Encyclopedia Virginia: Health and Medicine http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Epidemic_The_Norfolk_and_Portsmouth_Yellow_Fever_1855 Mon, 17 Aug 2020 13:53:47 EST Epidemic, The Norfolk and Portsmouth Yellow Fever (1855) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Epidemic_The_Norfolk_and_Portsmouth_Yellow_Fever_1855 The yellow fever epidemic that struck Norfolk and Portsmouth in the summer and fall of 1855 was one of the worst in U.S. history. The disease was brought to the prosperous port region in June 1855 by the steamer Benjamin Franklin, which docked in Hampton Roads for repairs after arriving from the West Indies. Yellow fever spread from the dockside tenements occupied by Irish shipyard workers to Norfolk and Portsmouth, becoming epidemic by early August. Thousands became ill and thousands more fled the two cities in a panic, only to be met in many cases with quarantine zones that barred their entry. Life in both cities ground to a halt, with businesses, churches, and markets closed, the harbor shuttered, and the even the newspapers silenced by the death of their proprietors. City government essentially collapsed in the two cities, and the remaining residents survived only because of hastily formed civic aid organizations and outside help. Contributions for the beleaguered residents, as well as doctors and nurses, poured in from around the country. In the end, an estimated 3,000 people died in Norfolk, approximately one-third of the entire population, while upward of 1,000 died in Portsmouth. Neither city would truly recover until the twentieth century.
Mon, 17 Aug 2020 13:53:47 EST]]>
/Valentine_Lila_Meade_1865-1921 Wed, 29 Jul 2020 10:50:06 EST <![CDATA[Valentine, Lila Meade (1865–1921)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Valentine_Lila_Meade_1865-1921 Lila Meade Valentine was a suffragist, education reformer, and public-health advocate. During her abbreviated life, she played a vital role in creating and running organizations that improved the health-care and public school systems of her native city of Richmond. Valentine also became an ardent supporter of woman suffrage early in the 1900s, cofounding the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia and serving as an active member of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. A talented organizer and an eloquent speaker, Valentine led efforts on behalf of suffrage that came to fruition in 1920, when the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified, giving women the right to vote.
Wed, 29 Jul 2020 10:50:06 EST]]>
/Virginia_The_Influenza_Pandemic_in_1918-1919 Mon, 20 Jul 2020 15:15:47 EST <![CDATA[Influenza Pandemic in Virginia, The (1918–1919)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_The_Influenza_Pandemic_in_1918-1919 In 1918–1919 a new and deadly type of influenza spread across the United States and around the world. It raged through Virginia from the autumn of 1918 through the spring of 1919, spreading through cities, small towns, isolated rural areas, and military camps. By the time it waned, the epidemic had claimed the lives of at least 16,000 Virginians. The virus, which probably originated in Kansas, was brought to Virginia by military personnel arriving in the state to take ships to Europe, where World War I (1914–1918) was being fought. From bases such as Camp Lee, near Petersburg, it easily jumped to cities and their civilian populations, causing high fever, nausea, and aches, and often leading to severe pneumonia. Authorities prohibited public gatherings and the Red Cross distributed cloth masks, but viral infections were unknown to medical science at the time and are often untreatable regardless. Doctors and nurses were driven to exhaustion caring for their patients, while in rural areas without access to hospitals the weight of coping fell on family members. Federal and state governments, including in Virginia, generally downplayed the severity of the epidemic so as not to cause panic or a downturn in wartime morale. In Richmond, the city turned an unused high school into a whites-only emergency hospital and later opened one for African Americans. In Charlottesville the schools closed. Because of the Great Depression and World War II (1939–1945), the epidemic faded from public memory until early in the twenty-first century.
Mon, 20 Jul 2020 15:15:47 EST]]>
/_Total_of_1_000_Patients_Expected_at_Hospital_October_25_1918 Mon, 20 Jul 2020 15:13:12 EST <![CDATA["Total of 1,000 Patients Expected at Hospital" (October 25, 1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Total_of_1_000_Patients_Expected_at_Hospital_October_25_1918 Mon, 20 Jul 2020 15:13:12 EST]]> /_Spread_of_Influenza_October_16_1918 Thu, 04 Jun 2020 16:38:16 EST <![CDATA["Spread of Influenza" (October 16, 1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Spread_of_Influenza_October_16_1918 Thu, 04 Jun 2020 16:38:16 EST]]> /_The_Influenza_Spreads_Fast_October_18_1918 Thu, 04 Jun 2020 16:33:40 EST <![CDATA["The Influenza Spreads Fast." (October 18, 1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Influenza_Spreads_Fast_October_18_1918 Thu, 04 Jun 2020 16:33:40 EST]]> /_Influenza_Still_Raging_December_6_1918 Thu, 28 May 2020 16:32:22 EST <![CDATA["Influenza Still Raging." (December 6, 1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Influenza_Still_Raging_December_6_1918 Thu, 28 May 2020 16:32:22 EST]]> /_Notice_The_Following_Rules_and_Regulations_Are_Promulgated_by_the_Local_Board_of_Health_of_Big_Stone_Gap_Va_October_16_1918 Thu, 28 May 2020 16:24:51 EST <![CDATA["Notice: The Following Rules and Regulations Are Promulgated by the Local Board of Health of Big Stone Gap, Va." (October 16, 1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Notice_The_Following_Rules_and_Regulations_Are_Promulgated_by_the_Local_Board_of_Health_of_Big_Stone_Gap_Va_October_16_1918 Thu, 28 May 2020 16:24:51 EST]]> /_Keep_at_a_Safe_Distance_December_4_1918 Thu, 28 May 2020 16:23:40 EST <![CDATA["Keep at a Safe Distance" (December 4, 1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Keep_at_a_Safe_Distance_December_4_1918 Thu, 28 May 2020 16:23:40 EST]]> /_Stop_Influenza_Big_Stone_Gap_Post_October_9_1918 Thu, 21 May 2020 16:42:17 EST <![CDATA["Stop Influenza," Big Stone Gap Post (October 9, 1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Stop_Influenza_Big_Stone_Gap_Post_October_9_1918 Thu, 21 May 2020 16:42:17 EST]]> /_Schools_May_Close_Again_Clinch_Valley_News_December_13_1918 Thu, 21 May 2020 16:40:41 EST <![CDATA["Schools May Close Again." Clinch Valley News (December 13, 1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Schools_May_Close_Again_Clinch_Valley_News_December_13_1918 Thu, 21 May 2020 16:40:41 EST]]> /_Flew_on_the_Wings_of_Death_to_the_Hills_Big_Stone_Gap_Post_November_20_1918 Thu, 21 May 2020 16:38:37 EST <![CDATA["Flew on the Wings of Death to the Hills," Big Stone Gap Post (November 20, 1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Flew_on_the_Wings_of_Death_to_the_Hills_Big_Stone_Gap_Post_November_20_1918 Thu, 21 May 2020 16:38:37 EST]]> /Anatomical_Theatre Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:18:02 EST <![CDATA[Anatomical Theatre]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anatomical_Theatre The Anatomical Theatre was designed by Thomas Jefferson and erected on the grounds of the University of Virginia in 1825–1826. It was used for anatomy instruction and the storage of cadavers. Jefferson had long prioritized medical education in his plans for the university, but when Robley Dunglison, the first professor of anatomy, arrived in 1825, he found that his pavilion's teaching space was inconvenient for the dissection of cadavers. Inspired by Renaissance architecture and the work of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Jefferson designed a square, three-story building that housed a skylit, octagonal surgical theater on the top floor. The Anatomical Theatre opened for classes in 1827 and was the subject of periodic construction and renovations in subsequent decades. In 1837, a one-story brick Anatomical Laboratory was built behind it and used only for dissections. Enslaved labor helped construct and later clean the theater, with university records referencing a man known as Anatomical Lewis, who served as custodian from 1839 to 1857. In order to acquire cadavers for dissection, professors such as John Staige Davis, who taught from 1847 until his death in 1885, relied on grave robbers who stole mostly African American corpses. The building fell into disuse after the opening of the University of Virginia Hospital in 1901 and briefly served as home to the School of Rural Economics. It was razed in 1939 to improve views of the new Alderman Library. It is the only Jefferson-designed building at the university to have been torn down.
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:18:02 EST]]>
/Harris_Joseph_D_c_1833-1884 Thu, 12 Jul 2018 17:45:23 EST <![CDATA[Harris, J. D. (ca. 1833–1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harris_Joseph_D_c_1833-1884 J. D. Harris, a free-born physician, ran as the lieutenant gubernatorial candidate for the Republican Party's radical faction in the election of 1869. Harris entered public life late in the 1850s, advocating African American repatriation to the Caribbean. His interest in tropical diseases led him into medicine, and he became a doctor in 1864. Harris's medical work for the U.S. Army settled him in Virginia. Politically active and known for his intelligence, he received the Republicans' nomination for lieutenant governor in the first statewide election under the Constitution of 1869. His multiracial background played a role in splitting the party that year. A breakaway group known as the True Republicans received the tacit support of the Conservative Party and carried the election. Harris remained active in medicine and civil rights, living in South Carolina and Virginia, until a mental breakdown in 1876. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1884.
Thu, 12 Jul 2018 17:45:23 EST]]>
/Barnes_Thomas_H_1831-1913 Tue, 08 May 2018 17:18:36 EST <![CDATA[Barnes, Thomas H. (1831–1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barnes_Thomas_H_1831-1913 Thomas H. Barnes was a physician and a member of the House of Delegates (1874–1877), the Senate of Virginia (1887–1894), and the Convention of 1901–1902. Born in Nansemond County, he was educated at the University of Virginia and the Medical College of Virginia. He practiced medicine, never married, and did not serve in the military during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After the war, Barnes became active in Democratic Party politics, serving in the General Assembly and in the state constitutional convention. He died in 1913.
Tue, 08 May 2018 17:18:36 EST]]>
/Davis_John_Staige_1824-1885 Mon, 13 Nov 2017 15:59:10 EST <![CDATA[Davis, John Staige (1824–1885)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_John_Staige_1824-1885 John Staige Davis was a professor of medicine at the University of Virginia from 1847 until 1885. Born in Albemarle County, he was the son of John A. G. Davis, a law professor at the university who was shot and killed by a student there in 1840. The younger Davis practiced medicine in western Virginia before joining the faculty himself in 1847. Preferring a practical approach to anatomy instruction, and thwarted by a Virginia law that prohibited the disinterment of dead bodies, he resorted to grave robbing. Most of the bodies came from African American and pauper cemeteries, others from executed convicts. In 1859, Davis requested the bodies of men sentenced to be hanged after John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry but received none. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Davis served as a Confederate surgeon in Charlottesville. He died in 1885.
Mon, 13 Nov 2017 15:59:10 EST]]>
/Beazley_Roy_C_1902-1985 Fri, 01 Jul 2016 16:43:58 EST <![CDATA[Beazley, Roy C. (1902–1985)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beazley_Roy_C_1902-1985 Roy C. Beazley directed nursing education in various positions at the University of Virginia from 1946 until 1969, and was the first woman at the university to be named professor emerita. Born in Orange County and named for her uncle, Beazley began her career as a teacher but after suffering a serious illness she became interested in nursing. She attended the hospital nursing school at the University of Virginia and, with the exception of a degree earned at Columbia University in 1953, remained in Charlottesville for the rest of her career. She directed the evolution of the nursing education program into the School of Nursing and served as president of the Virginia State Board of Examiners of Nurses from 1959 to 1961. She retired from teaching in 1969 and died in 1985. Later that year she was posthumously awarded the University of Virginia's Distinguished Nursing Alumnae Award.
Fri, 01 Jul 2016 16:43:58 EST]]>
/Medicine_in_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War Wed, 27 Apr 2016 17:14:33 EST <![CDATA[Medicine in Virginia during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Medicine_in_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War The medicine practiced in Virginia by the Union and Confederate armies during the American Civil War (1861–1865) was state of the art for its day and an important factor in the ability of both governments to raise and maintain armies in the field. More than twice as many soldiers died of disease than from combat-related injuries. Still, despite many nineteenth-century misconceptions about the causes and treatments of disease, three out of four soldiers survived their illnesses. This was due in part to widespread vaccination for smallpox, isolation of most contagious diseases, and especially the recognition of the importance of cleanliness and sanitation. As the war dragged on, combat injuries became more prevalent and the work of surgeons became more important. Surgery, though unsterile, saved lives through amputation. Such procedures were done, for the most part, with adequate pain control and some form of anesthesia. To care for the wounded, both sides established a system of hospitals, ranging from makeshift field hospitals and interim "corps hospitals" (used by Confederates), to large, fixed general hospitals such as the sprawling Chimborazo Hospital in Richmond. It was often painful and dangerous for the wounded to be transported from the battlefield to the hospital, but in the end the quality of medical care they received was generally high and led to important medical advances during the postwar period and twentieth century.
Wed, 27 Apr 2016 17:14:33 EST]]>
/Dunglison_Robley_1798-1869 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:30:09 EST <![CDATA[Dunglison, Robley (1798–1869)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dunglison_Robley_1798-1869 Robley Dunglison was a medical educator and an author who was among the first faculty members of the University of Virginia. Born in England, he studied medicine in London, Edinburgh, Paris, and Germany, but found himself bored with general practice. In 1824 he accepted an offer to teach at the newly founded University of Virginia, becoming the first professional full-time professor of medicine in the United States. (Most professors also practiced medicine, but Dunglison's contract prohibited it.) He also served as Thomas Jefferson's consulting physician and attended the former president's death at Monticello in 1826. While in Charlottesville, Dunglison published his landmark work, Human Physiology (1832), and a medical dictionary. He taught at Virginia for nine years before accepting a position at the University of Maryland and then, three years after that, at Jefferson Medical College, in Philadelphia, where he stayed for the rest of his career. Dunglison died in 1853.
Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:30:09 EST]]>
/Cabell_J_L_1813-1889 Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:27:10 EST <![CDATA[Cabell, J. L. (1813–1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cabell_J_L_1813-1889 J. L. Cabell was a medical educator and public health advocate. Likely born in Nelson County, he attended the University of Virginia and received his medical degree from the University of Maryland in Baltimore. In 1837, he became a professor of anatomy and surgery at the University of Virginia, teaching for more than fifty years, until 1889. In 1859, Cabell published a treatise arguing that all people, even those of supposedly inferior races, descended from a single creation. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Cabell served as the surgeon in charge of the Confederate military hospitals in Charlottesville and Danville. After the war, he helped to found the Medical Society of Virginia and served as its president from 1876 to 1877. He was the first president of the Virginia State Board of Health, and in 1879 became president of the new National Board of Health. Cabell died in 1889.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:27:10 EST]]>
/Charlottesville_During_the_Civil_War Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:20:34 EST <![CDATA[Charlottesville during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Charlottesville_During_the_Civil_War Charlottesville provided the Confederate war effort with swords, uniforms, and artificial limbs during the American Civil War (1861–1865). It was also home to a 500-bed military hospital that employed hundreds of the town's residents, cared for more than 22,000 patients, and was superintended by Dr. J. L. Cabell, a professor of medicine at the nearby University of Virginia. In the summer of 1861, the 19th Virginia Infantry Regiment was organized, recruiting most of its members from Charlottesville and Albemarle County. The unit served with the Army of Northern Virginia all the way through to the Appomattox Campaign (1865), including at Pickett's Charge (1863), where it lost 60 percent of its men. African Americans, both enslaved and free, who composed a majority of the town and county's population, were the subject of heightened white fears of violence, their movements controlled by a curfew. In 1863, black members of the biracial First Baptist Church established the Charlottesville African Church. Although the war's fighting stayed mostly to the east and west, a raid led by Union general George A. Custer was stopped just north of the city in the spring of 1864. Early the next year, town leaders surrendered Charlottesville to Custer, preventing the community's destruction.
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:20:34 EST]]>
/DeJarnette_Joseph_Spencer_1866-1957 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 10:01:06 EST <![CDATA[DeJarnette, Joseph S. (1866–1957)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/DeJarnette_Joseph_Spencer_1866-1957 Joseph S. DeJarnette was a physician and eugenicist who performed hundreds of involuntary sterilizations at Western State Hospital in Staunton. DeJarnette's early career fit the reform ethos of the Progressive period and he modernized treatment of patients as superintendent of the hospital. He also began to advocate for forced sterilizations, which he believed would improve society. DeJarnette testified in the landmark case Buck v. Bell (1927), in which the U.S. Supreme Court upheld Virginia's sterilization statute. He took pride in the state's aggressive approach to sterilization, but felt the state was not acting fast enough and publicly admired Nazi Germany's more ambitious plan. DeJarnette defended sterilization and racial segregation until his death in 1957. In 2001 the General Assembly denounced and expressed regret over Virginia's eugenics program.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 10:01:06 EST]]>
/Bell_John_Hendren_1883-1934 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:29:12 EST <![CDATA[Bell, John H. (1883–1934)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bell_John_Hendren_1883-1934 John H. Bell was a prominent eugenicist and physician in Virginia. A member of the American Medical Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Virginia Academy of Science, and the Medical Society of Virginia, Bell advocated the forced sterilization of people believed to be incompetent. Appointed superintendent of the State Colony for Epileptics and Feeble-Minded, in Lynchburg, Bell became a principal in the lawsuit arranged by the former superintendent to test Virginia's 1924 legislation allowing for forced sterilization. Carrie Elizabeth Buck, a patient at the colony, had been selected for the test case. In its landmark ruling in Buck v. Bell, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of Virginia's law. Bell performed the operation on Buck himself. Bell continued to produce pamphlets defending eugenics until his death.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:29:12 EST]]>
/An_ACT_to_define_feeble-mindedness_1916 Wed, 20 May 2015 10:51:15 EST <![CDATA[An ACT to define feeble-mindedness (1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_to_define_feeble-mindedness_1916 Wed, 20 May 2015 10:51:15 EST]]> /Jones_Sarah_Garland_Boyd_1866-1905 Mon, 26 Jan 2015 14:14:32 EST <![CDATA[Jones, Sarah Garland Boyd (1866–1905)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jones_Sarah_Garland_Boyd_1866-1905 Sarah Garland Boyd Jones became the first African American woman to pass the Virginia Medical Examining Board's examination. Jones grew up among Richmond's black elite and became a teacher upon graduating from Richmond Colored Normal School. She entered Howard University's medical school in 1890 and earned her medical degree three years later. Jones established a successful practice in Richmond. She and her physician husband helped create a medical association for Virginia's African American doctors, and the pair opened their own small hospital. In 1922, the Sarah G. Jones Memorial Hospital, Medical College and Training School for Nurses (later Richmond Community Hospital) was named in her honor.
Mon, 26 Jan 2015 14:14:32 EST]]>
/Diet_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 13:13:25 EST <![CDATA[Diet in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Diet_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Diet in early Virginia Indian society changed significantly from the Ice Age to the English colonists' landing at Jamestown in 1607, from initially relying more on meat to over time increasingly combining wild game, fish, nuts, and berries. The Indians' eating patterns were shaped by the seasons, and for the Powhatans there were five, not four. In the early and mid-spring (cattapeuk), they ate migrating fish and planted crops. From late in the spring until mid-summer (cohattayough), they split their time between the towns, where they weeded the fields, and the forests, where they foraged. Late summer (nepinough) was harvest time, and the autumn and early winter (taquitock) the occasion for feasts and religious rituals. This marked a second time in the year when the Indians abandoned their towns, this time for communal hunts. Meats were prepared and stored for the late winter and early spring (popanow), when shortages made life difficult and even dangerous. "They be all of them huge eaters," the colonist William Strachey observed of the Powhatans, but the Indians also lived intensely physical lives, requiring a large number of calories. Their metabolisms, meanwhile, were slow enough to store nutrients and then, during shortages, use them slowly while the people remained active. The colonist John Smith described the Powhatans as living "hand to mouth," but they were often better fed than the colonists with a diet that was low in fat, sugar, and salt, and high in protein and fiber.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:13:25 EST]]>
/Kepone Fri, 16 May 2014 11:19:19 EST <![CDATA[Kepone (Chlordecone)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Kepone Kepone, also known as chlordecone, is a toxic, nonbiodegradable insecticide that a chemical plant in Hopewell, Virginia dumped into the James River from 1966 until 1975. The chemical's negative effect on the environment was documented and eventually publicized, leading authorities to shut down the Allied Chemical Corporation plant that produced Kepone and to order fishing bans and advisories. The environmental and medical scandal was one of the first of its kind to play out nationally, and while it eventually led to the destruction of the Virginia fishing industry, it also led to improved environmental awareness.
Fri, 16 May 2014 11:19:19 EST]]>
/Letter_from_George_Mallory_to_A_S_Priddy_November_5_1917 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:42:09 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Mallory to A. S. Priddy (November 5, 1917)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Mallory_to_A_S_Priddy_November_5_1917 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:42:09 EST]]> /Chapter_46B_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:37:48 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 46B of the Code of Virginia § 1095h–m (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_46B_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:37:48 EST]]> /Notice_of_Appeal_October_3_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:51:24 EST <![CDATA[Notice of Appeal (October 3, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Notice_of_Appeal_October_3_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:51:24 EST]]> /Petition_to_Commit_Carrie_Buck_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:48:29 EST <![CDATA[Petition to Commit Carrie Buck (January 23, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_to_Commit_Carrie_Buck_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:48:29 EST]]> /Carrie_Buck_Committed_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:19:50 EST <![CDATA[Carrie Buck Committed (January 23, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carrie_Buck_Committed_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:19:50 EST]]> /Petition_to_Sterilize_Carrie_Buck_September_10_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:15:28 EST <![CDATA[Petition to Sterilize Carrie Buck (September 10, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_to_Sterilize_Carrie_Buck_September_10_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:15:28 EST]]> /Carrie_Buck_Adjudged_Feeble-minded_or_Epileptic_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:11:58 EST <![CDATA[Carrie Buck Adjudged "Feeble-minded or Epileptic" (January 23, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carrie_Buck_Adjudged_Feeble-minded_or_Epileptic_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:11:58 EST]]> /Judgment_Against_Carrie_Buck_April_13_1925 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:08:44 EST <![CDATA[Judgment Against Carrie Buck (April 13, 1925)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judgment_Against_Carrie_Buck_April_13_1925 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:08:44 EST]]> /Dinwiddie_Emily_Wayland_1879-1949 Wed, 02 Apr 2014 17:01:14 EST <![CDATA[Dinwiddie, Emily Wayland (1879–1949)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dinwiddie_Emily_Wayland_1879-1949 Emily Wayland Dinwiddie was a social worker and reformer. Born in Virginia, she helped to professionalize and systematize social work. She drew on her experience as a tenement inspector in New York, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh to write handbooks, manuals, and forms. In her reports Dinwiddie placed an emphasis on maintaining high standards of public health and sanitation in city tenements. In 1918 she joined the American Red Cross in France, and continued to work for the organization until 1922. Five years later Dinwiddie became director of the Children's Bureau at the Virginia State Board of Public Welfare. She also took a leave of absence to write Virginia State Hospitals for Mental Patients (1934), a comprehensive report of the state's public mental hospitals. Dinwiddie moved to Kansas in 1934 to work for the Emergency Relief Administration. She retired from public service in 1938 and died in Virginia in 1949.
Wed, 02 Apr 2014 17:01:14 EST]]>
/Boland_Robert_J_1850-1918 Thu, 09 Jan 2014 15:23:53 EST <![CDATA[Boland, Robert J. (1850–1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boland_Robert_J_1850-1918 Robert J. Boland was a physician and African American leader in Roanoke. The Georgia-born Boland earned his medical degree in Michigan. He arrived in Virginia in 1886, possibly becoming the first black doctor to complete the new Virginia Board of Medical Examiners test. Five years later he settled in growing Roanoke, headquarters of the Norfolk and Western Railway, where he became a substantial property owner and a newspaper editor. Boland died in Roanoke in 1918.
Thu, 09 Jan 2014 15:23:53 EST]]>
/Christian_William_S_1830-1910 Thu, 22 Aug 2013 15:59:43 EST <![CDATA[Christian, William S. (1830–1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Christian_William_S_1830-1910 William S. Christian was a Confederate army officer, a temperance organization leader, and a doctor who worked in Middlesex County. In 1859 Christian raised a cavalry company known as the Middlesex Light Dragoons, which became Company C of the 55th Virginia Infantry Regiment during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Christian was wounded twice during the war: first at the Battle of Glendale (1862) and then again at the Battle of Chancellorsville (1863). Christian participated in the Army of Northern Virginia's advance into Pennsylvania in the summer of 1863 and was captured by Union forces after the Gettysburg campaign (1863). He was imprisoned for less than a year at Johnson's Island in Ohio, where he composed a long poem entitled "The Past." After the war Christian returned to Urbanna to practice medicine. From 1876 to 1881 he served as state head of the Independent Order of Good Templars, an international temperance league. In 1880 he set up a segregated Dual Grand Lodge in Richmond, accommodating members who believed African Americans should be admitted to the society while pacifying white southerners who resisted that notion. Christian was also a member of the Medical Society of Virginia and Middlesex County's board of health and, from 1890 to 1909, the superintendent of Middlesex County's public schools. He died on December 10, 1910.
Thu, 22 Aug 2013 15:59:43 EST]]>
/Chaloner_John_Armstrong_1862-1935 Wed, 21 Aug 2013 13:52:04 EST <![CDATA[Chaloner, John Armstrong (1862–1935)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chaloner_John_Armstrong_1862-1935 John Armstrong Chaloner was a celebrity and writer known for coining the catchphrase "Who's looney now?" after his personal trials with psychiatric experimentation and treatment. When his wealthy family learned that he believed he possessed a new sense, which he called the "X-Faculty," they had him committed to a psychiatric hospital in New York in 1897; a court later declared him insane and ruled he be permanently institutionalized. He escaped the institution and was ultimately deemed sane more than twenty years later. In the meantime, he published about two dozen books on his experiments with psychotherapy and his stay in the insane asylum. His books, such as The Lunacy Law of the World (1906), often attacked the rising power of psychiatric medicine, and his case was controversial particularly among the nation's leading psychologists, who disagreed about whether he was rational or paranoid. He married and divorced the novelist Amélie Rives, but lived near her Albemarle County home for much of his life.
Wed, 21 Aug 2013 13:52:04 EST]]>
/Blaikley_Catherine_Kaidyee_ca_1695-ca_1771 Fri, 09 Aug 2013 11:39:10 EST <![CDATA[Blaikley, Catherine Kaidyee (ca. 1695–1771)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blaikley_Catherine_Kaidyee_ca_1695-ca_1771 Catherine Kaidyee Blaikley was a midwife who, during the mid-eighteenth century in Virginia, purportedly delivered as many as three thousand babies. Probably born in York County, Blaikley married a watchmaker who, when he died in 1736, left her a substantial estate, including land in Henrico County, a mill in Brunswick County, and a lot in Williamsburg. Catherine Blaikley maintained her relatively high standard of living by becoming a midwife in Williamsburg in 1739. By the time of her death in 1771, male midwives also were delivering babies, a process that led to male physicians gradually replacing female midwives.
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/Bohun_Lawrence_d_1621 Tue, 16 Jul 2013 11:56:40 EST <![CDATA[Bohun, Lawrence (d. 1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bohun_Lawrence_d_1621 Lawrence Bohun was a member of the govenror's Council and physician general of the Virginia colony. Born probably in England, Bohun may have received his medical training at Leiden. He sailed to Virginia in 1610 as personal physician to the governor. Bohun returned to England and in 1612 was named as a shareholder in the third charter of the Virginia Company of London. While practicing medicine in London, he retained his interest in Virginia and may have been involved in an attempt to introduce silk culture there. Appointed physician general of the colony and a member of the Council in 1620, Bohun sailed for Virginia but was killed on March 19, 1621, when Spanish warships attacked his ship in the West Indies.
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/House_Joint_Resolution_No_607_2001 Tue, 09 Jul 2013 17:20:07 EST <![CDATA[House Joint Resolution No. 607 (2001)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/House_Joint_Resolution_No_607_2001 Tue, 09 Jul 2013 17:20:07 EST]]> /Ambler_James_M_1848-1881 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:22:24 EST <![CDATA[Ambler, James M. (1848–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ambler_James_M_1848-1881 James M. Ambler was a Confederate cavalryman during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and, after the war, a United States Navy surgeon. Ambler graduated from medical school in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1870 and joined the Navy, serving on various ships and at the Norfolk Naval Hospital. In 1878, he reluctantly volunteered for service with an Arctic expedition aboard the Jeannette, a ship commanded by George W. De Long. The ship became imprisoned by ice late in 1879, and Ambler did well to keep the crew not only alive but relatively healthy. Still adrift in June 1881, the Jeannette struck ice, which crushed its wooden hull. While a few of the crew's thirty-three men survived, many froze to death, drowned, or starved, including Ambler, who died with De Long sometime around October 30, 1881.
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/_Mendel_s_Law_A_Plea_for_a_Better_Race_of_Men Mon, 10 Jun 2013 08:53:55 EST <![CDATA["Mendel's Law: A Plea for a Better Race of Men"]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mendel_s_Law_A_Plea_for_a_Better_Race_of_Men Mon, 10 Jun 2013 08:53:55 EST]]> /_Mr_Jefferson_s_Personal_Appearance_and_Habits_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:55:20 EST <![CDATA["Mr. Jefferson's Personal Appearance and Habits"; an excerpt from The Private Life of Thomas Jefferson by Hamilton W. Pierson (1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mr_Jefferson_s_Personal_Appearance_and_Habits_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:55:20 EST]]> /Civil_War_Pensions Thu, 13 Sep 2012 15:10:16 EST <![CDATA[Civil War Pensions]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Civil_War_Pensions In the immediate postwar years, Virginia tried to provide aid to its soldiers who had suffered significant disabilities during the American Civil War (1861–1865), especially those who had lost limbs. Over time the state shifted its artificial-limbs program to a commutation payment. By 1888 the state had begun to create a pension system that would allot annual payments not only to severely disabled veterans, but also to widows—women whose husbands had died during the conflict. Over the next three decades the state legislature liberalized the requirement for this program to the point that it became an old age pension system for Confederate veterans. Relative to the federal pension program and the other former Confederate states that gave pensions, the amount of Virginia's pensions was much smaller.
Thu, 13 Sep 2012 15:10:16 EST]]>
/Chimborazo_Hospital Tue, 01 Mar 2011 11:33:52 EST <![CDATA[Chimborazo Hospital]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chimborazo_Hospital Chimborazo Hospital, located in the Confederate capital of Richmond, was the largest and most famous medical facility in the South during the American Civil War (1861–1865). The hospital admitted nearly 78,000 patients suffering from battlefield wounds and diseases. Of this number, approximately 6,500 to 8,000 died, resulting in a mortality rate of about 9 percent. Few hospitals in the Confederacy had lower mortality rates, and those that did generally received patients who were further along in their recovery. The best-staffed and equipped Union hospitals, in comparison, achieved a 10 percent mortality rate. With no model to draw on, Chimborazo Hospital's success can be attributed to a combination of its open-air, pavilion-style design; the comparatively good quality of care; innovative practices; and the supreme dedication of the caregivers—men and women, black and white, slave and free. Their efforts contributed to one of the great advancements in mid-nineteenth-century medicine: the acceptance of hospital care for the sick and injured, which was a concept not embraced in America prior to 1865.
Tue, 01 Mar 2011 11:33:52 EST]]>