Encyclopedia Virginia: Presidents (U.S.) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Washington_George_and_Slavery Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:50:15 EST Washington, George and Slavery http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_George_and_Slavery George Washington owned enslaved people from age eleven until his death, when his will promised his slaves freedom. His actions and private statements suggest a long evolution in his stance on slavery, based on experience and a possible awakening of conscience. Born in 1732, Washington came of age in a time when large-scale tobacco planting, carried out by enslaved labor, dominated the economy and society of colonial Virginia. Washington made no official public statements on slavery or emancipation as a Virginia legislator, as a military officer, or as president of the United States. As a young man he acted as most of his slaveholding peers did—making full and lawful use of slave labor, buying and selling slaves, and even raffling off a debtor's slaves, including children, to recoup a loan. His marriage brought many slaves under his control, but he did not legally own these "dower" slaves. After the American Revolution (1775–1783) his private statements became more in line with abolitionist goals than with the economic and political positions of his Virginia peers, until he reached the point, around 1789, when his "regret" over slavery grew so strong that he eventually rewrote his will with provisions to free slaves. Washington was the only southern Founding Father to free all his slaves.
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/George_Washington_1732-1799 Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:45:05 EST <![CDATA[Washington, George (1732–1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_Washington_1732-1799 George Washington served as commander in chief of the Continental army during the American Revolution (1775–1783), as president of the United States Constitutional Convention (1787), and as first president of the United States (1789–1797). Born to a family of middling wealth, Washington's formal education ended when he was about fifteen. Thanks to his half-brother's marriage into the wealthy Fairfax family, Washington acquired social polish, a taste for aristocratic living, and connections to Virginia's political elite. Long months on the frontier as a surveyor toughened the young Washington, preparing him for service in Virginia's militia during the French and Indian War (1754–1763). He held positions of command at a remarkably young age. Marriage to Martha Custis brought him great wealth. Increasingly restive under British taxation and trade restrictions, Washington took a leading role in the nascent revolutionary movement after British regulars killed colonists and seized private property at the battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts in April 1775. As commander in chief, he led American forces for the entire eight-year war, losing more battles than he won but managing to keep the army together under the most difficult circumstances. By the middle of the war, he was already hailed as the "Father of His Country." His enormous prestige after the war led to his being chosen to lead the Constitutional Convention and to his election as first president.
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/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786), founder of the University of Virginia (1819), governor of Virginia (1779–1781), and third president of the United States (1801–1809). Born at Shadwell, his parents' estate in Albemarle County, he attended the College of William and Mary and studied the law under the tutelage of George Wythe. In 1769, Jefferson began construction of Monticello, his home in Albemarle County, and for the rest of his life pursued an interest in architecture, which included design of Poplar Forest and the State Capitol. Jefferson also indulged a passion for science, serving as president of the American Philosophical Society (1797–1814) and publishing Notes on the State of Virginia (1795). After representing Albemarle County in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), Jefferson was a delegate to Virginia's five Revolutionary Conventions and served in the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776) and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He earned a reputation during the American Revolution (1775–1783) as a forceful advocate of revolutionary principles, articulated in A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774), the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking Up Arms (1775), and, most famously, the Declaration of Independence, approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. His two terms as governor were marked by British invasion and Jefferson's controversial flight to Poplar Forest. From 1784 to 1789, he served as a diplomat in France and there may have begun a sexual relationship with his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Jefferson served as secretary of state in the administration of George Washington (1790–1793) and as vice president under John Adams (1797–1801) before being elected president by the U.S. House of Representatives after a tie vote in the Electoral College. As president Jefferson arranged for the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the subsequent Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806). With James Madison, Jefferson helped found the Republican Party and advocated for states' rights and a small federal government, although as president he sometimes pushed the limits of his executive authority. In his retirement he founded the University of Virginia, which was chartered in 1819 and opened for classes in the spring of 1825. Jefferson died at Monticello on July 4, 1826, fifty years after the Declaration of Independence was approved. He is buried at Monticello.
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/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Cary_amp_Co_May_1_1759 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:14:09 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Robert Cary & Co. (May 1, 1759)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Cary_amp_Co_May_1_1759 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:14:09 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Augustine_Washington_July_18_1755 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:08:18 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Augustine Washington (July 18, 1755)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Augustine_Washington_July_18_1755 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:08:18 EST]]> /Letter_from_John_Robinson_to_George_Washington_September_15_1754 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:06:30 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Robinson to George Washington (September 15, 1754)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Robinson_to_George_Washington_September_15_1754 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:06:30 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Augustine_Washington_May_31_1754 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:05:03 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Augustine Washington (May 31, 1754)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Augustine_Washington_May_31_1754 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:05:03 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_David_Humphreys_July_25_1785 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:02:00 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to David Humphreys (July 25, 1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_David_Humphreys_July_25_1785 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:02:00 EST]]> /Letter_from_John_Adams_to_Benjamin_Rush_April_22_1812 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 16:51:31 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Adams to Benjamin Rush (April 22, 1812)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Adams_to_Benjamin_Rush_April_22_1812 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 16:51:31 EST]]> /Tyler_John_1790-1862 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:54:20 EST <![CDATA[Tyler, John (1790–1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tyler_John_1790-1862 John Tyler was the tenth president of the United States. The son of a Virginia governor, Tyler had already been a member of the House of Delegates and the Council of State before being elected to Congress in 1816. After serving as governor of Virginia, the assembly elected him to the United States Senate. A slaveholder and Democrat, he supported states' rights and limited government. He broke with Andrew Jackson early in the 1830s over what he viewed as an alarming increase in federal power. Tyler joined the Whig Party and won the vice presidency in 1840 on a ticket with William Henry Harrison. Following Harrison's death in April 1841, Tyler became the first vice president to assume office after the death of the chief executive. His support of states' rights clashed with his party's prevailing belief in a stronger government, nearly causing the collapse of his administration. Tyler found some success in foreign affairs, but he left the White House in 1845 unpopular and expelled from the Whig Party. As the secession crisis intensified early in 1861, Tyler presided over the ill-fated Peace Conference to head off armed conflict. He served as a delegate to the Virginia convention that addressed the state's response to the crisis, ultimately voting for secession in April 1861. The following November Tyler won election to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before his term began.
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/Archaeology_at_Mount_Vernon Fri, 01 Apr 2016 08:27:02 EST <![CDATA[Mount Vernon, Archaeology at]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Archaeology_at_Mount_Vernon Archaeology at Mount Vernon, the Fairfax County plantation home of George Washington, began in the 1930s and has continued over the subsequent decades. As part of research and renovation efforts undertaken by the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, excavations have sought to uncover evidence of daily life on the property during the eighteenth century. In 1987, the association, which has owned and operated the estate since 1860, hired a full-time archaeologist. Since then, archaeological digs at the Mansion House Farm have taken place at the main slave quarter, known as the House for Families, and the blacksmith shop (1987–1990), the fruit garden and nursery (1988–1991), the South Grove trash dump, or midden (1990–1993), the dung repository (1992–1994), and the Upper Garden (2005–2010). Extensive work has also been conducted at the distillery, located near the outlying gristmill (1999–2005). These investigations have turned up a rich array of artifacts and other kinds of evidence attesting to the lives of the Washington family and their enslaved laborers, including the size and nature of structures in which they lived and worked, the tools they manufactured and used, and the foods they ate.
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/Letter_from_Anthony_Whitting_to_George_Washington_January_16_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:37:14 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Anthony Whitting to George Washington (January 16, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Anthony_Whitting_to_George_Washington_January_16_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:37:14 EST]]> /Enclosure_Poem_by_Phillis_Wheatley_October_26_1775 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:35:54 EST <![CDATA[Enclosure: Poem by Phillis Wheatley (October 26, 1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Enclosure_Poem_by_Phillis_Wheatley_October_26_1775 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:35:54 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_December_23_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:34:10 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (December 23, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_December_23_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:34:10 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_January_20_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:28:10 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Anthony Whitting (January 20, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_January_20_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:28:10 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_May_19_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:26:18 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Anthony Whitting (May 19, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_May_19_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:26:18 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_March_30_1794 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:24:58 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (March 30, 1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_March_30_1794 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:24:58 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_January_26_1794 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:23:20 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (January 26, 1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_January_26_1794 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:23:20 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_December_23_1792 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:21:17 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Anthony Whitting (December 23, 1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_December_23_1792 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:21:17 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_December_18_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:19:19 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (December 18, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_December_18_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:19:19 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Laurens_July_10_1782 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:15:43 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Laurens (July 10, 1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Laurens_July_10_1782 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:15:43 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Hancock_December_31_1775 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:11:53 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Hancock (December 31, 1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Hancock_December_31_1775 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:11:53 EST]]> /Newspaper_Advertisement_for_Runaway_Slaves_George_Washington_August_20_1761 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:16:54 EST <![CDATA[Newspaper Advertisement for Runaway Slaves, George Washington (August 20, 1761)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Newspaper_Advertisement_for_Runaway_Slaves_George_Washington_August_20_1761 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:16:54 EST]]> /Enclosure_Washington_s_Plans_for_His_River_Union_and_Muddy_Hole_Farms_December_10_1799 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:12:10 EST <![CDATA[Enclosure: Washington's Plans for His River, Union, and Muddy Hole Farms (December 10, 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Enclosure_Washington_s_Plans_for_His_River_Union_and_Muddy_Hole_Farms_December_10_1799 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:12:10 EST]]> /George_Washington_s_Last_Will_and_Testament_July_9_1799 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:10:37 EST <![CDATA[George Washington's Last Will and Testament (July 9, 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_Washington_s_Last_Will_and_Testament_July_9_1799 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:10:37 EST]]> /Circular_to_William_Stuart_Hiland_Crow_and_Henry_McCoy_by_George_Washington_July_14_1793 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:50:24 EST <![CDATA[Circular to William Stuart, Hiland Crow, and Henry McCoy by George Washington (July 14, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Circular_to_William_Stuart_Hiland_Crow_and_Henry_McCoy_by_George_Washington_July_14_1793 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:50:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_James_Hill_to_George_Washington_August_30_1772 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:39:38 EST <![CDATA[Letter from James Hill to George Washington (August 30, 1772)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_James_Hill_to_George_Washington_August_30_1772 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:39:38 EST]]> /Letter_from_James_Hill_to_George_Washington_December_13_1772 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:36:46 EST <![CDATA[Letter from James Hill to George Washington (December 13, 1772)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_James_Hill_to_George_Washington_December_13_1772 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:36:46 EST]]> /Letter_from_Alexander_Hamilton_to_John_Jay_March_14_1779 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:32:26 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Alexander Hamilton to John Jay (March 14, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Alexander_Hamilton_to_John_Jay_March_14_1779 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:32:26 EST]]> /An_excerpt_from_the_diary_of_George_Washington_January_28-31_1760 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:25:49 EST <![CDATA[An excerpt from the diary of George Washington (January 28–31, 1760)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_excerpt_from_the_diary_of_George_Washington_January_28-31_1760 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:25:49 EST]]> /_The_Richmond_Freedmen_from_theNew-York_Tribune_June_17_1865 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:18:24 EST <![CDATA["The Richmond Freedmen," New-York Tribune (June 17, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Richmond_Freedmen_from_theNew-York_Tribune_June_17_1865 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:18:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Joseph_Coolidge_April_12_1825 Tue, 16 Sep 2014 13:27:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Joseph Coolidge (April 12, 1825)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Joseph_Coolidge_April_12_1825 Tue, 16 Sep 2014 13:27:44 EST]]> /Grant_Ulysses_S_1822-1885 Wed, 21 May 2014 06:15:31 EST <![CDATA[Grant, Ulysses S. (1822–1885)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Grant_Ulysses_S_1822-1885 Ulysses S. Grant rose from command of an Illinois regiment to general-in-chief of all Union armies during the American Civil War (1861–1865), and served as the eighteenth president of the United States (1869–1877). Victor at important battles in the western theater, Grant arrived in Virginia in March 1864 as a newly minted lieutenant general and the military leader of all Union forces. He took the field with the Army of the Potomac rather than running the war from a desk in Washington, D.C., and provided de facto direction of that army from May 1864 until April 1865. Grant's stature as the preeminent Union general catapulted him into the White House for two terms, and his legacy, though still debated, remains that of the soldier who won the war for the Union.
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/Wilson_Woodrow_1856-1924 Fri, 02 May 2014 14:34:48 EST <![CDATA[Wilson, Woodrow (1856–1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wilson_Woodrow_1856-1924 Woodrow Wilson was president of Princeton University (1902–1910), governor of New Jersey (1911–1913), twenty-eighth president of the United States (1913–1921), and creator of the League of Nations. Although he was sometimes caricatured as a northern academic, Wilson was born in Staunton, Virginia, and considered himself to be southern. As such, he was the first southerner elected president since Zachary Taylor in 1848, and brought to the office a progressive zeal for reform, both economic and social, as well as the typical mindset of the southern white political class, which considered African Americans second-class citizens, that contributed to his decision strictly to segregate the federal workforce. He is perhaps best known for leading the United States into the World War I (1914–1918), despite an election vow to do otherwise, and for helping to negotiate the resulting Treaty of Versailles. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919.
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/Presidents_of_the_United_States_from_Virginia Tue, 17 Apr 2012 12:02:19 EST <![CDATA[Presidents of the United States from Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Presidents_of_the_United_States_from_Virginia Tue, 17 Apr 2012 12:02:19 EST]]> /United_States_Presidential_Election_of_1860 Tue, 05 Apr 2011 09:58:08 EST <![CDATA[United States Presidential Election of 1860]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/United_States_Presidential_Election_of_1860 The United States presidential election of 1860 was perhaps the most pivotal in American history. A year after John Brown's attempted slave revolt at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, the national debate over slavery had reached a boiling point, and several Southern states were threatening to secede should the Republican Party candidate, Abraham Lincoln, win. Along with its Upper South neighbors, Virginia struggled with both the perceived threat of Northern abolitionism and the fear that secession would trigger war. The four major candidates, meanwhile, reflected a political system in chaos. At its convention, the Democratic Party split into two factions, with the Northern Democrats nominating U.S. senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, a moderate on slavery, and the Southern Democrats nominating the U.S. vice president, John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky, on a proslavery, states' rights platform. After the demise of the Whig Party, many of its former members went to the Constitutional Union Party, which nominated John Bell of Tennessee and advocated compromise. The Republicans, who opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories, best exploited the circumstances, winning 180 electoral votes and 39.8 percent of the popular vote. Reflecting Virginia's moderation, however, the state was one of only three to favor Bell. In the end, Lincoln's election led directly to South Carolina's secession and the American Civil War (1861–1865).
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