Encyclopedia Virginia: Nonfiction http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Veney_Bethany_ca_1815 Wed, 13 Dec 2017 13:20:58 EST Veney, Bethany (ca. 1815­–1916) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Veney_Bethany_ca_1815 Wed, 13 Dec 2017 13:20:58 EST]]> /Beale_R_L_T_1819-1893 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 11:01:45 EST <![CDATA[Beale, R. L. T. (1819–1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beale_R_L_T_1819-1893 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 11:01:45 EST]]> /Washington_John_M_1838-1918 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:37:52 EST <![CDATA[Washington, John M. (1838–1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_John_M_1838-1918 John M. Washington was a slave in Fredericksburg who escaped to freedom during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and later wrote a narrative of his life entitled Memorys of the Past. Born in Fredericksburg, Washington spent his earliest years on an Orange County plantation where his mother had been hired out as a field laborer. Upon their return to Fredericksburg, Washington served as his owner's personal slave, remaining in that role even when his mother was hired out to a school principal in Staunton. In 1860, Washington labored in a Fredericksburg tobacco factory and then spent the next year as a waiter in Richmond. When Union troops occupied Fredericksburg in April 1862, he was tending bar in that city's Shakespeare Hotel and used the opportunity to escape to Union lines. Washington worked at the headquarters of Union general Rufus King until Union troops abandoned the city on August 31. He escaped to Washington, D.C., and was eventually joined there by his wife and newborn son, his mother, and her husband. Washington worked as a painter after the war and was active in the Baptist church. He wrote his narrative in 1873 and died at the Massachusetts home of one of his sons in 1918.
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:37:52 EST]]>
/Harland_Marion_1830-1922 Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:52:17 EST <![CDATA[Harland, Marion (1830–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harland_Marion_1830-1922 Marion Harland was a writer of novels, short stories, biographies, travel narratives, cookbooks, and domestic manuals whose career stretched across seven decades of sectional conflict and great change in American life. Harland chronicled much of that change, penning novels that suggested her own divided loyalties between North and South before establishing herself as an expert and often a sly and sarcastic commentator on the domestic arts of homemaking.
Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:52:17 EST]]>
/Broaddus_William_F_1801-1876 Tue, 16 May 2017 16:14:46 EST <![CDATA[Broaddus, William F. (1801–1876)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Broaddus_William_F_1801-1876 William F. Broaddus was a Baptist minister. Born in what would later become Rappahannock County, he was educated there and in 1824 ordained as the pastor of the F. T. Baptist Church. Two years later he moved to Frederick County and advocated the work of traveling missionaries against the opposition of those who feared they would corrupt the principles of individual salvation. Broaddus's proposal that money be raised to evangelize among the poor led the Ketocton Baptist Association to deny him a seat and the Columbia Baptist Association, at least temporarily, to bar him from its conference. Broaddus eventually moved to Kentucky, then worked as an agent raising funds for Columbian College (later George Washington University) in Washington, D.C. In 1853, he became the pastor of Fredericksburg Baptist Church. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he was briefly imprisoned by the U.S. Army as a Confederate sympathizer. From 1863 to 1868 he served as pastor of the Charlottesville Baptist Church before returning to Fredericksburg. He died there in 1876.
Tue, 16 May 2017 16:14:46 EST]]>
/Ferdinando_Fairfax_Plan_for_liberating_the_negroes_within_the_united_states_December_1_1790 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 14:06:44 EST <![CDATA[Ferdinando Fairfax, "Plan for liberating the negroes within the united states" (December 1, 1790)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ferdinando_Fairfax_Plan_for_liberating_the_negroes_within_the_united_states_December_1_1790 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 14:06:44 EST]]> /Schele_de_Vere_Maximilian_1820-1898 Wed, 26 Apr 2017 13:04:09 EST <![CDATA[Schele De Vere, Maximilian (1820–1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Schele_de_Vere_Maximilian_1820-1898 Maximilian Schele De Vere was a professor of modern languages at the University of Virginia and a founding member of the American Philological Society. Born in Sweden, likely with the surname von Scheele, he later changed his name, possibly after marrying an Irish woman named De Vere. After studying languages in Germany, Schele De Vere edited a German-language newspaper in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and then studied Greek at Harvard. In 1844, he joined the faculty at the University of Virginia, teaching there for more than fifty years. He supported the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865), serving as captain of a home guard unit. Before and after the war he published regularly, including translations, collections of essays, and textbooks. He resigned his teaching position in 1895 amid accusations he had sent libelous letters to another professor and the chair of the faculty. He also may have become addicted to morphine taken to control back pain. Schele De Vere died in Washington, D.C., in 1898.
Wed, 26 Apr 2017 13:04:09 EST]]>
/Godwyn_Preface_and_Introduction_from_The_Negro_s_and_Indians_Advocate_by_Morgan_1680 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:18:01 EST <![CDATA[Godwyn, Preface and Introduction from The Negro's and Indians Advocate by Morgan (1680)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Godwyn_Preface_and_Introduction_from_The_Negro_s_and_Indians_Advocate_by_Morgan_1680 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:18:01 EST]]> /Johnson_Excerpts_from_Twenty-Eight_Years_a_Slave_by_Thomas_L_1909 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:11:03 EST <![CDATA[Johnson, Excerpts from Twenty-Eight Years a Slave by Thomas L. (1909)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Johnson_Excerpts_from_Twenty-Eight_Years_a_Slave_by_Thomas_L_1909 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:11:03 EST]]> /Allan_William_1837-1889 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:07:19 EST <![CDATA[Allan, William (1837–1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allan_William_1837-1889 William Allan was an educator, writer, and Confederate army officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). A University of Virginia graduate, Allan served on the staff of Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and later with Jubal A. Early's Army of the Valley. After the war, at the invitation of Robert E. Lee, Allan taught mathematics at Washington College in Lexington. There he began to write about the Civil War, collaborating on a book with the mapmaker Jedediah Hotchkiss, contributing to the debates about the Battle of Gettysburg, and publishing a memoir. Allan became popular on the Lost Cause lecture circuit, and authored a history of the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1862 and the first volume of a history of the Army of Northern Virginia. In 1873, Allan became the first principal of McDonogh Institute, a private school for poor boys near Baltimore, Maryland. He died there in 1889.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:07:19 EST]]>
/Custis_George_Washington_Parke_1781-1857 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:46:27 EST <![CDATA[Custis, George Washington Parke (1781–1857)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_George_Washington_Parke_1781-1857 George Washington Parke Custis was a writer and orator who worked to preserve the legacy of their stepgrandfather, George Washington. Born in Maryland, Custis moved to Mount Vernon after the death of his father in 1781. He was expelled from college, served in the army, and lost election to the House of Delegates before moving to an inherited estate he called Arlington. In addition, Custis owned two other large plantations and property in four other counties. He promoted agricultural reform and commercial independence and disapproved of slavery on economic grounds, supporting gradual emancipation and colonization. During the War of 1812, Custis manned a battery, helped Dolley Madison save Washington's portrait at the White House, and delivered well-received orations on a variety of topics. In the years after the war, he began writing essays, often about Washington's family and career. He later turned to the penning of historical plays and operettas. Pocahontas; or, The Settlers of Virginia, from 1830, was dedicated to John Marshall and remains his most durable work. The patriotism of his plays fed into his work to preserve the legacy of his stepgrandfather. Custis curated a collection of Washington relics made available for public view and sometimes distributed as gifts. He arranged for portraits of Washington and painted his own scenes of life during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Custis died at Arlington in 1857.
Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:46:27 EST]]>
/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 Tue, 24 Jan 2017 11:11:52 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, St. George (1752–1827)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 St. George Tucker was a lawyer, teacher, poet, essayist, inventor, and judge. One of the most influential jurists and legal scholars in the early years of the United States, he sat on three courts in Virginia: the General Court (1789–1804), the Court of Appeals (1804–1811), and the U.S. District Court for the District of Virginia (and later the Eastern District of Virginia) (1813–1825). He also served as rector (1789–1790) and professor of law (1790–1804) at the College of William and Mary. His five-volume edition of Sir William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, published in 1803, was the first major treatise on American law. Born in Bermuda, Tucker studied law as an apprentice to George Wythe in Williamsburg, gaining admission to the bar in 1774. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he smuggled needed supplies into Virginia and fought under Nathanael Greene at the Battle of Guilford Court House (1781) and under George Washington at the siege of Yorktown (1781). After the war he practiced in the county courts before being elevated to a judgeship. At William and Mary, he advocated the study of law as an academic discipline, and in 1796 he published A Dissertation on Slavery, his plan to gradually abolish slavery in Virginia. The General Assembly ignored it. Tucker married twice and had five surviving children, including the jurist and congressman Henry St. George Tucker and the writer and states' rights advocate Nathaniel Beverley Tucker. He died in Nelson County in 1827.
Tue, 24 Jan 2017 11:11:52 EST]]>
/Percy_George_1580-1632_or_1633 Wed, 28 Dec 2016 16:51:13 EST <![CDATA[Percy, George (1580–1632 or 1633)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Percy_George_1580-1632_or_1633 George Percy was one of the original Jamestown settlers and the author of two important primary accounts of the colony. He served as president of the Council (1609–1610) during the Starving Time, and briefly as deputy governor (1611). Born in Sussex, England, to the eighth earl of Northumberland, Percy hailed from a family of Catholic conspirators; his father died while imprisoned in the Tower of London, his uncle was beheaded, and his older brother, the ninth earl of Northumberland, was also imprisoned. While his accounts suggest that Percy was awed by the natural beauty of Virginia, he was nevertheless overwhelmed by the many problems the first colonists faced, including hunger, disease, internal dissention, and often-difficult relations with Virginia Indians. While president of the Council, he and his fellow colonists suffered through the Starving Time, initiated in part by the Indians' siege of Jamestown at the beginning of the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614). Through support from his older brother, Percy seems to have lived in relative comfort, but he also suffered from recurring illness, finally leaving Virginia in 1612. His second account of Jamestown, A Trewe Relacyon , was written in the mid-1620s with the intention of rebutting Captain John Smith's popular version of events in the colony. Percy died in the winter of 1632–1633, leaving no will.
Wed, 28 Dec 2016 16:51:13 EST]]>
/Braxton_Carter_1736-1797 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:46:59 EST <![CDATA[Braxton, Carter (1736–1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Braxton_Carter_1736-1797 Carter Braxton was a member of the Continental Congress (1776) who supported and signed the Declaration of Independence, and of the Council of State (1786–1791; 1794–1797). Born to power—his maternal grandfather was the wealthy land and slave owner Robert "King" Carter—Braxton married it, as well, wedding first a niece of the Speaker of the House of Burgesses and then, after her death, the daughter of a member of the governor's Council. Braxton acquired large amounts of land and numbers of slaves, and he both cultivated and traded tobacco. While in the House of Burgesses (1761–1775), he served on various prestigious committees and, in May 1775, confronted Patrick Henry and a group of militiamen over their demand for reimbursement of Virginia gunpowder seized by the Crown. Braxton arranged for his father-in-law to pay for it. Although he supported independence, he published a pamphlet that challenged the democratic ideas of John Adams and, as a result, was sent home from the Continental Congress. The American Revolution (1775–1783) left Braxton virtually insolvent, but his political connections intact. He served on the Council of State, and during his second term, advised Henry, his one-time adversary and now Virginia governor. Braxton died in Richmond in 1797.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:46:59 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786), founder of the University of Virginia (1819), governor of Virginia (1779–1781), and third president of the United States (1801–1809). Born at Shadwell, his parents' estate in Albemarle County, he attended the College of William and Mary and studied the law under the tutelage of George Wythe. In 1769, Jefferson began construction of Monticello, his home in Albemarle County, and for the rest of his life pursued an interest in architecture, which included design of Poplar Forest and the State Capitol. Jefferson also indulged a passion for science, serving as president of the American Philosophical Society (1797–1814) and publishing Notes on the State of Virginia (1795). After representing Albemarle County in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), Jefferson was a delegate to Virginia's five Revolutionary Conventions and served in the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776) and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He earned a reputation during the American Revolution (1775–1783) as a forceful advocate of revolutionary principles, articulated in A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774), the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking Up Arms (1775), and, most famously, the Declaration of Independence, approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. His two terms as governor were marked by British invasion and Jefferson's controversial flight to Poplar Forest. From 1784 to 1789, he served as a diplomat in France and there may have begun a sexual relationship with his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Jefferson served as secretary of state in the administration of George Washington (1790–1793) and as vice president under John Adams (1797–1801) before being elected president by the U.S. House of Representatives after a tie vote in the Electoral College. As president Jefferson arranged for the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the subsequent Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806). With James Madison, Jefferson helped found the Republican Party and advocated for states' rights and a small federal government, although as president he sometimes pushed the limits of his executive authority. In his retirement he founded the University of Virginia, which was chartered in 1819 and opened for classes in the spring of 1825. Jefferson died at Monticello on July 4, 1826, fifty years after the Declaration of Independence was approved. He is buried at Monticello.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST]]>
/Fauquier_Francis_bap_1703-1768 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 11:20:32 EST <![CDATA[Fauquier, Francis (bap. 1703–1768)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fauquier_Francis_bap_1703-1768 Francis Fauquier served as lieutenant governor of Virginia from 1758 until his death in 1768 and during the terms of two absentee governors, John Campbell, fourth earl of Loudoun, and Sir Jeffery Amherst. Born and educated in London, Fauquier was influential in business and the arts before coming to Virginia. Beginning in the midst of the French and Indian War (1754–1763), his administration was fraught with unusual difficulties. He struggled to establish defenses against Indian raids on the frontier and to recruit and supply Virginia regiments to supplement British expeditionary forces; he worked for a compromise between colonials and English merchants over the issue of paper money; and he maintained a strong grip upon the government in the midst of the Stamp Act crisis and revelations of irregularities in the Treasurer's Office following the death of Speaker John Robinson (1705–1766). Influenced by the Enlightenment, Fauquier had a good relationship with Virginia's colonial leaders and generally promoted education. Before his death, he stipulated that the families of his slaves not be split up upon his death.
Thu, 03 Nov 2016 11:20:32 EST]]>
/_quot_The_Lynching_of_Negroes_quot_chapter_4_of_The_Negro_The_Southerner_apos_s_Problem_by_Thomas_Nelson_Page_1904 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:13:47 EST <![CDATA["The Lynching of Negroes"; chapter 4 of The Negro: The Southerner's Problem by Thomas Nelson Page (1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Lynching_of_Negroes_quot_chapter_4_of_The_Negro_The_Southerner_apos_s_Problem_by_Thomas_Nelson_Page_1904 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:13:47 EST]]> /_quot_The_Negro_and_the_Criminal_Law_quot_chapter_6_of_The_Plantation_Negro_as_Freeman_by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1889 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:47:42 EST <![CDATA["The Negro and the Criminal Law"; chapter 6 of The Plantation Negro as Freeman by Philip Alexander Bruce (1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Negro_and_the_Criminal_Law_quot_chapter_6_of_The_Plantation_Negro_as_Freeman_by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1889 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:47:42 EST]]> /Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_Refugee_gt_1856 Fri, 28 Oct 2016 10:59:11 EST <![CDATA[Arrivals from Virginia; an excerpt from The Refugee (1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_Refugee_gt_1856 Fri, 28 Oct 2016 10:59:11 EST]]> /The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_Thomas_R_Gray_1832 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:21:31 EST <![CDATA[The Confessions of Nat Turner by Thomas R. Gray (1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_Thomas_R_Gray_1832 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:21:31 EST]]> /Davis_John_A_G_1802-1840 Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:16:53 EST <![CDATA[Davis, John A. G. (1802–1840)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_John_A_G_1802-1840 John A. G. Davis was a law professor at the University of Virginia who was murdered there by a student. Born in Middlesex County, Davis attended the College of William and Mary and then, after marrying a grandniece of Thomas Jefferson, the recently founded University of Virginia. He established a law practice in Albemarle County, helped found a newspaper, and then, in 1830, joined the University of Virginia's faculty as a professor of law. In his publications, Davis defended states' rights and limited government, supporting nullification in 1832. A popular but strict professor, he used his role as faculty chairman in 1836 to help expel about seventy student-militia members, leading to a riot. Four years later, on the anniversary of that riot, two students in masks shot off their weapons outside Davis's residence, Pavilion X. When Davis confronted them, one of the students, Joseph G. Semmes, shot the professor dead. Semmes fled the state and later committed suicide. Davis died two days later, and his murder helped finally to calm years of misbehavior among the university's students.
Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:16:53 EST]]>
/Callender_James_Thomson_1757_or_1758-1803 Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:13:42 EST <![CDATA[Callender, James Thomson (1757 or 1758–1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Callender_James_Thomson_1757_or_1758-1803 James Thomson Callender was a partisan journalist known for attacking Federalists but also his one-time Republican ally, Thomas Jefferson. Born in Scotland, Callender was a Scottish nationalist who published pamphlets critical of the British government. When a warrant was issued for his arrest, he fled first to Ireland and then, in 1793, to Philadelphia. There he wrote newspaper items critical of the administrations of George Washington and John Adams and a pamphlet that exposed an extramarital affair by Alexander Hamilton. After the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798, Callender, who had moved to Richmond by this time, published another pamphlet critical of President Adams. In the spring of 1800 he was tried and convicted of sedition in Richmond and served nine months in jail. When Jefferson was elected president in 1801, Callender expected to be rewarded with a political position. When he was not, he turned on his former ally, accusing the president of having fathered children by his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Callender purchased part ownership of the Richmond Recorder newspaper, but quit after quarrels with his coeditor. He accidentally drowned in the James River in 1803.
Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:13:42 EST]]>
/Blair_James_ca_1655-1743 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:10:35 EST <![CDATA[Blair, James (ca. 1655–1743)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_James_ca_1655-1743 James Blair was an Anglican minister, a notoriously combative member of the governor's Council (1694–1695; 1696–1697; 1701–1743) who worked successfully to have three governors removed, and, with Francis Nicholson, the cofounder of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg. Born and educated in Edinburgh, Scotland, Blair came to Virginia in 1685 as rector of Henrico Parish. He married, acquired land, and in 1689 became commissary, or the Anglican bishop's representative in America. Blair's clerical convocations in 1690, 1705, and 1719 were notoriously rancorous in part due to his tendency to sympathize more with the laity than his fellow clerics; however, the 1690 meeting proved especially significant for Blair's "Seven Propositions," which led to the founding of the College of William and Mary. As president for life, Blair secured funding and overcame powerful opposition from men like Virginia governor Sir Edmund Andros. In the meantime, Blair consolidated his own power by becoming rector of James City Parish in Williamsburg, and in 1698 he successfully fought to have Andros removed. Over the years, Blair did the same to two more governors while continually expanding his college. By the 1720s he had rebuilt the school after a fire; housed an Indian school, chapel, library, and president's house; drafted the first college statutes; hired the first full-time faculty; and transferred the original charter to the president and masters. Blair died in Williamsburg in 1743.
Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:10:35 EST]]>
/Davis_Henry_Jackson_1882-1947 Fri, 08 Jul 2016 15:25:38 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Jackson (1882–1947)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Henry_Jackson_1882-1947 Jackson Davis was an educator, educational advisor, and foundation director who served as an important intermediary between African American schools in the South and philanthropic foundations in the North. Throughout his career, he specialized in education in the South, interracial issues, and educational development in the Belgian Congo and Liberia. As a field agent for the General Education Board, Davis worked on behalf of better relations and understanding between whites and African Americans and pioneered the development and promotion of regional centers of education in the South. Davis's relatively moderate position on race relations, however, did not extend to desegregation of public schools.
Fri, 08 Jul 2016 15:25:38 EST]]>
/Langston_John_Mercer_1829-1897 Fri, 08 Jul 2016 13:14:58 EST <![CDATA[Langston, John Mercer (1829–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Langston_John_Mercer_1829-1897 John Mercer Langston served as Virginia's first African American member of Congress (1890–1891) and as the first president of Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Virginia State University). The son of a white Louisa County planter and the woman he freed, Langston grew up in Ohio, where, as an attorney and local office holder, he helped recruit African American troops during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After the war, his involvement with the Freedmen's Bureau as inspector of schools brought him back to Virginia. In 1870 Langston became dean of Howard University's law school and served as acting president of the university from 1873 until 1875. In 1885, the Virginia State Board of Education named Langston president of the new Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute. The new school grew under his leadership, but the Democrat-packed board of visitors did not renew his contract two years later. In 1888 he sought the Republican nomination for Congress, but party leader William Mahone engineered his defeat. Langston ran an independent campaign in which a Democrat was named the winner. Langston disputed the election results, however, and eventually Congress seated him for the final months of his term. He lost reelection and returned to Washington, D.C., where he published an autobiography. He died in Washington in 1897.
Fri, 08 Jul 2016 13:14:58 EST]]>
/Boyle_Sarah_Patton_1906-1994 Mon, 09 May 2016 12:46:07 EST <![CDATA[Boyle, Sarah-Patton (1906–1994)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boyle_Sarah_Patton_1906-1994 Sarah-Patton Boyle was one of Virginia's most prominent white civil rights activists during the 1950s and 1960s and author of the widely acclaimed autobiography The Desegregated Heart: A Virginian's Stand in Time of Transition (1962). Her desegregation efforts began in 1950 when she wrote to Gregory Swanson welcoming him as the University of Virginia's first black law student. Through her experience with Swanson, her views on desegregation evolved from being a proponent of gradual desegregation to a leading and often controversial white voice for immediate desegregation in public schools and in higher education. Her 1955 article for the Saturday Evening Post, titled "Southerners Will Like Integration," prompted a fierce backlash that included having a cross burned in her Charlottesville yard. Boyle did not moderate her views, however, and worked closely with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), earning praise from Martin Luther King Jr., Lillian Smith, and others, as well as numerous awards and a measure of national fame. The intensity of her political involvement triggered a deep depression, however, and she eventually became disillusioned with the civil rights movement, retiring from activism in 1967. In 1983, she authored a memoir that contemplated her experience dealing with age discrimination.
Mon, 09 May 2016 12:46:07 EST]]>
/Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_1785 Fri, 06 May 2016 12:34:19 EST <![CDATA[Notes on the State of Virginia (1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_1785 Notes on the State of Virginia, by Thomas Jefferson, is at once a compendium of information about the state and a sweeping commentary on natural history, society, politics, education, religion, slavery, liberty, and law. Many consider it the most important American book written before 1800. Jefferson originally composed the work in 1781 in answer to queries posed by a French diplomat, and then revised and expanded it into a description and defense of the young United States as interpreted through a Virginia lens. The book is divided into twenty-three chapters, largely taken from the diplomat's queries, though Jefferson reordered and renumbered them. Notes was first published in Paris in 1785 in an edition of 200. Both a French translation, published in 1786, and the widely circulated London edition of 1787 incorporated important structural changes and a detailed map. Notes on the State of Virginia wrested the interpretation of the young American nation from European critics and intellectuals and offered an eloquent indigenous voice. It profoundly influenced European understanding of the United States, as well as American views of Virginia. It established Jefferson's international reputation as a serious scientist, a man of letters, and the principal spokesman for his "country," whether Virginia or the United States; his discursive text, ranging over the entire continent, implicitly blurred the distinction between the two. As the most detailed and influential portrait of any state or region of the United States for generations, Notes ensured that Virginia would be a primary focus of future studies of the American republic. The book contains Jefferson's most powerful indictments of slavery; it is also a foundational text of racism.
Fri, 06 May 2016 12:34:19 EST]]>
/Farmer_Frances_1909-1993 Mon, 02 May 2016 16:05:42 EST <![CDATA[Farmer, Frances (1909–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farmer_Frances_1909-1993 Frances Farmer was a law librarian and the first female law professor at the University of Virginia. Born in Charlotte County, Farmer studied history and then law before becoming a law librarian at the University of Richmond in 1938 and the University of Virginia in 1942. She took charge of cataloguing and then greatly expanding the School of Law's collection, helping to develop the school's alumni association as a fund-raising tool. In 1959, she served a one-year term as president of the American Association of Law Libraries. Four years later she was elected to the general faculty and, in 1969, made a full professor. During her tenure the law library grew from fewer than 40,000 to more than 300,000 volumes. Farmer retired in 1976 and died in 1993.
Mon, 02 May 2016 16:05:42 EST]]>
/Ruffner_William_H_1824-1908 Fri, 29 Apr 2016 15:56:36 EST <![CDATA[Ruffner, William Henry (1824–1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ruffner_William_H_1824-1908 William Henry Ruffner was the designer and first superintendent of Virginia's public school system and later served as principal of the State Female Normal School (later Longwood University). Born in Lexington and a graduate of Washington College (later Washington and Lee University), he spent the years before the American Civil War (1861–1865) as a Presbyterian minister and farmer in Rockingham County. Ruffner owned slaves, and he advocated the gradual emancipation and colonization of the state's African Americans. He raised funds for the American Colonization Society. After the Constitution of 1869 mandated the creation of public schools, the General Assembly elected Ruffner the state's first superintendent of public instruction. During his twelve-year tenure Ruffner gave Virginia's public school system a lasting foundation and as he defended the system from vigorous opposition and the shortfalls generated by the state's crippling debt. In 1884 he became principal of the new State Female Normal School, where he served for three years. Ruffner spent his later years teaching geology, writing about the history of Washington and Lee University, and advocating the school system he helped create. He died at his daughter's home in Asheville, North Carolina, in 1908.
Fri, 29 Apr 2016 15:56:36 EST]]>
/Dunglison_Robley_1798-1869 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:30:09 EST <![CDATA[Dunglison, Robley (1798–1869)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dunglison_Robley_1798-1869 Robley Dunglison was a medical educator and an author who was among the first faculty members of the University of Virginia. Born in England, he studied medicine in London, Edinburgh, Paris, and Germany, but found himself bored with general practice. In 1824 he accepted an offer to teach at the newly founded University of Virginia, becoming the first professional full-time professor of medicine in the United States. (Most professors also practiced medicine, but Dunglison's contract prohibited it.) He also served as Thomas Jefferson's consulting physician and attended the former president's death at Monticello in 1826. While in Charlottesville, Dunglison published his landmark work, Human Physiology (1832), and a medical dictionary. He taught at Virginia for nine years before accepting a position at the University of Maryland and then, three years after that, at Jefferson Medical College, in Philadelphia, where he stayed for the rest of his career. Dunglison died in 1853.
Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:30:09 EST]]>
/Bruce_Philip_Alexander_1856-1933 Thu, 14 Apr 2016 16:26:30 EST <![CDATA[Bruce, Philip Alexander (1856–1933)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bruce_Philip_Alexander_1856-1933 Philip Alexander Bruce was a historian whose five-volume account of seventeenth-century Virginia history continues to be cited as an important work of scholarship. Born in Charlotte County into an accomplished family, Bruce studied law at the University of Virginia and at Harvard but found his calling in scholarship. He wrote briefly for the Richmond Times before joining the Virginia Historical Society and, in 1893, helping to found its quarterly journal, the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. Her served as the magazine's first editor from 1893 until 1898. Bruce's own work often focused on social and economic history, seeking the origins of the New South while often marginalizing African Americans. His five volumes on seventeenth-century Virginia, published between 1896 and 1910, included two on economic history, one on social life, and two on institutions such as the church, the courts, and the General Assembly. Bruce also served as the University of Virginia's centennial historian, writing a five-volume history of the school's founding and first hundred years. He died in 1933 at his home in Charlottesville.
Thu, 14 Apr 2016 16:26:30 EST]]>
/Cocke_John_Hartwell_1780-1866 Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:41:33 EST <![CDATA[Cocke, John Hartwell (1780–1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cocke_John_Hartwell_1780-1866 John Hartwell Cocke was a farmer whose plantation, Bremo, in Fluvanna County, was both architecturally and scientifically innovative. He also was a reformer who advocated temperance, the end of tobacco production in central Virginia, and the colonization of the state's slaves. Closely involved with the founding of the University of Virginia, he served on the school's board of visitors from 1819 until 1856. Born in Surry County, Cocke inherited Bremo and moved to the estate in 1809. There he worked out new methods of scientific farming and helped to found the Agricultural Society of Albemarle. He designed, or helped to design, various parts of Bremo, as well as buildings elsewhere in Fluvanna County. After the death of his first wife in 1816, Cocke embraced evangelical Christianity, which informed his work on behalf of temperance causes—he served as president of state and national temperance unions—and against the cultivation of tobacco. Despite owning slaves himself, he thought slavery to be against God's will and argued that removing African Americans to Africa was the best solution to the institution's various evils. Cocke's opposition to abolitionism and his support of the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865) caused his views to become pro-slavery over time. He died at Bremo in 1866.
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:41:33 EST]]>
/Jennings_Paul_1799-1874 Wed, 03 Feb 2016 08:16:04 EST <![CDATA[Jennings, Paul (1799–1874)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jennings_Paul_1799-1874 Paul Jennings is the author of A Colored Man's Reminiscences of James Madison (1865), a memoir about his service as an enslaved footman in the White House. Born at the Madison plantation, Montpelier, Jennings lived in the president's house during James Madison's two terms as president and, in his narrative, recounts his role in rescuing Gilbert Stuart's 1796 portrait of George Washington before the arrival of British soldiers during the War of 1812. His version of these events gives Dolley Madison a less prominent role than most subsequent histories. Jennings served James Madison until the former president's death in 1836, after which Jennings lived at Dolley Madison's in Washington, D.C. For a time he worked in the White House again, for President James K. Polk. Madison sold Jennings in 1846, and six months later, Senator Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, purchased and freed Jennings, who then went to work for Webster. In 1848, Jennings was involved in the Pearl incident, a plot to smuggle seventy-seven slaves to freedom aboard the schooner Pearl. The plot was betrayed and the slaves captured, but the authorities never learned of Jennings's involvement. In January 1863, while working for the federal Department of the Interior, Jennings published his memoir in a magazine with the help of John Brooks Russell, a clerk in his office. The Reminiscences were privately published in book form in 1865. Jennings married three times and fathered five children. He died at his home in Washington, D.C., in 1874.
Wed, 03 Feb 2016 08:16:04 EST]]>
/Hamor_Ralph_bap_1589-by_October_11_1626 Thu, 28 Jan 2016 16:40:19 EST <![CDATA[Hamor, Ralph (bap. 1589–by October 11, 1626)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hamor_Ralph_bap_1589-by_October_11_1626 Ralph Hamor was a secretary of the Virginia colony, member of the governor's Council, and author of A True Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia (1615). Baptized Raphe Hamor, he used that given name his entire life, although later references to him most often used a modernized spelling. Hamor was educated at Oxford and possibly Cambridge, and soon became involved in the Virginia Company of London, sailing to the colony in 1609. He served as its secretary until June 1614, when he likely returned to London. There he wrote A True Discourse, which offered the first published account of the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, as well as Rolfe's cultivation of tobacco, the martial administration of Sir Thomas Dale, and the establishment of the city of Henrico. As such, Hamor's book became an essential source for understanding Virginia, both then and now. He returned to Virginia in 1617 and prospered, joining the governor's Council in 1621, surviving the Indian attacks of 1622, and subsequently participating in the sometimes violent interactions with Virginia Indians that constituted the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632). He was tangentially involved in some of the controversy that surrounded the demise of the Virginia Company and remained on the Council until his death in 1626.
Thu, 28 Jan 2016 16:40:19 EST]]>
/Dillard_James_Hardy_1856-1940 Wed, 20 Jan 2016 09:54:09 EST <![CDATA[Dillard, J. H. (1856–1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dillard_James_Hardy_1856-1940 J. H. Dillard was an educator and reformer who, early in the twentieth century, became the best-known and most-active white proponents of improved educational opportunities for African Americans in the South. Born either in Southampton County or Nansemond County, he studied law before becoming a teacher. In 1894, he became a dean at Tulane University, in New Orleans. In 1908, he was elected president of the board of the Anna T. Jeanes Foundation, established to help the education of African Americans in the South by paying teacher salaries and investing in buildings and equipment. He returned to Virginia in 1913, working for the Jeanes Fund and as the president of the John F. Slater Fund, which had a similar mission, until he resigned both positions in 1931. By this time, the South had 305 so-called Jeanes teachers in fourteen states, with Virginia claiming more teachers than any other state. Dillard engaged in other work on behalf of interracial cooperation, establishing the University Commission on Southern Race Questions in 1912. In 1930, two historically black universities in New Orleans combined to form Dillard University, named in his honor. Dillard died at his home in Charlottesville in 1940.
Wed, 20 Jan 2016 09:54:09 EST]]>
/Byrd_William_1674-1744 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 09:22:29 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, William (1674–1744)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_William_1674-1744 William Byrd, sometimes referred to as William Byrd II of Westover to distinguish him from relatives of the same name, was a planter, a surveyor, a member of the governor's Council (1709–1744), and a man of letters. Born in Virginia, Byrd was educated and practiced law in England. He returned to Virginia in 1705, after the death of his father. Shortly afterward he was appointed to the governor's Council, and in the 1720s he served as the London agent of the House of Burgesses. He helped survey the boundary between Virginia and North Carolina and established the town of Richmond on the north side of the James River. He was also a prolific writer, and is perhaps best known today for his diaries and the manuscript narratives of his surveying, both of which are frequently anthologized in textbooks of American literature. Byrd typified both the values of British colonial gentry and the ethos of an emerging American identity invested in the improvement of the self and of the colonial commonwealth.
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 09:22:29 EST]]>
/Rolfe_John_d_1622 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:30:10 EST <![CDATA[Rolfe, John (d. 1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rolfe_John_d_1622 John Rolfe served as secretary and recorder general of Virginia (1614–1619) and as a member of the governor's Council (1614–1622). He is best known for having married Pocahontas in 1614 and for being the first to cultivate marketable tobacco in Virginia. Joined by his first wife, whose name is unknown, Rolfe sailed on the Sea Venture, a Virginia-bound ship that wrecked off the islands of Bermuda in 1609. There his wife gave birth to a daughter, but mother and child soon died. In Virginia, Rolfe turned to experimenting with tobacco, a plant first brought to England from Florida. The Virginia Indians planted a variety that was harsh to English smokers, so Rolfe developed a Spanish West Indies seed, Nicotiana tabacum, that became profitable and, indeed, transformed the colony's economy. In 1614, Rolfe married Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco. The marriage helped bring an end to the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614), but Pocahontas died in 1617 while visiting England with Rolfe and their son, Thomas. While in England, Rolfe penned A True Relation of the state of Virginia Lefte by Sir Thomas Dale Knight in May Last 1616 (1617), promoting the interests of the Virginia Company of London. Back in Virginia, he married Joane Peirce about 1619 and had a daughter, Elizabeth. He died in 1622.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:30:10 EST]]>
/Bowden_Thomas_Russell_1841-1893 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:59:56 EST <![CDATA[Bowden, Thomas R. (1841–1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowden_Thomas_Russell_1841-1893 Thomas R. Bowden served as Virginia's attorney general from 1863 to 1869, first under the Restored government of Virginia and then, after the American Civil War (1861–1865), under the postwar government of Virginia. Bowden was a member of a prominent Unionist family in Williamsburg that left the town along with Union troops in 1862. The next year he won election as attorney general for the part of Virginia recognized by the United States. When the Confederacy collapsed in Virginia, he moved to Richmond and served as attorney general for the state. He and the rest of the Republican ticket lost in 1869 and soon thereafter he moved to Washington, D.C. He died in 1893.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:59:56 EST]]>
/Blair_Lewis_Harvie_1834-1916 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:37:15 EST <![CDATA[Blair, Lewis H. (1834–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_Lewis_Harvie_1834-1916 Lewis . Blair, a Richmond businessman and economics expert, authored The Prosperity of the South Dependent upon the Elevation of the Negro (1889), a book that called on white southerners to treat African Americans with respect and offer them quality education. Blair hailed from a prominent family and worked as an army clerk in Texas and Michigan and a dry goods clerk in Richmond. His record during the American Civil War (1861–1865) was undistinguished, but after the conflict he excelled in business. Blair started a grocery business in Richmond and owned one of the largest real-estate businesses in the city. In addition, he became a respected writer on economic issues and was outspoken on the question of race relations. In Blair's mind, the two were related: the fair treatment and education of African Americans would improve the economic outlook of the South. Such views were more well received nationally than in Richmond, and in later years Blair reversed his stance, arguing that blacks should be subordinate to whites. He wrote privately that this change was the result of "experience and observation." Blair married twice and died in Richmond in 1916. He is buried in Hollywood Cemetery.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:37:15 EST]]>
/Barr_Stringfellow_1897-1982 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:42:27 EST <![CDATA[Barr, Stringfellow (1897–1982)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barr_Stringfellow_1897-1982 Stringfellow Barr was an author and educator who, while teaching at St. John's College in Annapolis, Maryland, helped to create the Great Books curriculum, which introduced college students to the Western literary canon. He taught at the University of Virginia (1924–1937), edited the Virginia Quarterly Review (1931–1937), and taught classics at Rutgers University.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:42:27 EST]]>
/Pickett_LaSalle_Corbell_1843-1931 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:35:25 EST <![CDATA[Pickett, LaSalle Corbell (1843–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pickett_LaSalle_Corbell_1843-1931 LaSalle Corbell Pickett was a prolific author and lecturer, and the third wife of George E. Pickett, the Confederate general best known for his participation in the doomed frontal assault known as Pickett's Charge during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After her husband's death in 1875, she traveled the country to promote a highly romanticized version of his life and military career that was generally at odds with the historical record. George Pickett emerged from the war with a strained relationship with Robert E. Lee—whom he partly blamed for the destruction of his division at Gettysburg (1863)—and accused of war crimes. But in his wife's history, Pickett and His Men (1899), this not-always-competent soldier was transformed into the ideal Lost Cause hero, "gallant and graceful as a knight of chivalry riding to a tournament." This image largely stuck in the American consciousness, leaving historians to spend much of the next century attempting to separate Pickett from his myth.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:35:25 EST]]>
/_The_Quakers_an_excerpt_from_A_Key_toUncle_Tom_s_Cabin_1896 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:46:39 EST <![CDATA["The Quakers"; an excerpt from A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin (1896)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Quakers_an_excerpt_from_A_Key_toUncle_Tom_s_Cabin_1896 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:46:39 EST]]> /The_Duties_of_Servants_and_Masters_an_excerpt_from_The_Whole_Duty_of_Man_1658 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:27:55 EST <![CDATA[The Duties of Servants and Masters; an excerpt from The Whole Duty of Man (1658)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Duties_of_Servants_and_Masters_an_excerpt_from_The_Whole_Duty_of_Man_1658 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:27:55 EST]]> /Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Still_s_Underground_Rail_Road_Records_1886 Wed, 14 Oct 2015 15:49:07 EST <![CDATA[Arrivals from Virginia; an excerpt from Still's Underground Rail Road Records (1886)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Still_s_Underground_Rail_Road_Records_1886 Wed, 14 Oct 2015 15:49:07 EST]]> /Bland_Edward_bap_1614-1652 Fri, 09 Oct 2015 14:52:21 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Edward (bap. 1614–1652)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Edward_bap_1614-1652 Fri, 09 Oct 2015 14:52:21 EST]]> /Strachey_William_1572-1621 Mon, 21 Sep 2015 10:18:10 EST <![CDATA[Strachey, William (1572–1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Strachey_William_1572-1621 William Strachey was a member of the Virginia Council, served as secretary and recorder for the colony from 1610 until 1611, and was one of the first historians of the Jamestown settlement. Educated at Cambridge and Gray's Inn, he wrote verse and befriended poets Ben Jonson and John Donne before serving a brief stint as secretary to the English ambassador at Constantinople (1606–1607). Strachey then returned to England, purchased two shares in the Virginia Company of London, and in 1609 sailed on the Sea Venture, the flagship of a resupply fleet bound for the colony. When a storm ran the ship aground on the Bermudas, he and his shipmates were stranded for nearly a year, but eventually managed to construct two small vessels, Patience and Deliverance, and arrived at Jamestown in May 1610. Strachey's account of the adventure, published in 1625 as A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates Knight, probably had served, years earlier, as source material for William Shakespeare's play The Tempest. In Virginia, Strachey was appointed to the Council and made its secretary and recorder, in which capacity the company requested that he produce an extensive account of the colony and its future prospects. When he completed The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia in 1612, the company declined to publish it. In the years since, however, it has become one of the most important sources of information on early Virginia Indian society, politics, and religion. Strachey died in poverty in London in 1621.
Mon, 21 Sep 2015 10:18:10 EST]]>
/Chapter_II_an_excerpt_from_Twelve_Years_a_Slave_1855 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:45:39 EST <![CDATA[Chapter II; an excerpt from Twelve Years a Slave (1855)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_II_an_excerpt_from_Twelve_Years_a_Slave_1855 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:45:39 EST]]> /Chapter_VII_an_excerpt_from_the_Narrative_of_the_Life_of_Henry_Box_Brown_1851 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 12:29:43 EST <![CDATA[Chapter VII; an excerpt from the Narrative of the Life of Henry Box Brown (1851)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_VII_an_excerpt_from_the_Narrative_of_the_Life_of_Henry_Box_Brown_1851 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 12:29:43 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_Reminiscences_of_Levi_Coffin_1880 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 12:19:30 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from Reminiscences of Levi Coffin (1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_Reminiscences_of_Levi_Coffin_1880 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 12:19:30 EST]]> /Archer_Gabriel_ca_1574-ca_1610 Mon, 10 Aug 2015 12:26:57 EST <![CDATA[Archer, Gabriel (ca. 1574–ca. 1610)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Archer_Gabriel_ca_1574-ca_1610 Gabriel Archer chronicled an expedition to New England in 1602 and was among the first settlers of the Virginia colony at Jamestown in 1607. Probably born in Essex County, England, Archer attended Cambridge University. In 1602, he joined Bartholomew Gosnold in exploring Cape Cod, or what was then known as North Virginia, and his account of the trip was published posthumously in 1625. It is the first detailed English account of any part of New England. Five years later Archer was wounded in an attack by Virginia Indians upon first landing on the James River, but soon recovered. He joined Christopher Newport in exploring up the river, writing a narrative of that expedition, too. When John Smith returned from captivity among the Indians, Archer sought his execution but Newport intervened in Smith's favor. Archer returned to England not long after. A second stint in Virginia began in 1609 and included more conflict with Smith, who left the colony in the autumn of 1609. Archer died sometime that winter during the so-called Starving Time.
Mon, 10 Aug 2015 12:26:57 EST]]>
/Davis_D_Webster_1862-1913 Mon, 27 Jul 2015 15:02:28 EST <![CDATA[Davis, D. Webster (1862–1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_D_Webster_1862-1913 D. Webster Davis was a teacher, poet, and lecturer in Richmond and Manchester. Born into slavery, Davis became a teacher in 1879, working in Richmond public schools for thirty-three years. In 1896 he was ordained a pastor. He also worked as an editor in the 1890s, but his literary ambitions centered mostly on poetry. His first collection was published in 1895 and a second two years later. Literary scholars have criticized his work for perpetuating racial stereotypes, but some argue that, read in context, the works illustrate the complicated position of the first generation of free, educated African Americans. Davis also became a popular lecturer, incorporating his poems into speeches. His notoriety augmented his position within Richmond and Manchester's African American communities, where he held a series of leadership positions. Schools in Richmond and Staunton, as well as Virginia State University, named buildings in honor of Davis, and several Richmond city schools closed on the day of his funeral in 1913.
Mon, 27 Jul 2015 15:02:28 EST]]>
/Massey_John_E_1819-1901 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:52:08 EST <![CDATA[Massey, John E. (1819–1901)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Massey_John_E_1819-1901 John E. Massey served as the lieutenant governor of Virginia (1886–1890), a member of the General Assembly (1873­–1879), and an influential member of two Virginia political parties. Born in Spotsylvania County, he served as a Baptist minister before the American Civil War (1861–1865), earning him the nickname Parson Massey. He won election to the General Assembly in 1873 as a Conservative, but joined the new Readjuster Party in 1879. After he lost his seat in the Senate, the Readjusters appointed Massey auditor of public accounts in 1879. He broke with Readjuster leader William Mahone in 1882 and the next year Massey helped revive the Democratic Party. As part of a Democratic sweep in 1885, Massey won election as lieutenant governor, supporting the disfranchisement of African Americans. In 1889 the assembly voted him to the first of two terms as state superintendent of public instruction. During his tenure, he promoted summer teacher training institutes but endorsed a proposal that would limit already meager appropriations for African American schools. He selected the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University) as the site for a state-supported summer normal institutes for teacher education. He remained active in the Baptist Church throughout his life, supported the temperance movement, and died on April 24, 1901, in Charlottesville, after having been elected to the upcoming constitutional convention.
Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:52:08 EST]]>
/Chapter_28_quot_Chancellor_Wythe_apos_s_Death_quot_an_excerpt_from_The_Two_Parsons_by_George_Wythe_Munford_1884 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 12:58:17 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 28: "Chancellor Wythe's Death"; an excerpt from The Two Parsons by George Wythe Munford (1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_28_quot_Chancellor_Wythe_apos_s_Death_quot_an_excerpt_from_The_Two_Parsons_by_George_Wythe_Munford_1884 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 12:58:17 EST]]> /Cooke_Giles_Buckner_1838-1937 Thu, 19 Feb 2015 14:53:10 EST <![CDATA[Cooke, Giles Buckner (1838–1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooke_Giles_Buckner_1838-1937 Giles Buckner Cooke was a Confederate army officer, educator, and Episcopal minister. Born in Portsmouth, he attended the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington, where he was court-martialed, acquitted, dismissed, reinstated, and disciplined again before finally graduating near the bottom of his class. He supported secession and, at the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865), joined the staff of Confederate general Philip St. George Cocke. For the rest of the war, he served as a staff officer, including for generals Braxton Bragg, G. T. Beauregard, and, beginning in October 1864, Robert E. Lee. After the war, Cooke studied for the Episcopal ministry and became head of a Sunday school for blacks in Petersburg. In 1868, he became principal of Elementary School Number 1 in Petersburg, reportedly the first public school for black children in Virginia, and later organized another school for blacks, Big Oak Private School, which merged with Saint Stephen's Church school. A divinity school was added in 1878 and became the Bishop Payne Divinity and Industrial School. Cooke, who later taught in Kentucky and Maryland, was known for being exacting and upright, although he privately described blacks as "ignorant" and "deceitful." By 1920 he was the last living officer to serve on General Lee's staff, and his wartime diaries became a source of interest to scholars, including Douglas Southall Freeman. Cooke died in 1937 at the age of ninety-nine.
Thu, 19 Feb 2015 14:53:10 EST]]>
/Farmer_James_1920-1999 Thu, 05 Feb 2015 13:22:11 EST <![CDATA[Farmer, James (1920–1999)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farmer_James_1920-1999 James Farmer was a civil rights leader who pioneered sit-in demonstrations during the 1940s and led the Freedom Riders of 1961. After graduating from Wiley College, in Texas, Farmer moved to Chicago to serve as race relations secretary for the pacifist group Fellowship of Reconciliation. Dedicated to fighting Jim Crow laws, in 1942 Farmer helped form what became the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). The organization selected Farmer as its national director in 1961, bringing him to prominence. The violent reaction by southern whites to the Freedom Riders was the first in a series of confrontations and arrests for his work on behalf of African American civil rights. Farmer left CORE in 1966 and later served briefly in the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Farmer moved to Spotsylvania County about 1980 and became a professor at Mary Washington College in 1985. That year his book, Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement, was published. Farmer received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1998.
Thu, 05 Feb 2015 13:22:11 EST]]>
/A_Dissertation_on_Slavery_With_a_Proposal_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_It_In_the_State_of_Virginia_1796 Wed, 04 Feb 2015 10:35:56 EST <![CDATA[A Dissertation on Slavery: With a Proposal for the Gradual Abolition of It, In the State of Virginia (1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Dissertation_on_Slavery_With_a_Proposal_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_It_In_the_State_of_Virginia_1796 A Dissertation on Slavery: With a Proposal for the Gradual Abolition of It, In the State of Virginia (1796), is an essay by St. George Tucker. When he submitted it to the General Assembly in 1796, Tucker was a law professor at the College of William and Mary and a judge on the bench of the General Court. In A Dissertation on Slavery, he discusses the history of slavery, the Virginia slave code, and the morality of slaveholding, and presents a plan for ending slavery. He wrestles with the tensions between the natural rights philosophy of the American Revolution (1775–1783) and the continued existence of slavery. Tucker's attempt to resolve this tension had little immediate effect—the House of Delegates tabled his proposal and Tucker believed that many of the assembly's members refused even to read it—but it did point to a society that somewhat resembled late nineteenth and early twentieth century Virginia. In his essay, Tucker proposed that enslaved African Americans be freed, but, for various reasons, should not enjoy the full rights and privileges of citizenship. Some historians have since pointed out that this circumstance actually came to pass, if not in precisely the manner that Tucker had prescribed.
Wed, 04 Feb 2015 10:35:56 EST]]>
/Dew_Thomas_R_1802-1846 Tue, 27 Jan 2015 16:41:45 EST <![CDATA[Dew, Thomas R. (1802–1846)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dew_Thomas_R_1802-1846 Thomas R. Dew spent a decade as president of the College of William and Mary (1836–1846), but is also known for his works supporting slavery and opposing protective tariffs. While a professor of political law at William and Mary, Dew achieved national prominence when he attacked the tariff of 1828. He backed free trade, believing export taxes hindered southern planters at the expense of northern manufacturers. He favored state banks over a national bank, fearing that the latter would provide the government with too much power over the economy. His commentary on Virginia's debate to end slavery in 1831–1832 showed him an ardent supporter of the institution, even opposing gradual emancipation because it would deprive the state of its wealth. Dew also argued that denying suffrage to women was appropriate because devotion to family hindered their capacity to understand politics. William and Mary's board named him its president in 1836. During his administration the college became an important wellspring of southern thought as sectional tension heightened. Dew died of bronchitis in 1846.
Tue, 27 Jan 2015 16:41:45 EST]]>
/Beverley_Robert_ca_1667-1722 Thu, 08 Jan 2015 15:49:27 EST <![CDATA[Beverley, Robert (d. 1722)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beverley_Robert_ca_1667-1722 Robert Beverley, also known as Robert Beverley Jr. or Robert Beverley the historian, was a member of the House of Burgesses (1699–1706) and clerk of that body, and served as chief clerk of the governor's Council. He is best known, however, as author of The History and Present State of Virginia, In Four Parts (1705), the first published history of a British colony by a native of North America. Probably born in Middlesex County, Beverley worked as a clerk in Jamestown, using family connections to advance politically while acquiring substantial wealth. In 1703 he sailed to England to appeal a suit he lost before the General Court, and there he penned his history, a collection of personal history, official accounts, and material borrowed from others. Beverley self-consciously identified himself as a Virginian and used the books to settle political scores. In particular, he was highly critical of Lieutenant Governor Francis Nicholson, who made sure that Beverley lost his positions as clerk of the House of Burgesses and of King and Queen County. In his later years, Beverley retired to his large estate, Beverley Park, where he experimented with wine-making. He may have accompanied Alexander Spotswood on his journey to the crest of Blue Ridge Mountains. Beverley died in 1722.
Thu, 08 Jan 2015 15:49:27 EST]]>
/_quot_Sheridan_apos_s_Raid_quot_an_excerpt_from_Sabres_and_Spurs_by_Frederic_Denison_1876 Mon, 22 Dec 2014 12:46:39 EST <![CDATA["Sheridan's Raid"; an excerpt from Sabres and Spurs by Frederic Denison (1876)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Sheridan_apos_s_Raid_quot_an_excerpt_from_Sabres_and_Spurs_by_Frederic_Denison_1876 Mon, 22 Dec 2014 12:46:39 EST]]> /Union_Occupation_of_the_University_of_Virginia_an_excerpt_from Sat, 20 Dec 2014 16:13:34 EST <![CDATA[Union Occupation of the University of Virginia; an excerpt from History of the University of Virginia, 1819–1919 by Philip Alexander Bruce (1920–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Union_Occupation_of_the_University_of_Virginia_an_excerpt_from Sat, 20 Dec 2014 16:13:34 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_The_First_New_York_Lincoln_Cavalry_by_William_H_Beach_1902 Sat, 20 Dec 2014 15:57:11 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from The First New York (Lincoln Cavalry) by William H. Beach (1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_The_First_New_York_Lincoln_Cavalry_by_William_H_Beach_1902 Sat, 20 Dec 2014 15:57:11 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_An_Historical_Sketch_of_the_Seventh_Regiment_Michigan_Volunteer_Cavalry_by_Asa_B_Isham_1893 Sat, 20 Dec 2014 15:31:28 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from An Historical Sketch of the Seventh Regiment Michigan Volunteer Cavalry by Asa B. Isham (1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_An_Historical_Sketch_of_the_Seventh_Regiment_Michigan_Volunteer_Cavalry_by_Asa_B_Isham_1893 Sat, 20 Dec 2014 15:31:28 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_History_of_the_Sixth_New_York_Cavalry_by_Hillman_A_Hall_et_al_1908 Sat, 20 Dec 2014 15:26:49 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from History of the Sixth New York Cavalry by Hillman A. Hall, et al. (1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_History_of_the_Sixth_New_York_Cavalry_by_Hillman_A_Hall_et_al_1908 Sat, 20 Dec 2014 15:26:49 EST]]> /Cooke_John_Esten_1830-1886 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:51:33 EST <![CDATA[Cooke, John Esten (1830–1886)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooke_John_Esten_1830-1886 John Esten Cooke was a novelist, biographer, and veteran of the American Civil War (1861–1865). One of the most important literary figures of nineteenth-century Virginia, Cooke was the prolific author of historical adventures and romances in the tradition of Walter Scott and James Fenimore Cooper. His most famous and perhaps best work, The Virginia Comedians: or, Old Days in the Old Dominion (1854), follows the aristocratic cad Champ Effingham in Virginia before the American Revolution (1775–1783). In fact, Cooke saw himself as a critic of aristocracy, but that criticism was rarely particularly sharp, and after the Civil War, his work unselfconsciously glorified the Confederacy in the tradition of the Lost Cause. "Come!" Cooke wrote in Surry of Eagle's-Nest (1866). "Perhaps as you follow me, you will live in the stormy days of a cavalier epoch: breathe its fiery atmosphere, and see its mighty forms as they defile before you, in a long and noble line." A relative by marriage to Confederate general J. E. B. Stuart, Cooke served with the cavalryman during the war and wrote hagiographic biographies of generals Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and Robert E. Lee.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:51:33 EST]]>
/Bryan_Joseph_III_1904-1993 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:27:56 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, Joseph III (1904–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_Joseph_III_1904-1993 Joseph Bryan was a journalist and writer who was born into the influential Bryan family of newspaper publishers and industrialists. He edited and wrote for many national publications, including the family-owned Richmond News Leader and Chicago Daily Journal, as well as Parade, Time, Fortune, Town and Country, Reader's Digest, the Saturday Evening Post, and the New Yorker. He wrote numerous articles on travel, humor, and celebrities, some of which evolved into books or reappeared as portions of his books. He served in all three branches of the U.S. military: first as a lieutenant in the field artillery of the army following his graduation from Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey, then in the navy during World War II (1939–1945) as a lieutenant commander assigned to naval air combat intelligence in the Pacific, and later as a lieutenant colonel in the air force. He also worked for the Central Intelligence Agency from the late 1940s until 1953. He lived in Washington, D.C., and at Brook Hill, an ancestral home in Henrico County.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:27:56 EST]]>
/Walker_Wyatt_Tee_1929- Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:03:54 EST <![CDATA[Walker, Wyatt Tee (1929– )]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Walker_Wyatt_Tee_1929- Wyatt Tee Walker is a civil rights activist, author, and religious leader. After earning his master of divinity degree from Virginia Union University in 1953, Walker became the pastor of Gillfield Baptist Church in Petersburg. During the 1950s, he served as the president of the Petersburg branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), was the state director of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in Virginia, and founded the Petersburg Improvement Association. In 1960 he was appointed chief of staff to Martin Luther King Jr. and served as the first full-time executive director of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Walker was instrumental in the fund-raising campaigns of the SCLC early in the 1960s and he helped formulate and analyze various protest strategies. He left the SCLC in 1964 and went on to serve as the pastor of Canaan Baptist Church of Christ in Harlem, New York, for thirty-seven years. Following his retirement in 2004, he returned to Virginia.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:03:54 EST]]>
/_quot_Memoir_of_the_Author_quot_from_Decisions_of_Cases_in_Virginia_by_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_by_Benjamin_Blake_Minor_1852 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:35:01 EST <![CDATA["Memoir of the Author," from Decisions of Cases in Virginia by the High Court of Chancery by Benjamin Blake Minor (1852)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Memoir_of_the_Author_quot_from_Decisions_of_Cases_in_Virginia_by_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_by_Benjamin_Blake_Minor_1852 Fri, 15 Aug 2014 08:35:01 EST]]> /A_Map_of_Virginia_With_a_Description_of_the_Countrey_the_Commodities_People_Government_and_Religion_by_John_Smith_1612 Mon, 11 Aug 2014 09:23:41 EST <![CDATA[A Map of Virginia. With a Description of the Countrey, the Commodities, People, Government and Religion by John Smith (1612)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Map_of_Virginia_With_a_Description_of_the_Countrey_the_Commodities_People_Government_and_Religion_by_John_Smith_1612 Mon, 11 Aug 2014 09:23:41 EST]]> /Conway_Moncure_Daniel_1832-1907 Wed, 06 Aug 2014 17:02:36 EST <![CDATA[Conway, Moncure Daniel (1832–1907)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Conway_Moncure_Daniel_1832-1907 Moncure Conway was a Methodist minister, Unitarian minister, abolitionist, free thinker, and prolific writer who the historian John d'Entremont describes as "the most thoroughgoing white male radical produced by the antebellum South." Born into a prominent Virginia slaveholding family, he nevertheless became an outspoken critic of the South's "peculiar institution," anguishing over how to reconcile his background with his antislavery convictions in his younger years. He first openly allied himself with abolitionists in July 1854 in the wake of the capture in Boston, Massachusetts, of fugitive slave Anthony Burns, whom Conway claimed to have known in Virginia. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Conway accompanied thirty-one of his father's slaves, all of whom had escaped to Washington, D.C., on a harrowing train ride to freedom in southwestern Ohio. There he established what came to be known as the Conway Colony; many African Americans continue to live in the area and identify their ancestors as Virginia slaves. In addition, Conway traveled in high literary circles, authoring as many seventy published works, including popular book-length arguments against slavery and important biographies of Nathaniel Hawthorne and Thomas Paine.
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 17:02:36 EST]]>
/A_True_relation_of_such_occurrences_and_accidents_of_note_as_hath_hapned_at_Virginia_since_the_first_planting_of_that_Collonyby_John_Smith_1608 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:12:16 EST <![CDATA[A True relation of such occurrences and accidents of note, as hath hapned at Virginia, since the first planting of that Collony by John Smith (1608)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_True_relation_of_such_occurrences_and_accidents_of_note_as_hath_hapned_at_Virginia_since_the_first_planting_of_that_Collonyby_John_Smith_1608 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:12:16 EST]]> /Chapter_10_of_Travels_of_Four_Years_and_a_Half_in_the_United_States_of_America_by_John_Davis_1803 Mon, 28 Jul 2014 10:31:19 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 10 of Travels of Four Years and a Half in the United States of America by John Davis (1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_10_of_Travels_of_Four_Years_and_a_Half_in_the_United_States_of_America_by_John_Davis_1803 Mon, 28 Jul 2014 10:31:19 EST]]> /Barlowe_Arthur_ca_1550-ca_1620 Sat, 19 Jul 2014 11:17:14 EST <![CDATA[Barlowe, Arthur (ca. 1550–ca. 1620)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barlowe_Arthur_ca_1550-ca_1620 Arthur Barlowe was an English explorer and sea captain who helped to lead a reconnaissance expedition to Roanoke Island off the coast of present-day North Carolina, preparing for a larger English settlement the following year. Little is known about Barlowe's life other than that by early in the 1580s he was a gentleman-soldier attached to Walter Raleigh's household in London. In 1584, Barlowe and Philip Amadas captained two ships that landed at Roanoke Island in what would become the Virginia Colony. The explorers remained in the region for two months, and upon his return Barlowe produced a report, "The first voyage made to the coastes of America," that appeared in Richard Hakluyt the Younger's Principall Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation, published in 1589. An entertaining narrative, Barlowe's report appears to have been based on a ship's log of the voyage, and the final text may have been reworked by others, including Thomas Hariot, Raleigh's primary assistant, and Raleigh himself. Raleigh used the completed report as a propaganda tool to further his aims of settling a permanent colony in Virginia.
Sat, 19 Jul 2014 11:17:14 EST]]>
/_The_gouernment_left_to_Captaine_Yearly_from_Book_4_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Thu, 17 Jul 2014 09:05:12 EST <![CDATA["The gouernment left to Captaine Yearly," from Book 4 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_gouernment_left_to_Captaine_Yearly_from_Book_4_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Thu, 17 Jul 2014 09:05:12 EST]]> /Smith_Chapter_12_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:25:46 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 12, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_Chapter_12_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:25:46 EST]]> /Chapters_10-11_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:21:02 EST <![CDATA[Chapters 10–11, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapters_10-11_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:21:02 EST]]> /Chapter_7_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Tue, 15 Jul 2014 11:47:32 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 7, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_7_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Tue, 15 Jul 2014 11:47:32 EST]]> /Smith_Chapter_2_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Thu, 10 Jul 2014 11:34:54 EST <![CDATA[Smith, Chapter 2, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_Chapter_2_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Thu, 10 Jul 2014 11:34:54 EST]]> /Chapter_1_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 09 Jul 2014 09:59:13 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 1, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_1_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 09 Jul 2014 09:59:13 EST]]> /_John_Smith_from_The_History_of_the_Worthies_of_England_by_Thomas_Fuller_1661 Mon, 07 Jul 2014 10:26:28 EST <![CDATA["John Smith," from The History of the Worthies of England by Thomas Fuller (1661)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_John_Smith_from_The_History_of_the_Worthies_of_England_by_Thomas_Fuller_1661 Mon, 07 Jul 2014 10:26:28 EST]]> /The_massacre_upon_the_two_and_twentieth_of_March_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_1624 Thu, 26 Jun 2014 10:43:51 EST <![CDATA[The massacre upon the two and twentieth of March"; an excerpt from The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_massacre_upon_the_two_and_twentieth_of_March_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_1624 Thu, 26 Jun 2014 10:43:51 EST]]> /Conrad_Thomas_Nelson_1837-1905 Fri, 13 Jun 2014 13:04:49 EST <![CDATA[Conrad, Thomas Nelson (1837–1905)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Conrad_Thomas_Nelson_1837-1905 Thomas Nelson Conrad was a Confederate spy during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and president of Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College (later Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University). Conrad was the head of the Georgetown Institute, a boys' school in the District of Columbia at the start of the Civil War. An open Confederate sympathizer, he worked as a spy throughout the war, even while serving as chaplain of the 3rd Virginia Cavalry. After the war, Conrad became principal of a boys' school in Blacksburg, and when it was absorbed into the new agricultural college, attempted to become president. He finally succeeded when the Readjusters took power in 1882, and under his leadership, the school introduced literary and scientific studies, increased spending on the library, and reorganized its military program to resemble the curriculum of the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington. After the Readjusters lost power, Conrad was dismissed as president in 1886. He taught in Maryland, worked for the U.S. Census Bureau in Washington, D.C., and published two memoirs of his war experiences before retiring to a farm in Prince William County. He died in 1905 in Washington.
Fri, 13 Jun 2014 13:04:49 EST]]>
/Hakluyt_Richard_1552-1616 Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:33:44 EST <![CDATA[Hakluyt, Richard (1552–1616)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hakluyt_Richard_1552-1616 Richard Hakluyt, better known as Richard Hakluyt (the younger) or Richard Hakluyt (the minister) to distinguish him from his elder cousin of the same name, was an editor, geographer, and Anglican minister. With his cousin, he acted as one of the chief propagandists of English colonization in North America. In 1582, he published Divers Voyages Touching the Discoverie of America, and the Ilands Adjacent, probably in support of Sir Humphrey Gilbert's plan to settle North America. And when Gilbert's half brother Walter Raleigh inherited Gilbert's patent for colonization, Hakluyt wrote and presented to Queen Elizabeth a Discourse on Western Planting (1584), forcefully arguing for colonization predicated on Protestant proselytizing and economic expansion, both of which, he insisted, would help undermine Spain. Five years later he published Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation, a remarkable collection of documents whose final section focused on English activities in the Americas. Hakluyt also played a key role in producing a book that brought England's first American colony to the attention of a wide and lasting audience: the first volume of Flemish engraver Theodor de Bry's multilingual America series, an edition of Thomas Hariot's narrative with John White's images and maps of the settlement at Roanoke Island. In later years, Hakluyt advised the East India Company; his was one of eight names on the original charter of the Virginia Company of London and he was listed as an investor in the second charter. An official for many years at Westminster Abbey, he died in 1616.
Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:33:44 EST]]>
/Raleigh_Sir_Walter_ca_1552-1618 Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:25:44 EST <![CDATA[Raleigh, Sir Walter (ca. 1552–1618)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Raleigh_Sir_Walter_ca_1552-1618 Sir Walter Raleigh was an English soldier, explorer, poet, and courtier who funded three voyages to Roanoke Island (1584–1587) and whose ostentatious manner of dress and love for Queen Elizabeth became legendary. Born a commoner in Devon, England, Raleigh (also spelled Ralegh) nevertheless had connections to Elizabeth through his mother and may have exploited those relationships to win a place at court. He wrote poems to the queen and advised her on policy in Ireland, where in 1580 he had helped to slaughter papal troops. Soon he became one of Elizabeth's favorites, using his wealth and power to pursue dreams of colonizing the Americas, first at Roanoke and then at Guiana. Raleigh's mission, as he wrote in his long poem "The Ocean to Cynthia" (likely penned in the 1590s), was "To seek new worlds for gold, for praise, for glory." In so doing, he relied on the genius of English mathematician and astronomer Thomas Hariot, the master propagandist Richard Hakluyt (the younger), and the iconic artist John White. Raleigh also relied on the faithful protection of Elizabeth, protection that conspicuously disappeared when he secretly married one of her maids of honor. After the queen's death in 1603, Raleigh was accused of plotting against her successor and spent much of the rest of his life in the Tower of London. A second failed expedition to Guiana, during which he disobeyed the king's instructions, resulted in his beheading in 1618.
Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:25:44 EST]]>
/Hariot_Thomas_ca_1560-1621 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 15:17:55 EST <![CDATA[Hariot, Thomas (ca. 1560–1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hariot_Thomas_ca_1560-1621 Thomas Hariot (often spelled Harriot) was an English mathematician, astronomer, linguist, and experimental scientist. During the 1580s, he served as Sir Walter Raleigh's primary assistant in planning and attempting to establish the English colonies on Roanoke Island off the coast of present-day North Carolina. He taught Raleigh's sea captains to sail the Atlantic Ocean using sophisticated navigational methods not well understood in England at the time. He also learned the Algonquian language from two Virginia Indians, Wanchese and Manteo. In 1585, Hariot joined the expedition to Roanoke, which failed and returned to England the next year. During his stay in America, Hariot helped to explore the present-day Outer Banks region and, farther north, the Chesapeake Bay. He also collaborated with the artist John White in producing several maps notable at the time for their accuracy. Although Hariot left extensive papers, the only work published during his lifetime was A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia, which evaluated the economic potential of Virginia. The report appeared most impressively in Theodor de Bry's 1590 edition that included etchings based on the White-Hariot maps and White's watercolors of Indian life. After a brief imprisonment in connection to the Gunpowder Plot (1605), Hariot calculated the orbit of Halley's Comet, sketched and mapped the moon, and observed sunspots. He died in 1621.
Thu, 05 Jun 2014 15:17:55 EST]]>
/_Declaration_Edward_Waterhouse_s Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:05:48 EST <![CDATA[A Declaration of the State of the Colony and Affaires in Virginia (1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Declaration_Edward_Waterhouse_s A Declaration of the state of the Colonie and Affaires in Virginia. With a Relation of the barbarous Massacre in the time of peace and League, treacherously executed upon the English Infidels, 22 March last … (1622), written by Edward Waterhouse, was the Virginia Company of London's official publication about an assault by Virginia Indians on the English plantations along the James River that took place on March 22, 1622. The company's secretary, Waterhouse collected information from eyewitnesses and Virginia's governing officials and concluded that the surprise attack, which killed more than a quarter of the colony's population, was executed with the purpose of their "utter extirpation." Waterhouse describes a time, just prior to the attack, of "firme peace and amitie," when Indians and colonists freely mingled. He notes that the Indians used this to their advantage, insinuating themselves into the homes of colonists, using the colonists' own tools to "basely and barbarously" kill them, and then disappearing into the woods. Outraged that most Indians, and in particular their leader Opechancanough, had not accepted Christianity, Waterhouse declares that the attack justified a policy whereby the English "destroy them who sought to destroy us." The attack, and the company's response to it, marks a point at which colonists, no longer dependent on the Indians economically, began in earnest to kill them and seize their land.
Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:05:48 EST]]>
/Voyage_of_Anthony_Chester_1707 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:02:21 EST <![CDATA[Voyage of Anthony Chester (1707)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Voyage_of_Anthony_Chester_1707 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:02:21 EST]]> /Dos_Passos_John_1896-1970 Mon, 02 Jun 2014 06:59:12 EST <![CDATA[Dos Passos, John (1896–1970)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dos_Passos_John_1896-1970 John Dos Passos was a novelist, poet, critic, and painter whose mother was born in Virginia. He came of age traveling through Europe and, after graduating from Harvard University in 1916, served as an ambulance driver during World War I (1914–1918). Amid the destruction of Victorian Europe, Dos Passos developed left-leaning politics that set him against war and in support of workers' rights. As a modernist writer, he became connected with the so-called Lost Generation of F. Scott Fitzgerald, his Harvard classmate E. E. Cummings, and his longtime friend Ernest Hemingway. Dos Passos is most recognized for his three novels known as the U.S.A. trilogy (1930–1936), which critique American culture from the left. In the 1940s, however, when Dos Passos moved to a farm on the Northern Neck in Westmoreland County, Virginia, his politics turned sharply to the right, ending his relationship with Hemingway and deeply affecting his legacy among critics. Dos Passos, who died in 1970, is buried in Westmoreland County and his papers are at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. The John Dos Passos Prize for Literature has been awarded since 1980 by Longwood University in Farmville.
Mon, 02 Jun 2014 06:59:12 EST]]>
/Fishwick_Marshall_W_1923-2006 Tue, 27 May 2014 09:45:11 EST <![CDATA[Fishwick, Marshall W. (1923–2006)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fishwick_Marshall_W_1923-2006 Marshall Fishwick was a multidisciplinary scholar, professor, writer, and editor who started the academic movement known as popular culture studies and established the journal International Popular Culture. In 1970 he cofounded the Popular Culture Association with Ray B. Browne and Russel B. Nye, and the three worked to shape a new academic discipline that blurred the traditional distinctions between high and low culture, focusing on mass culture mediums like television and the Internet and cultural archetypes like comic book heroes. In an academic career of more than fifty years, Fishwick wrote or edited more than forty books, including works on popular culture, Virginia history, and American studies. Fishwick was a popular professor—the novelist Tom Wolfe called him "the most magnetic teacher I have ever known"—who taught at Washington and Lee University in Lexington and later at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, where he retired in 2003.
Tue, 27 May 2014 09:45:11 EST]]>
/Freeman_Douglas_Southall_1886-1953 Tue, 27 May 2014 07:17:31 EST <![CDATA[Freeman, Douglas Southall (1886–1953)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Freeman_Douglas_Southall_1886-1953 Douglas Southall Freeman was a biographer, a newspaper editor, a nationally renowned military analyst, and a pioneering radio broadcaster. He won the Pulitzer Prize twice: the first, in 1935, for his four-volume biography of the Confederate general Robert E. Lee; and the second, posthumously in 1958, for his six-volume biography of George Washington, with a seventh volume written by John Alexander Carroll and Mary Wells Ashworth after Freeman's death in 1953. The son of a Confederate veteran, Freeman is best known as a historian of the American Civil War (1861–1865) and, in particular, of the high command of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. His description of Lee, Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, and their compatriots as "men of principles unimpeachable, of valour indescribable" for some has suggested that his work was influenced by the Lost Cause view of the war that was in part founded by his former neighbor, Jubal A. Early. In reality, Freeman's admiration for the Confederates never influenced his historical conclusions.
Tue, 27 May 2014 07:17:31 EST]]>
/Jaffé_Louis_Isaac_ca_1888-1950 Sun, 23 Mar 2014 09:11:48 EST <![CDATA[Jaffé, Louis I. (ca. 1888–1950)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jaffé_Louis_Isaac_ca_1888-1950 Louis I. Jaffé was the longtime editor of the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot (1919–1950) who earned renown for his sponsorship and promotion of Virginia's antilynching law. A lifelong liberal and civil rights activist, Jaffé championed reforms that sought to improve the daily lives of African Americans, especially those in Hampton Roads. In 1929, he became Virginia's first Pulitzer Prize winner, receiving the award for Distinguished Editorial Writing for the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot's antilynching advocacy.
Sun, 23 Mar 2014 09:11:48 EST]]>
/Meade_Julian_R_1909-1940 Mon, 03 Mar 2014 18:12:26 EST <![CDATA[Meade, Julian R. (1909–1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meade_Julian_R_1909-1940 Mon, 03 Mar 2014 18:12:26 EST]]> /Moore_Virginia_1903-1993 Sun, 02 Mar 2014 08:32:25 EST <![CDATA[Moore, Virginia (1903–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Moore_Virginia_1903-1993 Virginia Moore was a poet, biographer, and scholar. She is perhaps best known for her work Virginia Is a State of Mind (1942), which has been described as the "biography of a state." In it, she combines personal observations on Virginia's topography and climate with short biographical sketches of Virginians such as Powhatan, Mary Ball, and Thomas Jefferson; anecdotes on the American Civil War (1861–1865); and reflections on the state's history, food, and literature. The result is a characterization of Virginia and its citizens as intensely "individualist."
Sun, 02 Mar 2014 08:32:25 EST]]>
/Mosby_John_Singleton_1833-1916 Sat, 01 Mar 2014 06:39:09 EST <![CDATA[Mosby, John Singleton (1833–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mosby_John_Singleton_1833-1916 John Singleton Mosby was a Confederate colonel during the American Civil War (1861–1865). As a private in the 1st Virginia Cavalry, Mosby chose his commander, General J. E. B. Stuart, as his role model and mentor. Stuart and General Robert E. Lee came to value Mosby's skills as a scout and raider. In June 1863 Confederate secretary of war James A. Seddon permitted Mosby to form and recruit soldiers for Company A, 43rd Battalion Virginia Cavalry (Partisan Rangers). The battalion expanded steadily to the size of a regiment (approximately 1,900 men served in the command during its existence) and Mosby was accordingly promoted to colonel. The raids of "Mosby's Men" helped to demoralize Union cavalry and rally Southern support for the war. Wounded seven times, the combative Mosby disbanded his troops, rather than surrender, on April 21, 1865. After the war he resumed his career as a lawyer and turned Republican. Mosby served as U.S. consul to Hong Kong, and from 1904 until 1910 worked as assistant attorney general in the U.S. Justice Department. An excellent writer, Mosby devoted his latter years to letters, articles, and books defending the actions and reputation of his own command, the reputations of J. E. B. Stuart and Ulysses S. Grant, and arguing that slavery was the main cause of the war. Mosby died in Washington, D.C., in 1916.
Sat, 01 Mar 2014 06:39:09 EST]]>
/Sandys_Sir_Edwin_1561-1629 Tue, 18 Feb 2014 16:43:18 EST <![CDATA[Sandys, Sir Edwin (1561–1629)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sandys_Sir_Edwin_1561-1629 Sir Edwin Sandys, one of the founders of the Virginia Company, was an author and parliamentarian as well as a colonizer. The son and namesake of an Archbishop of York, Sandys served a brief diplomatic mission that led to travels through Europe which became the basis for A Relation of the State of Religion (1605), a survey of religion on the continent that focused on Catholicism. As a member of Parliament for more than three decades, Sandys was an influential and outspoken critic of King James I, as well as an important supporter of English colonization efforts in Bermuda and especially Virginia. Sandys likely helped reorganize the Virginia colony in 1609, transferring control from the king to a company-appointed governor. In 1618, he helped draw up the "Great Charter," which established the General Assembly, and in 1619 he was elected treasurer, the Virginia Company's top leadership position. He failed at diversifying Virginia's economy away from tobacco, but succeeded in a strong effort to promote emigration and bolster its population. A negotiated tobacco monopoly with England in 1622 eventually led to an investigation of the financially troubled Virginia Company and Sandys's leadership in particular. The king revoked the charter and in 1624 the company dissolved. Sandys died in Kent in 1629.
Tue, 18 Feb 2014 16:43:18 EST]]>
/Berkeley_Sir_William_1605-1677 Mon, 17 Feb 2014 15:48:39 EST <![CDATA[Berkeley, Sir William (1605–1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Berkeley_Sir_William_1605-1677 Sir William Berkeley was the longest-serving governor of Virginia (1641–1652, 1660–1677), a playwright, and author of Discourse and View of Virginia (1663), which argued for a more diversified colonial economy. After being educated at Oxford and after a brief study of the law, Berkeley gained access to the royal circle surrounding King Charles I, and one of his plays, The Lost Lady (1638), was performed for the king and queen. In 1641, he was named governor and captain general of Virginia, where he raised tobacco but also, at Green Spring, experimented with more diverse crops. His first stint as governor, marked by his willingness to share power and by the rise in stature of the General Assembly in Jamestown, ended with the king's execution. Berkeley's restoration coincided with King Charles II's, but his second governorship was much less successful. He failed to diversify the tobacco-based economy or to convince many settlers that the colony was adequately protecting them from Indian attacks. In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon challenged Berkeley directly, even laying siege to and then burning Jamestown. Although Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677) was suppressed, Berkeley's authority had been undermined, and he was replaced by Herbert Jeffreys in 1677. In May of that year Berkeley sailed to England to plead his case, but before he could meet the king, he died on July 9.
Mon, 17 Feb 2014 15:48:39 EST]]>
/Tucker_George_1775-1861 Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, George (1775–1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_George_1775-1861 George Tucker was a lawyer, philosopher, economist, historian, novelist, politician, and teacher. Born in Bermuda and cousin to the famed jurist St. George Tucker, Tucker served in the House of Delegates (1815–1816) representing Pittsylvania County and won election to three terms in the United States House of Representatives (1819–1825) before, at the invitation of Thomas Jefferson, joining the faculty of the newly opened University of Virginia in Charlottesville. Tucker owned slaves but opposed slavery as a moral evil. During debate over the Missouri Compromise (1820), he argued that emancipation was impractical and that slavery would eventually die out. By the end of his life, his opposition to abolitionists had turned him into an apologist for the "peculiar institution." He was the author of a novel of the U.S. South that dramatized the evils of slavery, The Valley of Shenandoah (1824); two science fiction novels, including A Voyage to the Moon (1827); a biography of Jefferson (1837); a four-volume history of the United States (1856–1857); and numerous essays on aesthetics, metaphysics, causality, morality, economics, slavery, and the nature of progress. Tucker was married three times, including to relatives of William Byrd II and George Washington. He died in 1861 from injuries he sustained after being hit by a falling cotton bale.
Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST]]>
/Roberts_Ruby_Altizer_1907-2004 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 10:19:21 EST <![CDATA[Roberts, Ruby Altizer (1907–2004)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Roberts_Ruby_Altizer_1907-2004 Ruby Altizer Roberts is the author of two collections of poetry, three memoirs, a children's book, and a genealogy. She was named Virginia's first female poet laureate in 1950 and, until 1994, was the only woman to have held the post. In addition, Roberts edited the poetry journal The Lyric from 1952 until 1977. In 1961 she received an honorary doctor of humanities degree from the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, and in 1992, the General Assembly designated her Poet Laureate Emerita of Virginia.
Sun, 05 Jan 2014 10:19:21 EST]]>
/Ruffin_Edmund_1794-1865 Sat, 04 Jan 2014 17:08:40 EST <![CDATA[Ruffin, Edmund (1794–1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ruffin_Edmund_1794-1865 Edmund Ruffin was a prominent Southern nationalist, noted agriculturalist, writer and essayist, and Virginia state senator (1823–1827). After dropping out of college and serving briefly in the Virginia militia during the War of 1812, Ruffin began a long career farming along the James River and studying the soil. He published the results of his experiments and founded a journal, the Farmers' Register, in 1833. During these years, Ruffin's politics also became radicalized, first around banking issues, and then around states' rights, slavery, and secession. After John Brown's failed raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in October 1859, Ruffin began speaking out against what he considered to be Northern aggression, and he even joined cadets from the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington so he could attend Brown's execution. Ruffin continued to agitate for secession during the United States presidential election of 1860, and he is erroneously credited with firing the first shot on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, starting the American Civil War (1861–1865). A popular hero in the South, Ruffin nevertheless suffered financial setbacks during the war, as well as declining health, and in 1865, following the Confederates' defeat, he killed himself.
Sat, 04 Jan 2014 17:08:40 EST]]>
/Seawell_Molly_Elliot_1860-1916 Wed, 01 Jan 2014 16:58:02 EST <![CDATA[Seawell, Molly Elliot (1860–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Seawell_Molly_Elliot_1860-1916 Molly Elliot Seawell was the author of forty books, including regional fiction, romances, books for boys (primarily nautical stories), and nonfiction. She also penned political columns for newspapers in Washington, D.C., and New York. Socially conservative, she opposed the growing woman suffrage movement, and her consistent depictions of African Americans as servants and slaves—while acceptable to and endorsed by much of her white readership at that time—reflected her belief that blacks were inferior and peripheral members of society. Despite her social views, critics often described her books, many of which were reviewed in the New York Times, as "sweet" or "wholesome." Though her books boasted vividly drawn characters, they did not pursue the themes and styles of literary realism that characterized the more progressive literary trends of her time. Seawell, however, remained a single woman and worked as a prolific writer who supported her household by her various publications.
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 16:58:02 EST]]>
/Taylor_Walter_H_1838-1916 Fri, 27 Dec 2013 13:06:59 EST <![CDATA[Taylor, Walter H. (1838–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Taylor_Walter_H_1838-1916 Walter H. Taylor served for most of the American Civil War (1861–1865) as adjutant to Robert E. Lee, overseeing the paperwork and administrative functions of the Confederate general's commands. A businessman and banker before and after the war, Taylor is best known for writing books that defended the reputations of Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia, books that today are considered to be important contributions to Lost Cause literature.
Fri, 27 Dec 2013 13:06:59 EST]]>
/Tiernan_Mary_Spear_1836-1891 Thu, 26 Dec 2013 18:23:16 EST <![CDATA[Tiernan, Mary Spear (1836–1891)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tiernan_Mary_Spear_1836-1891 Mary Spear Tiernan was a novelist, essayist, and occasional poet who wrote primarily about central Virginia before and during the American Civil War (1861–1865). She published three novels, as well as short stories, which appeared in Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Scribner's Magazine, Century Magazine, and the Southern Review, among others. Her fiction vividly depicted wartime Richmond , and her novel Homoselle (1881) was based on a Virginia slave revolt and can be distinguished for Tiernan's remarkable sympathy for African Americans.
Thu, 26 Dec 2013 18:23:16 EST]]>
/Vanauken_Sheldon_1914-1996 Tue, 24 Dec 2013 10:37:01 EST <![CDATA[Vanauken, Sheldon (1914–1996)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Vanauken_Sheldon_1914-1996 Sheldon Vanauken was a poet and novelist best known for his memoir A Severe Mercy (1977), about converting to Christianity and his wife's unexpected death at age forty. A less famous sequel, Under the Mercy, was published, to less acclaim, in 1985.
Tue, 24 Dec 2013 10:37:01 EST]]>
/Washington_Booker_T_1856-1915 Mon, 23 Dec 2013 14:46:05 EST <![CDATA[Washington, Booker T. (1856–1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_Booker_T_1856-1915 Booker T. Washington was an author, educator, orator, philanthropist, and, from 1895 until his death in 1915, the United States' most famous African American. The tiny school he founded in Tuskegee, Alabama, in 1881 is now Tuskegee University, an institution that currently enrolls more than 3,000 students. The most famous of the several books he authored, coauthored, or edited during his lifetime, Up from Slavery (1901), has become a classic of American autobiography, drawing comparisons not only to earlier slave narratives but also to such texts as The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin.In the eyes of many of his contemporaries, Washington was an exemplary American citizen, "a public man second to no other American in importance," as the novelist William Dean Howells called him in 1901. When Washington became the first African American to receive an honorary degree from Harvard University in 1896, a Boston newspaper ranked him among "our national benefactors." When he became the first to dine at the White House in 1901, he did so at the invitation of U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, who would later call Washington "one of the most useful citizens of our land." Even his foremost critic, the African American writer and intellectual W.E.B. Du Bois, acknowledged Washington's status as both a racial and national leader, referring to him in 1903 as "the one recognized spokesman of his ten million fellows, and one of the most notable figures in a nation of seventy millions." Yet Washington also continues to inspire ambivalent and sometimes hostile reactions for having been an "accommodationist": one who, in order to gain a measure of economic success for African Americans in the former slave states, accepted segregation and refused to speak out loudly in favor of other forms of advancement, namely the pursuit of full legal, political, and social equality.
Mon, 23 Dec 2013 14:46:05 EST]]>
/Cook_Fields_ca_1817-1897 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:26:12 EST <![CDATA[Cook, Fields (ca. 1817–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cook_Fields_ca_1817-1897 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:26:12 EST]]> /Butt_Martha_Haines_1833-1871 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 17:22:49 EST <![CDATA[Butt, Martha Haines (1833–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Butt_Martha_Haines_1833-1871 Martha Haines Butt was a novelist, poet, and essayist who in 1853 became one of five southern women to respond to Harriet Beecher Stowe's antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) with a novel of her own. Antifanaticism: A Tale of the South (1853) defended slavery as moral and Christian, but it never achieved the critical or popular success that Stowe or even the other rebuttals received. A Norfolk native, Butt continued to write, contributing to both regional and national magazines. She championed women's intellectual engagement but criticized efforts on behalf of women's rights, generally affirming the traditional role of women. Late in her life, however, she became involved in the woman suffrage movement and served as vice president of the Virginia State Woman Suffrage Association in 1870. Butt died of pneumonia a year later.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 17:22:49 EST]]>
/Dabney_Virginius_1901-1995 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:20:28 EST <![CDATA[Dabney, Virginius (1901–1995)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dabney_Virginius_1901-1995 Virginius Dabney was a journalist, writer, historian, and recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing. As the longtime editor of the Richmond Times-Dispatch (1936–1969), he earned a name, at least at first, as a liberal reformer who targeted religious fundamentalists, prohibitionists, and machine politicians. His 1929 biography of James Cannon, the Methodist bishop and prohibitionist, was so scathing it did not find a publisher until 1949, after Cannon's death. His inclinations, however, often put him in disagreement with his publisher and with U.S. senator Harry F. Byrd and his Democratic Party machine, the Byrd Organization. In the 1930s, Dabney advocated a federal antilynching law and opposed the poll tax, but following World War II (1939–1945) he generally supported segregation, a position that increasingly put him at odds with the liberal mainstream and the burgeoning civil rights movement. In 1956, Byrd called for massive resistance against the U.S. Supreme Court-mandated desegregation of public schools, and Dabney reluctantly went along. His reputation among liberals plummeted. After retiring from the Times-Dispatch, he concentrated on writing history, completing a large one-volume history of Virginia in 1971 and a defense of Thomas Jefferson against accusations that he had children with the enslaved Sally Hemings.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:20:28 EST]]>
/Dabney_Robert_Lewis_1820-1898 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:19:43 EST <![CDATA[Dabney, Robert Lewis (1820–1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dabney_Robert_Lewis_1820-1898 Robert Lewis Dabney was a Presbyterian minister who, during the American Civil War (1861–1865), emerged as one of the most influential leaders of the southern Presbyterian Church. Born in Louisa County, he was educated at the Union Theological Seminary and served on the school's faculty, becoming chair of theology in 1859 and preaching Calvinist orthodoxy. Dabney opposed secession but served as chaplain to the 18th Virginia Infantry Regiment and, for several months in 1862, as adjutant, or chief of staff, to Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. Ill health forced him to return to the seminary, but he later wrote a biography of Jackson. Dabney was an ardent defender of slavery and the Old South, opposed the Progressive Movement, and was skeptical of modern science. As an important Presbyterian leader in the South, he opposed reunifying the southern church with its northern counterpart. In 1883, he left Virginia to teach at the new University of Texas, in Austin, where he helped to found the Austin School of Theology. He died in Victoria, Texas, in 1898.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:19:43 EST]]>
/Cox_Earnest_Sevier_1880-1966 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 12:01:35 EST <![CDATA[Cox, Earnest Sevier (1880–1966)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cox_Earnest_Sevier_1880-1966 Earnest Sevier Cox was a committed white supremacist who advocated on behalf of anti-miscegenation laws and in 1922 cofounded with the composer John Powell the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, a Richmond-based, nationwide organization devoted to maintaining a strict separation of the races. In 1923, Cox published White America, a book that described his travels in Africa and argues that race-mixing would result in the collapse of "white civilization." He also wrote extensively on eugenics, a now discredited scientific movement aimed at proving the superiority of the white race. Together with composer Powell and Virginia state registrar Walter Plecker, Cox played an influential role in lobbying the Virginia General Assembly to pass the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, a strict anti-miscegenation law, and later the Massenburg Bill, which banned racial mixing in all public places. In 1924, Cox formed an unlikely alliance with the black nationalist Marcus Garvey based on their shared belief that the only way to save the races was for African Americans to relocate to Africa. Cox retired from the real estate business in 1958 and died in Richmond in 1966.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 12:01:35 EST]]>
/Cotton_John_d_after_October_24_1683 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 12:00:35 EST <![CDATA[Cotton, John (d. after October 24, 1683)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cotton_John_d_after_October_24_1683 John Cotton wrote about the events of Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677). Little is known about Cotton before 1657, when he witnessed a will in York County with his wife, Ann Cotton. He owned a plantation on Queen's Creek and often acted as an agent and attorney in the local courts. He was in Jamestown early in June 1676 when the governor arrested and released Nathaniel Bacon, after he had attacked a group of Virginia Indians. It is not known whether Cotton witnessed all the events he wrote about in his long narrative of the rebellion. His name is not attached to any surviving documents signed by Bacon's supporters nor on the official list of those who suffered property losses as a consequence of their support for the governor. Cotton last appears in the York County records in 1683, but the date and place of his death are unknown. Passed down through the Burwell family, Cotton's narrative was first published in 1814 in the Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 12:00:35 EST]]>
/Cotton_Ann_fl_1650s-1670s Mon, 23 Sep 2013 11:59:39 EST <![CDATA[Cotton, Ann (fl. 1650s–1670s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cotton_Ann_fl_1650s-1670s Ann Cotton wrote one of the earliest personal accounts of Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677). Nothing is known about her life until 1657, when she and her husband, John Cotton, witnessed a will in York County, where they lived. Unlike most other women in colonial Virginia, she was educated and literate. After the events of Bacon's Rebellion, she composed a highly personal narrative of the rebellion for a friend in England. The time and place of Cotton's death are unknown. The whereabouts of her original letter is not known. It was first published in the Richmond Enquirer in 1804 and in the first volume of Peter Force's Tracts and Other Papers, Relating Principally to the Origin, Settlement and Progress of the Colonies in North America in 1836, making it one of the first personal accounts of the rebellion to be published.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 11:59:39 EST]]>
/Clayton_John_1695-1773 Thu, 05 Sep 2013 09:12:18 EST <![CDATA[Clayton, John (1695–1773)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clayton_John_1695-1773 John Clayton was a botanist and the clerk of Gloucester County (ca. 1720–1773). Born and educated in England, he first appears in colonial records in 1720 as the Gloucester County clerk, a position he held for more than fifty years. He owned a tobacco plantation and more than thirty slaves, and by 1735 was regularly providing naturalists such as Mark Catesby and John Frederick Gronovius with botanical specimens to be identified. Clayton himself identified and was the first to name the genus Agastache, a group of perennial, flowering herbs. In 1737, the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus named the wildflowers of the genus Claytonia in Clayton's honor. During this same time period, Clayton compiled for Gronovius a Catalogue of Herbs, Fruits, and Trees Native to Virginia, which Gronovius translated into Latin and published as Flora Virginica, without Clayton's permission, in 1739. This and subsequent editions were the first, and until the mid-twentieth century, the only compilations of Virginia's native plants. Clayton was elected to the American Philosophical Society (1743), the Swedish Royal Academy of Science (1747), and the Virginian Society for the Promotion of Usefull Knowledge (1773), of which he was the first president. He died that same year.
Thu, 05 Sep 2013 09:12:18 EST]]>
/Bouldin_Powhatan_1830-1907 Wed, 04 Sep 2013 17:50:16 EST <![CDATA[Bouldin, Powhatan (1830–1907)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bouldin_Powhatan_1830-1907 Powhatan Bouldin was a Democratic journalist who covered the Danville Riot of 1883. The son of a congressman, Bouldin served in a series of Charlotte County public offices before purchasing a local Danville newspaper in 1865. He ran the weekly Danville Times until illness forced his retirement in 1894. The most notable event during his journalistic career was the Danville Riot, which resulted in the deaths of four African Americans. As editor of the Danville Times, Bouldin helped shape the pro-Democratic spin on the violence that spurred the downfall of local Readjuster Party officeholders in Danville and helped rally white supremacist Democrats to reclaim political power throughout Virginia.
Wed, 04 Sep 2013 17:50:16 EST]]>
/Chamberlaine_William_W_1836-1923 Wed, 21 Aug 2013 14:44:38 EST <![CDATA[Chamberlaine, William W. (1836–1923)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chamberlaine_William_W_1836-1923 William W. Chamberlaine was a Confederate army officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865), founder of the Norfolk Electric Light Company, first president of the Savings Bank of Norfolk, and a longtime railroad executive who retired as secretary of the Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad. Born in Norfolk, Chamberlaine was wounded at the Battle of Antietam (1862). After the war he worked at a bank with his father before becoming secretary and treasurer of the Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad in 1877. He stayed with the company through the rest of his career, during which time he also founded the light company (1884) and led the Savings Bank (1886). After retiring in 1904, he moved to Washington, D.C., and published a memoir about his wartime service (1912). He died in Washington in 1923.
Wed, 21 Aug 2013 14:44:38 EST]]>
/Chaloner_John_Armstrong_1862-1935 Wed, 21 Aug 2013 13:52:04 EST <![CDATA[Chaloner, John Armstrong (1862–1935)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chaloner_John_Armstrong_1862-1935 John Armstrong Chaloner was a celebrity and writer known for coining the catchphrase "Who's looney now?" after his personal trials with psychiatric experimentation and treatment. When his wealthy family learned that he believed he possessed a new sense, which he called the "X-Faculty," they had him committed to a psychiatric hospital in New York in 1897; a court later declared him insane and ruled he be permanently institutionalized. He escaped the institution and was ultimately deemed sane more than twenty years later. In the meantime, he published about two dozen books on his experiments with psychotherapy and his stay in the insane asylum. His books, such as The Lunacy Law of the World (1906), often attacked the rising power of psychiatric medicine, and his case was controversial particularly among the nation's leading psychologists, who disagreed about whether he was rational or paranoid. He married and divorced the novelist Amélie Rives, but lived near her Albemarle County home for much of his life.
Wed, 21 Aug 2013 13:52:04 EST]]>
/Carter_William_Richard_1833-1864 Mon, 19 Aug 2013 10:41:23 EST <![CDATA[Carter, William Richard (1833–1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_William_Richard_1833-1864 William R. Carter was a Confederate cavalry officer and diarist, whose observations of his experiences riding with J. E. B. Stuart during the American Civil War (1861–1865) became a boon to researchers after the war and finally were published in part in 1998. A graduate of Hampden-Sydney College, Carter taught briefly in Lunenburg County before moving to Mississippi, where he purchased a school. He returned to Virginia in 1860, earned his law degree, and then, after Virginia's secession, joined the Confederate cavalry. Briefly captured in 1861, he fought with Stuart through nearly all the major campaigns, including at Brandy Station and Gettysburg in 1863, and, in 1864, Yellow Tavern, where Stuart was killed. Carter himself died from wounds he received in June 1864 at the Battle of Trevilian Station and was buried in Nottoway County. Always a good writer, his field diaries became important source material for historians, especially those studying the Confederate cavalry. A partial transcription of the diaries was published in 1998; the complete two-volume transcription is preserved at Hampden-Sydney College.
Mon, 19 Aug 2013 10:41:23 EST]]>
/Carter_Landon_1710-1778 Thu, 15 Aug 2013 11:45:44 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Landon (1710–1778)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Landon_1710-1778 Landon Carter was a prominent member of the House of Burgesses (1752–1768) and perhaps the most prolific published Virginia writer of his generation—the author of four major political pamphlets, nearly fifty newspaper essays, and a revealing personal diary. Carter was the son of the powerful landowner Robert "King" Carter and for a time managed some of his father's land. Upon King Carter's death, Landon Carter inherited a substantial Richmond County estate and built his home, Sabine Hall, there. After three failed attempts, Carter was elected to the House of Burgesses in 1752 and was rewarded with powerful committee appointments. He publicly defended the House in published pamphlets and newspaper essays until he was defeated in his bid for reelection in 1768. The first to raise the alarm in Virginia over the Stamp Act, Carter was chair of the Richmond County Committee (1774–1776) and a wholehearted supporter of independence during the American Revolution (1775–1783). He died at Sabine Hall in 1778.
Thu, 15 Aug 2013 11:45:44 EST]]>
/Blackford_W_W_1831-1905 Mon, 12 Aug 2013 14:57:06 EST <![CDATA[Blackford, W. W. (1831–1905)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blackford_W_W_1831-1905 W. W. Blackford was a Confederate army officer and civil engineer. A native of Fredericksburg who studied engineering at the University of Virginia, Blackford worked as acting chief engineer for the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad. At the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865), he joined the 1st Virginia Cavalry and became an aide-de-camp for its commander, J. E. B. Stuart. He fought with the Confederate cavalry from the Seven Days' Battles in June 1862 until the end of the war, suffering two wounds and being promoted to lieutenant colonel. After the war, Blackford worked for a railroad in Lynchburg, owned and operated a sugar plantation in Louisiana, and was a college professor in Blacksburg. He worked for the railroads again before retiring in 1890. His Civil War letters have been used by historians, and his memoir of the war was published in 1946 with an introduction by Douglas Southall Freeman. Blackford died in Princess Anne County in 1905.
Mon, 12 Aug 2013 14:57:06 EST]]>
/Brock_Sarah_Ann_1831-1911 Tue, 23 Jul 2013 11:28:10 EST <![CDATA[Brock, Sarah Ann (1831–1911)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brock_Sarah_Ann_1831-1911 Sarah Ann Brock, a writer who often published under the pseudonym Virginia Madison, published numerous editorials, historical articles, reviews, essays, letters, travel sketches, short stories, biographies, and translations in her career. She is best known for her memoir of life in Richmond during the American Civil War (1861–1865), Richmond During the War: Four Years of Personal Observation (1867). Published anonymously, the book, which is still in print, offers intelligent analysis and detailed description of the Confederate capital in wartime. In addition, Brock edited a collection of southern poetry about the war, in which she contributed verse about Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. Brock also published a novel, Kenneth, My King (1873) modeled after Charlotte Brontë's 1847 novel Jane Eyre; however, it was poorly reviewed, and after Brock married in 1882, her literary output diminished. She died in 1911.
Tue, 23 Jul 2013 11:28:10 EST]]>
/The_Life_and_Sufferings_of_Leonard_Black_a_Fugitive_from_Slavery_Written_by_Himself_1847 Fri, 12 Jul 2013 09:03:58 EST <![CDATA[The Life and Sufferings of Leonard Black, a Fugitive from Slavery. Written by Himself (1847)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Life_and_Sufferings_of_Leonard_Black_a_Fugitive_from_Slavery_Written_by_Himself_1847 Fri, 12 Jul 2013 09:03:58 EST]]> /Bagby_George_William_1828-1883 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:44:51 EST <![CDATA[Bagby, George William (1828–1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bagby_George_William_1828-1883 George William Bagby was a licensed physician, editor, journalist, essayist, and humorist. He is best remembered as the editor who, on the advent of the American Civil War (1861–1865), turned the Southern Literary Messenger from a respected literary journal into a propagandistic tool that endorsed secession and the Confederate cause. After the war, Bagby attempted but failed to make a living as a humorist. As assistant to the secretary of the commonwealth—which, by law, also made him state librarian—Bagby wrote his most well-regarded essay, "The Old Virginia Gentleman" (1877). Many of his essays reflect his personal conflicts with Virginia and the South: at times he is objective, even critical; at others he is sentimental and celebrates the "old days" of a better (pre-Civil War) Virginia.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:44:51 EST]]>
/Negro_in_Virginia_The_1940 Thu, 13 Jun 2013 16:53:17 EST <![CDATA[Negro in Virginia, The (1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Negro_in_Virginia_The_1940 The Negro in Virginia, published in 1940, traces the political, economic, and social history of African Americans in Virginia from the arrival of the first Africans in 1619 through the American Revolution (1775–1783), the American Civil War (1861–1865), Reconstruction (1865–1877), and the rise of Jim Crow laws in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. One of a planned series of "racial studies" undertaken by the Works Progress Administration's Federal Writers' Project (FWP), the book was completed by the Virginia Writers' Project (VWP). Specifically, it was researched and written under the auspices of the VWP's Negro Studies Project and was published by the VWP. Relying on interviews with more than 300 former slaves, along with a wide-ranging review of the relevant literature and laborious primary research in courthouses and archives across the state, the book's twenty-nine chapters constitute a singular achievement for its time: an attempt to tell what its editor, Professor Roscoe E. Lewis of Hampton Institute, called the "story of the Negro" from an African American point of view.
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/_Life_of_Isaac_Jefferson_of_Petersburg_Virginia_Blacksmith_by_Isaac_Jefferson_1847 Fri, 03 May 2013 09:49:59 EST <![CDATA["Life of Isaac Jefferson of Petersburg, Virginia, Blacksmith" by Isaac Jefferson (1847)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Life_of_Isaac_Jefferson_of_Petersburg_Virginia_Blacksmith_by_Isaac_Jefferson_1847 Fri, 03 May 2013 09:49:59 EST]]> /Cooke_Philip_St_George_1809-1895 Fri, 19 Apr 2013 14:53:47 EST <![CDATA[Cooke, Philip St. George (1809–1895)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooke_Philip_St_George_1809-1895 Philip St. George Cooke was a Virginia-born Union general during the American Civil War (1861–1865). A West Point graduate and a lawyer, Cooke served on frontier duty and fought in both the Black Hawk War (1832) and the Mexican War (1846–1848). In addition, he helped to protect settlers on the Oregon Trail, fought Apache in New Mexico Territory, helped subdue Sioux in Nebraska Territory, helped restore order in Bloody Kansas, and led an expedition against Mormons in the Utah Territory. When the Civil War began, Cooke was one of the Regular Army's top cavalrymen and he chose to stay with the Union, writing, "I owe Virginia little; my country much." It was a decision that caused a long estrangement from his son, John Rogers Cooke (1833–1891), and a rift with his son-in-law, the future Confederate general J. E. B. Stuart. During the war, he led a controversial cavalry charge at Gaines's Mill (1862) and eventually left the Army of the Potomac, claiming its commanders were inept. Following the war, his involvement in a massacre by Lakota Sioux further tarnished his reputation. He wrote two memoirs and a cavalry manual and in the 1880s reconciled with his son. Cooke died in Detroit, Michigan, in 1895.
Fri, 19 Apr 2013 14:53:47 EST]]>
/Query_XVIII_an_excerpt_from_Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1784 Thu, 11 Apr 2013 09:58:57 EST <![CDATA[Query XVIII; an excerpt from Notes on the State of Virginia by Thomas Jefferson (1784)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Query_XVIII_an_excerpt_from_Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1784 Thu, 11 Apr 2013 09:58:57 EST]]> /The_Story_of_Marguerite_de_La_Roque_an_excerpt_from_The_Heptameron_of_Margaret_Queen_of_Navarre_by_Marguerite_de_Navarre_1558 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:47:49 EST <![CDATA[The Story of Marguerite de La Roque; an excerpt from The Heptameron of Margaret, Queen of Navarre by Marguerite de Navarre (1558)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Story_of_Marguerite_de_La_Roque_an_excerpt_from_The_Heptameron_of_Margaret_Queen_of_Navarre_by_Marguerite_de_Navarre_1558 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:47:49 EST]]> /_The_natives_are_white_men_an_excerpt_from_De_Orbe_Novo_by_Peter_Martyr_d_Anghiera_1530 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:40:57 EST <![CDATA["The natives are white men"; an excerpt from De Orbe Novo by Peter Martyr d'Anghiera (1530)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_natives_are_white_men_an_excerpt_from_De_Orbe_Novo_by_Peter_Martyr_d_Anghiera_1530 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:40:57 EST]]> /_Sketches_in_the_Free_and_Slave_States_of_America_by_Eyre_Crowe_September_27_1856 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 10:44:45 EST <![CDATA["Sketches in the Free and Slave States of America" by Eyre Crowe (September 27, 1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Sketches_in_the_Free_and_Slave_States_of_America_by_Eyre_Crowe_September_27_1856 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 10:44:45 EST]]> /Chapter_IV_an_excerpt_from_With_Thackeray_in_America_by_Eyre_Crowe_1893 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 10:25:48 EST <![CDATA[Chapter IV; an excerpt from With Thackeray in America by Eyre Crowe (1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_IV_an_excerpt_from_With_Thackeray_in_America_by_Eyre_Crowe_1893 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 10:25:48 EST]]> /The_Black_Legend_an_excerpt_from_A_Brief_Account_of_the_Destruction_of_the_Indies_by_Bartolome_de_las_Casas_1552 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:53:22 EST <![CDATA[The Black Legend; an excerpt from A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies by Bartolomé de las Casas (1552)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Black_Legend_an_excerpt_from_A_Brief_Account_of_the_Destruction_of_the_Indies_by_Bartolome_de_las_Casas_1552 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:53:22 EST]]> /The_Story_of_Juan_Ortiz_an_excerpt_fromThe_Discovery_and_Conquest_of_Terra_Floridaby_a_Gentleman_of_Elvas_1557 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:33:27 EST <![CDATA[The Story of Juan Ortiz; an excerpt from The Discovery and Conquest of Terra Florida by a Gentleman of Elvas (1557)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Story_of_Juan_Ortiz_an_excerpt_fromThe_Discovery_and_Conquest_of_Terra_Floridaby_a_Gentleman_of_Elvas_1557 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:33:27 EST]]> /_Mr_Jefferson_s_Blooded_Stock_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:59:07 EST <![CDATA["Mr. Jefferson's Blooded Stock"; an excerpt from The Private Life of Thomas Jefferson by Hamilton W. Pierson (1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mr_Jefferson_s_Blooded_Stock_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:59:07 EST]]> /_Mr_Jefferson_s_Personal_Appearance_and_Habits_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:55:20 EST <![CDATA["Mr. Jefferson's Personal Appearance and Habits"; an excerpt from The Private Life of Thomas Jefferson by Hamilton W. Pierson (1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mr_Jefferson_s_Personal_Appearance_and_Habits_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:55:20 EST]]> /_Mr_Jefferson_s_Family_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:27:39 EST <![CDATA["Mr. Jefferson's Family"; an excerpt from The Private Life of Thomas Jefferson by Hamilton W. Pierson (1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mr_Jefferson_s_Family_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:27:39 EST]]> /_Mr_Jefferson_s_Servants_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:21:20 EST <![CDATA["Mr. Jefferson's Servants"; an excerpt from The Private Life of Thomas Jefferson by Hamilton W. Pierson (1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mr_Jefferson_s_Servants_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:21:20 EST]]> /Shenandoah Wed, 25 Jul 2012 10:54:05 EST <![CDATA[Shenandoah]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Shenandoah Shenandoah is a literary journal published three times a year by Washington and Lee University in Lexington. Founded in 1950 by J. J. Donovan, D. C. G. Kerry, and Tom Wolfe, the journal publishes fiction, poetry, essays, and reviews. Although originally conceived as a forum for undergraduate work, the magazine soon began to publish regional, national, and international writers, traditionally featuring unknown authors alongside such literary heavyweights as James Dickey, Ezra Pound, e.e. cummings, W. H. Auden, Flannery O'Connor, and William Faulkner. The journal has a subscriber list of approximately 1,800. In 2008, Shenandoah was awarded the Governor's Award for the Arts by Virginia governor Tim Kaine.
Wed, 25 Jul 2012 10:54:05 EST]]>
/_How_unworthy_a_choice_an_excerpt_from_the_preface_to_The_History_of_the_World_by_Sir_Walter_Raleigh_1614 Fri, 18 May 2012 09:08:31 EST <![CDATA["How unworthy a choice"; an excerpt from the preface to The History of the World by Sir Walter Raleigh (1614)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_How_unworthy_a_choice_an_excerpt_from_the_preface_to_The_History_of_the_World_by_Sir_Walter_Raleigh_1614 In this excerpt from the preface to The History of the World, Sir Walter Raleigh explains his inspiration for the book. Published in 1614, The History of the World was intended, in part, as a teaching tool for King James I's son Henry. Raleigh tutored the young man even while being confined in the Tower of London, and James, who found the book "too saucy in the censuring of princes," later revoked the publishing rights. When Henry died unexpectedly in 1612, Raleigh declined to complete the ambitious project.
Fri, 18 May 2012 09:08:31 EST]]>
/A_True_Relation_of_the_state_of_Virginia_Lefte_by_Sir_Thomas_Dale_Knight_in_May_Last_1616_1617 Mon, 14 May 2012 10:09:30 EST <![CDATA[A True Relation of the state of Virginia Lefte by Sir Thomas Dale Knight in May Last 1616 (1617)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_True_Relation_of_the_state_of_Virginia_Lefte_by_Sir_Thomas_Dale_Knight_in_May_Last_1616_1617 John Rolfe wrote A True Relation of the state of Virginia Lefte by Sir Thomas Dale Knight in May Last 1616 while in England with his wife, Pocahontas, and their infant son, Thomas. They were there to promote the interests of the Virginia Company of London, whose investors were discouraged by the colony's prospects; this manuscript, first published in 1617, appears to have had the same purpose. The current transcription comes from the June 1839 edition of the Southern Literary Messenger, the editors of which claimed to have "carefully transcribed" a version archived in the British Museum. The two are not identical, however.
Mon, 14 May 2012 10:09:30 EST]]>
/The_Huskanaw_Ritual_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:54:30 EST <![CDATA[The Huskanaw Ritual; an excerpt from The History of Virginia by Robert Beverley (1722)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Huskanaw_Ritual_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 In this excerpt from The History of Virginia (1722)—an expansion of History and Present State of Virginia (1705)—Robert Beverley describes the male-initiation rite known as the huskanaw among the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Tsenacomoco and Tidewater Virginia.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:54:30 EST]]>
/Lawes_Divine_Morall_and_Martiall Fri, 20 Jan 2012 15:39:22 EST <![CDATA[Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lawes_Divine_Morall_and_Martiall Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall, the rules and regulations issued in Jamestown beginning in 1610 and 1611, are the earliest extant English-language body of laws in the western hemisphere. It was not a legal code in the modern sense. No legislation created it, and no court enforced it. The laws were orders that the governor, appointed by the Virginia Company of London that settled and managed the colony between 1607 and 1624, issued to regulate the conduct of its members, employees, and servants. The laws recognized none of the principles of the English common law and did not provide for jury trials, even though the royal charters of the company specified that residents of the colony were entitled to all the rights of Englishmen.
Fri, 20 Jan 2012 15:39:22 EST]]>
/A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Hariot_1588 Wed, 18 Jan 2012 11:30:02 EST <![CDATA[A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia (1588)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Hariot_1588 A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia, by Thomas Hariot, was the first book about North America to be produced by an Englishman who had actually visited the continent. First published in 1588 and reprinted first by Richard Hakluyt (the younger) and then by Theodor de Bry, Hariot's report documented his trip to Roanoke Island off the Outer Banks of present-day North Carolina from 1585 to 1586. With its descriptions of the region's flora and fauna, along with the Native Americans who lived there, A briefe and true report came to be one of the most important texts produced in relation to the beginnings of English settlement in the Americas. The de Bry editions included engravings of images by John White, who had accompanied Hariot and the 600 other colonists. Together, Hariot's text and White's images played a crucial role in encouraging English investors to continue their colonial endeavors in the New World, and thus led directly to the beginnings of English settlement in Virginia.
Wed, 18 Jan 2012 11:30:02 EST]]>
/_Letter_to_the_Inhabitants_of_Maryland_Virginia_North_and_South_Carolina_1740 Wed, 18 Jan 2012 09:17:45 EST <![CDATA["Letter to the Inhabitants of Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina" (1740)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Letter_to_the_Inhabitants_of_Maryland_Virginia_North_and_South_Carolina_1740 "Letter to the Inhabitants of Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina" by the Anglican priest George Whitefield was published in 1740 by Benjamin Franklin in Three Letters from the Reverend Mr. G. Whitefield. An important leader of the First Great Awakening, Whitefield used the occasion to address slave owners in the American South, including Virginia. He chastised them for mistreating their enslaved African Americans and for not attempting to convert them to Christianity. Rather than encourage slaves to run away, Whitefield argued, Christian views would make them better slaves. In the end, Whitefield himself owned a plantation and slaves in South Carolina, but his message of salvation for slaves became typical of white southern evangelicals.
Wed, 18 Jan 2012 09:17:45 EST]]>