Encyclopedia Virginia: Mexican War (1846–1848) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Lee_Robert_Edward_1807-1870 Wed, 13 Feb 2019 09:30:14 EST Lee, Robert E. (1807–1870) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Robert_Edward_1807-1870 Robert E. Lee was a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865) who led the Army of Northern Virginia from June 1862 until its surrender at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. Descended from several of Virginia's First Families, Lee was a well-regarded officer of the United States Army before the war. His decision to fight for the Confederacy was emblematic of the wrenching choices faced by Americans as the nation divided. After an early defeat in western Virginia, he repulsed George B. McClellan's army from the Confederate capital during the Seven Days' Battles (1862) and won stunning victories at Manassas (1862), Fredericksburg (1862), and Chancellorsville (1863). The Maryland and Pennsylvania campaigns he led resulted in major contests at Antietam (1862) and Gettysburg (1863), respectively, with severe consequences for the Confederacy. Lee offered a spirited defense during the Overland Campaign (1864) against Ulysses S. Grant, but was ultimately outmaneuvered and forced into a prolonged siege at Petersburg (1864–1865). Lee's generalship was characterized by bold tactical maneuvers and inspirational leadership; however, critics have questioned his strategic judgment, his waste of lives in needless battles, and his unwillingness to fight in the Western Theater. In 1865, his beloved home at Arlington having been turned into a national cemetery, Lee became president of Washington College (now Washington and Lee University) in Lexington. There he promoted educational innovation and presented a constructive face to the devastated Southern public. Privately Lee remained bitter and worked to obstruct societal changes brought about by the war, including the enfranchisement of African Americans. By the end of his life he had become a potent symbol of regional pride and dignity in defeat, and has remained an icon of the Lost Cause. He died on October 12, 1870.
Wed, 13 Feb 2019 09:30:14 EST]]>
/Trist_Nicholas_Philip_1800-1874 Tue, 16 May 2017 16:29:16 EST <![CDATA[Trist, Nicholas Philip (1800–1874)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Trist_Nicholas_Philip_1800-1874 Nicholas Philip Trist was a diplomat who served as American consul to Cuba and helped to negotiate the end of the Mexican War (1846–1848). Born in Charlottesville to a family with a long acquaintance with Thomas Jefferson, Trist attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point without taking a degree and soon after married Jefferson's granddaughter, Virginia Jefferson Randolph. He served as clerk to the University of Virginia board of visitors, owned a newspaper in Charlottesville, and served briefly as President Andrew Jackson's private secretary. In 1833 Trist was appointed American consult to Cuba and he survived calls for his removal in 1839. Six years later President James K. Polk made Trist the State Department's chief clerk, and in 1847 dispatched him to Mexico with instructions to discreetly negotiate an end to the war. He did that, but not without confrontations with both the president and General Winfield Scott. After his return, Trist practiced law in New York, supported the Union during the American Civil War (1861–1865), and later moved to Alexandria. He died there in 1874.
Tue, 16 May 2017 16:29:16 EST]]>
/Winder_John_H_1800-1865 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 17:13:17 EST <![CDATA[Winder, John H. (1800–1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Winder_John_H_1800-1865 John H. Winder was a Confederate general who served as provost marshal of Richmond (1862–1864) and commissary general of Confederate prisons (1864–1865) during the American Civil War (1861–1865). A career military officer, Winder served with distinction during both the Second Seminole War (1835–1842) and the Mexican War (1846–1848), but faced criticism from Union officials and, subsequently, historians for his management of Richmond's wartime prisons and, beginning in June 1864, the notorious Andersonville Prison in Georgia. Described by his biographer as "short-tempered" and "aloof," Winder was responsible for the Castle Thunder, Belle Isle, and Libby prisons when they became infamous in the North for their poor conditions. While he was at Andersonville, the mortality rate of Union prisoners surged as a result of overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, and poor rations. Winder's defenders argue that he struggled with an inefficient Confederate bureaucracy and scarce resources, and that he instituted policies, late in the war, that reduced the number of prisoner deaths. He died of a heart attack in February 1865; his subordinate at Andersonville, Henry H. Wirz, was hanged later that year.
Thu, 07 Apr 2016 17:13:17 EST]]>
/Kemper_James_Lawson_1823-1895 Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:39:52 EST <![CDATA[Kemper, James Lawson (1823–1895)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Kemper_James_Lawson_1823-1895 James Lawson Kemper was a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865), who later served as governor of Virginia (1874–1877). Kemper volunteered in the Mexican War (1846–1848), but returned to his civilian life as a lawyer. He served five terms in the Virginia House of Delegates (1853–1863), including time as Speaker of the House (1861–1863). There he garnered a reputation for honesty and attention to duty. Kemper volunteered for service in 1861, and with his promotion in June 1862 became the Confederacy's youngest brigade commander. Badly wounded at Gettysburg in July 1863, Kemper oversaw the Virginia Reserve Forces for the remainder of the war. He helped found the Conservative Party during Reconstruction (1865–1877). Soundly defeating the Republican candidate in the 1873 gubernatorial race, Kemper found himself, as governor, at odds with previous supporters over his progressive stance on civil rights, prison reform, and public school improvements. Still suffering from his wound, Kemper retired to his law practice, and died in Orange County in 1895.
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:39:52 EST]]>
/States_Rights Wed, 24 Jun 2015 15:13:41 EST <![CDATA[States' Rights]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/States_Rights States' rights is a political philosophy that emphasizes the rights of individual states to fight what proponents believe to be the encroaching power of the United States government. Although the discourse around states' rights dates from the American Revolution (1775–1783) and the writings of Thomas Jefferson, it became critically important first during the Nullification Crisis (1828–1832), when South Carolina attempted to overrule a federally imposed tariff, and then during the Secession Crisis (1860–1861), when South Carolina and a number of other Southern states, including Virginia, seceded from the Union rather than accept the election of Abraham Lincoln as U.S. president. In theory, states' rights generally favors state and local control over federal control. During the 1850s, however, it was a malleable political philosophy that both Northerners and Southerners employed to advance their sectional interests. Deep South politicians acquiesced to federal power when it protected slavery but cited states' rights when questioning federal attempts at regulating the spread of slavery into new territories. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the philosophy served both as a pillar of Confederate propaganda and, at times, as a drag on Confederate unity. Ironically, Confederate president Jefferson Davis had little trouble expanding the central government in order to prosecute the war.
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/Johnston_Joseph_E_1807-1891 Tue, 21 Oct 2014 17:27:23 EST <![CDATA[Johnston, Joseph E. (1807–1891)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Johnston_Joseph_E_1807-1891 Joseph E. Johnston was a veteran of the Mexican War (1846–1848), quartermaster general of the United States Army, a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865), a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1879–1881), and a U.S. railroad commissioner in the first administration of U.S. president Grover Cleveland (1885–1889). The highest-ranking U.S. Army officer to resign his commission at the start of the Civil War, Johnston helped lead Confederates to victory at the First Battle of Manassas in July 1861; a month later, however, when Confederate president Jefferson Davis appointed five men to the rank of full general, he was only fourth on the list, igniting a bitter feud with the president that would last the war and even spill into his postwar memoir, Narrative of Military Operations (1874). Historians, meanwhile, have split on his military performance, with some dubbing him "Retreatin' Joe," citing, among others, his retreats in the face of General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac on the Peninsula in 1862. Johnston was wounded on June 1, 1862, at the Battle of Seven Pines, and Davis turned the Army of Northern Virginia over to General Robert E. Lee, who led it for the remainder of the war. Other historians have argued that Johnston's strategy of withdrawal saved Confederates from destruction during the Atlanta Campaign (1864); nevertheless, Davis replaced him then, too.
Tue, 21 Oct 2014 17:27:23 EST]]>
/Aulick_John_H_ca_1791-1873 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 15:11:49 EST <![CDATA[Aulick, John H. (ca. 1791–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Aulick_John_H_ca_1791-1873 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 15:11:49 EST]]> /Beauregard_G_T_1818-1893 Sat, 19 Jul 2014 08:36:09 EST <![CDATA[Beauregard, G. T. (1818–1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beauregard_G_T_1818-1893 G. T. Beauregard (also known as Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and, after helping engineer victory at the First Battle of Manassas on July 21, 1861, one of the Confederacy's first war heroes. Raised in an aristocratic French home in New Orleans, Louisiana, Beauregard graduated from West Point and served in the Mexican War (1846–1848) before becoming the Confederacy's first brigadier general and later a full general. He commanded Confederate and South Carolina troops at Charleston Harbor in April 1861, forcing the surrender of Fort Sumter, and, with Joseph E. Johnston, routed Irvin McDowell at Manassas in July. Beauregard's Napoleonic pretensions did not suit the temperament of Confederate president Jefferson Davis, however, and the two quarreled for much of the war and postwar. Beauregard fought well at the Battle of Shiloh in April 1862, but left his army without leave for the summer and was transferred east. He was critical in the defense of Petersburg in 1864, but ended the war largely out of favor. After the war, he engaged in politics that were sympathetic to the civil rights of African Americans, criticized Davis and Johnston in a two-volume, ghostwritten memoir, and accumulated wealth that was unusual for a former Confederate commander. Beauregard died in New Orleans in 1893.
Sat, 19 Jul 2014 08:36:09 EST]]>
/Barron_Samuel_1809-1888 Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:31:29 EST <![CDATA[Barron, Samuel (1809–1888)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barron_Samuel_1809-1888 Samuel Barron was a United States and Confederate States naval officer. The son and nephew of United States Navy captains, he was appointed a midshipman at two years old, reported for active duty at six, and sailed aboard the flagship of the Mediterranean fleet before he was eleven. During the Mexican War (1846–1848), Barron commanded the USS Perry on the Pacific coast, and during the 1850s, he served in Washington, D.C., where his courtly manners earned him the nickname, "the Navy diplomat." Like Robert E. Lee, he opposed secession but joined the Confederacy anyway, and during the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served first on the North Carolina coast and was captured there in 1861 and exchanged in July 1862. In March 1863, he assumed command of the James River Squadron, but spent most of his time in Richmond. At the end of the year, he transferred to Europe, but by this time Britain and France had settled on neutrality and his efforts to build a Confederate fleet there were stymied. Barron did not return to Virginia in time to play much role in the end of the war and eventually retired to a farm in Essex County, where he died in 1888.
Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:31:29 EST]]>
/Garnett_Robert_S_1819-1861 Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:15:34 EST <![CDATA[Garnett, Robert S. (1819–1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Garnett_Robert_S_1819-1861 Robert S. Garnett was a brigadier general in the Confederate army during the American Civil War (1861–1865). An 1841 graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point, he had a distinguished career in the United States Army, including service in the Mexican War (1846–1848), when he was an advisor to the Virginia-born general and later U.S. president Zachary Taylor. Garnett also designed the Great Seal of the State of California. After resigning from the Army to join the Confederacy, Garnett led Confederate troops on July 13, 1861, at the Battle of Corrick's Ford in what is now West Virginia. During the closing phases of that engagement, Garnett was shot and killed, becoming the first Confederate general killed during the Civil War.
Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:15:34 EST]]>
/Davis_Jefferson_1808-1889 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 04:23:46 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Jefferson (1808–1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Jefferson_1808-1889 Jefferson Davis was a celebrated veteran of the Mexican War (1846–1848), a U.S. senator from Mississippi (1847–1851; 1857–1861), secretary of war under U.S. president Franklin Pierce (1853–1857), and the only president of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Tall, lean, and formal, Davis was considered to be an ideal leader of the Confederacy upon his election in 1861, despite the fact that he neither sought the job nor particularly wanted it. Davis was a war hero, slaveholder, and longtime advocate of states' rights who nevertheless was not viewed to be a radical "fire-eater," making him more appealing to the hesitating moderates in Virginia. Still, Davis's reputation suffered over the years. Searing headaches, caused in part by facial neuralgia, exacerbated an already prickly personality. "I have an infirmity of which I am heartily ashamed," he said. "When I am aroused in a matter, I lose control of my feelings and become personal." The challenges inherent in holding together a wartime government founded on the idea of states' rights didn't help, either, nor did critics like E. A. Pollard, editor of the Richmond Examiner, who charged after the war that the Lost Cause was "lost by the perfidy of Jefferson Davis." Robert E. Lee, however, spoke for many when he said, "You can always say that few people could have done better than Mr. Davis. I knew of none that could have done as well."
Wed, 04 Jun 2014 04:23:46 EST]]>
/Gorgas_Josiah_1818-1883 Wed, 21 May 2014 11:52:21 EST <![CDATA[Gorgas, Josiah (1818-1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gorgas_Josiah_1818-1883 Josiah Gorgas was a Confederate general and chief of the Ordnance Bureau during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born in Pennsylvania, Gorgas was a veteran of the Mexican War (1846–1848) who married into a prominent political family in Alabama. His new Southern connections, along with dissatisfactions with his army career, helped fuel his decision to join the Confederacy. In 1861, he was the only experienced ordnance officer available to Confederate president Jefferson Davis's new government, and he almost single-handedly created a department charged with supplying Confederate armies with weapons and ammunition. He bought all the arms and supplies available in Europe and created a fleet of blockade-runners to transport them to Southern ports. At the same time, he worked to build Confederate industry and reinforce its railroads so that by 1863 the Confederacy was self-sufficient in military hardware. Following the war, Gorgas suffered financial difficulties and served briefly as president of the University of Alabama. He died in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, in 1883.
Wed, 21 May 2014 11:52:21 EST]]>
/Hooker_Joseph_1814-1879 Sun, 23 Mar 2014 18:53:39 EST <![CDATA[Hooker, Joseph (1814–1879)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hooker_Joseph_1814-1879 Joseph Hooker was a Union general during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and, for the first half of 1863, commander of the Army of the Potomac. Nicknamed "Fighting Joe," Hooker was a Regular Army veteran with a checkered reputation—rumors of drunkenness dogged him for much of his career—and a talent for political infighting. When he took over the army from Ambrose E. Burnside after the debacle at Fredericksburg (1862), the Army of the Potomac's morale was at an all-time low and desertion an all-time high. He reorganized its forces, virtually halted desertion, established reliable intelligence gathering, and, most important, boosted confidence. He also developed an elaborate plan secretly to flank Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia on the south side of the Rappahannock River, boasting to his army that "certain destruction awaits" the Confederates. At the Battle of Chancellorsville (1863), however, it was Hooker who was famously flanked and eventually forced to retreat. He then became a victim of infighting, and a few days before the Battle of Gettysburg (1863) gave up his command to George G. Meade.
Sun, 23 Mar 2014 18:53:39 EST]]>
/Jackson_Thomas_J_Stonewall_1824-1863 Sun, 23 Mar 2014 13:09:59 EST <![CDATA[Jackson, Thomas J. "Stonewall" (1824–1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jackson_Thomas_J_Stonewall_1824-1863 Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson was a West Point graduate, veteran of the Mexican War (1846–1848), instructor at the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington, and Confederate general under Robert E. Lee during the American Civil War (1861–1865). One of Lee's ablest commanders, Jackson earned his famous nickname during the First Battle of Manassas in 1861 when a fellow general is said to have cried out, "There is Jackson standing like a stone wall! Rally behind the Virginians!" A few contemporary accounts suggest that the stone-wall comparison was not intended to be complimentary, but it hardly matters. The real Jackson—peculiarly earnest and single-minded but in many ways not so different from other soldiers of his day—was being transformed into the mythological one, an Old Testament God of wrath contrasting with Lee's Christ-like figure. When Jackson was accidentally wounded by his own men during the Battle of Chancellorsville (1863), Lee relayed to him a message: "Give General Jackson my affectionate regards, and say to him: he has lost his left arm but I my right." Jackson died eight days later due to complications from the injury. A martyr to his cause during the war, Jackson has become an iconic figure in Southern culture, second only to Lee in the pantheon of Confederate heroes.
Sun, 23 Mar 2014 13:09:59 EST]]>
/McClellan_George_B_1826-1885 Tue, 04 Mar 2014 18:02:05 EST <![CDATA[McClellan, George B. (1826–1885)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/McClellan_George_B_1826-1885 George B. McClellan was a major general in the Union army during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Styled the "Young Napoleon" by the press, his battlefield successes and failures were eclipsed by controversies that arose between him and his superiors, especially U.S. president Abraham Lincoln. Following the Union debacle at the First Battle of Manassas in July 1861, McClellan formed and took command of the Army of the Potomac, expertly training it and earning the love and devotion of his men. He led the army first through the unsuccessful Peninsula Campaign and the Seven Days' Battles outside Richmond in 1862, and then through the climactic Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862, which forced Confederate general Robert E. Lee to abandon his invasion of the North. Lincoln, however, was dissatisfied with McClellan's lack of aggression and relieved him of command. McClellan, a Democrat, responded by challenging the Republican president in the 1864 election. It was both the logical culmination of his advocacy for a limited-war strategy, and perhaps the clumsiest confirmation of his critics' accusations that his military caution was politically motivated. After McClellan lost his run for the presidency, he retired first to Europe and then to New Jersey, where he became governor.
Tue, 04 Mar 2014 18:02:05 EST]]>
/Scott_Winfield_1786-1866 Thu, 02 Jan 2014 13:28:00 EST <![CDATA[Scott, Winfield (1786–1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Scott_Winfield_1786-1866 Winfield Scott was a hero of the Mexican War (1846–1848), the last Whig Party candidate for U.S. president, and commanding general of the United States Army at the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865). Known as "Old Fuss and Feathers" for his equal love of discipline and pomp, Scott by 1861 had served in the military for more than fifty years and under fourteen U.S. presidents. He had been severely wounded in battle, avoided several wars with his diplomatic skills, and commanded the army that conquered Mexico City in 1847, all of which made him the most admired and famous soldier in America. Less well known is the fact that Scott was convicted by court-martial for conduct unbecoming an officer, was investigated by a court of inquiry, once was accused of treason, and several times offered his resignation from the army. When the Civil War began, the Dinwiddie County native remained loyal to the Union, and while age had so reduced his once-towering frame that he could no longer even mount a horse, his ego and intellect were still intact. Scott's Anaconda Plan for winning the war proved to be prescient but politically out of step, and he eventually lost control of the army to George B. McClellan. He soon retired, published a two-volume memoir in 1864, and died in 1866.
Thu, 02 Jan 2014 13:28:00 EST]]>
/Thomas_George_H_1816-1870 Fri, 27 Dec 2013 08:06:26 EST <![CDATA[Thomas, George H. (1816–1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_George_H_1816-1870 George H. Thomas was a Virginia native, a veteran of the Mexican War (1846–1848), and a Union general during the American Civil War (1861–1865) who earned the nickname "the Rock of Chickamauga" after his defensive stand at the Georgia battle in 1863. He won an early Union victory at the Battle of Mill Springs, Kentucky (1862), and decisively defeated the Confederate Army of Tennessee during the Battle of Nashville (1864). He also served as a subordinate at the Battle of Stone's River (1862–1863) and the Chattanooga Campaign (1863) in Tennessee and, under his West Point roommate William T. Sherman, the 1864 Atlanta Campaign. Thomas was a slave owner before the war, but his experience commanding African American soldiers led him to change his views, and he became a staunch defender of civil rights during Reconstruction (1865–1876). As senior military commander in Kentucky and Tennessee from 1865 until 1869, he fought to protect African Americans from the Ku Klux Klan and other white-supremacist groups. He died of a stroke in 1870.
Fri, 27 Dec 2013 08:06:26 EST]]>
/Archer_Fletcher_H_1817-1902 Thu, 15 Aug 2013 16:16:21 EST <![CDATA[Archer, Fletcher H. (1817–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Archer_Fletcher_H_1817-1902 Fletcher H. Archer was a Confederate army officer and Petersburg mayor. After earning a law degree from the University of Virginia and practicing law in his native Petersburg, Archer led a company of Virginia volunteers during the Mexican War (1846–1848). During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served in the infantry and at the Norfolk Naval Hospital before retiring back to his Petersburg law practice. In 1864, however, with Union general-in-chief Ulysses S. Grant's Army of the Potomac moving south, Archer raised a battalion of Virginia Reserves—composed mostly of men either too young or old for regular duty—and, on June 9, helped to successfully defend the city at the Battle of Old Men and Young Boys. After the war, Archer joined the Conservative Party and, as president of the Petersburg City Council, became mayor in 1882 when William E. Cameron, the previous mayor, became governor. Archer served until 1883, and died in Petersburg in 1902.
Thu, 15 Aug 2013 16:16:21 EST]]>
/Cooke_Philip_St_George_1809-1895 Fri, 19 Apr 2013 14:53:47 EST <![CDATA[Cooke, Philip St. George (1809–1895)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooke_Philip_St_George_1809-1895 Philip St. George Cooke was a Virginia-born Union general during the American Civil War (1861–1865). A West Point graduate and a lawyer, Cooke served on frontier duty and fought in both the Black Hawk War (1832) and the Mexican War (1846–1848). In addition, he helped to protect settlers on the Oregon Trail, fought Apache in New Mexico Territory, helped subdue Sioux in Nebraska Territory, helped restore order in Bloody Kansas, and led an expedition against Mormons in the Utah Territory. When the Civil War began, Cooke was one of the Regular Army's top cavalrymen and he chose to stay with the Union, writing, "I owe Virginia little; my country much." It was a decision that caused a long estrangement from his son, John Rogers Cooke (1833–1891), and a rift with his son-in-law, the future Confederate general J. E. B. Stuart. During the war, he led a controversial cavalry charge at Gaines's Mill (1862) and eventually left the Army of the Potomac, claiming its commanders were inept. Following the war, his involvement in a massacre by Lakota Sioux further tarnished his reputation. He wrote two memoirs and a cavalry manual and in the 1880s reconciled with his son. Cooke died in Detroit, Michigan, in 1895.
Fri, 19 Apr 2013 14:53:47 EST]]>
/Whig_Party_in_Virginia Tue, 12 Apr 2011 11:51:27 EST <![CDATA[Whig Party in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Whig_Party_in_Virginia The Whig Party was a political party in Virginia and across the United States that was founded in 1833 in opposition to the policies of U.S. president Andrew Jackson—a Democrat who was criticized for his expansion of executive powers—and in support of states' rights and, eventually, the sectional interests of the South. Whigs, especially in the North, vigorously opposed the Mexican War (1846–1848), a conflict that led to increased sectional friction as the federal government attempted, without great success, to strike a balance between the interests of North and South, free and slave, when admitting the newly captured territory into the Union. By 1856, that friction had destroyed the party, both within the state and nationally, forcing its members to affiliate with different parties dictated largely by their stance on slavery and secession. In the years leading up to the American Civil War (1861–1865), many prominent former Virginia Whig Party members, such as John Minor Botts, were vocal in their resistance to Democratic calls for secession. Other prominent Virginia Whigs included Mexican War heroes Zachary Taylor, who served as U.S. president from 1849 until 1850, and Winfield Scott, who ran unsuccessfully for the office in 1852.
Tue, 12 Apr 2011 11:51:27 EST]]>