Encyclopedia Virginia: Local Government http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Toler_Burwell_ca_1822-1880 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:58:18 EST Toler, Burwell (ca. 1822–1880) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Toler_Burwell_ca_1822-1880 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:58:18 EST]]> /Boothe_Gardner_Lloyd_1872-1964 Wed, 30 Aug 2017 14:37:10 EST <![CDATA[Boothe, Gardner L. (1872–1964)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boothe_Gardner_Lloyd_1872-1964 Gardner L. Boothe was a Democratic Party leader in Alexandria for more than fifty years. Born in that city in 1872, he studied law at the University of Virginia in 1893 and opened a law practice. Boothe became Alexandria's city attorney in 1897 and five years later was elected a member of the Democratic Party's State Central Committee. That same year he was selected chairman of the Eighth District Committee, a position he held until 1952. Boothe aligned himself with the state's conservative establishment, backing stalwarts Harry F. Byrd Sr. and Howard W. Smith, including in their opposition to civil rights legislation. A member of the state's old guard, he presided over Alexandria's First National Bank for forty-six years and took an active role in local business, civic, and religious affairs. He died in Alexandria in 1964.
Wed, 30 Aug 2017 14:37:10 EST]]>
/Duncan_Pauline_Adelaide_Haislip_1888-1973 Fri, 03 Feb 2017 14:31:01 EST <![CDATA[Duncan, Pauline Haislip (1888–1973)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Duncan_Pauline_Adelaide_Haislip_1888-1973 Pauline Haislip Duncan served as one of Virginia's first female law enforcement officers. She was a charter member of the Organized Women Voters of Arlington County, which was among a number of local civic and political groups she joined after women received the right to vote. The organization pushed for a woman deputy in 1923, recommending Smith. She recorded her first criminal arrest the following year and served until 1943, surviving an attempt to remove her in 1927. Smith mostly worked on cases involving women and children, though she at times chased thieves and helped stop fights. She also aided the local Parent-Teacher Association and the Girl Scouts, helping earn her the nickname Aunt Polly. The Organized Women Voters of Arlington County honored her as its Woman of the Year in 1965.
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/Anderson_Joseph_Reid_1813-1892 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:17:17 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, Joseph R. (1813–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_Joseph_Reid_1813-1892 Joseph R. Anderson was an iron manufacturer and Confederate army officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). In 1848 he purchased the Tredegar Iron Company, the largest producer of munitions, cannon, railroad iron, steam engines, and other ordnance for the Confederate government during the Civil War. One of Anderson's most notable decisions was to introduce slaves into skilled industrial work at the ironworks, and by 1864, more than half the workers at Tredegar were bondsmen. Anderson served as a brigadier general for the Confederate army, and fought and was wounded during the Seven Days' Battles. He resigned his commission in the Confederate Army in 1862 to resume control of the ironworks, and after the war, Anderson was a strong proponent for peace, hoping to keep the Union army from taking possession of the ironworks. He failed, but regained control of Tredegar after he was pardoned by U.S. president Andrew Johnson in 1865. By 1873 Anderson had doubled the factory's prewar capacity, and its labor force exceeded 1,000 men, many of them black laborers and skilled workmen who received equal pay with white workers. Though Tredegar failed to make the transition from iron to steel production late in the nineteenth century, the company survived into the 1980s. Anderson was a well-known member of the Richmond community, serving multiple terms on the Richmond City Council and in the House of Delegates before and after the war.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:17:17 EST]]>
/Adams_John_H_ca_1848-1934 Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:54:24 EST <![CDATA[Adams, John H. (ca. 1848–1934)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Adams_John_H_ca_1848-1934 John H. Adams served six years in Richmond's government representing Jackson Ward, two years on the city council and four years as an alderman. Adams hailed from a successful free black family, and received a bachelor's degree from a Pennsylvania college in 1873. A plasterer by trade, he became involved with the African American religious and spiritual community. He helped his neighborhood, created as a gerrymandered constituency to limit black political power, improve its schools, streets, and lighting. Adams moved to Danville in the 1890s, but retired about 1930 and returned to Richmond, where he died at the home of a niece in 1934.
Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:54:24 EST]]>
/Crump_Josiah_ca_1838-1890 Thu, 05 Feb 2015 14:58:43 EST <![CDATA[Crump, Josiah (ca. 1838–1890)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crump_Josiah_ca_1838-1890 Josiah Crump represented the Jackson Ward neighborhood on Richmond's city council for nearly ten years (1876–1884, 1888–1890). While it is unknown if Crump was born enslaved, by 1860 he was free and worked as a teamster. In 1871 he became a postal clerk in Richmond, most likely gaining the post because of his involvement with the Republican Party. He also joined the Grand Fountain United Order of True Reformers and served as a captain in one the city's African American militias. Crump won his first election to the city's board of aldermen in 1876, serving until 1884. He returned to office for two more years in 1888. In spite of increasing racial tensions, both black and white politicians respected Crump. He served on the committee of ordinances, a rarity for African American council members, and ended the practice of medical schools robbing graves for black cadavers. Crump died in 1890, and his funeral drew between 5,000 and 6,000 mourners.
Thu, 05 Feb 2015 14:58:43 EST]]>
/Duckworth_W_Fred_1899-1972 Sun, 14 Sep 2014 11:46:36 EST <![CDATA[Duckworth, W. Fred (1899–1972)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Duckworth_W_Fred_1899-1972 W. Fred Duckworth served as Norfolk's mayor from 1950 until 1962. While the dynamic and forceful Duckworth earned plaudits for his large urban-renewal projects, his brusque governing style and fight against desegregation attracted controversy. His successes included improvements to the transportation infrastructure, expansion of the city's port, and his key role in creating the MacArthur Memorial, in honor of General Douglas MacArthur. Duckworth received criticism, especially from Norfolk's large African American community, regarding the administration's hiring practices, city services, and development plans that bulldozed interracial neighborhoods. He also backed Massive Resistance, a statewide plan that opposed the desegregation of public schools, urging the city council in 1959 to cut off all funds for schools above the sixth grade. In 1972, nearly a decade after stepping down as mayor, an unknown assailant murdered Duckworth. His murder remains unsolved.
Sun, 14 Sep 2014 11:46:36 EST]]>
/Cochran_Herbert_Green_1885-1969 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 13:31:30 EST <![CDATA[Cochran, Herbert G. (1885–1969)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cochran_Herbert_Green_1885-1969 Herbert G. Cochran served as judge of the Norfolk Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court (1925–1954) and helped establish the modern juvenile court system in Virginia. He held the controversial belief that the welfare of defendant juveniles was paramount and that incarceration contributed to recidivism. During his three decades on the bench he emphasized individual treatment of defendants and pioneered the use of family counseling and probation. Cochran, along with Richmond's James Hoge Ricks and Roanoke's Odessa Pittard Bailey, turned the focus of the courts to rehabilitating young offenders. His activism helped reform juvenile justice systems across the country, serving on national boards and helping craft Massachusetts's laws.
Thu, 05 Jun 2014 13:31:30 EST]]>
/Wilder_Lawrence_Douglas_1931- Mon, 11 Nov 2013 13:10:02 EST <![CDATA[Wilder, Lawrence Douglas (1931– )]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wilder_Lawrence_Douglas_1931- L. Douglas Wilder was governor of Virginia from 1990 until 1994. His was a political career of many firsts: the grandson of slaves, he was the first African American elected governor of any state in America. He was the first black member of the Virginia Senate in the twentieth century. And he was the first African American to win statewide office in Virginia when he was elected lieutenant governor in 1985. A Democrat, he ran briefly for United States president in 1991 and in 2004 was elected mayor of Richmond, serving until 2008.
Mon, 11 Nov 2013 13:10:02 EST]]>
/Archer_Fletcher_H_1817-1902 Thu, 15 Aug 2013 16:16:21 EST <![CDATA[Archer, Fletcher H. (1817–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Archer_Fletcher_H_1817-1902 Fletcher H. Archer was a Confederate army officer and Petersburg mayor. After earning a law degree from the University of Virginia and practicing law in his native Petersburg, Archer led a company of Virginia volunteers during the Mexican War (1846–1848). During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served in the infantry and at the Norfolk Naval Hospital before retiring back to his Petersburg law practice. In 1864, however, with Union general-in-chief Ulysses S. Grant's Army of the Potomac moving south, Archer raised a battalion of Virginia Reserves—composed mostly of men either too young or old for regular duty—and, on June 9, helped to successfully defend the city at the Battle of Old Men and Young Boys. After the war, Archer joined the Conservative Party and, as president of the Petersburg City Council, became mayor in 1882 when William E. Cameron, the previous mayor, became governor. Archer served until 1883, and died in Petersburg in 1902.
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