Encyclopedia Virginia: Representatives of Virginia (U.S.) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Barbour_Philip_Pendleton_1783-1841 Mon, 11 Dec 2017 13:24:54 EST Barbour, Philip Pendleton (1783–1841) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_Philip_Pendleton_1783-1841 Philip Pendleton Barbour was a member of the House of Delegates (1812–1814), Speaker of the House of Representatives (1821–1823), president of the Convention of 1829–1830, a federal district court judge (1830–1836), and an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1836–1841). Born in Orange County, Barbour studied law with St. George Tucker and practiced briefly in Kentucky before returning to Virginia. He served for two years in the General Assembly and then in Congress, from 1814 to 1825. His older brother, James Barbour, also was a prominent politician, serving as governor and then in the U.S. Senate, but their political philosophies diverged over time. Whereas James Barbour came to support a federal bank and federally supported internal improvement projects, Philip Pendleton Barbour remained a staunch Jeffersonian conservative, emphasizing states' rights and limited government. Even while his brother served in the cabinet of President John Quincy Adams, Philip Pendleton Barbour loudly opposed the administration. After the election of Andrew Jackson, Barbour won appointment as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. His time on the bench was short and devoted to undoing the work of Chief Justice John Marshall, who advocated for a broad interpretation of the Constitution. Barbour died in 1841.
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/Lee_Henry_1756-1818 Fri, 08 Dec 2017 16:44:43 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Henry (1756–1818)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Henry_1756-1818 Henry Lee, also known as Light-Horse Harry Lee or Henry Lee III, was an officer in the Continental and U.S. armies, a representative from Virginia to the Confederation Congress (1786–1788) and the U.S. House of Representatives (1799–1801), a member of the House of Delegates (1789–1791), the governor of Virginia (1791–1794), and the master of Stratford Hall. Born in Prince William County and educated at Princeton, he was the father of eight children who survived to adulthood, including Henry Lee IV, Charles Carter Lee, and Robert E. Lee. A gifted cavalryman, Lee distinguished himself in the American Revolution (1775–1783), fighting under generals George Washington and Nathanael Greene. After the war, Lee played an active role in state and national politics, but his ambitions were undermined by disastrous land deals and financial mismanagement. He served time in debtor's prison, and in 1812, an encounter with an anti-Federalist mob in Baltimore left him disfigured and ailing. After traveling abroad to escape his creditors, Lee died in Georgia in 1818.
Fri, 08 Dec 2017 16:44:43 EST]]>
/Beale_R_L_T_1819-1893 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 11:01:45 EST <![CDATA[Beale, R. L. T. (1819–1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beale_R_L_T_1819-1893 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 11:01:45 EST]]> /Tuck_William_M_1896-1983 Thu, 16 Nov 2017 17:10:10 EST <![CDATA[Tuck, William M. (1896–1983)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tuck_William_M_1896-1983 William M. Tuck was a member of the House of Delegates (1924–1932), the Senate of Virginia (1932–1942), and the U.S. House of Representatives (1953–1969). He also served as lieutenant governor (1942–1946) and governor (1946–1950). Born in Halifax County and educated in the law, Tuck was raised around tobacco and politics and was renowned for his girth and flamboyant personality. Harry F. Byrd Sr., a U.S. senator and head of the conservative Democratic Byrd Organization, did not initially warm to Tuck, who bucked him early on with regard to New Deal politics. But the two eventually became close allies. As governor, Tuck fought organized labor, threatening to draft union members into the state militia if they went on strike and helping usher a right-to-work law through the General Assembly. He also fought civil rights, opposing the agenda of President Harry S. Truman and later efforts to enforce public-school desegregation. Tuck retired from politics in 1969 and died in South Boston in 1983.
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 17:10:10 EST]]>
/Stuart_Alexander_H_H_1807-1891 Thu, 22 Jun 2017 13:36:09 EST <![CDATA[Stuart, Alexander H. H. (1807–1891)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Stuart_Alexander_H_H_1807-1891 Alexander H. H. Stuart was a member of the House of Delegates (1836–1839, 1873–1877) and the U.S. House of Representatives (1841–1843), secretary of the interior in the administration of Millard Fillmore (1850–1853), a member of the Senate of Virginia (1857–1861) and the Convention of 1861, and a principal member of the Committee of Nine, which negotiated with the federal government for an end to Reconstruction in Virginia in 1869. Born in Staunton, he studied law at the University of Virginia before going into politics. In the General Assembly and then Congress, Stuart was a typical Whig in his support of internal improvements and his moderation on the issue of slavery. After John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859, he helped pen a government report condemning Northern abolitionist agitation. Stuart voted against secession in 1861 but signed the Ordinance of Secession. Stuart did not serve in government or the military during the American Civil War (1861–1865), but in 1867, amidst controversy over a new state constitution, he helped to form the Conservative Party. He and eight other men, the so-called Committee of Nine, successfully negotiated a plan with the federal government to present an acceptable constitution to Virginia voters and so end Reconstruction in the state. He also served as rector of the University of Virginia (1876–1882, 1886­–1887) and president of the Virginia Historical Society (1881–1891). He died in 1891.
Thu, 22 Jun 2017 13:36:09 EST]]>
/Bassett_Burwell_1764-1841 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:52:31 EST <![CDATA[Bassett, Burwell (1764–1841)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bassett_Burwell_1764-1841 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:52:31 EST]]> /Atkinson_Archibald_1792-1872 Mon, 10 Apr 2017 15:05:50 EST <![CDATA[Atkinson, Archibald (1792–1872)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Atkinson_Archibald_1792-1872 Mon, 10 Apr 2017 15:05:50 EST]]> /Custis_William_H_B_1814-1889 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 16:09:51 EST <![CDATA[Custis, William H. B. (1814–1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_William_H_B_1814-1889 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 16:09:51 EST]]> /Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 Tue, 24 Jan 2017 11:11:52 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, St. George (1752–1827)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 St. George Tucker was a lawyer, teacher, poet, essayist, inventor, and judge. One of the most influential jurists and legal scholars in the early years of the United States, he sat on three courts in Virginia: the General Court (1789–1804), the Court of Appeals (1804–1811), and the U.S. District Court for the District of Virginia (and later the Eastern District of Virginia) (1813–1825). He also served as rector (1789–1790) and professor of law (1790–1804) at the College of William and Mary. His five-volume edition of Sir William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, published in 1803, was the first major treatise on American law. Born in Bermuda, Tucker studied law as an apprentice to George Wythe in Williamsburg, gaining admission to the bar in 1774. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he smuggled needed supplies into Virginia and fought under Nathanael Greene at the Battle of Guilford Court House (1781) and under George Washington at the siege of Yorktown (1781). After the war he practiced in the county courts before being elevated to a judgeship. At William and Mary, he advocated the study of law as an academic discipline, and in 1796 he published A Dissertation on Slavery, his plan to gradually abolish slavery in Virginia. The General Assembly ignored it. Tucker married twice and had five surviving children, including the jurist and congressman Henry St. George Tucker and the writer and states' rights advocate Nathaniel Beverley Tucker. He died in Nelson County in 1827.
Tue, 24 Jan 2017 11:11:52 EST]]>
/Members_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives_from_Virginia Mon, 09 Jan 2017 14:21:01 EST <![CDATA[Members of the United States House of Representatives from Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Members_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives_from_Virginia Mon, 09 Jan 2017 14:21:01 EST]]> /African_American_Legislators_in_Virginia_1867-1899 Thu, 17 Nov 2016 15:34:27 EST <![CDATA[African American Legislators in Virginia (1867–1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/African_American_Legislators_in_Virginia_1867-1899 Thu, 17 Nov 2016 15:34:27 EST]]> /Tyler_John_1790-1862 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:54:20 EST <![CDATA[Tyler, John (1790–1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tyler_John_1790-1862 John Tyler was the tenth president of the United States. The son of a Virginia governor, Tyler had already been a member of the House of Delegates and the Council of State before being elected to Congress in 1816. After serving as governor of Virginia, the assembly elected him to the United States Senate. A slaveholder and Democrat, he supported states' rights and limited government. He broke with Andrew Jackson early in the 1830s over what he viewed as an alarming increase in federal power. Tyler joined the Whig Party and won the vice presidency in 1840 on a ticket with William Henry Harrison. Following Harrison's death in April 1841, Tyler became the first vice president to assume office after the death of the chief executive. His support of states' rights clashed with his party's prevailing belief in a stronger government, nearly causing the collapse of his administration. Tyler found some success in foreign affairs, but he left the White House in 1845 unpopular and expelled from the Whig Party. As the secession crisis intensified early in 1861, Tyler presided over the ill-fated Peace Conference to head off armed conflict. He served as a delegate to the Virginia convention that addressed the state's response to the crisis, ultimately voting for secession in April 1861. The following November Tyler won election to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before his term began.
Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:54:20 EST]]>
/Langston_John_Mercer_1829-1897 Fri, 08 Jul 2016 13:14:58 EST <![CDATA[Langston, John Mercer (1829–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Langston_John_Mercer_1829-1897 John Mercer Langston served as Virginia's first African American member of Congress (1890–1891) and as the first president of Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Virginia State University). The son of a white Louisa County planter and the woman he freed, Langston grew up in Ohio, where, as an attorney and local office holder, he helped recruit African American troops during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After the war, his involvement with the Freedmen's Bureau as inspector of schools brought him back to Virginia. In 1870 Langston became dean of Howard University's law school and served as acting president of the university from 1873 until 1875. In 1885, the Virginia State Board of Education named Langston president of the new Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute. The new school grew under his leadership, but the Democrat-packed board of visitors did not renew his contract two years later. In 1888 he sought the Republican nomination for Congress, but party leader William Mahone engineered his defeat. Langston ran an independent campaign in which a Democrat was named the winner. Langston disputed the election results, however, and eventually Congress seated him for the final months of his term. He lost reelection and returned to Washington, D.C., where he published an autobiography. He died in Washington in 1897.
Fri, 08 Jul 2016 13:14:58 EST]]>
/Eppes_John_Wayles_1772-1823 Thu, 14 Apr 2016 16:59:39 EST <![CDATA[Eppes, John Wayles (1772–1823)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Eppes_John_Wayles_1772-1823 John Wayles Eppes was a member of the House of Delegates (1801–1803), the U.S. House of Representatives (1803–1811, 1813–1815), and the U.S. Senate (1817–1819). Related through his mother to Martha Wayles Skelton, the wife of Thomas Jefferson, Eppes was close to Jefferson. He lived with him in Philadelphia while Jefferson served as secretary of state and secretly copied for him James Madison's notes on the Constitutional Convention of 1787. In 1797 he married Jefferson's daughter Maria (also Mary or Polly) Jefferson. Eppes served four terms in Congress before being unseated by John Randolph of Roanoke, with whom he had a difficult relationship. Once on the floor of the House, Randolph called Eppes a liar and the two almost fought a duel. On another occasion, Eppes acted as a second to a fellow congressman who shot another congressman in a duel. Eppes regained his seat from Randolph in 1813 but lost it again in 1815. Two years later the General Assembly elected him to the U.S. Senate, although ill health forced him to resign in 1819. Eppes died at his Mill Brook estate, in Buckingham and Cumberland counties, in 1823.
Thu, 14 Apr 2016 16:59:39 EST]]>
/Breckinridge_James_1763-1833 Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:33:36 EST <![CDATA[Breckinridge, James (1763–1833)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Breckinridge_James_1763-1833 James Breckinridge was member of the House of Delegates (1789–1791, 1796–1802, 1806–1808, 1819–1821, 1823–1824), the U.S. House of Representatives (1809–1817), and the board of visitors of the University of Virginia (1819–1833). Born near what is now Fincastle in what was then southern Augusta County, Breckinridge came from a powerful family. (His brother John Breckinridge served in the U.S. Senate and as U.S. attorney general.) After serving during the Revolutionary War (1775–1783), Breckinridge studied law under George Wythe, then opened a practice in Fincastle and began his long political career. He served several terms in the House of Delegates before being elected to Congress as a Federalist in 1809. Although he opposed war with Britain in 1812 he led the militia as a brigadier general, helping to shore up defenses around Washington, D.C., and Baltimore. Breckinridge served four terms in the House of Representatives and then returned to the House of Delegates in 1819. That same year he was appointed to the board of visitors of the newly established University of Virginia, serving until his death. Breckinridge lived on a large farm, Grove Hill, in Botetourt County, but also speculated in land and had a diverse set of business interests. He died at Grove Hill in 1833.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:33:36 EST]]>
/Darden_Colgate_W_1897-1981 Mon, 09 Nov 2015 15:53:48 EST <![CDATA[Darden, Colgate W. (1897–1981)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Darden_Colgate_W_1897-1981 Colgate W. Darden was a member of the House of Representatives (1933–1937, 1939–1941), governor of Virginia (1942–1946), and president of the University of Virginia (1947–1959). He also served in the House of Delegates (1930–1933), representing the city of Norfolk. Born in Southampton County, he studied at the University of Virginia and was injured in a plane crash during World War I (1914–1918). He completed his education after the war and was elected as a Democrat to the House of Delegates in 1929 and to Congress in 1934. Never an enthusiastic legislator, he ran for governor in 1941 as a member of the political machine run by Harry F. Byrd Sr. Darden mobilized the state for World War II (1939–1945) and helped guide through the General Assembly reforms of the correctional system and mental hospitals and an increase in funding for public schools. Considered a highly effective executive, Darden declined to run for the U.S. Senate and instead accepted the presidency of the University of Virginia. He worked to make it a more democratic institution, encouraging the enrollment of public-school students and broadening the university's reach to Southwest and Northern Virginia. During his presidency, but only under court order, graduate programs were racially integrated, and he broke with the Byrd Organization over its Massive Resistance to public-school desegregation. Darden retired in 1959 and died in 1981. The University of Virginia Darden School of Business was named in his honor.
Mon, 09 Nov 2015 15:53:48 EST]]>
/Daniel_John_Warwick_1842-1910 Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:36:45 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, John Warwick (1842–1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_John_Warwick_1842-1910 John Warwick Daniel served as a member of the House of Delegates (1869–1872), of the Senate of Virginia (1875–1881), of the House of Representatives (1885–1887), of the U.S. Senate (1887–1910), and of the Convention of 1901–1902. Daniel earned the nickname "The Lame Lion of Lynchburg" after the American Civil War (1861–1865), when he suffered an injury that required him to use a crutch for the rest of his life. A gifted writer and orator, Daniel memorialized the Confederate war effort and spoke out against Reconstruction. He began his political career as a Conservative, became a prominent Funder late in the 1870s, and then in the 1880s helped rebuild the Democratic Party. At the Convention of 1901–1902, called to revise the state constitution, Daniel chaired the important Committee on the Elective Franchise. At first advocating less-onerous suffrage restrictions, he ultimately pushed for a more aggressive path that disfranchised most African Americans in Virginia, along with large numbers of poorer white citizens. Daniel spent his last years as an elder statesman of the Democratic Party, and died in 1910.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:36:45 EST]]>
/Daniel_Wilbur_Clarence_Dan_1914-1988 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:57:28 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Dan (1914–1988)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Wilbur_Clarence_Dan_1914-1988 Dan Daniel represented Danville in the House of Delegates (1960–1969) and served as representative from Virginia in the United States Congress (1969–1988). Prior to his election to public office, he served as the state and then national commander of the American Legion (1951; 1956), a platform he used to lobby for veterans' rights and benefits. A conservative whose views on integration aligned with those of United States senator Harry F. Byrd Sr., Daniel supported Massive Resistance and voted in favor of keeping the poll tax. During his nineteen years in Congress, he worked to strengthen national defense, supported United States president Richard M. Nixon during the Watergate scandal, and helped write the Omnibus Anti-Drug Act of 1985. On January 19, 1988, Daniel announced that he would not seek reelection to Congress due to his struggle with heart disease. He died four days later of an aortic dissection at the University of Virginia Medical Center in Charlottesville.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:57:28 EST]]>
/Burch_Thomas_Granville_1869-1951 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:24:44 EST <![CDATA[Burch, T. G. (1869–1951)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burch_Thomas_Granville_1869-1951 T. G. Burch was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1931–1946) and briefly served in the U.S. Senate (1946). As a congressman he represented an eight-county district in southern Virginia along the North Carolina border. Reapportionment added a ninth county beginning with the 74th Congress. A colleague of the conservative Democratic U.S. senator Harry F. Byrd, Burch was briefly considered by Byrd and his advisers as a gubernatorial candidate for the 1937 election; however, Burch's unorthodox plan for teacher pay upset the Byrd Organization, which removed him from the inner circle of Virginia politics.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:24:44 EST]]>
/Glass_Carter_1858-1946 Thu, 20 Aug 2015 08:46:03 EST <![CDATA[Glass, Carter (1858–1946)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Glass_Carter_1858-1946 Carter Glass, a Democrat, served in the Senate of Virginia (1899–1902), as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902, and in the U.S. House of Representatives (1902–1918) and the U.S. Senate (1920–1946). He also served as secretary of the treasury (1918–1920) in the administration of President Woodrow Wilson. Often referred to as the father of the Federal Reserve banking system, he authored the Glass-Steagall Act of 1932—co-sponsored by Representative Henry B. Steagall, of Alabama—and the Banking Act of 1933. Born in Lynchburg, Glass left school early to work as a newspaper reporter. By 1888, he owned the Lynchburg News and later bought another Lynchburg paper, edited by his father, and consolidated the two. Small in stature but always outspoken, Glass educated himself in finance after being appointed to the House Banking and Currency Committee, carefully reconciling many competing interests into a workable Federal Reserve bill. In the U.S. Senate, he set aside a distaste for machine politics in return for, among other things, support in a run for president; he twice sought but never won the nomination. During the Great Depression, he joined Senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. in opposing President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal. At the start of World War II (1939–1945), however, he supported the president's efforts to prepare the nation for possible entry into the war. Glass died in office in 1946.
Thu, 20 Aug 2015 08:46:03 EST]]>
/Riddleberger_Harrison_H_1843-1890 Thu, 08 Jan 2015 16:16:40 EST <![CDATA[Riddleberger, Harrison H. (1843–1890)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Riddleberger_Harrison_H_1843-1890 Harrison H. Riddleberger was a Confederate veteran from Shenandoah County who helped settle Virginia's controversial prewar debt crisis in the 1880s. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), he became a newspaper publisher and a politician. He served in the House of Delegates for two terms as a Conservative (1871–1875) before entering the Senate of Virginia in 1879 as a Readjuster. In 1882 the assembly passed the Riddleberger Act and two other bills that refinanced two-thirds of the public debt (West Virginia was allocated the remaining one-third) with new lower-interest bonds and helped convert a treasury deficit into a $1.5 million surplus. Although subsequent legislation modified Riddleberger's law in detail, the act ended a decade of divisive politics about the public debt. Taking a seat in the U.S. Senate the next year, he caucused with the Republicans. While he was serving in Washington, the Readjusters splintered and Riddleberger later became a Democrat. Prone to depression and excessive drinking, he held a reputation as an eccentric and even engaged in two duels on the same day. He died in his home less than a year after his Senate term ended.
Thu, 08 Jan 2015 16:16:40 EST]]>
/Carlile_John_S_1817-1878 Thu, 08 Jan 2015 16:10:14 EST <![CDATA[Carlile, John S. (1817–1878)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carlile_John_S_1817-1878 John S. Carlile was a member of the Convention of 1850–1851, the U.S. House of Representatives (1856–1858), the Convention of 1861, the First and Second Wheeling Conventions of 1861, and the United States Senate (1861–1865). As an active and outspoken participant in the Convention of 1850, he supported democratic reforms that invested western Virginia with more political power. In Congress, he supported the rights of slave owners, but as a delegate to the state convention during the secession crisis of 1861, he vehemently opposed leaving the Union, calling secession "a crime against God." The convention voted to secede anyway, and during the American Civil War (1861–1865), Carlile became a U.S. senator representing the Restored government of Virginia. In Washington, D.C., he helped shepherd the West Virginia statehood bill through Congress, only to vote against it in 1862, citing the bill's requirement that the new state adopt a plan of gradual emancipation. While Carlile remained in the Senate until 1865, he had so angered—and confused—his new West Virginia constituents that his political career was largely over. He died on his farm near Clarksburg in 1878.
Thu, 08 Jan 2015 16:10:14 EST]]>
/Johnston_Joseph_E_1807-1891 Tue, 21 Oct 2014 17:27:23 EST <![CDATA[Johnston, Joseph E. (1807–1891)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Johnston_Joseph_E_1807-1891 Joseph E. Johnston was a veteran of the Mexican War (1846–1848), quartermaster general of the United States Army, a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865), a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1879–1881), and a U.S. railroad commissioner in the first administration of U.S. president Grover Cleveland (1885–1889). The highest-ranking U.S. Army officer to resign his commission at the start of the Civil War, Johnston helped lead Confederates to victory at the First Battle of Manassas in July 1861; a month later, however, when Confederate president Jefferson Davis appointed five men to the rank of full general, he was only fourth on the list, igniting a bitter feud with the president that would last the war and even spill into his postwar memoir, Narrative of Military Operations (1874). Historians, meanwhile, have split on his military performance, with some dubbing him "Retreatin' Joe," citing, among others, his retreats in the face of General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac on the Peninsula in 1862. Johnston was wounded on June 1, 1862, at the Battle of Seven Pines, and Davis turned the Army of Northern Virginia over to General Robert E. Lee, who led it for the remainder of the war. Other historians have argued that Johnston's strategy of withdrawal saved Confederates from destruction during the Atlanta Campaign (1864); nevertheless, Davis replaced him then, too.
Tue, 21 Oct 2014 17:27:23 EST]]>
/Barbour_John_S_1820-1892 Tue, 02 Sep 2014 10:19:45 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, John S. (1820–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_John_S_1820-1892 John S. Barbour served as a United States senator, but his biggest effect on Virginia's political history came from his organizational skills. Barbour hailed from a politically active family and joined the House of Delegates in his twenties. After four years in the General Assembly, the Orange and Alexandria Railroad (later the Virginia Midland Railway) named him its president. Barbour held the position for thirty-four years. He began his rivalry with fellow transportation leader and politician William Mahone when railroad consolidation accelerated after the American Civil War (1861–1865). He reentered politics in 1880 when the Funder wing of the Conservative Party nominated him for Congress, winning the first of three terms. Three years later he became state chairman of the party, now called the Democratic Party, and led it to convincing win in that year's elections over Mahone's Readjuster Party. By emphasizing white supremacy and animosity to Mahone's political power while accepting the Readjusters' financial reforms, Barbour engineered the start of the Democrats' nearly century-long domination of Virginia politics.
Tue, 02 Sep 2014 10:19:45 EST]]>
/Chilton_Samuel_1805-1867 Thu, 10 Jul 2014 17:10:40 EST <![CDATA[Chilton, Samuel (1805–1867)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chilton_Samuel_1805-1867 Samuel Chilton was a lawyer, a member of the House of Representatives (1843–1845), and a member of the Convention of 1850–1851, the purpose of which was the revision of the Virginia constitution. He is best known for sitting on a committee appointed during the convention to report on the apportionment of the General Assembly. Chilton supported calculating legislative representation on the basis of population and property holding, but proposed a key compromise with western delegates who held opposing views. His plan for apportionment passed, and on July 31, 1851, Chilton voted with the majority in favor of the final version of the state constitution. Chilton moved to Washington, D.C., by 1853, when he joined the American (Know Nothing) Party. In 1859 he and Hiram Griswold represented John Brown for the final two days of the treason trial that followed Brown's 1859 raid on Harpers Ferry. Though Chilton tried to appeal the guilty verdict, he was unsuccessful, and ultimately was forced to testify before a Senate committee about the circumstances surrounding his hiring and subsequent payment. After the trial, Chilton reportedly was offered and refused a position on Abraham Lincoln's administration. He died in Warrenton on January 7, 1867.
Thu, 10 Jul 2014 17:10:40 EST]]>
/Booker_George_William_1821-1884 Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:17:30 EST <![CDATA[Booker, George William (1821–1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Booker_George_William_1821-1884 George William Booker's political career, which included a term in Congress (1869–1871), provides an example of the shifting political alliances during and after the American Civil War (1861–1865). A strong Unionist during the secession crisis, he voted for the Ordinance of Secession to avoid reprisals from his neighbors. A post as justice of the peace kept him from military service during the Civil War. Booker won election to the House of Delegates in 1865 representing Henry County and aligned himself with former Whig John Minor Botts during the formation of Virginia's Republican Party. The Republicans nominated him for attorney general in 1868, but elections were postponed. The next year he won a seat in the House of Representatives as a True Republican, an alliance between moderate members of his party and Democratic-aligned Conservatives in opposition to the Radical Republicans. He moderated his earlier anti-secession views and advocated an amnesty for former Confederates. Declining a run for a second term, he returned to the House of Delegates where he became one of the Conservative Party's floor leaders. He died near Martinsville in 1884.
Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:17:30 EST]]>
/An_Act_to_admit_the_State_of_Virginia_to_Representation_in_the_Congress_of_the_United_States_January_26_1870 Thu, 19 Jun 2014 10:30:04 EST <![CDATA[An Act to admit the State of Virginia to Representation in the Congress of the United States (January 26, 1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_admit_the_State_of_Virginia_to_Representation_in_the_Congress_of_the_United_States_January_26_1870 Thu, 19 Jun 2014 10:30:04 EST]]> /Byrne_Leslie_1946- Sun, 15 Jun 2014 10:10:47 EST <![CDATA[Byrne, Leslie (1946– )]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrne_Leslie_1946- Leslie Byrne was the first woman elected to the U.S. Congress from Virginia, serving as a Democrat for one term, from January 3, 1993, until January 3, 1995. Byrne emerged as a skilled fund-raiser and hard-nosed campaigner, but her tenure in Congress was marked by Democratic defeats over health care issues and her own sometimes difficult relationships with fellow representatives. In addition to her term in Congress, Byrne served in the House of Delegates (1986–1992) and the Senate of Virginia (2000–2003). She also served as the White House Director of Consumer Affairs under U.S. president Bill Clinton.
Sun, 15 Jun 2014 10:10:47 EST]]>
/Smith_Howard_Worth_1883-1976 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 13:28:44 EST <![CDATA[Smith, Howard Worth (1883–1976)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_Howard_Worth_1883-1976 Howard W. Smith, a Virginia Democratic congressman, was one of America's most powerful politicians from the New Deal to the Great Society. A master obstructionist who chaired the House Rules Committee, he used his power to fight the liberal agendas of presidential administrations from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Lyndon B. Johnson. He was particularly concerned about the influence of Communists and wrote the Alien Registration Act of 1940, legislation that eventually paved the way for government targeting of radicals during the Cold War. He also saw Communism at the heart of the civil rights movement and attempted to kill the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by introducing an amendment to include women under its provisions. Ironically, this helped the measure pass and stands as an important part of Smith's legacy.
Thu, 05 Jun 2014 13:28:44 EST]]>
/Peery_George_Campbell_1873-1952 Thu, 01 May 2014 17:24:04 EST <![CDATA[Peery, George Campbell (1873–1952)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Peery_George_Campbell_1873-1952 George Campbell Peery, a Democratic ally of Harry F. Byrd Sr., served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1923–1929) and as governor of Virginia (1934–1938). Peery made his first mark on Virginia's political map and brought a great victory to the Democratic Party when he wrested control of Southwest Virginia's "Fighting Ninth" Congressional District from two decades of Republican occupation. As Byrd's handpicked choice to replace outgoing governor John Garland Pollard, Peery instituted a number of reforms and policies of lasting impact. A Byrd Organization disciple, Peery valued economic thrift and small government, but was not afraid to support more progressive policies when they were politically and economically advantageous. He advocated, for instance, increased funding for public education and recommended that the state adopt an unemployment insurance plan. Peery also created the Department of Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control to regulate alcohol sales and consumption in a post-prohibition Virginia.
Thu, 01 May 2014 17:24:04 EST]]>
/Wise_Henry_A_1806-1876 Mon, 24 Mar 2014 10:15:25 EST <![CDATA[Wise, Henry A. (1806–1876)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wise_Henry_A_1806-1876 Henry A. Wise was a lawyer, a member of the United States House of Representatives (1832–1844), U.S. minister to Brazil (1844–1847), governor of Virginia (1856–1860) during John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, and a brigadier general in the Confederate army during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born in Accomack County on Virginia's Eastern Shore, Wise rose to national prominence during the political turmoil of the late antebellum period. A fiery politician and gifted orator with a mercurial temperament, he advocated a number of progressive positions, including capital improvements in western Virginia, broadening Virginia's electoral base through constitutional reform, and public funding for universal elementary education. Wise also was a stout defender of slavery and eventually became an ardent secessionist. Perhaps best known for being governor when Brown attempted to spark a slave rebellion at Harpers Ferry, Wise had the authority to commute Brown's death sentence. Instead, he allowed the execution to take place, making possible the radical abolitionist's ascension to martyrdom. After Virginia's secession in 1861, Wise served in the Confederate army. In 1872, he supported U.S. president Ulysses S. Grant, the former Union general-in-chief, in his campaign for reelection.
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/Letcher_John_1813-1884 Sat, 08 Mar 2014 17:52:05 EST <![CDATA[Letcher, John (1813–1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letcher_John_1813-1884 John Letcher was a lawyer, newspaper editor, member of the United States House of Representatives (1851–1859), and governor of Virginia (1860–1864) during the American Civil War (1861–1865). In a career that lasted decades, he weathered radical shifts of opinion and power by consistently positioning himself as a moderate, supporting, for instance, increased commercial ties between the eastern and western portions of the state and more political representation for western counties, codified in the Convention of 1850–1851. He advocated for a gradual emancipation of slaves and resisted the entreaties of radical secessionists while still arguing on behalf of states' rights. Western support and a divided Whig Party helped him narrowly win the governorship as a Democrat in 1859, but his term was often a difficult one. He ably mobilized Virginia for war and then threw the state's tremendous resources behind the Confederacy. But his willingness to requisition for the Confederacy needed supplies such as salt caused controversy at home, as did his support of impressments. Letcher returned to Lexington in 1864, ran for the Confederate Congress and lost, and was briefly imprisoned at the conclusion of the war. After his release, he resumed his law career, returning to state politics before dying in 1884.
Sat, 08 Mar 2014 17:52:05 EST]]>
/Montague_Andrew_Jackson_1862-1937 Sun, 02 Mar 2014 13:22:31 EST <![CDATA[Montague, Andrew Jackson (1862–1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Montague_Andrew_Jackson_1862-1937 Andrew Jackson Montague served as attorney general of Virginia (1898–1902), as governor of Virginia (1902–1906), and as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1913–1937). Elected governor during the turbulent Progressive reform era of the early twentieth century, Montague advocated for a direct primary system and for the improvement of Virginia's public schools and roads. Despite his powerful oratory skills and popularity, Montague lacked the political will to lobby vigorously for his agenda and was held back further by opposition from Thomas Staples Martin, architect of the state Democratic Party machine, and by an economically and socially conservative political climate. In 1905 he challenged Martin for his U.S. Senate seat, but lost the primary election. Montague served as the dean of Richmond College Law School and practiced law in Richmond before being elected in 1912 to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served a lackluster twenty-four-year tenure.
Sun, 02 Mar 2014 13:22:31 EST]]>
/Tucker_George_1775-1861 Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, George (1775–1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_George_1775-1861 George Tucker was a lawyer, philosopher, economist, historian, novelist, politician, and teacher. Born in Bermuda and cousin to the famed jurist St. George Tucker, Tucker served in the House of Delegates (1815–1816) representing Pittsylvania County and won election to three terms in the United States House of Representatives (1819–1825) before, at the invitation of Thomas Jefferson, joining the faculty of the newly opened University of Virginia in Charlottesville. Tucker owned slaves but opposed slavery as a moral evil. During debate over the Missouri Compromise (1820), he argued that emancipation was impractical and that slavery would eventually die out. By the end of his life, his opposition to abolitionists had turned him into an apologist for the "peculiar institution." He was the author of a novel of the U.S. South that dramatized the evils of slavery, The Valley of Shenandoah (1824); two science fiction novels, including A Voyage to the Moon (1827); a biography of Jefferson (1837); a four-volume history of the United States (1856–1857); and numerous essays on aesthetics, metaphysics, causality, morality, economics, slavery, and the nature of progress. Tucker was married three times, including to relatives of William Byrd II and George Washington. He died in 1861 from injuries he sustained after being hit by a falling cotton bale.
Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST]]>
/Swanson_Claude_A_1862-1939 Sat, 28 Dec 2013 10:54:53 EST <![CDATA[Swanson, Claude A. (1862–1939)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Swanson_Claude_A_1862-1939 Claude A. Swanson was a powerful Democratic Party leader and one of the most successful Virginia politicians of his era. He served seven terms in the United States House of Representatives (1893–1906), was governor of Virginia from 1906 until 1910, and U.S. senator from 1910 until 1933. In addition, Swanson served as secretary of the United States Navy under U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt from 1933 until his death in 1939. While in the House, Swanson presided over a raucous time in state politics that culminated in the adoption of the state Constitution of 1902 that was notorious for its disfranchisement of African Americans and poor whites in spite of the universal suffrage called for by the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1870). As governor, he instituted a number of progressive reforms and continued to advance those reforms, as well as his belief in a strong U.S. Navy while in the U.S. Senate and in Roosevelt's cabinet.
Sat, 28 Dec 2013 10:54:53 EST]]>