Encyclopedia Virginia: Reform Groups http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Black_Baptists_in_Virginia_1865-1902 Fri, 03 Mar 2017 14:03:30 EST Black Baptists in Virginia (1865–1902) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Baptists_in_Virginia_1865-1902 Most religious African Americans after the American Civil War (1861–1865) belonged to Baptist churches. Even prior to the abolition of slavery, Baptists, black and white, came closer to the principle of the equality of all believers than many other religious bodies. Even white Baptists recognized in principle the idea that African Americans were full members of the church, though whites generally did not consent to the ordination of their black counterparts. Once free, African American Baptists became even more assertive in forming churches and organizing independent local and state associations. These groups gave a platform to African American views of the world, from the theological to the political, and an avenue by which connections could be made both domestically and abroad. For instance, black Baptists in Virginia sought educational and humanitarian support from white Baptists in the North while at the same time, in part through the Baptist Foreign Mission Convention, created in 1880, establishing missions in West Africa. This strategy eventually caused a rift between those black Baptists (so-called independents) who balked at asking white Baptists for help, and others (so-called cooperationists) who argued that they should rise above racial differences. Taking advantage of their numbers and influence, Baptist groups also lobbied hard for black civil rights. And for a time black men voted and regularly held office in Virginia. But by 1902, and the ratification of a new state constitution, such rights were effectively eliminated. In the difficult years to come, Virginia's black Baptists relied on their now well-established institutions to pursue their social and political interests.
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/Cocke_John_Hartwell_1780-1866 Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:41:33 EST <![CDATA[Cocke, John Hartwell (1780–1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cocke_John_Hartwell_1780-1866 John Hartwell Cocke was a farmer whose plantation, Bremo, in Fluvanna County, was both architecturally and scientifically innovative. He also was a reformer who advocated temperance, the end of tobacco production in central Virginia, and the colonization of the state's slaves. Closely involved with the founding of the University of Virginia, he served on the school's board of visitors from 1819 until 1856. Born in Surry County, Cocke inherited Bremo and moved to the estate in 1809. There he worked out new methods of scientific farming and helped to found the Agricultural Society of Albemarle. He designed, or helped to design, various parts of Bremo, as well as buildings elsewhere in Fluvanna County. After the death of his first wife in 1816, Cocke embraced evangelical Christianity, which informed his work on behalf of temperance causes—he served as president of state and national temperance unions—and against the cultivation of tobacco. Despite owning slaves himself, he thought slavery to be against God's will and argued that removing African Americans to Africa was the best solution to the institution's various evils. Cocke's opposition to abolitionism and his support of the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865) caused his views to become pro-slavery over time. He died at Bremo in 1866.
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/Labor_in_Virginia_During_the_Twentieth_Century Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:46:12 EST <![CDATA[Labor in Virginia during the Twentieth Century]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Labor_in_Virginia_During_the_Twentieth_Century The history of labor in Virginia during the twentieth century reflects both the ever-changing nature of the workplace and the endurance of Virginians' long-held ideas about race, culture, and work. These powerful forces profoundly affected the choices and fortunes of workingmen and -women, black and white. They influenced hiring, wages, and seniority. They shaped the organization and evolution of companies and labor unions alike. And, like Virginia, they changed as the twenty-first century approached. One idea proved especially durable. It was the belief that the necessary maintenance of the social, political, and economic status quo depended on a combination of unorganized, low-wage labor and racial segregation, if not outright white supremacy. Employee and employer alike often embraced this antiunion, pro-apartheid approach to the age of industrialization and it shaped the development of the southern workforce. In Virginia, the vestiges of that ideology survived for most of the twentieth century.
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/Equal_Suffrage_League_of_Virginia_1909-1920 Thu, 03 Sep 2015 15:02:54 EST <![CDATA[Equal Suffrage League of Virginia (1909–1920)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Equal_Suffrage_League_of_Virginia_1909-1920 The Equal Suffrage League of Virginia was an organization of white women dedicated to securing for women the right to vote. Aligned with the national woman suffrage movement, the league worked for more than ten years lobbying the public and the General Assembly alike, until its efforts paid off when three-fourths of the United States state legislatures ratified the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920. The league failed, however, to persuade the Virginia General Assembly, which did not vote to ratify until 1952.
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/Letter_to_Fields_Cook_and_the_Colored_State_Convention_1865 Mon, 15 Jun 2015 15:46:29 EST <![CDATA[Letter to Fields Cook and the Colored State Convention (1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_to_Fields_Cook_and_the_Colored_State_Convention_1865 Mon, 15 Jun 2015 15:46:29 EST]]> /_The_Appeal_from_Proceedings_of_the_Convention_of_the_Colored_People_of_VA_Held_in_the_City_of_Alexandria_1865 Mon, 11 May 2015 14:54:47 EST <![CDATA["The Appeal" from Proceedings of the Convention of the Colored People of VA., Held in the City of Alexandria (1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Appeal_from_Proceedings_of_the_Convention_of_the_Colored_People_of_VA_Held_in_the_City_of_Alexandria_1865 Mon, 11 May 2015 14:54:47 EST]]> /Interview_with_Allen_Wilson_July_16_1937 Mon, 11 May 2015 13:19:04 EST <![CDATA[Interview with Allen Wilson (July 16, 1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Interview_with_Allen_Wilson_July_16_1937 Mon, 11 May 2015 13:19:04 EST]]> /Remarks_by_William_Williams_August_11_1865 Mon, 27 Apr 2015 14:56:12 EST <![CDATA[Remarks by William Williams (August 11, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Remarks_by_William_Williams_August_11_1865 Mon, 27 Apr 2015 14:56:12 EST]]> /_The_Sun_Do_Move_by_John_Jasper_1878 Fri, 17 Apr 2015 14:40:23 EST <![CDATA["The Sun Do Move" by John Jasper (1878)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Sun_Do_Move_by_John_Jasper_1878 Fri, 17 Apr 2015 14:40:23 EST]]> /Bowser_Rosa_L_Dixon_1855-1931 Wed, 03 Sep 2014 14:06:55 EST <![CDATA[Bowser, Rosa L. Dixon (1855–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowser_Rosa_L_Dixon_1855-1931 Rosa L. Dixon Bowser, educator and civic leader, played a key role in implementing reforms that affected Virginia's African Americans. Bowser was most likely born enslaved. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), she moved to Richmond with her family and enrolled in public school, where she showed remarkable intelligence. She went on to become a teacher in Richmond's public schools. Her efforts on behalf of educators helped create Virginia's first professional African American teacher's association, and she later served as its president. Throughout her teaching career Bowser, like her contemporaries Janie Porter Barrett and Maggie Lena Walker, worked for societal improvement. She played a major role in African American reform organizations, industrial schools for black children, groups supporting universal woman suffrage, and associations publicly opposed to lynching and racial segregation. The first branch of the Richmond public library to be opened for African Americans was named for Bowser in 1925. She died of complications from diabetes in 1931 at her home in Richmond.
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/Crawford_Robert_Baxter_1895-1973 Fri, 24 Jan 2014 17:09:14 EST <![CDATA[Crawford, Robert B. (1895–1973)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crawford_Robert_Baxter_1895-1973 Robert B. Crawford was president of the Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties, a grassroots political organization dedicated to preserving racial segregation in Virginia's public schools. Crawford, a veteran of World War I (1914–1918) and a former member of the Prince Edward County school board, helped organize the Defenders after the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) mandated the desegregation of public schools. The group helped propel Massive Resistance until 1959, after which its political clout declined rapidly. Crawford resigned as the Defenders' president in 1963, but supported the organization until it dissolved in 1967. He died in 1973.
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/Defenders_of_State_Sovereignty_and_Individual_Liberties Wed, 23 Oct 2013 16:21:50 EST <![CDATA[Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Defenders_of_State_Sovereignty_and_Individual_Liberties The Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties, a grassroots political organization created in Petersburg in October 1954, was dedicated to preserving strict racial segregation in Virginia's public schools. A group of prominent Southside leaders formed the group following Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, the U.S. Supreme Court decision, handed down on May 17, 1954, that mandated the desegregation of public schools. Opening chapters across the state and employing a variety of tactics, the Defenders rigorously confronted the Brown mandate, influencing the state commission that bestowed its blessing on the policy of Massive Resistance and even the temporary closing of public schools in Warren County, Norfolk, and Charlottesville. When Massive Resistance was declared unconstitutional, the Defenders organized a Bill of Rights Crusade and protested in Richmond, but the group's support and influence was on the wane. It dissolved in 1967.
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/Virginia_State_Hospitals_for_Mental_Patients_1934 Wed, 12 Jun 2013 15:49:11 EST <![CDATA[Virginia State Hospitals for Mental Patients (1934)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_State_Hospitals_for_Mental_Patients_1934 Wed, 12 Jun 2013 15:49:11 EST]]> /Progressive_Movement Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:01:21 EST <![CDATA[Progressive Movement]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Progressive_Movement The Progressive movement in Virginia was a series of efforts by early-twentieth-century residents to correct what they perceived as problems or deficiencies in government, business, and society. Their work was part of a national reform movement that existed from late in the 1890s until the United States entered World War I in 1917. Progressive reform in Virginia had many parallels with its national counterpart, but like the rest of the movement's southern manifestation, it also varied from it in important ways. Nationally, Progressives sought to expand democracy, aid victims of industrialization, bring order and efficiency to government and business, and impose morality. State reformers, by contrast, showed little interest in social uplift or racial justice, or in increasing democracy or furthering workers' rights. Instead, they focused on adjusting government and society in ways that both safeguarded the existing social and racial hierarchy and provided order, stability, and economic progress. In Virginia, the movement's participants were predominately urban white professionals, businessmen, educators, church leaders, and politicians; or their wives and daughters. Although the state's reformers had a variety of aims, they worked primarily on restructuring the electorate; improving public education; modifying cities in ways that made them more healthful, efficient, and orderly; upgrading roads; and enacting prohibition of alcohol. They achieved these and other reforms by successfully lobbying government officials for new laws, oversight agencies, and funding measures. While Virginia's Progressives more often than not worked together on their various causes, like reformers elsewhere in the nation, they also occasionally disagreed about the practicality of specific solutions. Those being reformed—typically poor white and African American residents—opposed many of the movement's efforts but lacked the political power to block them.
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/Cooperative_Education_Association Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:03:39 EST <![CDATA[Cooperative Education Association]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooperative_Education_Association The Cooperative Education Association was organized in 1904 to advocate for public education reform in Virginia. The group was part of the larger, national Progressive movement, which generally pushed for workers' rights, women's rights, and more efficient government. The cooperative saw itself representing all citizens of Virginia, "whether living in the city or the country, whether white or black," and was an outgrowth of the Richmond Education Association, founded in 1900 by Lila Meade Valentine and dedicated to education reform. The idea behind the cooperative was to extend the group's successes in Richmond to the rest of the state.
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/Anti-Saloon_League_of_Virginia Thu, 07 Apr 2011 10:25:48 EST <![CDATA[Anti-Saloon League of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anti-Saloon_League_of_Virginia The Anti-Saloon League of Virginia, established in 1901, led the movement that brought Prohibition to the state in 1916. While the state had established the Virginia Society for the Promotion of Temperance as early as October 1826, the league became a major force in Virginia politics, especially within the Democratic Party, in the first two decades of the twentieth century. An affiliate of the Anti-Saloon League of America, a national dry pressure group based in Ohio, the Virginia League gave political direction to the temperance beliefs of Protestant evangelicals, chiefly Baptists and Methodists.
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