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 09:30:52 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser (September 28, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Gazette_and_General_Advertiser_September_28_1791 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 09:30:52 EST]]> /Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Philadelphia_Gazette_May_24_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 15:14:32 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement for the Capture of Oney Judge, Philadelphia Gazette (May 24, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Philadelphia_Gazette_May_24_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 15:14:32 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Lee_to_George_Washington_June_28_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 13:23:46 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Lee to George Washington (June 28, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Lee_to_George_Washington_June_28_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 13:23:46 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Burwell_Bassett_Jr_August_11_1799 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 09:47:34 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Burwell Bassett Jr. (August 11, 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Burwell_Bassett_Jr_August_11_1799 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 09:47:34 EST]]> /Judge_Oney_ca_1773-1848 Wed, 19 Apr 2017 16:51:23 EST <![CDATA[Judge, Oney (ca. 1773–1848)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judge_Oney_ca_1773-1848 Oney Judge was the enslaved personal attendant of Martha Custis Washington when she ran away from the President's House in Philadelphia in 1796. Born about 1773 at Mount Vernon, Judge began laboring in the mansion when she was ten years old. After George Washington was elected president in 1789, she accompanied the family to New York and then, when the federal capital moved, to Philadelphia. On May 21, 1796, she escaped from the president's mansion while the family ate dinner and boarded a ship for Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Washington's agents tracked her there, twice speaking with her, in 1796 and 1799, but failing to apprehend her. Judge married the free black sailor John Staines in 1797 and the couple had three children before his death in 1803. Oney Judge Staines lived the rest of her life in poverty. In 1845 and 1847 she gave interviews to abolitionist newspapers, recounting the story of her life with the Washington family and her escape from slavery. She died in Greenland, New Hampshire, in 1848.
Wed, 19 Apr 2017 16:51:23 EST]]>
/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Tobias_Lear_April_12_1791 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 13:02:31 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Tobias Lear (April 12, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Tobias_Lear_April_12_1791 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 13:02:31 EST]]> /Letter_from_Joseph_Whipple_to_George_Washington_December_22_1796 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 12:07:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Joseph Whipple to George Washington (December 22, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Joseph_Whipple_to_George_Washington_December_22_1796 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 12:07:44 EST]]> /Bassett_Burwell_1764-1841 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:52:31 EST <![CDATA[Bassett, Burwell (1764–1841)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bassett_Burwell_1764-1841 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:52:31 EST]]> /Blair_John_D_1759-1823 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:50:02 EST <![CDATA[Blair, John D. (1759–1823)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_John_D_1759-1823 John D. Blair was a Presbyterian minister in Hanover County and Richmond who preached variously at Pole Green Church, the Henrico Parish Church, and the Virginia State Capitol. Born in Pennsylvania and educated at what is now Princeton University, Blair may have served briefly in the American Revolution (1775–1783). After moving to Virginia he taught in Hanover County and served as president of the Washington-Henry Academy there from 1782 to 1790. He served as minister of Pole Green Church from 1785 to 1821 and as chaplain of the House of Delegates from 1800 to 1801. Blair was famously close friends with the Episcopal minister John Buchanan and after the Richmond Theatre fire in 1811 the two helped raise money for the construction of Monumental Church on the site of the disaster. While they may have intended to share the church, the Episcopalians appropriated it for themselves. He died in Richmond in 1823.
Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:50:02 EST]]>
/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Joseph_Whipple_November_28_1796 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 12:55:19 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Joseph Whipple (November 28, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Joseph_Whipple_November_28_1796 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 12:55:19 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Oliver_Wolcott_Jr_September_1_1796 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 12:19:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Oliver Wolcott Jr. (September 1, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Oliver_Wolcott_Jr_September_1_1796 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 12:19:35 EST]]> /Hunt_Gilbert_ca_1780-1863 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 17:05:28 EST <![CDATA[Hunt, Gilbert (ca. 1780–1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hunt_Gilbert_ca_1780-1863 Gilbert Hunt was an African American blacksmith in Richmond who became known in the city for his aid during two fires: the Richmond Theatre fire in 1811 and the Virginia State Penitentiary fire in 1823. Born enslaved in King William County, Hunt trained as a blacksmith in Richmond and remained there most of the rest of his life. After the Richmond Theatre caught fire on December 26, 1811, he ran to the scene and, with the help of Dr. James D. McCaw, helped to rescue as many as a dozen women. He performed a similar feat of courage on August 8, 1823, during the penitentiary fire. Hunt purchased his freedom and in 1829 immigrated to the West African colony of Liberia, where he stayed only eight months. After returning to Richmond, he resumed blacksmithing and served as an outspoken, sometimes-controversial deacon in the First African Baptist Church. In 1848 he helped form the Union Burial Ground Society. In 1859, a Richmond author published a biography of Hunt, largely in the elderly blacksmith's own words, but portraying him as impoverished and meek, a depiction at odds with the historical record. Hunt died in 1863.
Wed, 05 Apr 2017 17:05:28 EST]]>
/Beverley_Robert_ca_1740-1800 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:37:06 EST <![CDATA[Beverley, Robert (ca. 1740–1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beverley_Robert_ca_1740-1800 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:37:06 EST]]> /Allen_John_d_1799 Mon, 03 Apr 2017 09:54:17 EST <![CDATA[Allen, John (d. 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allen_John_d_1799 Mon, 03 Apr 2017 09:54:17 EST]]> /Allen_William_1768-1831 Wed, 29 Mar 2017 11:24:41 EST <![CDATA[Allen, William (1768–1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allen_William_1768-1831 Wed, 29 Mar 2017 11:24:41 EST]]> /_To_the_Citizens_of_Richmond_RichmondEnquirer_December_31_1811 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:03:02 EST <![CDATA["To the Citizens of Richmond," Richmond Enquirer (December 31, 1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_To_the_Citizens_of_Richmond_RichmondEnquirer_December_31_1811 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:03:02 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_R_Joynes_to_Levin_S_Joynes_December_27_1811 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:03:34 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas R. Joynes to Levin S. Joynes (December 27, 1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_R_Joynes_to_Levin_S_Joynes_December_27_1811 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:03:34 EST]]> /Advertisements_Virginia_Gazette_September_8_1774 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:32:51 EST <![CDATA[Advertisements, Virginia Gazette (September 8, 1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisements_Virginia_Gazette_September_8_1774 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:32:51 EST]]> /_Report_of_the_Committee_of_Investigation_Richmond_Enquirer_December_31_1811 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:49:44 EST <![CDATA["Report of the Committee of Investigation," Richmond Enquirer (December 31, 1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Report_of_the_Committee_of_Investigation_Richmond_Enquirer_December_31_1811 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:49:44 EST]]> /An_Act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_24_1804 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:47:39 EST <![CDATA[An Act further declaring what shall be deemed unlawful meetings of slaves (January 24, 1804)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_24_1804 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:47:39 EST]]> /_Statements_RichmondEnquirer_January_2_1812 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:57:17 EST <![CDATA["Statements," Richmond Enquirer (January 2, 1812)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Statements_RichmondEnquirer_January_2_1812 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:57:17 EST]]> /Arlington_House Wed, 15 Mar 2017 10:25:18 EST <![CDATA[Arlington House]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arlington_House Arlington House, also known as the Lee-Custis Mansion, overlooks Washington, D.C., from a rise across the Potomac River in Arlington, Virginia. Constructed between 1802 and 1818, it was one of the earliest and boldest expressions of the Greek Revival architectural style in America. Arlington House claims special historical significance through its association with the Washington and Custis families, and particularly with Robert E. Lee. After his family's departure in 1861 at the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865), Arlington House became a Union army facility. In 1863 the United States government established a Freedmen's Village on the property that was intended to serve as a model community for African Americans freed by the 1862 abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia and the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation. Its location, meanwhile, was a striking reminder that Arlington had once been a slave labor–based plantation. In 1864 the federal government officially appropriated the grounds and there established Arlington National Cemetery, which continues to serve as a final resting place for members of the United States armed forces.
Wed, 15 Mar 2017 10:25:18 EST]]>
/_Memorable_Disasters_Richmond_Enquirer_January_11_1812 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 15:20:54 EST <![CDATA["Memorable Disasters," Richmond Enquirer (January 11, 1812)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Memorable_Disasters_Richmond_Enquirer_January_11_1812 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 15:20:54 EST]]> /Barbour_Lucy_Johnson_1775-1860 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:34:28 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, Lucy Johnson (1775–1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_Lucy_Johnson_1775-1860 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:34:28 EST]]> /From_the_Diary_of_Charles_Copland_1811 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:32:27 EST <![CDATA[From the Diary of Charles Copland (1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/From_the_Diary_of_Charles_Copland_1811 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:32:27 EST]]> /Daniel_Peter_V_1784-1860 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:00:59 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Peter V. (1784–1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Peter_V_1784-1860 Peter V. Daniel was a member of the House of Delegates (1808–1810) and the Council of State (1812–1836), a U.S. district court judge (1836–1841), and an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1841–1860). Born in Stafford County to a wealthy family, Daniel was educated at the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University) and studied law in Richmond with Edmund Randolph. (He later married Randolph's daughter.) Daniel was elected to the House of Delegates in 1808 as an advocate of states' rights and limited government, and that year he mortally wounded John Seddon in a duel fought in Maryland. He served on the Council of State for more than two decades, serving as president from 1818, making him acting governor in the absence of the chief executive. After the death of Associate Justice Philip Pendleton Barbour, a fellow Virginian, Daniel won confirmation to the seat after a fight in the U.S. Senate. On the bench, Daniel was sharply conservative, at times provincial, and often acerbic and witty in his opinions. He was a strong supporter of slavery and wrote a separate, even more strongly worded opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford(1857). He died in 1860.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:00:59 EST]]>
/Custis_George_Washington_Parke_1781-1857 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:46:27 EST <![CDATA[Custis, George Washington Parke (1781–1857)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_George_Washington_Parke_1781-1857 George Washington Parke Custis was a writer and orator who worked to preserve the legacy of their stepgrandfather, George Washington. Born in Maryland, Custis moved to Mount Vernon after the death of his father in 1781. He was expelled from college, served in the army, and lost election to the House of Delegates before moving to an inherited estate he called Arlington. In addition, Custis owned two other large plantations and property in four other counties. He promoted agricultural reform and commercial independence and disapproved of slavery on economic grounds, supporting gradual emancipation and colonization. During the War of 1812, Custis manned a battery, helped Dolley Madison save Washington's portrait at the White House, and delivered well-received orations on a variety of topics. In the years after the war, he began writing essays, often about Washington's family and career. He later turned to the penning of historical plays and operettas. Pocahontas; or, The Settlers of Virginia, from 1830, was dedicated to John Marshall and remains his most durable work. The patriotism of his plays fed into his work to preserve the legacy of his stepgrandfather. Custis curated a collection of Washington relics made available for public view and sometimes distributed as gifts. He arranged for portraits of Washington and painted his own scenes of life during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Custis died at Arlington in 1857.
Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:46:27 EST]]>
/Barbour_James_1775-1842 Thu, 02 Feb 2017 15:59:53 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, James (1775–1842)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_James_1775-1842 James Barbour was Speaker of the House of Delegates (1809–1812), the governor of Virginia (1812–1814), a member of the U.S. Senate (1815–1825) and its president pro tempore (1819), and the secretary of war (1825–1828) and minister plenipotentiary to Great Britain (1828–1829) in the administration of President John Quincy Adams. Born in Orange County, he read law in Richmond and married his first cousin, Lucy Maria Johnson. (Barbour's younger brother, Philip Pendleton Barbour, married Johnson's sister.) As a member of the General Assembly, Barbour was a states'-rights conservative, but that changed over time. He became governor after George William Smith died in the Richmond Theatre fire, and his management of state affairs during the War of 1812 made him more appreciative of the need for a strong executive. In the U.S. Senate Barbour supported a federal bank and federally financed internal improvements and served in Adams's Federalist administration that was loudly opposed by many Jeffersonian Virginians, including Barbour's own brother, then in the U.S. House of Representatives. After the election of Andrew Jackson, Barbour retired to his estate, Barboursville, where he focused on innovative farming techniques. He helped to organize the Whig Party in Virginia in opposition to Jackson's policies. He died in 1842.
Thu, 02 Feb 2017 15:59:53 EST]]>
/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 Tue, 24 Jan 2017 11:11:52 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, St. George (1752–1827)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 St. George Tucker was a lawyer, teacher, poet, essayist, inventor, and judge. One of the most influential jurists and legal scholars in the early years of the United States, he sat on three courts in Virginia: the General Court (1789–1804), the Court of Appeals (1804–1811), and the U.S. District Court for the District of Virginia (and later the Eastern District of Virginia) (1813–1825). He also served as rector (1789–1790) and professor of law (1790–1804) at the College of William and Mary. His five-volume edition of Sir William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, published in 1803, was the first major treatise on American law. Born in Bermuda, Tucker studied law as an apprentice to George Wythe in Williamsburg, gaining admission to the bar in 1774. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he smuggled needed supplies into Virginia and fought under Nathanael Greene at the Battle of Guilford Court House (1781) and under George Washington at the siege of Yorktown (1781). After the war he practiced in the county courts before being elevated to a judgeship. At William and Mary, he advocated the study of law as an academic discipline, and in 1796 he published A Dissertation on Slavery, his plan to gradually abolish slavery in Virginia. The General Assembly ignored it. Tucker married twice and had five surviving children, including the jurist and congressman Henry St. George Tucker and the writer and states' rights advocate Nathaniel Beverley Tucker. He died in Nelson County in 1827.
Tue, 24 Jan 2017 11:11:52 EST]]>
/Edmund_Custis Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:35:13 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Edmund (d. after 18 October 1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edmund_Custis Edmund Custis was a member of the House of Delegates (1787–1790) and the Convention of 1788. Born in Northampton County, on the Eastern Shore, he relocated to neighboring Accomack County as a young man. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he appears to have been a Patriot despite some pro-British sentiments. In 1787, Custis was elected to the House of Delegates, serving for three years. In 1787, he was one of two Accomack County delegates to a state convention called to consider the proposed U.S. constitution. Custis was an antifederalist who opposed a strong national government and voted against ratification. The owner of more than 1,000 acres and more than a dozen slaves, he fell into debt and in 1797 moved to Baltimore, likely in an attempt to escape his creditors. He died sometime later.
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:35:13 EST]]>
/Custis_Elizabeth_Parke_1776-1831 Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:31:30 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Elizabeth Parke (1776–1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_Elizabeth_Parke_1776-1831 Elizabeth Parke Custis was a social leader and the stepgranddaughter of George Washington. Born in Maryland, she lived with her mother in Alexandria after the death of her father in 1781. When her mother remarried in 1783, they moved to Hope Park, a country estate in Fairfax County, where Custis felt isolated and limited by the social restrictions imposed on women. Eccentric, intelligent, and sometimes difficult, Custis married the merchant Thomas Law in 1796, and the couple lived and entertained in Washington, D.C., until they separated in 1804. A divorce was finalized in 1811. Custis lived for a time on an estate outside Alexandria, which she called Mount Washington. Later in life she traveled between friends and relatives, collecting Washington family memorabilia. She died in 1831 and is buried at Mount Vernon.
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:31:30 EST]]>
/Custis_Eleanor_Nelly_Parke_1779-1852 Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:26:45 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Eleanor "Nelly" Parke (1779–1852)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_Eleanor_Nelly_Parke_1779-1852 Eleanor "Nelly" Parke Custis was the stepgranddaughter of George Washington and important preserver of the first president's legacy. Born in Maryland, she and her brother, George Washington Parke Custis, went to live at Mount Vernon after the death of her father in 1781. Nelly Custis was educated in New York and Philadelphia while Washington served as president and helped to entertain guests. In 1797 she married Washington's nephew, Lawrence Lewis, and the couple lived briefly at Mount Vernon. After Washington's death, they inherited about 2,000 acres of his estate and in 1805 built their own home, Woodlawn. Throughout her life Nelly Custis Lewis regarded herself as the keeper of George Washington's legacy, serving as an accurate purveyor of information about him and his life. She was instrumental in having a tomb erected at Mount Vernon in 1835. She died in 1852.
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:26:45 EST]]>
/Lewis_Fielding_1725-1781_or_1782 Tue, 20 Dec 2016 13:32:15 EST <![CDATA[Lewis, Fielding (1725–1781 or 1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_Fielding_1725-1781_or_1782 Fielding Lewis was a merchant, justice of the peace for Spotsylvania County (1749–1781), and member of the House of Burgesses (1760–1769) who helped to found the Fredericksburg Gun Manufactory during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Born at Warner Hall, his family's Gloucester County estate, he moved to Fredericksburg in the 1740s, helping to manage his father's store there. Lewis married George Washington's cousin and, after her death, Washington's sister, serving in the General Assembly and as a justice of the peace. He was known, in particular, for his financial acumen and sometimes advised his brother-in-law on investments. Early in the 1770s Lewis built for his family a large Georgian mansion (later named Kenmore) that was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970. In 1775, the third Revolutionary Convention tasked Lewis and his fellow merchant Charles Dick with establishing a weapons factory in Fredericksburg; by May 1777 the Fredericksburg Gun Manufactory produced about twenty muskets per week. The enterprise cost Lewis £7,000 of his own money, which the state never repaid. He died sometime late in 1781 or early in 1782.
Tue, 20 Dec 2016 13:32:15 EST]]>
/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Elizabeth_Parke_Custis_September_14_1794 Mon, 12 Dec 2016 13:41:12 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Elizabeth Parke Custis (September 14, 1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Elizabeth_Parke_Custis_September_14_1794 Mon, 12 Dec 2016 13:41:12 EST]]> /An_Ordinance_for_providing_arms_and_ammunition_for_the_use_of_this_colony_July_1775 Wed, 30 Nov 2016 12:16:11 EST <![CDATA[An Ordinance for providing arms and ammunition for the use of this colony (July 1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Ordinance_for_providing_arms_and_ammunition_for_the_use_of_this_colony_July_1775 Wed, 30 Nov 2016 12:16:11 EST]]> /Burwell_Robert_1720-1777 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 14:45:01 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Robert (1720–1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Robert_1720-1777 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 14:45:01 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_George_Washington_March_6_1776 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 15:40:50 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to George Washington (March 6, 1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_George_Washington_March_6_1776 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 15:40:50 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_George_Washington_November_14_1775 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 15:21:11 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to George Washington (November 14, 1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_George_Washington_November_14_1775 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 15:21:11 EST]]> /Jefferson_Thomas_and_Books Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:09:35 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and Books]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Books "I cannot live without books," Thomas Jefferson declared in a letter to John Adams on June 10, 1815. To the man who had authored the Declaration of Independence and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom and founded the University of Virginia, books and reading were "a necessary of life." Jefferson relied on his books as his chief source of inspiration and practical knowledge, and believed that education was the means to an enlightened and informed citizenry that would help preserve democracy. Jefferson owned between 9,000 and 10,000 books in his lifetime—some were inherited from his father, Peter Jefferson, and his mentor, George Wythe; others were acquired in Williamsburg; Washington, D.C.; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; New York City; or Europe. Their subjects included history, philosophy, law, architecture, science and literature. In 1815, Jefferson sold his 6,500-volume library to Congress to replace the one that was destroyed when the British burned the U.S. Capitol on August 24, 1814. He then replenished his personal supply of books by building a smaller collection that reflected his retirement interests. The year before he died, he drew up a catalog of books for the library at the University of Virginia. The list, composed of 6,860 volumes with an estimated total cost of more than $24,000, was the culmination of his lifetime of reading.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:09:35 EST]]>
/Menokin Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:08:24 EST <![CDATA[Menokin]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Menokin Menokin, located in Richmond County, was the home of Francis Lightfoot Lee and his wife, Rebecca Tayloe Lee. Constructed from 1769 to 1771, the home sat on a 1,000-acre plantation and was a wedding gift from Rebecca Lee's father, John Tayloe II. The designer is unknown but may have been the English craftsman William Buckland, who also worked on George Mason's Gunston Hall. The Lees lived at Menokin on and off until their deaths in 1797, and two years later the house was inherited by John Tayloe III, who owned it until 1823. The property changed hands a number of times before falling into disrepair and being abandoned by the mid-twentieth century. In the 1960s, the Omohundro family, which inherited Menokin in 1935, removed the interior paneling and woodwork to protect it from damage; in 1995, T. Edgar Omohundro deeded the property to the Menokin Foundation. Beginning in 1985, archaeological investigations evaluated the site and dated its occupation back to the Rappahannock Indians, who lived and hunted there prior to the arrival of the English. In the early twenty-first century, the Menokin Foundation opened a visitors center and began plans to preserve the site by replacing the missing walls and roof with glass and steel.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:08:24 EST]]>
/Williamsburg_during_the_Colonial_Period Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:07:08 EST <![CDATA[Williamsburg during the Colonial Period]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Williamsburg_during_the_Colonial_Period Williamsburg was the capital of the Virginia colony from 1699 until 1779. Plotted on land first used by Virginia Indians, it was settled by the English during and just after the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632) and called Middle Plantation, for its location equidistant between the York and James rivers. In subsequent years, wealth and political prestige gradually shifted upriver from the first seat of English government, at Jamestown, and talk of moving the capital gained momentum during Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), when rebels burned the statehouse. The Crown did not agree to move the capital until after the establishment of the College of William and Mary at Middle Plantation, in 1693, and another fire at the statehouse, in 1698. In 1699, Middle Plantation became Williamsburg, after King William III, and the colony's new capital. At the behest of the General Assembly, officials laid out streets and began building a new statehouse. Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood oversaw the construction of a powder magazine (1715), the enlargement of Bruton Parish Church (1715), a public theater (1718), and the completion of the Governor's Palace (1722). When the statehouse burned and smallpox hit in 1748, officials briefly considered, but then rejected, the idea of moving the capital, paving the way for a boom in building and population growth. During the American Revolution (1775–1783), Virginia's royal governor dissolved the General Assembly and fled the city. After British troops invaded Virginia in 1779, Governor Thomas Jefferson moved the capital to Richmond.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:07:08 EST]]>
/Cary_Archibald_1721-1787 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:01:35 EST <![CDATA[Cary, Archibald (1721–1787)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cary_Archibald_1721-1787 Archibald Cary was a member of the Convention of 1776, Speaker of the Senate of Virginia (1776–1786), and one of the wealthiest and most influential men in Virginia during and after the American Revolution (1775–1783). Raised in Williamsburg and at his family home of Ampthill, in Chesterfield County, Cary probably attended the College of William and Mary, later working a large farm on land deeded to him from his father. He served in the House of Burgesses, representing Goochland County (1748–1749) and Chesterfield County (1756–1775) and in 1766 was named presiding judge of the Chesterfield County Court. He used his power to curtail the activities of local Baptists. Although Cary voted against Patrick Henry's Resolves on the Stamp Act in 1765, thinking them too inflammatory, he went on to unfailingly support colonial protests against the power of Parliament. In 1773 he was appointed to the Committee of Correspondence and, from 1774 to 1776, to five Revolutionary Conventions. He was a member of the committee that drafted the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the first state constitution. From 1776 until 1786 he served as Speaker of the Senate of Virginia, in many respects as powerful a voice as many of his contemporaries but little known outside Virginia. He died at Ampthill in 1787.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:01:35 EST]]>
/Dunmore_John_Murray_fourth_earl_of_c_1730-1809 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:54:23 EST <![CDATA[Dunmore, John Murray, fourth earl of (ca. 1730–1809)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dunmore_John_Murray_fourth_earl_of_c_1730-1809 John Murray, fourth earl of Dunmore, was Virginia's last royal governor. Dunmore, a member of the House of Lords, reluctantly assumed the office in 1771, not wanting to relinquish his position as governor of New York. He won support by asserting Virginia's land claims west of the Allegheny Mountains, but his impulsive nature alienated key politicians, and the lack of instructions from London hindered his ability to govern. Dunmore received a last measure of popularity in October 1774 when he led volunteers in a defeat of Indians at Point Pleasant on the state's western frontier, later known as Dunmore's War. Tensions between the colony and Great Britain increased rapidly, causing him to remove gunpowder from the public magazine in Williamsburg in April 1775. This action caused his authority to unravel, and he fled to Hampton Roads in June. On November 7 Dunmore declared martial law and offered to free any runaway slaves who supported royal authority. His troops lost the Battle of Great Bridge on December 9 and his fleet shelled Norfolk early in 1776. He left for Great Britain later in the year, where he supported the interests of Loyalist Virginians. In 1787 Dunmore became governor of the Bahamas, during which time he fell from royal favor. He died at his home in England in 1809.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:54:23 EST]]>
/Bland_Richard_1710-1776 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:53:02 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Richard (1710–1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Richard_1710-1776 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:53:02 EST]]> /Jefferson_Thomas_as_Governor_of_Virginia Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:51:34 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas as Governor of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_as_Governor_of_Virginia Thomas Jefferson served as the second governor of Virginia under the Constitution of 1776, holding office for two terms, from June 2, 1779, until June 3, 1781. Jefferson already was a seasoned politician, having served in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776), and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He had no military experience, though, and his tenure was dominated by repeated British invasions of Virginia during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Hampering his efforts to respond was the state constitution, which had relegated little power to the state's chief executive. Faced with calls to provide the struggling Continental army with troops and the need to reinforce the militia against possible invasion, Jefferson presided over draft lotteries that were met with stiff resistance. Then, when the British general Benedict Arnold raided Richmond in January 1781, the governor was slow to call up the militia. By May, thousands of British troops had entered Virginia and many citizens were in near open revolt against the Patriot government. Jefferson was perceived as, and often felt himself to be, powerless to do anything. In June 1781 British cavalry chased the General Assembly out of Charlottesville and nearly captured Jefferson at Monticello. Having already decided not to run for a third term, he followed his family to Poplar Forest instead of going with the assembly to Staunton. For that reason Virginia went without an elected governor for eight days and Jefferson's reputation was tarnished.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:51:34 EST]]>
/Henry_Patrick_1736-1799 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:49:54 EST <![CDATA[Henry, Patrick (1736–1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Henry_Patrick_1736-1799 Patrick Henry was a lawyer, orator, and statesman whose career spanned the founding of the United States. An early critic of British authority and leader in the movement toward independence, Henry dedicated most of his life to Virginia politics. He served as a member of the House of Burgesses (1765–1774), as the first governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia (1776–1779), as a member of the House of Delegates (1779–1784; 1788–1791), and again as governor (1784–1786). He was a founding member of the Virginia Committee of Correspondence (1773) and a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses (1774–1776). He also attended the Virginia Conventions of 1774, March 1775, July–August 1775, May 1776, and 1788. He is best remembered, however, for the speech he delivered during the Virginia Convention of 1775 that famously ended with the words, "Give me liberty, or give me death!" Henry's Virginia contemporaries recognized him as "the man who gave the first impulse to the ball of revolution." Henry retired from public life in 1791 and declined invitations to serve on the Supreme Court, as secretary of state, and as a vice presidential candidate. Only a request from George Washington, made during the divisive conflict over the Alien and Sedition Acts and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, brought him back into the public arena. Henry won election to the General Assembly in the spring of 1799, but died before the House of Delegates convened that autumn.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:49:54 EST]]>
/Braxton_Carter_1736-1797 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:46:59 EST <![CDATA[Braxton, Carter (1736–1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Braxton_Carter_1736-1797 Carter Braxton was a member of the Continental Congress (1776) who supported and signed the Declaration of Independence, and of the Council of State (1786–1791; 1794–1797). Born to power—his maternal grandfather was the wealthy land and slave owner Robert "King" Carter—Braxton married it, as well, wedding first a niece of the Speaker of the House of Burgesses and then, after her death, the daughter of a member of the governor's Council. Braxton acquired large amounts of land and numbers of slaves, and he both cultivated and traded tobacco. While in the House of Burgesses (1761–1775), he served on various prestigious committees and, in May 1775, confronted Patrick Henry and a group of militiamen over their demand for reimbursement of Virginia gunpowder seized by the Crown. Braxton arranged for his father-in-law to pay for it. Although he supported independence, he published a pamphlet that challenged the democratic ideas of John Adams and, as a result, was sent home from the Continental Congress. The American Revolution (1775–1783) left Braxton virtually insolvent, but his political connections intact. He served on the Council of State, and during his second term, advised Henry, his one-time adversary and now Virginia governor. Braxton died in Richmond in 1797.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:46:59 EST]]>
/Francis_Lightfoot_Lee_1734-1797 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:45:25 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Francis Lightfoot (1734–1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Francis_Lightfoot_Lee_1734-1797 Francis Lightfoot Lee, known as Frank, was a member of the House of Burgesses (1758–1774), the Continental Congress (1775–1779), and the Senate of Virginia (1778–1782). Born into the Lee family of Stratford Hall, Lee was a dedicated if reluctant public servant for most of his life. He is best known for signing the Declaration of Independence and for representing Loudoun and Richmond counties in the House of Burgesses; he also provided political and emotional support to his controversy-prone brothers, Richard Henry Lee and Arthur Lee, throughout their careers. (Arthur Lee wrote of Francis Lee, "He was calmness and philosophy itself.") He died on January 17, 1797, at his estate, Menokin, in present-day Warsaw, Virginia.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:45:25 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786), founder of the University of Virginia (1819), governor of Virginia (1779–1781), and third president of the United States (1801–1809). Born at Shadwell, his parents' estate in Albemarle County, he attended the College of William and Mary and studied the law under the tutelage of George Wythe. In 1769, Jefferson began construction of Monticello, his home in Albemarle County, and for the rest of his life pursued an interest in architecture, which included design of Poplar Forest and the State Capitol. Jefferson also indulged a passion for science, serving as president of the American Philosophical Society (1797–1814) and publishing Notes on the State of Virginia (1795). After representing Albemarle County in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), Jefferson was a delegate to Virginia's five Revolutionary Conventions and served in the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776) and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He earned a reputation during the American Revolution (1775–1783) as a forceful advocate of revolutionary principles, articulated in A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774), the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking Up Arms (1775), and, most famously, the Declaration of Independence, approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. His two terms as governor were marked by British invasion and Jefferson's controversial flight to Poplar Forest. From 1784 to 1789, he served as a diplomat in France and there may have begun a sexual relationship with his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Jefferson served as secretary of state in the administration of George Washington (1790–1793) and as vice president under John Adams (1797–1801) before being elected president by the U.S. House of Representatives after a tie vote in the Electoral College. As president Jefferson arranged for the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the subsequent Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806). With James Madison, Jefferson helped found the Republican Party and advocated for states' rights and a small federal government, although as president he sometimes pushed the limits of his executive authority. In his retirement he founded the University of Virginia, which was chartered in 1819 and opened for classes in the spring of 1825. Jefferson died at Monticello on July 4, 1826, fifty years after the Declaration of Independence was approved. He is buried at Monticello.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Colonel_George_Brooke_Treasurer_of_Virginia_February_9_1781 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:42:00 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Colonel George Brooke, Treasurer of Virginia (February 9, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Colonel_George_Brooke_Treasurer_of_Virginia_February_9_1781 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:42:00 EST]]> /Lee_Richard_Henry_1732-1794 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:39:48 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Richard Henry (1732–1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Richard_Henry_1732-1794 Richard Henry Lee was a planter, merchant, politician, and a member of the prominent Lee family of Virginia. Son of Thomas Lee, Richard Henry Lee pursued his father's interest in westward expansion and was a key political figure during the American Revolution (1775–1783): it was Lee who, at the Second Continental Congress in 1776, made the motion to declare independence from Britain. Lee began his career as a justice of the peace for Westmoreland County (1757); he later served as a member of the House of Burgesses (1758–1775), the House of Delegates (1777, 1780, 1785), and the United States Senate (1789–1792). He also represented Virginia at the two Continental Congresses (1774–1779, 1784–1787) and served as president of Congress in 1784. In 1792 Lee retired from public service, citing his poor health. He passed away two years later at Chantilly-on-the-Potomac, his estate in the Northern Neck of Virginia. Lee was mired in controversy throughout his political career, and his legacy has been influenced in part by his enemies. But Lee's prominent role in the events that shaped Virginia and the nation in the mid- to late seventeenth century cannot be denied; it places him high on the list of America's forgotten founders.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:39:48 EST]]>
/Camm_John_bap_1717-1779 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:01:45 EST <![CDATA[Camm, John (bap. 1717–1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Camm_John_bap_1717-1779 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:01:45 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_punish_certain_thefts_and_forgeries_December_31_1806 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:15:57 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to punish certain thefts and forgeries" (December 31, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_punish_certain_thefts_and_forgeries_December_31_1806 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:15:57 EST]]> /Jefferson_Thomas_and_Gardening Wed, 26 Oct 2016 17:11:11 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and Gardening]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Gardening Thomas Jefferson's interest in gardening arose from a passionate curiosity about the natural world. From his childhood home at Shadwell, where in his early twenties Jefferson recorded that 2,500 pea seeds would fill a pint jar, until 1825, when at the age of eighty-two he sought and later received from the former governor of Ohio seeds of giant cucumbers, Jefferson had an unrelenting enthusiasm for natural history and horticulture that was expressed in his Garden Book. Sixty-six pages long, bound in leather, and residing today at the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Garden Book is also a reflection of Jefferson's Enlightenment ethic. Although he also displayed his love of gardening, food, and wine during his political life in Paris, Philadelphia, and Washington, and at his retirement retreat at Poplar Forest, Jefferson's lifelong home at Monticello became his experimental horticultural laboratory as well as a natural canvas on which to indulge his interest in landscape design, whether sketching plans for garden temples, planting groves of native and introduced species of plants, or composing dreamy visions for classical grottoes around natural mountain springs.
Wed, 26 Oct 2016 17:11:11 EST]]>
/Sound_in_Jefferson_s_Virginia Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:13:42 EST <![CDATA[Sound in Jefferson's Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sound_in_Jefferson_s_Virginia Sound in Thomas Jefferson's Virginia included natural, man-made, and melodic noises. The areas surrounding Monticello, the Albemarle County estate of Jefferson, and the city of Charlottesville, reverberated with thunder, cicadas, bells, work songs, fiddles, and drums. Nearby taverns, parlors, dances, and political rallies resonated with the sounds of crowd noises, toasts, songs, military salutes, fireworks, and shouts. Jefferson's world was as noisy as any small town of its time, filled with the sounds of nature (especially cicadas), Western art music, political music, and the sounds of the enslaved. In taverns, patrons sang drinking songs and patriotic tunes. In parlors, young women performed with keyboards and lutes. At dances, men played fiddles, and in the military, they participated in fife and drum corps. In slave quarters, enslaved men and women, though regularly ignored, sang spirituals and played fiddles and drums, sometimes to communicate with one another.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:13:42 EST]]>
/Brooke_George_d_1782 Fri, 14 Oct 2016 12:03:51 EST <![CDATA[Brooke, George (d. 1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brooke_George_d_1782 George Brooke was a member of the House of Burgesses (1765, 1771, 1774), the Convention of 1776, and the Senate of Virginia (1776–1779), and served as treasurer of Virginia from 1779 until his death. Born in King William County, he moved to King and Queen County after his marriage and formed a mercantile partnership with one of his wife's relatives. He earned a reputation as a reliable businessman and was involved in settling the controversial and politically sensitive estate of Speaker John Robinson. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he sat in the Revolutionary Conventions, although he missed the vote for independence in 1776, and was paymaster to several Virginia regiments. At the end of his life he served as treasurer of Virginia, helping to supervise the transfer of the capital from Williamsburg to Richmond and to keep the state's fiscal affairs intact during British raids in 1781. He died in 1782.
Fri, 14 Oct 2016 12:03:51 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_George_Wythe_with_Enclosure_September_16_1787 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 14:57:20 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to George Wythe, with Enclosure (September 16, 1787)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_George_Wythe_with_Enclosure_September_16_1787 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 14:57:20 EST]]> /Reports_on_the_Death_of_George_Wythe_Poulson_s_American_Daily_Advertiser_June_17_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:15:49 EST <![CDATA[Reports on the Death of George Wythe, Poulson's American Daily Advertiser (June 17, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Reports_on_the_Death_of_George_Wythe_Poulson_s_American_Daily_Advertiser_June_17_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:15:49 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_Wirt_to_Elizabeth_Gamble_Wirt_July_13_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:01:12 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William Wirt to Elizabeth Gamble Wirt (July 13, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_Wirt_to_Elizabeth_Gamble_Wirt_July_13_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:01:12 EST]]> /Ariss_John_ca_1729-1799 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 16:51:10 EST <![CDATA[Ariss, John (ca. 1729–1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ariss_John_ca_1729-1799 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 16:51:10 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_the_Virginia_Gazette_December_14_1769 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:54:18 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from the Virginia Gazette (December 14, 1769)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_the_Virginia_Gazette_December_14_1769 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:54:18 EST]]> /_Account_of_Col_George_Mercer_s_Arrival_in_Virginia_and_his_Resignation_of_the_Office_of_Stamp_Distributor_October_31_1765 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:15:17 EST <![CDATA["Account of Col. George Mercer's Arrival in Virginia, and his Resignation of the Office of Stamp Distributor" (October 31, 1765)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Account_of_Col_George_Mercer_s_Arrival_in_Virginia_and_his_Resignation_of_the_Office_of_Stamp_Distributor_October_31_1765 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:15:17 EST]]> /Jefferson_Thomas_and_the_Practice_of_Law Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:07:34 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and the Practice of Law]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_the_Practice_of_Law Thomas Jefferson's life in the law has been generally overlooked, despite the years he devoted to its practice and the impact it had on the American Revolution (1775–1783) and subsequent generations. Admitted to the Virginia bar in 1765 after more than two years of reading law under the tutelage of George Wythe, Jefferson practiced before the General Court in Williamsburg, specializing in land cases. By the time Edmund Randolph took over his practice in 1774, he had handled more than 900 matters, with clients ranging from common farmers and indentured servants to the most powerful and wealthy of the colony's planter elite. In Bolling v. Bolling (1771) and Blair v. Blair (1772) he became involved in the private, often sensational affairs of the gentry, while in Howell v. Netherland (1770) he attempted to win the freedom of a mixed-race man he believed to be illegally bound to servitude. Jefferson was influenced by an English tradition distinguishing between common law—a tradition preserved by courts through precedent—and natural law, or rights ordained by God. In this way, his legal training left its mark on his revolutionary writings, in particular the "Summary View of the Rights of British America" (1774) and the Declaration of Independence (1776). Following the Revolution, he used these principles to campaign for legal reform in Virginia, drafting, among many other bills, the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786).
Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:07:34 EST]]>
/Slave_Housing_in_Virginia Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:15:07 EST <![CDATA[Slave Housing in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Housing_in_Virginia Slave housing in Virginia varied widely depending on the context: whether it was rural or urban, whether it was on an elite plantation or a small farm, and even whether it was located close to or far from the slaveholder's main house. Many of the first Africans who came to Virginia lived in barracks-style housing and other, less-than-permanent accommodations. As the enslaved population grew, however, houses were designed and constructed specifically for black laborers and, in particular, those living in family units. Most slave quarters were constructed of wood, and many were log and earthfast structures with no foundations. Those located closest to elite plantation houses were generally better built, with wooden frames and masonry chimneys and foundations. Separate one or two-room structures, designed to accommodate one- or two-family units, were the most popular house type, although many enslaved laborers slept where they worked—in kitchens, laundries, and stables. Slaves who were hired out in cities sometimes resided in separate "shanty towns." Few intact slave quarters exist in the twenty-first century—likely fewer than 300—and most of those are relatively large and well-built.
Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:15:07 EST]]>
/Pamphlet_Gowan_fl_1779-1807 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:27:56 EST <![CDATA[Pamphlet, Gowan (fl. 1779–1807)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pamphlet_Gowan_fl_1779-1807 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:27:56 EST]]> /Campbell_Christiana_ca_1722-1792 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:24:05 EST <![CDATA[Campbell, Christiana (ca. 1723–1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Campbell_Christiana_ca_1722-1792 Christiana Campbell was a tavern-keeper in Williamsburg from 1755 until the late 1770s. Campbell, who was raised in Williamsburg, opened her tavern to support herself and her two daughters after her husband died in 1752. For more than twenty years she ran one of Williamsburg's most successful businesses. On the eve of the American Revolution (1775–1783), the colony's leaders periodically met at Campbell's tavern to discuss their connections with England and whether they should seek independence. Campbell evidently closed her tavern in the late 1770s, and, at some point after October 8, 1787, relocated to Fredericksburg, where she died in 1792.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:24:05 EST]]>
/Callender_James_Thomson_1757_or_1758-1803 Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:13:42 EST <![CDATA[Callender, James Thomson (1757 or 1758–1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Callender_James_Thomson_1757_or_1758-1803 James Thomson Callender was a partisan journalist known for attacking Federalists but also his one-time Republican ally, Thomas Jefferson. Born in Scotland, Callender was a Scottish nationalist who published pamphlets critical of the British government. When a warrant was issued for his arrest, he fled first to Ireland and then, in 1793, to Philadelphia. There he wrote newspaper items critical of the administrations of George Washington and John Adams and a pamphlet that exposed an extramarital affair by Alexander Hamilton. After the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798, Callender, who had moved to Richmond by this time, published another pamphlet critical of President Adams. In the spring of 1800 he was tried and convicted of sedition in Richmond and served nine months in jail. When Jefferson was elected president in 1801, Callender expected to be rewarded with a political position. When he was not, he turned on his former ally, accusing the president of having fathered children by his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Callender purchased part ownership of the Richmond Recorder newspaper, but quit after quarrels with his coeditor. He accidentally drowned in the James River in 1803.
Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:13:42 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Holmes_April_22_1820 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:57:24 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Holmes (April 22, 1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Holmes_April_22_1820 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:57:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Mann_Randolph_Jr_April_19_1792 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:27:47 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Thomas Mann Randolph Jr. (April 19, 1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Mann_Randolph_Jr_April_19_1792 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:27:47 EST]]> /The_Election_of_Thomas_Nelson_as_Governor_June_12_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:24:31 EST <![CDATA[The Election of Governor Thomas Nelson; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (June 12, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Election_of_Thomas_Nelson_as_Governor_June_12_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:24:31 EST]]> /The_Rejection_of_Rumors_Surrounding_the_Cowardice_of_Thomas_Jefferson_December_12_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:20:13 EST <![CDATA[An Investigation into the Conduct of Thomas Jefferson; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (December 12, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Rejection_of_Rumors_Surrounding_the_Cowardice_of_Thomas_Jefferson_December_12_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:20:13 EST]]> /Letter_from_Lafayette_to_Thomas_Jefferson_February_21_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:04:46 EST <![CDATA[Letter from the Marquis de Lafayette to Thomas Jefferson (February 21, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Lafayette_to_Thomas_Jefferson_February_21_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:04:46 EST]]> /The_Need_for_a_New_Governor_of_Virginia_May_29_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:59:55 EST <![CDATA[The Need for a New Governor of Virginia; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (May 29, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Need_for_a_New_Governor_of_Virginia_May_29_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:59:55 EST]]> /An_Act_for_speedily_recruiting_the_Virginia_Regiments_on_the_continental_establishment_and_for_raising_additional_troops_of_Volunteers_May_20_1777 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:56:51 EST <![CDATA[An Act for speedily recruiting the Virginia Regiments on the continental establishment, and for raising additional troops of Volunteers (May 20, 1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_speedily_recruiting_the_Virginia_Regiments_on_the_continental_establishment_and_for_raising_additional_troops_of_Volunteers_May_20_1777 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:56:51 EST]]> /An_act_for_the_removal_of_the_seat_of_government_June_18_1779 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:55:21 EST <![CDATA[An act for the removal of the seat of government (June 18, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_the_removal_of_the_seat_of_government_June_18_1779 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:55:21 EST]]> /An_act_for_re-enlisting_the_troops_of_this_state_in_the_continental_army_and_for_other_purposes_October_1799 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:52:38 EST <![CDATA[An act for re-enlisting the troops of this state in the continental army, and for other purposes (October 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_re-enlisting_the_troops_of_this_state_in_the_continental_army_and_for_other_purposes_October_1799 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:52:38 EST]]> /Thomas_Jefferson_s_Election_to_a_Second_Term_as_Governor_an_excerpt_from_theJournal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_2_1780 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:49:38 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Jefferson's Election to a Second Term as Governor; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (June 2, 1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Jefferson_s_Election_to_a_Second_Term_as_Governor_an_excerpt_from_theJournal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_2_1780 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:49:38 EST]]> /The_Constitution_of_Virginia_1776 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:54:32 EST <![CDATA[The Constitution of Virginia (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Constitution_of_Virginia_1776 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:54:32 EST]]> /An_Act_establishing_a_Board_of_War_June_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:48:24 EST <![CDATA[An Act establishing a Board of War (June 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_establishing_a_Board_of_War_June_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:48:24 EST]]> /An_act_for_better_securing_the_payment_of_levies_and_restraint_of_vagrants_and_for_making_provision_for_the_poor_October_1776 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:45:46 EST <![CDATA[An act for better securing the payment of levies and restraint of vagrants, and for making provision for the poor (October 1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_better_securing_the_payment_of_levies_and_restraint_of_vagrants_and_for_making_provision_for_the_poor_October_1776 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:45:46 EST]]> /Thomas_Jefferson_s_Election_to_Governor_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_1_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:33:12 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Jefferson's Election to Governor; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (June 1, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Jefferson_s_Election_to_Governor_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_1_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:33:12 EST]]> /Thomas_Jefferson_s_Acceptance_Speech_for_the_Position_of_Governor_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_2_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:30:24 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Jefferson's Acceptance Speech for the Position of Governor; excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (June 2, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Jefferson_s_Acceptance_Speech_for_the_Position_of_Governor_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_2_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:30:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_Preston_June_15_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:26:32 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William Preston (June 15, 1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_Preston_June_15_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:26:32 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_the_Virginia_Delegates_in_Congress_October_27_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:59:21 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to the Virginia Delegates in Congress (October 27, 1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_the_Virginia_Delegates_in_Congress_October_27_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:59:21 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Lafayette_March_10_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:45:23 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to the Marquis de Lafayette (March 10, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Lafayette_March_10_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:45:23 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_the_Speaker_of_the_House_of_Delegates_May_28_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:25:38 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to the Speaker of the House of Delegates (May 28, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_the_Speaker_of_the_House_of_Delegates_May_28_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:25:38 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_George_Washington_May_28_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:23:13 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to George Washington (May 28, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_George_Washington_May_28_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:23:13 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_James_Monroe_May_20_1782 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:19:41 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to James Monroe (May 20, 1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_James_Monroe_May_20_1782 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:19:41 EST]]> /An_act_to_revive_and_amend_an_act_entitled_An_act_for_giving_farther_powers_to_the_governour_and_council_October_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:14:46 EST <![CDATA[An act to revive and amend an act entitled 'An act for giving farther powers to the governour and council' (October 1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_to_revive_and_amend_an_act_entitled_An_act_for_giving_farther_powers_to_the_governour_and_council_October_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:14:46 EST]]> /Jack_Jouett_s_Ride_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 13:55:11 EST <![CDATA[Jack Jouett's Ride (1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jack_Jouett_s_Ride_1781 On the night of June 3–4, 1781, Jack Jouett rode about forty miles from Louisa County to Charlottesville to warn state officials of the approaching British Army. The British had been threatening Richmond and central Virginia since the spring, and the General Assembly had fled to Charlottesville. On June 3, British cavalry under Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton assembled in Louisa County to attack Charlottesville. Jouett noticed them, guessed their intentions, and raced ahead to warn Governor Thomas Jefferson, whose term had just ended, and other members of the state government. The assembly escaped to Staunton while Jefferson retreated to first to Monticello and then, eventually, to his second home at Poplar Forest, leaving Virginia without an elected governor for a few days. The General Assembly honored Jouett's actions and he later moved to Kentucky, where he served in that state's government. His ride, meanwhile, achieved legendary status over the years, at least in Virginia. Over the next two centuries, various histories treated it as an important episode of the American Revolution (1775–1783), although some writers confused Jouett with his father of the same name. (John Jouett, the elder, owned the Swan Tavern in Charlottesville.) Historical highway markers commemorating the event were erected both in Virginia and in Kentucky. And in 1940, the General Assembly of Virginia declared June 4 as Jack Jouett Day. In 2001, perhaps forgetting its early action, the assembly declared Jack Jouett Day to be June 3.
Thu, 21 Jul 2016 13:55:11 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_George_Washington_October_26_1780 Tue, 31 May 2016 15:29:58 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to George Washington (October 26, 1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_George_Washington_October_26_1780 Tue, 31 May 2016 15:29:58 EST]]> /Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_1785 Fri, 06 May 2016 12:34:19 EST <![CDATA[Notes on the State of Virginia (1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_1785 Notes on the State of Virginia, by Thomas Jefferson, is at once a compendium of information about the state and a sweeping commentary on natural history, society, politics, education, religion, slavery, liberty, and law. Many consider it the most important American book written before 1800. Jefferson originally composed the work in 1781 in answer to queries posed by a French diplomat, and then revised and expanded it into a description and defense of the young United States as interpreted through a Virginia lens. The book is divided into twenty-three chapters, largely taken from the diplomat's queries, though Jefferson reordered and renumbered them. Notes was first published in Paris in 1785 in an edition of 200. Both a French translation, published in 1786, and the widely circulated London edition of 1787 incorporated important structural changes and a detailed map. Notes on the State of Virginia wrested the interpretation of the young American nation from European critics and intellectuals and offered an eloquent indigenous voice. It profoundly influenced European understanding of the United States, as well as American views of Virginia. It established Jefferson's international reputation as a serious scientist, a man of letters, and the principal spokesman for his "country," whether Virginia or the United States; his discursive text, ranging over the entire continent, implicitly blurred the distinction between the two. As the most detailed and influential portrait of any state or region of the United States for generations, Notes ensured that Virginia would be a primary focus of future studies of the American republic. The book contains Jefferson's most powerful indictments of slavery; it is also a foundational text of racism.
Fri, 06 May 2016 12:34:19 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_and_His_Family Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:04:45 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and His Family]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_His_Family Thomas Jefferson regularly commented on the importance of family. In 1789 he wrote to his brother Randolph that "no society is so precious as that of one's own family" and—in another letter, to Francis Willis—that he longed for domestic tranquility within the "bosom" of his family. Jefferson was raised at Shadwell, his father's Albemarle County plantation, with nine siblings. The absence of extant letters between Jefferson and his parents has led some historians to suggest a frosty relationship, but his letters to siblings suggest that the family was, in fact, close and loving. Jefferson married Martha Wayles Skelton in 1772, and by all accounts the two were very much in love. Of their six children, only two—Martha and Mary (later Maria)—survived to adulthood. The elder Martha Jefferson died a few months after giving birth in 1782, and Jefferson's daughters, and later his grandchildren, became the focus of his domestic life. While president in 1802, his family life attracted public attention when the Richmond journalist James Thomson Callender accused him of fathering children with his slave—and his wife's likely half-sister—Sally Hemings. Many historians now accept that Jefferson fathered Hemings's six children. His later years were marked by family strife, including a feud between his two sons-in-law and alcohol-fueled violence perpetrated by the husband of one of his granddaughters. Debts also accumulated, but Jefferson maintained his home at Monticello as a refuge for family, and they surrounded him there on his death in 1826.
Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:04:45 EST]]>
/Gabriel_s_Conspiracy_1800 Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:02:35 EST <![CDATA[Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gabriel_s_Conspiracy_1800 Gabriel's Conspiracy was a plan by enslaved African American men to attack Richmond and destroy slavery in Virginia. Although thwarted, it remains one of the half-dozen most important insurrection plots in the history of North American slavery. Named after an enslaved blacksmith who emerged as the most significant leader of the plot, Gabriel's Conspiracy originated during the spring and summer of 1800 in a Henrico County neighborhood north of Richmond and extended primarily across Hanover County into Caroline County and south toward Petersburg. Two slave men betrayed the plot just hours before a torrential rainstorm prevented the conspirators from gathering on the night of August 30, 1800. In response, Virginia authorities arrested and prosecuted more than seventy enslaved men for insurrection and conspiracy. Twenty-six of those found guilty were hanged and eight more were transported, or sold outside of the state, while another suspected conspirator committed suicide before his arraignment. A small number of free blacks were also implicated and one was prosecuted. The alleged involvement of two Frenchmen in the plot provided fodder for Federalist attacks on Thomas Jefferson's candidacy for the presidency that year. The aborted uprising also provoked refinements in the state's slave laws at the next meeting of the General Assembly, including the adoption of transportation as an alternative to capital punishment for some slave offenders and calls for an end to private manumissions and for the deportation of free blacks.
Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:02:35 EST]]>
/Eppes_John_Wayles_1772-1823 Thu, 14 Apr 2016 16:59:39 EST <![CDATA[Eppes, John Wayles (1772–1823)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Eppes_John_Wayles_1772-1823 John Wayles Eppes was a member of the House of Delegates (1801–1803), the U.S. House of Representatives (1803–1811, 1813–1815), and the U.S. Senate (1817–1819). Related through his mother to Martha Wayles Skelton, the wife of Thomas Jefferson, Eppes was close to Jefferson. He lived with him in Philadelphia while Jefferson served as secretary of state and secretly copied for him James Madison's notes on the Constitutional Convention of 1787. In 1797 he married Jefferson's daughter Maria (also Mary or Polly) Jefferson. Eppes served four terms in Congress before being unseated by John Randolph of Roanoke, with whom he had a difficult relationship. Once on the floor of the House, Randolph called Eppes a liar and the two almost fought a duel. On another occasion, Eppes acted as a second to a fellow congressman who shot another congressman in a duel. Eppes regained his seat from Randolph in 1813 but lost it again in 1815. Two years later the General Assembly elected him to the U.S. Senate, although ill health forced him to resign in 1819. Eppes died at his Mill Brook estate, in Buckingham and Cumberland counties, in 1823.
Thu, 14 Apr 2016 16:59:39 EST]]>
/Archaeology_at_Mount_Vernon Fri, 01 Apr 2016 08:27:02 EST <![CDATA[Mount Vernon, Archaeology at]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Archaeology_at_Mount_Vernon Archaeology at Mount Vernon, the Fairfax County plantation home of George Washington, began in the 1930s and has continued over the subsequent decades. As part of research and renovation efforts undertaken by the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, excavations have sought to uncover evidence of daily life on the property during the eighteenth century. In 1987, the association, which has owned and operated the estate since 1860, hired a full-time archaeologist. Since then, archaeological digs at the Mansion House Farm have taken place at the main slave quarter, known as the House for Families, and the blacksmith shop (1987–1990), the fruit garden and nursery (1988–1991), the South Grove trash dump, or midden (1990–1993), the dung repository (1992–1994), and the Upper Garden (2005–2010). Extensive work has also been conducted at the distillery, located near the outlying gristmill (1999–2005). These investigations have turned up a rich array of artifacts and other kinds of evidence attesting to the lives of the Washington family and their enslaved laborers, including the size and nature of structures in which they lived and worked, the tools they manufactured and used, and the foods they ate.
Fri, 01 Apr 2016 08:27:02 EST]]>
/Dinsmore_James_1771_or_1772-1830 Thu, 31 Mar 2016 17:44:06 EST <![CDATA[Dinsmore, James (1771 or 1772–1830)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dinsmore_James_1771_or_1772-1830 James Dinsmore served as Thomas Jefferson's master carpenter for more than a decade. Born in Ireland, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1798 and began work for Jefferson soon after. Living and working at Monticello, in Albemarle County, he was responsible for much of the house's woodwork and furniture. In 1809, he and John Neilson oversaw the expansion of James Madison's Orange County plantation, Montpelier. The two worked on some of Virginia's most noted architecture, including the University of Virginia's Rotunda, Jefferson's retreat at Poplar Forest, in Bedford County, and John Hartwell Cocke's Upper Bremo home, in Fluvanna County. Late in his career Dinsmore designed and constructed Estouteville, a mansion south of Charlottesville, noted for its Tuscan exterior porticoes and great interior hall with an elaborate Doric frieze. Dinsmore drowned in 1830.
Thu, 31 Mar 2016 17:44:06 EST]]>
/Cabell_Joseph_C_1778-1856 Thu, 24 Mar 2016 08:08:30 EST <![CDATA[Cabell, Joseph C. (1778–1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cabell_Joseph_C_1778-1856 Joseph C. Cabell was member of the House of Delegates (1808–1810, 1831–1835) and the Senate of Virginia (1810–1829) and served as president of the James River and Kanawha Company (1835–1846). He also served as rector of the University of Virginia from 1834 to 1836 and again from 1845 to 1856. Born in Amherst County, Cabell studied law, including under St. George Tucker, whose stepdaughter he later married. Rather than practice, he embarked on a political career as a Jeffersonian Republican. He made little mark in the General Assembly, however, until in 1815 his friend Thomas Jefferson tapped him to lead the legislative fight to charter and fund Central College, or what later became the University of Virginia. Cabell successfully argued both for the need of a state university and for its establishment near Charlottesville. After his retirement from the assembly, Cabell leveraged his interest in economic development into leadership of the James River and Kanawha Company, which sought to build a canal between Richmond and the Ohio River. The canal reached only as far as Buchanan, in Botetourt County, and Cabell resigned the company's presidency in 1846. He died at his plantation in Nelson County a decade later.
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 08:08:30 EST]]>
/Lafayette_James_ca_1748-1830 Thu, 10 Mar 2016 16:57:07 EST <![CDATA[Lafayette, James (ca. 1748–1830)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lafayette_James_ca_1748-1830 James Lafayette was a spy during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Born a slave about 1748, he was a body servant for his owner, William Armistead, of New Kent County, in the spring of 1781. At the time, Armistead served as state commissary of military supplies, and his position allowed Lafayette—then known only by his first name—access to the front lines of war. Lafayette's race made it easy for him to pass between lines, and he began serving as a double agent, spying for the Americans while pretending to spy for the British. After the war, the marquis de Lafayette attested in writing to James Lafayette's service, and the former spy petitioned the General Assembly for his freedom, which was granted in 1787. Around this time he took the surname Lafayette. Late in 1818 Lafayette petitioned for and won a military pension. He lived on forty acres of land he purchased in New Kent County, traveling to Richmond twice a year to collect his pension. He reportedly greeted the marquis de Lafayette on the Frenchman's tour of Virginia in 1824. James Lafayette died in Baltimore in 1830.
Thu, 10 Mar 2016 16:57:07 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Architecture Thu, 25 Feb 2016 16:31:40 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and Architecture]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Architecture Thomas Jefferson was a passionate student of architecture whose designs are among the most influential in the early history of the United States. As a student at the College of William and Mary he purchased his first book on the subject and later assembled one of the largest libraries on architecture in America. He was particularly influenced by the classical style of Andrea Palladio, who emphasized symmetry, proportion, and the use of columns. These principles then came to define the architecture of the early United States, first in Richmond, with Jefferson's design of the State Capitol, and then in Washington, D.C., where he influenced decisions on the design of the U.S. Capitol and the White House. Jefferson is perhaps best known for his homes—Monticello, in Albemarle County, and Poplar Forest, in Bedford County—which became laboratories for Jefferson's design interests and his many influences. Monticello, in particular, brought together Jefferson's obsessions with classical forms and his admiration for contemporary France. During his retirement, Jefferson established the University of Virginia, creating a distinctive, U-shaped design of connected pavilions and a domed Rotunda circling a long, narrow green space. Along with Monticello, the university is considered to be one of the highlights of American architecture and cemented Jefferson's legacy as a designer.
Thu, 25 Feb 2016 16:31:40 EST]]>
/Breckinridge_James_1763-1833 Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:33:36 EST <![CDATA[Breckinridge, James (1763–1833)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Breckinridge_James_1763-1833 James Breckinridge was member of the House of Delegates (1789–1791, 1796–1802, 1806–1808, 1819–1821, 1823–1824), the U.S. House of Representatives (1809–1817), and the board of visitors of the University of Virginia (1819–1833). Born near what is now Fincastle in what was then southern Augusta County, Breckinridge came from a powerful family. (His brother John Breckinridge served in the U.S. Senate and as U.S. attorney general.) After serving during the Revolutionary War (1775–1783), Breckinridge studied law under George Wythe, then opened a practice in Fincastle and began his long political career. He served several terms in the House of Delegates before being elected to Congress as a Federalist in 1809. Although he opposed war with Britain in 1812 he led the militia as a brigadier general, helping to shore up defenses around Washington, D.C., and Baltimore. Breckinridge served four terms in the House of Representatives and then returned to the House of Delegates in 1819. That same year he was appointed to the board of visitors of the newly established University of Virginia, serving until his death. Breckinridge lived on a large farm, Grove Hill, in Botetourt County, but also speculated in land and had a diverse set of business interests. He died at Grove Hill in 1833.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:33:36 EST]]>
/Slave_Clothing_and_Adornment_in_Virginia Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:22:03 EST <![CDATA[Slave Clothing and Adornment in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Clothing_and_Adornment_in_Virginia Slave clothing and adornment varied across time and across Virginia. In West Africa, where many American slaves originated, clothing was minimal, and even that was generally stripped from newly enslaved people just prior to the Middle Passage. In Virginia, slaves were outfitted with European clothing they often found to be constricting and uncomfortable. The fabrics used for construction tended to be inferior, with their owners using whatever was most cost-effective. Homespun Virginia cloth and imported osnaburg fabric (made from flax and hemp) were common in the eighteenth century. By the nineteenth century, with the rise of cotton production, blends such as jean cloth became more common and allowed owners to provide slaves clothing that was untailored and ready-made. The most common practice was to distribute clothes in twice-a-year allotments, with liveried (uniformed) and domestic slaves receiving higher-quality clothing than field slaves, who wore the plainest and coarsest clothing. Children wore simple gowns. Boys transitioned to breeches, or short pants, and then to long pants and girls wore adult dresses when they began to menstruate. Plain leather shoes and sometimes hats were also included in allotments, while women, reflecting West African traditions, sometimes wore cloth head wraps. To aid in running away, some slaves stole better clothes while others saved money and purchased or, in some instances, earned better attire.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:22:03 EST]]>
/Jennings_Paul_1799-1874 Wed, 03 Feb 2016 08:16:04 EST <![CDATA[Jennings, Paul (1799–1874)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jennings_Paul_1799-1874 Paul Jennings is the author of A Colored Man's Reminiscences of James Madison (1865), a memoir about his service as an enslaved footman in the White House. Born at the Madison plantation, Montpelier, Jennings lived in the president's house during James Madison's two terms as president and, in his narrative, recounts his role in rescuing Gilbert Stuart's 1796 portrait of George Washington before the arrival of British soldiers during the War of 1812. His version of these events gives Dolley Madison a less prominent role than most subsequent histories. Jennings served James Madison until the former president's death in 1836, after which Jennings lived at Dolley Madison's in Washington, D.C. For a time he worked in the White House again, for President James K. Polk. Madison sold Jennings in 1846, and six months later, Senator Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, purchased and freed Jennings, who then went to work for Webster. In 1848, Jennings was involved in the Pearl incident, a plot to smuggle seventy-seven slaves to freedom aboard the schooner Pearl. The plot was betrayed and the slaves captured, but the authorities never learned of Jennings's involvement. In January 1863, while working for the federal Department of the Interior, Jennings published his memoir in a magazine with the help of John Brooks Russell, a clerk in his office. The Reminiscences were privately published in book form in 1865. Jennings married three times and fathered five children. He died at his home in Washington, D.C., in 1874.
Wed, 03 Feb 2016 08:16:04 EST]]>
/Central_College_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_October_7_1817 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:12:44 EST <![CDATA[Central College Board of Visitors Minutes (October 7, 1817)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Central_College_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_October_7_1817 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:12:44 EST]]> /Methodists_in_Early_Virginia Thu, 17 Dec 2015 16:13:39 EST <![CDATA[Methodists in Early Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Methodists_in_Early_Virginia Methodists had only a small presence in Virginia at the beginning of the American Revolution (1775–1783), but by the time of the American Civil War (1861–1865) they had become, along with the Baptists, one of the state's dominant denominations. Organized at the University of Oxford in the 1730s by John Wesley and a group of fellow students, Methodism came to Virginia in the mid-1700s. Robert Williams arrived in the colony in 1772 and soon formed Virginia's first Methodist circuit. The Brunswick Circuit, as it was called, hosted major revivals in 1775–1776, a time in which the colony's Methodist population almost doubled. Following John Wesley's lead, many Methodists were antislavery and, during the Revolution, loyal to the British government. In 1784, the group formed its own national church, the American Methodist Episcopal Church, and a second major revival occurred in Virginia from 1785 until 1788. Thousands of converts were won over by the promise of forgiveness of sins and a style of worship that emphasized trances, dreams, visions, and bodily movement. By the time of the Second Great Awakening, the Methodists, although still hosting revivals in Virginia, had become more politically and socially mainstream. Their presence transformed Virginia religion, however, by helping to usher in an era free from state-sponsored religion.
Thu, 17 Dec 2015 16:13:39 EST]]>
/Gunston_Hall Thu, 17 Dec 2015 16:11:05 EST <![CDATA[Gunston Hall]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gunston_Hall Gunston Hall is the stately Georgian home of Virginia lawmaker George Mason in Fairfax County on the Potomac River. Mason inherited the land on which Gunston Hall is located from his father in 1735; construction on the house began in 1754. Completed in 1759, Gunston Hall was one of the finest homes in colonial America. While the house's exterior is typical of most Chesapeake plantation homes, the elegant interior reflects the full range of English rococo style, showing French, neoclassical, and chinoiserie influences, and stood out at a time when the prevailing building style was most often described as "neat and plain." The house's innovative architectural flourishes and intricate woodwork can be attributed to its English architect, William Buckland, and master carver, William Bernard Sears. Mason farmed part of the Gunston Hall grounds, growing tobacco and wheat, among other crops, and raising livestock. A slave community called Log Town stood at some distance from the house. Today, Gunston Hall is owned by the Commonwealth of Virginia and operated by the National Society of the Colonial Dames of America.
Thu, 17 Dec 2015 16:11:05 EST]]>
/Underground_Railroad_in_Virginia Thu, 10 Dec 2015 13:57:57 EST <![CDATA[Underground Railroad in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Underground_Railroad_in_Virginia The Underground Railroad in Virginia was a series of secret networks, often working independently of one another and manned by both free blacks and whites, designed to help enslaved African Americans escape to the North and to Canada. Such networks were less necessary in the earliest days of slavery in Virginia because runaways tended to stay relatively close to home. Only after the American Revolution (1775–1783), when northern states outlawed slavery and a new domestic trade began to send thousands of enslaved men, women, and children into the Deep South, did fugitive slaves cross state lines in great numbers. Federal fugitive slave laws in 1793 and 1850 made such escapes more difficult but they also led to the development of the Underground Railroad, a term that had gained popular currency by the 1840s. Quakers in Philadelphia, New York, and North Carolina, burning with antislavery zeal, aided kidnapped African Americans and fugitive slaves and, in concert with free blacks and even some slaves, began to develop networks by which to smuggle them to freedom. With the largest slave population, Virginia also had among the greatest number of fugitives. They left mostly by sea, with some remaining in the North and others joining black communities in Canada. While it remains up for debate exactly how many escaped, slaveholders regularly complained of financial losses. Only the abolition of slavery ended the Underground Railroad's work.
Thu, 10 Dec 2015 13:57:57 EST]]>
/Olive_Branch_Petition_1775 Fri, 20 Nov 2015 08:03:56 EST <![CDATA[Olive Branch Petition (1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Olive_Branch_Petition_1775 Fri, 20 Nov 2015 08:03:56 EST]]> /Jefferson_Thomas_and_Religion Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:41:46 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and Religion]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Religion Thomas Jefferson was deeply but unconventionally religious. An empiricist, he believed that a rational and benevolent God was evident in the beauty and order of the universe. He professed "Christianism," a belief in the morals taught by Jesus of Nazareth, but he rejected Jesus's divinity, resurrection, the atonement, and biblical miracles. As such, Jefferson's beliefs resisted conventional labels, and in 1819 he suggested to a correspondent that "I am of a sect by myself, as far as I know." Jefferson meticulously cut up four copies of the Gospels (in English, French, Greek, and Latin), retaining only selected passages, without miracles, to create The Jefferson Bible, his own book for spiritual guidance and solace. Jefferson's career was also marked by religious controversy. He was denounced as an "arch-infidel" in the presidential election of 1800, and his efforts to prevent the appointment of a minister to teach religion at the University of Virginia, one of the first state-owned colleges in the United States, met strong resistance. Jefferson embraced god-given human rights and opposed their abridgment by government. He is known as one of the founders of American religious freedom, and his phrase "a wall of separation between Church & State" has been viewed as emblematic by historians and by the modern United States Supreme Court.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:41:46 EST]]>
/_An_ACT_to_amend_an_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_1795 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:29:48 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to amend an act, intituled, 'An act to reduce into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes, and for other purposes'" (1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_amend_an_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_1795 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:29:48 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Morris_April_12_1786 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:38:19 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Robert Morris (April 12, 1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Morris_April_12_1786 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:38:19 EST]]> /Letter_from_Anthony_Whitting_to_George_Washington_January_16_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:37:14 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Anthony Whitting to George Washington (January 16, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Anthony_Whitting_to_George_Washington_January_16_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:37:14 EST]]> /Enclosure_Poem_by_Phillis_Wheatley_October_26_1775 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:35:54 EST <![CDATA[Enclosure: Poem by Phillis Wheatley (October 26, 1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Enclosure_Poem_by_Phillis_Wheatley_October_26_1775 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:35:54 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_December_23_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:34:10 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (December 23, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_December_23_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:34:10 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_January_20_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:28:10 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Anthony Whitting (January 20, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_January_20_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:28:10 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_May_19_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:26:18 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Anthony Whitting (May 19, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_May_19_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:26:18 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_March_30_1794 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:24:58 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (March 30, 1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_March_30_1794 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:24:58 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_January_26_1794 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:23:20 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (January 26, 1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_January_26_1794 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:23:20 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_December_23_1792 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:21:17 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Anthony Whitting (December 23, 1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_December_23_1792 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:21:17 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_December_18_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:19:19 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (December 18, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_December_18_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:19:19 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Laurens_July_10_1782 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:15:43 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Laurens (July 10, 1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Laurens_July_10_1782 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:15:43 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Hancock_December_31_1775 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:11:53 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Hancock (December 31, 1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Hancock_December_31_1775 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:11:53 EST]]> /Enclosure_Washington_s_Plans_for_His_River_Union_and_Muddy_Hole_Farms_December_10_1799 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:12:10 EST <![CDATA[Enclosure: Washington's Plans for His River, Union, and Muddy Hole Farms (December 10, 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Enclosure_Washington_s_Plans_for_His_River_Union_and_Muddy_Hole_Farms_December_10_1799 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:12:10 EST]]> /George_Washington_s_Last_Will_and_Testament_July_9_1799 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:10:37 EST <![CDATA[George Washington's Last Will and Testament (July 9, 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_Washington_s_Last_Will_and_Testament_July_9_1799 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:10:37 EST]]> /Circular_to_William_Stuart_Hiland_Crow_and_Henry_McCoy_by_George_Washington_July_14_1793 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:50:24 EST <![CDATA[Circular to William Stuart, Hiland Crow, and Henry McCoy by George Washington (July 14, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Circular_to_William_Stuart_Hiland_Crow_and_Henry_McCoy_by_George_Washington_July_14_1793 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:50:24 EST]]> /Journals_of_the_Continental_Congress_March_29_1779 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:41:40 EST <![CDATA[Journals of the Continental Congress (March 29, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Journals_of_the_Continental_Congress_March_29_1779 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:41:40 EST]]> /Letter_from_James_Hill_to_George_Washington_August_30_1772 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:39:38 EST <![CDATA[Letter from James Hill to George Washington (August 30, 1772)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_James_Hill_to_George_Washington_August_30_1772 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:39:38 EST]]> /Letter_from_James_Hill_to_George_Washington_December_13_1772 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:36:46 EST <![CDATA[Letter from James Hill to George Washington (December 13, 1772)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_James_Hill_to_George_Washington_December_13_1772 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:36:46 EST]]> /Letter_from_Alexander_Hamilton_to_John_Jay_March_14_1779 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:32:26 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Alexander Hamilton to John Jay (March 14, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Alexander_Hamilton_to_John_Jay_March_14_1779 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:32:26 EST]]> /An_act_to_authorize_the_manumission_of_slaves_1782 Thu, 13 Aug 2015 14:25:19 EST <![CDATA[An act to authorize the manumission of slaves (1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_to_authorize_the_manumission_of_slaves_1782 Thu, 13 Aug 2015 14:25:19 EST]]> /_A_Caution_to_All_Travellers_to_Philadelphia_Virginia_Journal_and_Alexandria_Advertiser_March_30_1786 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:57:55 EST <![CDATA["A Caution to All Travellers to Philadelphia," Virginia Journal and Alexandria Advertiser (March 30, 1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Caution_to_All_Travellers_to_Philadelphia_Virginia_Journal_and_Alexandria_Advertiser_March_30_1786 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:57:55 EST]]> /George_Washington_to_Charles_Carter_1787 Wed, 08 Jul 2015 08:56:51 EST <![CDATA[George Washington to Charles Carter (1787)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_Washington_to_Charles_Carter_1787 Wed, 08 Jul 2015 08:56:51 EST]]> /Chapter_28_quot_Chancellor_Wythe_apos_s_Death_quot_an_excerpt_from_The_Two_Parsons_by_George_Wythe_Munford_1884 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 12:58:17 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 28: "Chancellor Wythe's Death"; an excerpt from The Two Parsons by George Wythe Munford (1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_28_quot_Chancellor_Wythe_apos_s_Death_quot_an_excerpt_from_The_Two_Parsons_by_George_Wythe_Munford_1884 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 12:58:17 EST]]> /Burwell_Nathaniel_1750-1814 Thu, 18 Dec 2014 16:37:18 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Nathaniel (1750–1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Nathaniel_1750-1814 Nathaniel Burwell was appointed to the James City County Court, served in the county militia, represented James City County in the House of Delegates (1778–1779), and was elected to the Convention of 1788 to consider the proposed constitution of the United States. The son of Carter Burwell, Nathaniel Burwell spent part of his adulthood at Carter's Grove plantation in James City County. He was a major landholder in the region, owning small industrial operations such as an iron forge and two gristmills. Later he built Carter Hall in what became Clarke County.
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 16:37:18 EST]]>
/Byrd_William_1728-1777 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:38:33 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, William (1728–1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_William_1728-1777 William Byrd, sometimes referred to as William Byrd III of Westover to distinguish him from relatives of the same name, was a planter, soldier, a member of the House of Burgesses (1754–1756), and a member of the governor's Council (1756–1775). Born at the family estate of Westover, in Charles City County, Byrd studied law in England, where he gambled and began to accumulate debts that would last a lifetime. He wed Elizabeth Carter upon his return, but the marriage was unhappy and she died of a probable suicide in 1760. By then Byrd had been forced to sell off large parts of his estate, Belvidere, to settle debts. He also served in the military during this time, traveling widely and commanding first the 2nd Virginia Regiment and then succeeding George Washington at the head of the 1st. He married a second time, in 1761, and when the American Revolution (1775–1783) began, offered his services to the king. Dunmore's Proclamation (1775), which offered freedom to slaves who fought for the British, changed his loyalties. Commands were not offered, however, and in January 1777, Byrd killed himself.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:38:33 EST]]>
/Byrd_Mary_Willing_1740-1814 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:35:12 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, Mary Willing (1740–1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Mary_Willing_1740-1814 Mary Willing Byrd was the wife of William Byrd III and, after his death, the inheritor and protector of the Byrd family estate of Westover, in Charles City County. Born in Philadelphia and the goddaughter of Benjamin Franklin, she married Byrd in 1761; he was then serving in the French and Indian War (1754–1763). During the American Revolution (1775–1783), William Byrd, in debt and accused of loyalty to the British, committed suicide. Mary Willing Byrd spent much of the war settling his massive debts and attempting to stay on the right side of both British and American forces. Although charged by the Americans in 1781 with trading with the enemy, she was never tried. Byrd died in March 1814, still in control of Westover.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:35:12 EST]]>
/Randolph_Martha_Jefferson_1772-1836 Fri, 03 Oct 2014 16:42:43 EST <![CDATA[Randolph, Martha Jefferson (1772–1836)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Randolph_Martha_Jefferson_1772-1836 Martha Jefferson Randolph was the daughter of Thomas Jefferson and the wife of Thomas Mann Randolph, who served as governor of Virginia from 1819 to 1822. She grew up at Monticello and spent time in Williamsburg, Richmond, and Philadelphia before accompanying her widowed father to Paris, France, where she attended the Abbaye Royale de Panthemont, a prestigious convent school. After she returned to Virginia, she married and bore twelve children, eleven of whom survived to adulthood. Although she was the daughter of a president, the wife of a governor, and arguably the most highly educated woman in Virginia, Randolph's life was in many ways representative. Widely admired for her intelligence, sociability, and conversational skills, she was an exemplar of genteel white womanhood who was said to possess a "perfect temper" and who immersed herself in the trials and joys of marriage, motherhood, and plantation life. Randolph and her children lived mainly at Monticello, although her husband owned the nearby plantation Edgehill. Occasionally during her father's presidency, and throughout his retirement, she acted as hostess. Her presence reinforced Jefferson's image as a devoted family man with a stable domestic life, though fulfilling this role in her father's life may have exacerbated her already strained marriage. Both father and husband struggled and ultimately failed to remain solvent. After their deaths in 1826 and 1828, respectively, Randolph lived with her married children. She died at Edgehill on October 10, 1836.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 16:42:43 EST]]>
/Monticello Fri, 03 Oct 2014 15:06:46 EST <![CDATA[Monticello]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Monticello On land inherited from his father, Peter Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson established himself as a member of the Virginia planter elite at Monticello, his plantation in Albemarle County. Construction on the house began in 1769 and continued at intervals until 1809. It is a testament to Jefferson's interest in classical architecture and the importance of education in the Early Republic, and a statement about his position in society. The plantation began as a tobacco farm and shifted to wheat and grain cultivation in the 1790s, a decade that saw many changes to the landscape and the built environment of the approximately 105 enslaved people living there. Monticello ceased activity as a working plantation after Jefferson's death in 1826, passed through multiple owners, and was purchased by what is now the Thomas Jefferson Foundation in 1923. Open to the public today, Monticello is both a typical example of a piedmont Virginia plantation in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries and an idiosyncratic architectural essay by a man deeply influenced by the architecture of ancient Rome, Renaissance Italy, and contemporary France. The home has become an American icon, appearing on the reverse of the Jefferson nickel from 1938 to 2003 and from 2006 to the present, and hosting an annual Independence Day celebration and naturalization ceremony since 1963.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 15:06:46 EST]]>
/George_III_1738-1820 Wed, 17 Sep 2014 12:16:06 EST <![CDATA[George III (1738–1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_III_1738-1820 George III was king of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760 to 1811. The third monarch from the House of Hanover, George was just twenty-two years old when he succeeded his grandfather, George II, as king in 1760. His reign was shaped by the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), the Irish Rebellion (1798), and the French Revolution (1783–1815), but he is best known as the "tyrant," called "unfit to be the ruler of a free people" in the Declaration of Independence (1776), who lost the American Revolution (1775–1783). In reality, George III supported his cabinet's authority and, with a few exceptions, influenced but did not dictate policy; once the fighting began, he counseled his ministers to be consistent in their opposition to the American rebellion until the defeat at Yorktown. American patriots, hostile British contemporaries, and nineteenth-century historians all painted George III as personally responsible for the conflict and its loss, but historical scholarship since the 1930s has overturned this anachronistic and overly personalized reading of the king. Despite the American loss, George III was popular among his subjects in the decades following the war, and the fiftieth year of his reign was celebrated countrywide in 1809–1810. In 1810, an attack of an illness, probably porphyria, which had plagued him for nearly two decades, robbed him of his sight, hearing, and sanity. On February 5, 1811, his son George, Prince of Wales, was appointed regent and ruled in his place until January 29, 1820, when George III died at Windsor Castle.
Wed, 17 Sep 2014 12:16:06 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Giovanni_Fabbroni_June_8_1778 Thu, 21 Aug 2014 17:51:26 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Giovanni Fabbroni (June 8, 1778)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Giovanni_Fabbroni_June_8_1778 Thu, 21 Aug 2014 17:51:26 EST]]> /Davis_Augustine_c_1752_or_1753-1825 Thu, 21 Aug 2014 06:33:26 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Augustine (c. 1752 or 1753–1825)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Augustine_c_1752_or_1753-1825 Augustine Davis was a prominent printer in Virginia during the Revolutionary War (1775–1783) and the Early Republic period. The Yorktown native entered the publishing trade at one of two versions of the Virginia Gazette in Williamsburg, becoming co-owner in 1779. He eventually followed the state government's relocation to Richmond and in 1786 established the Virginia Independent Chronicle, later named the Virginia Gazette, and General Advertiser. A supporter of a strong federal government, he reprinted essays from The Federalist and supported ratification of what became the U.S. Constitution. Davis became prosperous in the 1790s, investing well and receiving government printing contracts. Despite Virginia's growing population his printing volume remained unchanged, leading to complaints about the scarcity of documents in the western region of the state. The General Assembly removed him as public printer in 1798. Davis supported the Federalist Party in 1800 and advocated the prosecution of James Thomson Callendar and other Jeffersonian editors under the Alien and Sedition Acts (1798). Eleven months after Thomas Jefferson became president, Davis lost his position as Richmond's postmaster. Although declining in political influence, he continued to publish his newspaper under various titles until 1821 before retiring comfortably. He died in 1825.
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 06:33:26 EST]]>
/_To_Atlas_by_St_George_Tucker_June_5_1793 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 16:22:25 EST <![CDATA["To Atlas" by St. George Tucker (June 5, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_To_Atlas_by_St_George_Tucker_June_5_1793 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 16:22:25 EST]]> /_Resignation_by_St_George_Tucker_March_21_1807 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 16:21:10 EST <![CDATA["Resignation" by St. George Tucker (March 21, 1807)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Resignation_by_St_George_Tucker_March_21_1807 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 16:21:10 EST]]> /_Parody_by_St_George_Tucker_March_20_1781 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 16:19:32 EST <![CDATA["Parody" by St. George Tucker (March 20, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Parody_by_St_George_Tucker_March_20_1781 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 16:19:32 EST]]> /_To_Sleep_by_St_George_Tucker_January_24_1788 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 16:18:06 EST <![CDATA["To Sleep" by St. George Tucker (January 24, 1788)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_To_Sleep_by_St_George_Tucker_January_24_1788 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 16:18:06 EST]]> /George_Wythe_s_Will_and_Three_Codicils_June_11_1806 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:36:56 EST <![CDATA[George Wythe's Will and Three Codicils (June 11, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_Wythe_s_Will_and_Three_Codicils_June_11_1806 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:36:56 EST]]> /_quot_Memoir_of_the_Author_quot_from_Decisions_of_Cases_in_Virginia_by_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_by_Benjamin_Blake_Minor_1852 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:35:01 EST <![CDATA["Memoir of the Author," from Decisions of Cases in Virginia by the High Court of Chancery by Benjamin Blake Minor (1852)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Memoir_of_the_Author_quot_from_Decisions_of_Cases_in_Virginia_by_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_by_Benjamin_Blake_Minor_1852 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:35:01 EST]]> /Trial_of_George_Wythe_Sweeney_June_2_and_23_1806 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:33:23 EST <![CDATA[Trial of George Wythe Sweeney (June 2 and 23, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Trial_of_George_Wythe_Sweeney_June_2_and_23_1806 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:33:23 EST]]> /_quot_Oration_Pronounced_at_the_Funeral_of_George_Wythe_quot_1806 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:28:30 EST <![CDATA["Oration Pronounced at the Funeral of George Wythe" (1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Oration_Pronounced_at_the_Funeral_of_George_Wythe_quot_1806 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:28:30 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_December_10_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:47:34 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (December 10, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_December_10_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:47:34 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_December_4_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:12:11 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William DuVal (December 4, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_December_4_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:12:11 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_November_21_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:05:24 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (November 21, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_November_21_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:05:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_July_17_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:58:16 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William DuVal (July 17, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_July_17_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:58:16 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_July_12_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:49:50 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (July 12, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_July_12_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:49:50 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_29_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:40:51 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (June 29, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_29_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:40:51 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_22_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:26:58 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William DuVal (June 22, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_22_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:26:58 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_14_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:19:00 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William DuVal (June 14, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_14_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:19:00 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_19_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:17:41 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William DuVal (June 19, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_DuVal_June_19_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:17:41 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_19_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:16:04 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (June 19, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_19_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 10:16:04 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_8_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:36:59 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (June 8, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_8_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:36:59 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_4_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:23:22 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William DuVal to Thomas Jefferson (June 4, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_DuVal_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_4_1806 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:23:22 EST]]> /Lord_Dunmore_s_Proclamation_1775 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:48:57 EST <![CDATA[Lord Dunmore's Proclamation (1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lord_Dunmore_s_Proclamation_1775 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:48:57 EST]]> /_Journal_of_the_Siege_of_Yorktown_by_St_George_Tucker_1781 Tue, 29 Jul 2014 10:40:26 EST <![CDATA["Journal of the Siege of Yorktown" by St. George Tucker (1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Journal_of_the_Siege_of_Yorktown_by_St_George_Tucker_1781 Tue, 29 Jul 2014 10:40:26 EST]]> /Chapter_10_of_Travels_of_Four_Years_and_a_Half_in_the_United_States_of_America_by_John_Davis_1803 Mon, 28 Jul 2014 10:31:19 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 10 of Travels of Four Years and a Half in the United States of America by John Davis (1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_10_of_Travels_of_Four_Years_and_a_Half_in_the_United_States_of_America_by_John_Davis_1803 Mon, 28 Jul 2014 10:31:19 EST]]> /Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_August_13_1797 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:09:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from St. George Tucker to Jeremy Belknap (August 13, 1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_August_13_1797 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:09:35 EST]]> /Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_January_24_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:08:01 EST <![CDATA[Letter from St. George Tucker to Jeremy Belknap (January 24, 1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_January_24_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:08:01 EST]]> /Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_June_29_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:06:48 EST <![CDATA[Letter from St. George Tucker to Jeremy Belknap (June 29, 1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_June_29_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:06:48 EST]]> /Letter_from_James_Winthrop_to_Jeremy_Belknap_March_4_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:05:10 EST <![CDATA[Letter from James Winthrop to Jeremy Belknap (March 4, 1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_James_Winthrop_to_Jeremy_Belknap_March_4_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:05:10 EST]]> /Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_November_27_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:02:58 EST <![CDATA[Letter from St. George Tucker to Jeremy Belknap (November 27, 1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_November_27_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:02:58 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_St_George_Tucker_August_28_1797 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:01:26 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to St. George Tucker (August 28, 1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_St_George_Tucker_August_28_1797 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:01:26 EST]]> /Coles_Edward_1786-1868 Thu, 17 Jul 2014 09:58:08 EST <![CDATA[Coles, Edward (1786–1868)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Coles_Edward_1786-1868 Edward Coles was the second governor of Illinois (1822–1826) and a lifelong opponent of slavery. Born in Albemarle County, he inherited a dozen slaves from his father and, against his family's wishes, decided to free them. But Coles was forced to delay his plans because of financial, moral, and practical difficulties. He served as secretary to U.S. president James Madison (1810–1815), traveling to the Northeast on behalf of the president in 1811 and acting as a special envoy to Russia in 1816. In 1814, Coles exchanged letters with Thomas Jefferson, encouraging the former president to support the gradual emancipation of slaves, but Jefferson refused. In 1817, Coles sold his Rockfish plantation to his brother and moved seventeen of his nineteen slaves west to Illinois, freeing them along the way. As governor of Illinois, he helped defeat a referendum aimed at calling a pro-slavery constitutional convention. He later moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he corresponded with Jefferson's grandson, Thomas Jefferson Randolph, convincing him to oppose slavery in the General Assembly's debate of the issue in 1831. Coles also encouraged Madison to free his slaves in his will, but the former president did not. He married Sally Logan Roberts in 1833 and the couple had three children. Coles died in Philadelphia in 1868.
Thu, 17 Jul 2014 09:58:08 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Martha_Patsy_Jefferson_November_28_1783 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 13:36:36 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Martha "Patsy" Jefferson (November 28, 1783)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Martha_Patsy_Jefferson_November_28_1783 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 13:36:36 EST]]> /Letter_from_Martha_Jefferson_Randolph_to_Thomas_Jefferson_February_8_1799 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 13:18:37 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Martha Jefferson Randolph to Thomas Jefferson (February 8, 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Martha_Jefferson_Randolph_to_Thomas_Jefferson_February_8_1799 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 13:18:37 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Martha_Jefferson_Randolph_April_4_1790 Tue, 15 Jul 2014 12:54:07 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Martha Jefferson Randolph (April 4, 1790)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Martha_Jefferson_Randolph_April_4_1790 Tue, 15 Jul 2014 12:54:07 EST]]> /Letter_from_Jacob_Rubsamen_to_Thomas_Jefferson_December_1_1780 Tue, 15 Jul 2014 12:38:42 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Jacob Rubsamen to Thomas Jefferson (December 1, 1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Jacob_Rubsamen_to_Thomas_Jefferson_December_1_1780 Tue, 15 Jul 2014 12:38:42 EST]]> /Virginia_Statute_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1786 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:23:23 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Statute_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1786 The Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom was drafted by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the General Assembly on January 16, 1786, before being signed into law three days later. The statute affirms the rights of Virginians to choose their faiths without coercion; separates church and state; and, while acknowledging the right of future assemblies to change the law, concludes that doing so would "be an infringement of a natural right." Jefferson's original bill "for establishing religious freedom," drafted in 1777 and introduced in 1779, was tabled in the face of opposition among powerful members of the established Church of England. Then, in 1784, a resolution calling for a tax to support all Christian sects excited such opposition that James Madison saw an opportunity to reintroduce Jefferson's bill. It passed both houses of the General Assembly with minimal changes to its text. One of the most eloquent statements of religious freedom ever written, the statute influenced both the drafting of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the United States Supreme Court's understanding of religious freedom. Jefferson considered it one of his crowning achievements and a necessary bulwark against tyranny.
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:23:23 EST]]>
/Fugitive_Slave_Laws Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:09:49 EST <![CDATA[Fugitive Slave Laws]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fugitive_Slave_Laws Fugitive slave laws provided slaveowners and their agents with the legal right to reclaim runaways from other jurisdictions. Those states or jurisdictions were required to deliver the fugitives. As early as 1643, the United Colonies of New England had required the return of runaways, and, after the American Revolution (1775–1783), the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 contained similar protections for slaveowners. The U.S. Constitution included a Fugitive Slave Clause, which was agreed to without dissent at the Constitutional Convention. Following a dispute between Pennsylvania and Virginia, Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, which clarified the processes by which slaveowners could claim their property and was designed to balance the competing interests of free and slave states. In 1823, the law was upheld by Massachusetts in a case regarding a Virginia runaway, and then upheld again by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 expanded the number of federal officials empowered to act in fugitive-slave cases, but by this time, public opinion, at least in antislavery hotbeds such as Boston, Massachusetts, had turned against such laws. Thus a captured Virginia slave named Shadrach Minkins was rescued in 1851 and spirited north to Canada, but in 1854, authorities foiled an attempted rescue of the Virginia runaway slave Anthony Burns. Compromise soon became impossible, and enforcement of the law effectively ended with the onset of the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:09:49 EST]]>
/The_Constitution_of_the_United_States_1787-1992 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:00:07 EST <![CDATA[The Constitution of the United States (1787–1992)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Constitution_of_the_United_States_1787-1992 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:00:07 EST]]> /_An_act_for_regulating_conveyances_1785 Sat, 17 May 2014 15:09:10 EST <![CDATA["An act for regulating conveyances" (1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_regulating_conveyances_1785 Sat, 17 May 2014 15:09:10 EST]]> /Lewis_and_Clark_Expedition_The Tue, 06 May 2014 16:01:35 EST <![CDATA[Lewis and Clark Expedition, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_and_Clark_Expedition_The The Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) was a federally funded venture to explore the North American West. The expedition's principal objective was to survey the Missouri and Columbia rivers, locating routes that would connect the continental interior to the Pacific Ocean. The Louisiana Purchase of 1803, in which the United States acquired some 828,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River, facilitated the mission, allowing the explorers unprecedented access to land that had previously been owned by Spain and then France. President Thomas Jefferson invested his time, energy, and political capital into this project and took direct charge of its initial planning and organization. The expedition is named for its commanders, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Under their leadership the group of thirty-three, known as the Corps of Discovery, succeeded in reaching the Pacific and returning safely despite considerable challenges, ranging from navigating unfamiliar terrain to maintaining good relations with the numerous Indian tribes that lived in the Louisiana Territory. Along the way, the expedition gathered invaluable scientific, ethnographic, and cartographic information, creating a detailed written record of the journey in a series of journals.
Tue, 06 May 2014 16:01:35 EST]]>
/A_Summary_View_of_the_Rights_of_British_America_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1774 Tue, 22 Apr 2014 11:03:14 EST <![CDATA[A Summary View of the Rights of British America by Thomas Jefferson (1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Summary_View_of_the_Rights_of_British_America_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1774 Tue, 22 Apr 2014 11:03:14 EST]]> /Mason_George_1725-1792 Thu, 06 Mar 2014 08:32:00 EST <![CDATA[Mason, George (1725–1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mason_George_1725-1792 George Mason was a wealthy planter and an influential lawmaker who served as a member of the Fairfax County Court (1747–1752; 1764–1789), the Truro Parish vestry (1749–1785), the House of Burgesses (1758–1761), and the House of Delegates (1776–1780). In 1769, he helped organize a nonimportation movement to protest British imperial policies, and he later wrote the Fairfax Resolves (1774), challenging Parliament's authority over the American colonies. In 1775, Mason was elected to the Fairfax County committees of public safety and correspondence. He represented Fairfax County in Virginia's third revolutionary convention (1775) and in the fifth convention (1776), where he drafted Virginia's first state constitution and its Declaration of Rights, which is widely considered his greatest accomplishment. As a member of the House of Delegates, he advocated sound money policies and the separation of church and state. Mason represented Virginia at the Mount Vernon Conference (1785) on Potomac River navigation and at the federal Constitutional Convention (1787). Although Mason initially supported constitutional reform, he ultimately refused to sign the Constitution, and he led the Anti-Federalist bloc in the Virginia convention (1788) called to consider ratification of the Constitution. After Virginia approved it, Mason retired to his elegant home, Gunston Hall, on the Northern Neck, where he died in 1792.
Thu, 06 Mar 2014 08:32:00 EST]]>
/Munford_Robert_d_1783 Sat, 01 Mar 2014 05:01:32 EST <![CDATA[Munford, Robert (d. 1783)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Munford_Robert_d_1783 Robert Munford is best known today as a playwright, but he was far better known in his lifetime for his civic and military roles. He served in the military before, during, and after the American Revolution (1775–1783), and was active in colony, state, and local government in Virginia. Among other duties, Munford chaired committees whose members included Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson. His literary output, consisting of two plays, a few poems, and a translation, were little known in his day. The Candidates and The Patriots both depict life in eighteenth-century Virginia and are believed to be the first comedies written in America, taking as their subject the politics of the day, from life in the House of Burgesses to the Revolutionary War.
Sat, 01 Mar 2014 05:01:32 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Edmund_Pendleton_August_13_1776 Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:55:56 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Edmund Pendleton (August 13, 1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Edmund_Pendleton_August_13_1776 Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:55:56 EST]]> /Query_XIX_an_excerpt_from_Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1784 Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:51:09 EST <![CDATA[Query XIX; an excerpt from Notes on the State of Virginia by Thomas Jefferson (1784)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Query_XIX_an_excerpt_from_Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1784 Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:51:09 EST]]> /Thomas_Jefferson_s_Argument_in_Howell_v_Netherland_1770 Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:48:24 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Jefferson's Argument in Howell v. Netherland (1770)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Jefferson_s_Argument_in_Howell_v_Netherland_1770 Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:48:24 EST]]> /Tucker_George_1775-1861 Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, George (1775–1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_George_1775-1861 George Tucker was a lawyer, philosopher, economist, historian, novelist, politician, and teacher. Born in Bermuda and cousin to the famed jurist St. George Tucker, Tucker served in the House of Delegates (1815–1816) representing Pittsylvania County and won election to three terms in the United States House of Representatives (1819–1825) before, at the invitation of Thomas Jefferson, joining the faculty of the newly opened University of Virginia in Charlottesville. Tucker owned slaves but opposed slavery as a moral evil. During debate over the Missouri Compromise (1820), he argued that emancipation was impractical and that slavery would eventually die out. By the end of his life, his opposition to abolitionists had turned him into an apologist for the "peculiar institution." He was the author of a novel of the U.S. South that dramatized the evils of slavery, The Valley of Shenandoah (1824); two science fiction novels, including A Voyage to the Moon (1827); a biography of Jefferson (1837); a four-volume history of the United States (1856–1857); and numerous essays on aesthetics, metaphysics, causality, morality, economics, slavery, and the nature of progress. Tucker was married three times, including to relatives of William Byrd II and George Washington. He died in 1861 from injuries he sustained after being hit by a falling cotton bale.
Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST]]>
/Scott_Winfield_1786-1866 Thu, 02 Jan 2014 13:28:00 EST <![CDATA[Scott, Winfield (1786–1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Scott_Winfield_1786-1866 Winfield Scott was a hero of the Mexican War (1846–1848), the last Whig Party candidate for U.S. president, and commanding general of the United States Army at the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865). Known as "Old Fuss and Feathers" for his equal love of discipline and pomp, Scott by 1861 had served in the military for more than fifty years and under fourteen U.S. presidents. He had been severely wounded in battle, avoided several wars with his diplomatic skills, and commanded the army that conquered Mexico City in 1847, all of which made him the most admired and famous soldier in America. Less well known is the fact that Scott was convicted by court-martial for conduct unbecoming an officer, was investigated by a court of inquiry, once was accused of treason, and several times offered his resignation from the army. When the Civil War began, the Dinwiddie County native remained loyal to the Union, and while age had so reduced his once-towering frame that he could no longer even mount a horse, his ego and intellect were still intact. Scott's Anaconda Plan for winning the war proved to be prescient but politically out of step, and he eventually lost control of the army to George B. McClellan. He soon retired, published a two-volume memoir in 1864, and died in 1866.
Thu, 02 Jan 2014 13:28:00 EST]]>
/Editorial_in_the_Waverly_Watchman_March_18_1873 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:40:25 EST <![CDATA[Editorial in the Waverly Watchman (March 18, 1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Editorial_in_the_Waverly_Watchman_March_18_1873 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:40:25 EST]]> /Poplar_Forest Tue, 05 Nov 2013 08:26:33 EST <![CDATA[Poplar Forest]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Poplar_Forest Poplar Forest, located in Bedford County, was Thomas Jefferson's villa retreat. Jefferson's wife, Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson, inherited the Poplar Forest land from her father in 1773, and work on the distinctive octagonal house began in 1806. Although the house was framed by 1809, the year he retired from public service, Jefferson finished Poplar Forest slowly, directing work on the property until his death in 1826. Located about seventy miles from Monticello, Jefferson's second home became more than just a getaway; it served as an inspiration as he worked on its idealistic, innovative, and modern design, which integrated architecture and landscape. Poplar Forest's design shows the influence of ancient Roman, Renaissance, and eighteenth-century French and English architecture. It was the first octagonal house in America and one of the few houses built to Jefferson's designs that survive. It was also an intimate place where Jefferson spent time with his family. After Jefferson's death, ownership of the house and property passed to his grandson, Francis Eppes, who had resided there with his family since 1823, the year of Jefferson's last visit. In 1828 Eppes sold it and the surrounding 1,074 acres to a neighboring farmer. Poplar Forest was privately owned until 1984, when it was purchased by a group of local citizens that had formed the nonprofit Corporation for Jefferson's Poplar Forest. The house opened to the public in 1986. The archaeological excavation of the grounds and the restoration of the house and grounds began in 1990.
Tue, 05 Nov 2013 08:26:33 EST]]>
/Lewis_Rand_1908 Fri, 18 Oct 2013 13:25:39 EST <![CDATA[Lewis Rand (1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_Rand_1908 Lewis Rand (1908), the fifth novel by the Virginia-born writer Mary Johnston, has been singled out by some critics as her best work. A historical novel set in Virginia at the beginning of the nineteenth century, it tells the story of Lewis Rand, the poor son of an Albemarle County tobacco-roller who, under the mentorship of Thomas Jefferson, escapes poverty, joins the bar, and is elected to the General Assembly before his ambition, and an impulsive murder, finally strikes him down. The backdrop for Johnston's tale is the fierce, sometimes violent rivalry between the populist Democratic-Republican Party and the more aristocratic Federalists, a rivalry echoed by the competition between Rand and the highborn Churchill and Cary families. Lewis Rand was enthusiastically received by critics, who admired Johnston's handling of her historical material. In the Smart Set, H. L. Mencken lauded its achievement, while the New York Times declared it "one of the strongest works of fiction that has seen the light of day in America." Critics reserved special praise for the character of Jacqueline Churchill, Randolph's wife, with one reviewer placing her goodness in the context of the more complex understandings of womanhood raised by a recent, nationally publicized murder trial. Subsequent critics have situated Lewis Rand among the author's best works, but by and large Johnston is ignored by twenty-first-century readers.
Fri, 18 Oct 2013 13:25:39 EST]]>
/Carter_Landon_1710-1778 Thu, 15 Aug 2013 11:45:44 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Landon (1710–1778)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Landon_1710-1778 Landon Carter was a prominent member of the House of Burgesses (1752–1768) and perhaps the most prolific published Virginia writer of his generation—the author of four major political pamphlets, nearly fifty newspaper essays, and a revealing personal diary. Carter was the son of the powerful landowner Robert "King" Carter and for a time managed some of his father's land. Upon King Carter's death, Landon Carter inherited a substantial Richmond County estate and built his home, Sabine Hall, there. After three failed attempts, Carter was elected to the House of Burgesses in 1752 and was rewarded with powerful committee appointments. He publicly defended the House in published pamphlets and newspaper essays until he was defeated in his bid for reelection in 1768. The first to raise the alarm in Virginia over the Stamp Act, Carter was chair of the Richmond County Committee (1774–1776) and a wholehearted supporter of independence during the American Revolution (1775–1783). He died at Sabine Hall in 1778.
Thu, 15 Aug 2013 11:45:44 EST]]>
/_A_strange_dream_this_day_an_excerpt_from_the_diary_of_Landon_Carter_1776A Wed, 14 Aug 2013 14:00:11 EST <![CDATA["A strange dream this day"; an excerpt from the diary of Landon Carter (1776–1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_strange_dream_this_day_an_excerpt_from_the_diary_of_Landon_Carter_1776A Wed, 14 Aug 2013 14:00:11 EST]]> /Bolling_Robert_1738-1775 Wed, 14 Aug 2013 10:18:38 EST <![CDATA[Bolling, Robert (1738–1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bolling_Robert_1738-1775 Robert Bolling was a poet, a member of the House of Burgesses (1761–1765), the sheriff of Buckingham County, and a member of the county court (1761–1775). Trained as a lawyer, he nearly fought a duel with William Byrd (1728–1777), a judge on the General Court, when Bolling accused the judges of bias in a murder case. Bolling was also involved in a suit brought by his youngest brother over an inheritance. The younger Bolling was represented by George Wythe, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and Robert Bolling by Thomas Jefferson, the Declaration's author. Bolling is best known as a poet, however. He published more poetry than any other colonial American between 1759 and 1775, including the grotesque "Neanthe" (ca. 1763), which reflected elements of Italian traditions, colonial Virginia folklore, and English poetry. In addition, during the failed courtship of his distant cousin, Bolling kept a journal, "A Circumstantial Account," which provides a unique view of eighteenth-century Virginia gentry. Bolling died suddenly in 1775 while attending the Virginia Convention of July–August 1775.
Wed, 14 Aug 2013 10:18:38 EST]]>
/Lewis_Burwell_d_by_1779 Wed, 31 Jul 2013 15:27:35 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lewis (d. by 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_Burwell_d_by_1779 Wed, 31 Jul 2013 15:27:35 EST]]> /Billy_fl_1770s-1780s Fri, 12 Jul 2013 12:26:46 EST <![CDATA[Billy (fl. 1770s–1780s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Billy_fl_1770s-1780s Billy was an enslaved African American who became a principal in a court case during the American Revolution (1775–1783). In 1781, the Prince William County Court indicted him for waging war against the state from a British armed ship. Despite his testimony that he had been forced to board the vessel against his will and had never taken up arms on behalf of the British, the court convicted Billy of treason and sentenced him to be hanged. Two dissenting judges argued to Governor Thomas Jefferson that a slave, being a noncitizen, could not commit treason. Billy received a gubernatorial reprieve, and the General Assembly pardoned him on June 14, 1781. What happened to him after that is not known. Billy made his mark on history because his trial forced white leaders to confront the logic of slavery. Excluded from the protections conferred by citizenship, he was ultimately shielded from execution because Virginia's law of treason could not logically apply to him.
Fri, 12 Jul 2013 12:26:46 EST]]>
/Amherst_Sir_Jeffery_1717-1797 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:23:40 EST <![CDATA[Amherst, Sir Jeffery (1717–1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Amherst_Sir_Jeffery_1717-1797 Jeffery Amherst was a British army general and royal governor of Virginia from 1759 until 1768. Born in Kent County, England, Amherst served as commander of British forces in North America in 1758. He captured strategic forts at Ticonderoga, Niagara, Quebec, and Montreal. For these military successes, he was rewarded with the office of governor in Virginia. He never visited Virginia, leaving the colony's administration to the lieutenant governor, Francis Fauquier. After Fauquier's death, the British ministry decided that the royal governor should reside in Williamsburg and no longer entrust the government of the colony to a lieutenant governor. Amherst, refusing to live in Virginia, was dismissed from office. Amherst died in Kent County in 1797.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:23:40 EST]]>
/Jefferson_to_Oliviera_1815 Mon, 01 Jul 2013 13:15:01 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John F. Oliveira Fernandes (December 16, 1815)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_to_Oliviera_1815 Mon, 01 Jul 2013 13:15:01 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_a_Letter_from_Thomas_Worthington_to_Thomas_Jefferson_January_7_1826 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 10:40:05 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Worthington to Thomas Jefferson (January 7, 1826)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_a_Letter_from_Thomas_Worthington_to_Thomas_Jefferson_January_7_1826 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 10:40:05 EST]]> /_An_Argument_Before_the_General_Court_of_Colonial_Virginia_1773 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 09:32:07 EST <![CDATA["An Argument Before the General Court of Colonial Virginia" (1773)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Argument_Before_the_General_Court_of_Colonial_Virginia_1773 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 09:32:07 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Baron_Hyde_de_Neuville_December_13_1818 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 16:03:11 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Baron Hyde de Neuville (December 13, 1818)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Baron_Hyde_de_Neuville_December_13_1818 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 16:03:11 EST]]> /_An_Act_declaring_tenants_of_lands_or_slaves_in_taille_to_hold_the_same_in_fee_simple_1776 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:43:13 EST <![CDATA["An Act declaring tenants of lands or slaves in taille to hold the same in fee simple" (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_declaring_tenants_of_lands_or_slaves_in_taille_to_hold_the_same_in_fee_simple_1776 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:43:13 EST]]> /Query_XVIII_an_excerpt_from_Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1784 Thu, 11 Apr 2013 09:58:57 EST <![CDATA[Query XVIII; an excerpt from Notes on the State of Virginia by Thomas Jefferson (1784)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Query_XVIII_an_excerpt_from_Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1784 Thu, 11 Apr 2013 09:58:57 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Peter_Carr_September_7_1814 Wed, 10 Apr 2013 10:05:39 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Peter Carr (September 7, 1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Peter_Carr_September_7_1814 Wed, 10 Apr 2013 10:05:39 EST]]> /Letter_from_John_Nicholas_to_George_Washington_November_18_1797 Wed, 10 Apr 2013 09:32:57 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Nicholas to George Washington (November 18, 1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Nicholas_to_George_Washington_November_18_1797 Wed, 10 Apr 2013 09:32:57 EST]]> /Chapter_2_Mr_Jefferson_an_excerpt_from_Lewis_Rand_by_Mary_Johnston_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 10:11:52 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 2: "Mr. Jefferson"; an excerpt from Lewis Rand by Mary Johnston (1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_2_Mr_Jefferson_an_excerpt_from_Lewis_Rand_by_Mary_Johnston_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 10:11:52 EST]]> /Review_of_Lewis_Rand_October_18_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 10:07:08 EST <![CDATA[Review of Lewis Rand (October 18, 1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Review_of_Lewis_Rand_October_18_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 10:07:08 EST]]> /_Mary_Johnston_s_New_Novel_by_E_F_S_October_3_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 10:00:06 EST <![CDATA["Mary Johnston's New Novel" by E. F. S. (October 3, 1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mary_Johnston_s_New_Novel_by_E_F_S_October_3_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 10:00:06 EST]]> /Review_of_Lewis_Rand_an_excerpt_from_Latest_News_in_the_Book_World_October_12_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 09:56:58 EST <![CDATA[Review of Lewis Rand; an excerpt from "Latest News in the Book World" (October 12, 1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Review_of_Lewis_Rand_an_excerpt_from_Latest_News_in_the_Book_World_October_12_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 09:56:58 EST]]> /Review_of_Lewis_Rand_an_excerpt_from_A_Road_Map_of_the_New_Books_by_H_L_Mencken_January_1909 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 09:53:56 EST <![CDATA[Review of Lewis Rand; an excerpt from "A Road Map of the New Books" by H. L. Mencken (January 1909)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Review_of_Lewis_Rand_an_excerpt_from_A_Road_Map_of_the_New_Books_by_H_L_Mencken_January_1909 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 09:53:56 EST]]> /_Powerful_Novel_by_Mary_Johnston_October_3_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 09:48:55 EST <![CDATA["Powerful Novel by Mary Johnston" (October 3, 1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Powerful_Novel_by_Mary_Johnston_October_3_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 09:48:55 EST]]> /Review_of_Lewis_Rand_November_1_1908 Fri, 22 Feb 2013 10:08:44 EST <![CDATA[Review of Lewis Rand (November 1, 1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Review_of_Lewis_Rand_November_1_1908 Fri, 22 Feb 2013 10:08:44 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Worthington_November_29_1825 Wed, 30 Jan 2013 09:39:07 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Thomas Worthington (November 29, 1825)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Worthington_November_29_1825 Wed, 30 Jan 2013 09:39:07 EST]]> /Slave_Ships_and_the_Middle_Passage Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:48:55 EST <![CDATA[Slave Ships and the Middle Passage]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Ships_and_the_Middle_Passage The slave ship was the means by which nearly 12.5 million enslaved Africans were transported from Africa to the Americas between 1500 and 1866. Leaving from its home port in Europe, a typical ship made its first passage to the west coast of Africa, trading goods for a full cargo of slaves—people who had been captured in war, convicted of petty crimes, or simply kidnapped. On the second, or "middle," passage, the captain sailed his cargo across the Atlantic Ocean to one or more ports in the New World, where he sold his slaves and purchased or loaded goods such as sugar, rum, and molasses. On the final passage, he returned home. The Portuguese dominated the early slave trade, but at its height, in the eighteenth century, British and American merchants helped bring millions of Africans to the Americas, a very small percentage of whom ended up in Virginia. About 15 percent of all Africans who made the voyage died, most from the accumulation of brutal treatment and inadequate care from the time of their enslavement in the interior of Africa. Others suffocated in the tightly packed holds, while some committed suicide, refused to eat, or revolted. Crew members, meanwhile, died at even higher rates, also mostly from disease. The victims of violence meted out by their officers, sailors in turn dispensed their own brand of terror to the Africans. For Africans who survived, the Middle Passage began with the separation from family and community and ended with a lifetime of enslavement.
Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:48:55 EST]]>
/_Summary_of_Public_Service_by_Thomas_Jefferson_After_September_2_1800 Wed, 19 Dec 2012 10:08:20 EST <![CDATA["Summary of Public Service" by Thomas Jefferson (After September 2, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Summary_of_Public_Service_by_Thomas_Jefferson_After_September_2_1800 Wed, 19 Dec 2012 10:08:20 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Benjamin_Smith_Barton_1809 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 09:05:31 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Benjamin Smith Barton (September 21, 1809)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Benjamin_Smith_Barton_1809 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 09:05:31 EST]]> /Letter_from_Edward_Coles_to_Thomas_Jefferson_September_26_1814 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 14:49:46 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Edward Coles to Thomas Jefferson (September 26, 1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Edward_Coles_to_Thomas_Jefferson_September_26_1814 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 14:49:46 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Edward_Coles_August_25_1814 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 14:31:24 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Edward Coles (August 25, 1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Edward_Coles_August_25_1814 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 14:31:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_James_Monroe_to_Thomas_Jefferson_September_15_1800 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 13:30:36 EST <![CDATA[Letter from James Monroe to Thomas Jefferson (September 15, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_James_Monroe_to_Thomas_Jefferson_September_15_1800 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 13:30:36 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Adams_October_12_1813 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 13:13:21 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Adams (October 12, 1813)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Adams_October_12_1813 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 13:13:21 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Dr_Joseph_Priestley_April_9_1803 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 12:53:14 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Dr. Joseph Priestley (April 9, 1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Dr_Joseph_Priestley_April_9_1803 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 12:53:14 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Ezra_Styles_June_25_1819 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 12:06:00 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Ezra Stiles Ely (June 25, 1819)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Ezra_Styles_June_25_1819 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 12:06:00 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Adams_May_5_1817 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 11:40:24 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Adams (May 5, 1817)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Adams_May_5_1817 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 11:40:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_the_Danbury_Baptist_Association_January_1_1802 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 11:32:21 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to the Danbury Baptist Association (January 1, 1802)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_the_Danbury_Baptist_Association_January_1_1802 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 11:32:21 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Peter_Carr_August_10_1787 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 09:51:47 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Peter Carr (August 10, 1787)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Peter_Carr_August_10_1787 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 09:51:47 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Dr_Vine_Utley_March_21_1819 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 14:27:24 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Dr. Vine Utley (March 21, 1819)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Dr_Vine_Utley_March_21_1819 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 14:27:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Charles_Willson_Peale_August_20_1811 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 14:01:29 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Charles Willson Peale (August 20, 1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Charles_Willson_Peale_August_20_1811 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 14:01:29 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Cooper_October_7_1814 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:58:53 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Thomas Cooper (October 7, 1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Cooper_October_7_1814 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:58:53 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Samuel_Vaughan_Jr_November_27_1790 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:56:24 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Samuel Vaughan Jr. (November 27, 1790)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Samuel_Vaughan_Jr_November_27_1790 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:56:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Benjamin_Vaughan_June_27_1790 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:52:54 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Benjamin Vaughan (June 27, 1790)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Benjamin_Vaughan_June_27_1790 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:52:54 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_a_Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Ellen_Wayles_Randolph_Coolidge_July_10_1805 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:46:13 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from a Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge (July 10, 1805)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_a_Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Ellen_Wayles_Randolph_Coolidge_July_10_1805 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:46:13 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_a_Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Anne_Randolph_June_7_1807 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:42:39 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from a Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Anne Randolph (June 7, 1807)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_a_Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Anne_Randolph_June_7_1807 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:42:39 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_Thomas_Jefferson_s_Garden_Book_1769 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:41:06 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from Thomas Jefferson's Garden Book (1769)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_Thomas_Jefferson_s_Garden_Book_1769 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:41:06 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Martha_Jefferson_Randolph_July_21_1793 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:38:11 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Martha Jefferson Randolph (July 21, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Martha_Jefferson_Randolph_July_21_1793 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:38:11 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_James_Madison_May_15_1794 Wed, 05 Dec 2012 14:08:01 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to James Madison (May 15, 1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_James_Madison_May_15_1794 Wed, 05 Dec 2012 14:08:01 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Bernard_McMahon_January_13_1810 Wed, 05 Dec 2012 13:59:09 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Bernard McMahon (January 13, 1810)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Bernard_McMahon_January_13_1810 Wed, 05 Dec 2012 13:59:09 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Page_May_4_1786 Wed, 05 Dec 2012 13:29:42 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Page (May 4, 1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Page_May_4_1786 Wed, 05 Dec 2012 13:29:42 EST]]> /_Mr_Jefferson_s_Blooded_Stock_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:59:07 EST <![CDATA["Mr. Jefferson's Blooded Stock"; an excerpt from The Private Life of Thomas Jefferson by Hamilton W. Pierson (1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mr_Jefferson_s_Blooded_Stock_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:59:07 EST]]> /_Mr_Jefferson_s_Personal_Appearance_and_Habits_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:55:20 EST <![CDATA["Mr. Jefferson's Personal Appearance and Habits"; an excerpt from The Private Life of Thomas Jefferson by Hamilton W. Pierson (1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mr_Jefferson_s_Personal_Appearance_and_Habits_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:55:20 EST]]> /_Mr_Jefferson_s_Family_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:27:39 EST <![CDATA["Mr. Jefferson's Family"; an excerpt from The Private Life of Thomas Jefferson by Hamilton W. Pierson (1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mr_Jefferson_s_Family_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:27:39 EST]]> /_Mr_Jefferson_s_Servants_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:21:20 EST <![CDATA["Mr. Jefferson's Servants"; an excerpt from The Private Life of Thomas Jefferson by Hamilton W. Pierson (1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mr_Jefferson_s_Servants_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:21:20 EST]]> /_Monticello_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:13:57 EST <![CDATA["Monticello"; an excerpt from The Private Life of Thomas Jefferson by Hamilton W. Pierson (1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Monticello_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:13:57 EST]]> /Meriwether_Lewis_s_Report_to_Thomas_Jefferson_April_7_1805 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 15:20:34 EST <![CDATA[Meriwether Lewis's Report to Thomas Jefferson (April 7, 1805)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meriwether_Lewis_s_Report_to_Thomas_Jefferson_April_7_1805 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 15:20:34 EST]]> /Letter_from_Ellen_Wayles_Randolph_Coolidge_to_Joseph_Coolidge_October_24_1858 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:49:05 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge to Joseph Coolidge (October 24, 1858)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Ellen_Wayles_Randolph_Coolidge_to_Joseph_Coolidge_October_24_1858 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:49:05 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Francis_Eppes_August_30_1785 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:39:25 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Francis Eppes (August 30, 1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Francis_Eppes_August_30_1785 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:39:25 EST]]> /Letter_from_James_Currie_to_Thomas_Jefferson_November_20_1784 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:37:39 EST <![CDATA[Letter from James Currie to Thomas Jefferson (November 20, 1784)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_James_Currie_to_Thomas_Jefferson_November_20_1784 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:37:39 EST]]> /Letter_from_Abigail_Adams_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_27_1787 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:36:01 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Abigail Adams to Thomas Jefferson (June 27, 1787)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Abigail_Adams_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_27_1787 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:36:01 EST]]> /Letter_from_Abigail_Adams_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_26_1787 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:34:21 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Abigail Adams to Thomas Jefferson (June 26, 1787)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Abigail_Adams_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_26_1787 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:34:21 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Nicholas_Lewis_April_12_1792 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:28:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Nicholas Lewis (April 12, 1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Nicholas_Lewis_April_12_1792 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:28:35 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Langhorne_Peter_Carr_October_15_1797 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:14:22 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Langhorne (Peter Carr) (October 15, 1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Langhorne_Peter_Carr_October_15_1797 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:14:22 EST]]> /Letter_from_John_Langhorne_Peter_Carr_to_George_Washington_September_25_1797 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:13:00 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Langhorne (Peter Carr) to George Washington (September 25, 1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Langhorne_Peter_Carr_to_George_Washington_September_25_1797 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:13:00 EST]]> /Thomas_Jefferson_s_Instructions_to_Meriwether_Lewis_June_20_1803 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:00:29 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Jefferson's Instructions to Meriwether Lewis (June 20, 1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Jefferson_s_Instructions_to_Meriwether_Lewis_June_20_1803 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:00:29 EST]]> /_Our_massa_Jefferson_he_say_by_Anonymous_September_1_1802 Fri, 09 Nov 2012 11:39:50 EST <![CDATA["Our massa Jefferson he say" by Anonymous (September 1, 1802)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Our_massa_Jefferson_he_say_by_Anonymous_September_1_1802 Fri, 09 Nov 2012 11:39:50 EST]]> /Journal_Entry_by_William_Clark_November_7_1805 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 15:55:06 EST <![CDATA[Journal Entry by William Clark (November 7, 1805)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Journal_Entry_by_William_Clark_November_7_1805 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 15:55:06 EST]]> /Hemings-Jefferson_DNA_an_excerpt_from_Jefferson_Fathered_Slave_s_Last_Child_by_Eugene_A_Foster_et_al_November_5_1998 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 15:03:58 EST <![CDATA[Hemings-Jefferson DNA; an excerpt from "Jefferson Fathered Slave's Last Child" by Eugene A. Foster, et al. (November 5, 1998)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hemings-Jefferson_DNA_an_excerpt_from_Jefferson_Fathered_Slave_s_Last_Child_by_Eugene_A_Foster_et_al_November_5_1998 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 15:03:58 EST]]> /Letter_from_Elizabeth_Wayles_Eppes_to_Thomas_Jefferson_October_13_1784 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 14:18:23 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Elizabeth Wayles Eppes to Thomas Jefferson (October 13, 1784)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Elizabeth_Wayles_Eppes_to_Thomas_Jefferson_October_13_1784 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 14:18:23 EST]]> /Will_of_Bathurst_Skelton Fri, 02 Nov 2012 12:46:31 EST <![CDATA[Will of Bathurst Skelton]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Will_of_Bathurst_Skelton Fri, 02 Nov 2012 12:46:31 EST]]> /_Life_Among_the_Lowly_No_1_by_Madison_Hemings_March_13_1873 Thu, 01 Nov 2012 15:27:44 EST <![CDATA["Life Among the Lowly, No. 1" by Madison Hemings (March 13, 1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Life_Among_the_Lowly_No_1_by_Madison_Hemings_March_13_1873 Thu, 01 Nov 2012 15:27:44 EST]]> /Meriwether_Lewis_s_Journal_Entries_August_12-13_1805 Wed, 24 Oct 2012 10:02:08 EST <![CDATA[Meriwether Lewis's Journal Entries (August 12–13, 1805)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meriwether_Lewis_s_Journal_Entries_August_12-13_1805 Wed, 24 Oct 2012 10:02:08 EST]]> /Will_and_Codicil_of_John_Wayles_1760_1772-1773 Mon, 15 Oct 2012 12:00:02 EST <![CDATA[Will and Codicil of John Wayles (1760, 1772–1773)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Will_and_Codicil_of_John_Wayles_1760_1772-1773 Mon, 15 Oct 2012 12:00:02 EST]]> /Testimony_in_the_Trial_of_Gabriel_October_6_1800 Wed, 03 Oct 2012 11:57:26 EST <![CDATA[Testimony in the Trial of Gabriel (October 6, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_in_the_Trial_of_Gabriel_October_6_1800 Wed, 03 Oct 2012 11:57:26 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Peter_Carr_May_8_1791 Mon, 01 Oct 2012 10:11:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Peter Carr (May 8, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Peter_Carr_May_8_1791 Mon, 01 Oct 2012 10:11:35 EST]]> /Members_of_the_Continental_Congress_from_Virginia Mon, 17 Sep 2012 10:20:21 EST <![CDATA[Members of the Continental Congress from Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Members_of_the_Continental_Congress_from_Virginia Mon, 17 Sep 2012 10:20:21 EST]]> /Letter_from_A_Private_Citizen_to_James_Monroe_December_10-11_1800 Fri, 24 Aug 2012 10:38:32 EST <![CDATA[Letter from "A Private Citizen" to James Monroe (December 10–11, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_A_Private_Citizen_to_James_Monroe_December_10-11_1800 In this letter to James Monroe, dated December 10, 1800, and printed in the Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser the next day, "A Private Citizen" praises the governor's handling of Gabriel's Conspiracy. The writer goes on to claim that the potential for violence remains and that Virginia must address the problem, arguing against a gradual emancipation plan presented by St. George Tucker and instead providing his own blueprint for long-term white supremacy. Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 24 Aug 2012 10:38:32 EST]]>
/_Uncle_Gabriel Thu, 23 Aug 2012 11:38:29 EST <![CDATA["Uncle Gabriel"]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Uncle_Gabriel Thu, 23 Aug 2012 11:38:29 EST]]> /Letter_from_Edward_Coles_to_Thomas_Jefferson_July_31_1814 Wed, 01 Aug 2012 09:14:12 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Edward Coles to Thomas Jefferson (July 31, 1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Edward_Coles_to_Thomas_Jefferson_July_31_1814 Wed, 01 Aug 2012 09:14:12 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_amend_the_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:36:47 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to amend the act intituled, 'An act to reduce into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes'" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_amend_the_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:36:47 EST]]> /_An_ACT_concerning_patroles_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:32:11 EST <![CDATA["An ACT concerning patroles" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_concerning_patroles_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:32:11 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_establish_a_guard_in_the_city_of_Richmond_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:26:52 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to establish a guard in the city of Richmond" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_establish_a_guard_in_the_city_of_Richmond_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:26:52 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_empower_the_governor_to_transport_slaves_condemned_when_it_shall_be_deemed_expedient_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:20:42 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to empower the governor to transport slaves condemned, when it shall be deemed expedient" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_empower_the_governor_to_transport_slaves_condemned_when_it_shall_be_deemed_expedient_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:20:42 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_arm_the_militia_of_certain_towns_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:16:26 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to arm the militia of certain towns" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_arm_the_militia_of_certain_towns_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:16:26 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_purchase_Pharoah_and_Tom_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:11:20 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to purchase Pharoah and Tom" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_purchase_Pharoah_and_Tom_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:11:20 EST]]> /Letter_from_Mosby_Sheppard_to_James_Monroe_August_30_1800 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 15:59:08 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Mosby Sheppard to James Monroe (August 30, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Mosby_Sheppard_to_James_Monroe_August_30_1800 In this letter to James Monroe, Mosby Sheppard warns the governor of a planned insurrection that came to be known as Gabriel's Conspiracy. Two enslaved men owned by the Mosby family, Pharoah and Tom, had betrayed the conspiracy to Sheppard earlier in the day.
Tue, 17 Jul 2012 15:59:08 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_James_Monroe_September_20_1800 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 15:53:51 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to James Monroe (September 20, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_James_Monroe_September_20_1800 In this letter to Governor James Monroe, Thomas Jefferson offers his advice on how best to punish those slaves arrested in connection with Gabriel's Conspiracy.
Tue, 17 Jul 2012 15:53:51 EST]]>
/Lee_s_Resolution_1776 Fri, 08 Jun 2012 15:20:24 EST <![CDATA[Lee's Resolution (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_s_Resolution_1776 Richard Henry Lee, a Virginia delegate to the Second Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, offered the following resolution on June 7, 1776. He was acting on instructions from the Virginia Convention, meeting in Williamsburg. Lee's resolution was seconded by John Adams, of Massachusetts, and approved by the Congress on July 2.
Fri, 08 Jun 2012 15:20:24 EST]]>
/Declaration_of_Independence_1776 Mon, 21 May 2012 11:39:26 EST <![CDATA[Declaration of Independence (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Declaration_of_Independence_1776 On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, adopted the Declaration of Independence, written primarily by Virginia delegate Thomas Jefferson in committee with John Adams, of Massachusetts, Benjamin Franklin, of Pennsylvania, Robert R. Livingston, of New York, and Roger Sherman, of Connecticut. The Declaration followed a resolution, made by Virginia's Richard Henry Lee on June 7, that the Congress declare independence. The resolution was adopted on July 2, and the Declaration of Independence listed the Congress's grievances with George III. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 21 May 2012 11:39:26 EST]]>
/Query_XVII_an_excerpt_from_Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1784 Mon, 14 May 2012 15:03:36 EST <![CDATA[Query XVII; an excerpt from Notes on the State of Virginia by Thomas Jefferson (1784)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Query_XVII_an_excerpt_from_Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1784 Mon, 14 May 2012 15:03:36 EST]]> /A_Memorial_and_Remonstrance_by_James_Madison_1785 Mon, 14 May 2012 11:49:55 EST <![CDATA["A Memorial and Remonstrance" by James Madison (1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Memorial_and_Remonstrance_by_James_Madison_1785 "A Memorial and Remonstrance Against Religious Assessments," anonymously authored by James Madison and published on or about June 20, 1785, argues against a resolution by the House of Delegates, adopted on November 11, 1784, to levy a so-called General Assessment to benefit all Christian sects, including dissenters against the established Church of England. The resolution excited such opposition, and petitions like Madison's such support, that Madison was emboldened to reintroduce Thomas Jefferson's Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, which passed the General Assembly on January 16, 1786.
Mon, 14 May 2012 11:49:55 EST]]>
/_By_the_King_A_Proclamation_For_Suppressing_Rebellion_and_Sedition_1775 Mon, 14 May 2012 10:27:20 EST <![CDATA["By the King, A Proclamation, For Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition" (1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_By_the_King_A_Proclamation_For_Suppressing_Rebellion_and_Sedition_1775 In this response to the so-called Olive Branch Petition, sent to the king by the Second Continental Congress on July 8, 1775, George III rejects the idea of reconciliation and declares the colonies to be in open rebellion. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 10:27:20 EST]]>
/An_Act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_1786 Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:31:15 EST <![CDATA[An Act for establishing religious Freedom (1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_1786 "An Act for establishing religious Freedom" was drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1777, introduced into the House of Delegates in 1779, reintroduced in 1785, and finally adopted by the full General Assembly on January 16, 1786. This manuscript version of what has come to be known as the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom was signed alongside three other laws on January 19. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:31:15 EST]]>
/Tax_on_Religion_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_1784 Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:10:12 EST <![CDATA[Tax on Religion; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (1784)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tax_on_Religion_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_1784 In this excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates, the House adopts a resolution supporting "a moderate tax or contribution, annually," to benefit all Christian sects, including dissenters from the established Church of England. The resolution, which eventually failed, excited such opposition that James Madison was emboldened to reintroduce Thomas Jefferson's Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, which was passed by the General Assembly on January 16, 1786.
Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:10:12 EST]]>
/Debate_and_Passage_of_An_act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_in_the_House_of_Delegates_and_the_Senate_of_Virginia_1785-1786 Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:37:32 EST <![CDATA[Debate and Passage of "An act for establishing religious Freedom" in the House of Delegates and the Senate of Virginia (1785–1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Debate_and_Passage_of_An_act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_in_the_House_of_Delegates_and_the_Senate_of_Virginia_1785-1786 In these excerpts from the Journal of the House of Delegates and the Journal of the Senate of the Commonwealth of Virginia, the General Assembly debates and finally passes the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom, originally drafted by Thomas Jefferson.
Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:37:32 EST]]>
/A_Bill_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1779 Thu, 19 Apr 2012 14:17:28 EST <![CDATA[A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom (1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Bill_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1779 A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1777, was introduced to the House of Delegates on June 12, 1779, but eventually tabled. James Madison reintroduced a slightly different version in 1785, which was passed by the General Assembly on January 16, 1786.
Thu, 19 Apr 2012 14:17:28 EST]]>
/An_act_for_exempting_the_different_societies_of_Dissenters_from_contributing_to_the_support_and_maintenance_of_the_church_as_by_law_established_and_its_ministers_and_for_other_purposes_therein_mentioned_1776 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 11:31:09 EST <![CDATA[An act for exempting the different societies of Dissenters from contributing to the support and maintenance of the church as by law established, and its ministers, and for other purposes therein mentioned (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_exempting_the_different_societies_of_Dissenters_from_contributing_to_the_support_and_maintenance_of_the_church_as_by_law_established_and_its_ministers_and_for_other_purposes_therein_mentioned_1776 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 11:31:09 EST]]> /Virginia_Resolves_on_the_Stamp_Act_1765 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 13:27:33 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Resolves on the Stamp Act (1765)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Resolves_on_the_Stamp_Act_1765 Patrick Henry wrote the following five resolutions against the Stamp Act and introduced them to the House of Burgesses on May 29, 1765. The House passed them after a heated debate, but rescinded the fifth resolution the following day. This iteration of the Virginia Stamp Act resolves comes from a handwritten document that was found inside a small envelope that Henry included with his last will and testament.
Wed, 28 Mar 2012 13:27:33 EST]]>
/The_Virginia_Declaration_of_Rights_First_Draft_1776 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 09:47:57 EST <![CDATA[The Virginia Declaration of Rights, First Draft (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Virginia_Declaration_of_Rights_First_Draft_1776 This transcript is of a copy, made in an unknown hand, of the first draft of the Virginia Declaration of Rights, which was written by George Mason. The final version of the declaration was incorporated into the state constitution of 1776 and was retained in all subsequent state constitutions. Some spelling has been modernized.
Wed, 28 Mar 2012 09:47:57 EST]]>
/Salutary_Neglect Wed, 18 Jan 2012 17:07:41 EST <![CDATA[Salutary Neglect]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Salutary_Neglect Wed, 18 Jan 2012 17:07:41 EST]]>