Encyclopedia Virginia: Geography http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Lewis_and_Clark_Expedition_The Wed, 20 Nov 2019 10:32:04 EST Lewis and Clark Expedition, The http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_and_Clark_Expedition_The The Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) was a federally funded venture to explore the North American West. The expedition's principal objective was to survey the Missouri and Columbia rivers, locating routes that would connect the continental interior to the Pacific Ocean. The Louisiana Purchase of 1803, in which the United States acquired some 828,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River, facilitated the mission, allowing the explorers unprecedented access to land that had previously been owned by Spain and then France. President Thomas Jefferson invested his time, energy, and political capital into this project and took direct charge of its initial planning and organization. The expedition is named for its commanders, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Under their leadership the group of thirty-three, known as the Corps of Discovery, succeeded in reaching the Pacific and returning safely despite considerable challenges, ranging from navigating unfamiliar terrain to maintaining good relations with the numerous Indian tribes that lived in the Louisiana Territory. Along the way, the expedition gathered invaluable scientific, ethnographic, and cartographic information, creating a detailed written record of the journey in a series of journals.
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/Exploration_The_Age_of Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:39:32 EST <![CDATA[Exploration, The Age of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Exploration_The_Age_of The Age of Exploration began in earnest with the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and ended, at least where present-day Virginians are concerned, with the founding of Jamestown in 1607. When Columbus stumbled into two unknown continents, he had been looking for a quick route to the Far East, and, for decades to come, explorers focused on discovering that passage almost as much as they did on exploiting the New World. Early in the sixteenth century, the Spaniards conquered three major civilizations in Central and South America, and in the process unleashed a devastating biological exchange that killed an estimated 95 percent of the area's inhabitants between 1492 and 1650. The Spanish then turned their sights north, planting short-lived colonies on the shores of present-day Georgia and South Carolina and pursuing what came to be known as the Chicora Legend: the belief that the best land, as well as a passage to China, could be found in the area of the Chesapeake Bay. While the French and later the English explored the far northern latitudes of the Atlantic Ocean, the Spanish slowly worked their way up the coast from present-day Florida, a quest that ended only when a Virginia Indian called Don Luís (Paquiquineo) led a fatal attack on a group of Jesuit missionaries in 1571. This defeat helped make room for the English, whose failed colonies at Roanoke in 1585 and 1587 led, finally, to the permanent settlement at Jamestown.
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/Letter_from_Benjamin_Banneker_to_Thomas_Jefferson_August_19_1791 Wed, 03 Oct 2018 14:13:27 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Benjamin Banneker to Thomas Jefferson (August 19, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Benjamin_Banneker_to_Thomas_Jefferson_August_19_1791 Wed, 03 Oct 2018 14:13:27 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Benjamin_Banneker_August_30_1791 Thu, 20 Sep 2018 16:48:15 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Benjamin Banneker (August 30, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Benjamin_Banneker_August_30_1791 Thu, 20 Sep 2018 16:48:15 EST]]> /Cities_of_Virginia Mon, 19 Dec 2016 09:27:35 EST <![CDATA[Cities of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cities_of_Virginia Mon, 19 Dec 2016 09:27:35 EST]]> /Wilderness_During_the_Civil_War_The Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:32:53 EST <![CDATA[Wilderness during the Civil War, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wilderness_During_the_Civil_War_The The Wilderness of Spotsylvania was a tightly forested area nearly twelve miles wide by six miles long; it was located south of the Rappahannock and Rapidan rivers, ten miles west of Fredericksburg, in Spotsylvania County, Virginia. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), two major battles were fought there: Chancellorsville, in May 1863, where Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson famously outflanked Union forces under Joseph Hooker; and the Wilderness, in May 1864, where the Union's new general-in-chief, Ulysses S. Grant, initiated the Overland Campaign. The topography of the Wilderness—dense woods and thick undergrowth broken up by a number of small clearings—made the maneuvering of large armies particularly difficult and the experience of fighting claustrophobic. In both battles, burst shells ignited the woods, burning wounded soldiers. At Chancellorsville, Jackson was killed by a volley from his own men and, a year later, Confederate general James Longstreet was wounded, also by friendly fire.
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/Shenandoah_Valley_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:57:30 EST <![CDATA[Shenandoah Valley during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Shenandoah_Valley_During_the_Civil_War The Shenandoah Valley in western Virginia stretches about 140 miles north to south between the Allegheny Mountains on the west and the Blue Ridge Mountains on the east. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the strategically important Valley was the site of two major campaigns and numerous battles and represents, in microcosm, many of the military, social, and cultural factors that ultimately explain why the Union won and the Confederacy lost the war. Confederate control of the Shenandoah helped prolong the Confederate war effort until 1864, while the region provided sustenance to Confederate stomachs and succored Confederate nationalism. When those connections were destroyed by Union general Philip H. Sheridan and his Valley Campaign in the autumn of 1864—a campaign that culminated in what residents called "the Burning," and that also helped U.S. president Abraham Lincoln win re-election—victory for the Union and defeat for the Confederacy were all but assured. The Valley, meanwhile, was largely stripped, but for years it had been steeped in mythology—known as the "Granary of the Confederacy," it was considered the very heart of the South. That mythology would survive Sheridan and even the war.
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/Little_Ice_Age_and_Colonial_Virginia_The Thu, 21 Aug 2014 17:35:21 EST <![CDATA[Little Ice Age and Colonial Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Little_Ice_Age_and_Colonial_Virginia_The The Little Ice Age was a climatic period, lasting from about 1300 to 1750, when worldwide temperatures cooled slightly, leading to extreme weather that, in turn, affected the colonizing ventures of Europeans in America. Before their arrival, Europeans assumed America's climate would match that of lands situated along the same lines of latitude elsewhere. Instead, the New World was both hotter and colder than they expected. And as a result of the Little Ice Age, the weather was marked by wet springs that led to flooding, hot summers that led to long droughts, and particularly cold winters. Scientists disagree over the causes of the Little Ice Age, although an environmental scientist at the University of Virginia has pointed the finger at human activity. Regardless, scientists agree that the effect on weather was pronounced. In January 1607, a massive flood struck southwestern England even as the Thames River was frozen over. Both the areas around Roanoke and Jamestown were suffering from millennial droughts when the colonists arrived demanding food from local Indian populations. The resulting scarcity of food contributed to disease and conflict, both of which ended the venture at Roanoke and threatened the survival of Jamestown.
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/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Short_Report_of_the_American_Journey_Which_Was_Made_from_the_2nd_of_October_of_Last_Year_to_the_First_of_December_of_this_Current_Year_1702_by_Franz_Louis_Michel_1702 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 11:30:16 EST <![CDATA[Arriving in Virginia; an excerpt from "Short Report of the American Journey, Which Was Made from the 2nd of October of Last Year to the First of December of this Current Year 1702" by Frantz Ludwig Michel (1702)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Short_Report_of_the_American_Journey_Which_Was_Made_from_the_2nd_of_October_of_Last_Year_to_the_First_of_December_of_this_Current_Year_1702_by_Franz_Louis_Michel_1702 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 11:30:16 EST]]> /Late_Woodland_Period_AD_900-1650 Fri, 30 May 2014 14:06:23 EST <![CDATA[Late Woodland Period (AD 900–1650)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Late_Woodland_Period_AD_900-1650 Fri, 30 May 2014 14:06:23 EST]]> /Culpeper_Thomas_second_baron_Culpeper_of_Thoresway_1635-1689 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:09:58 EST <![CDATA[Culpeper, Thomas, second baron Culpeper of Thoresway (1635–1689)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Culpeper_Thomas_second_baron_Culpeper_of_Thoresway_1635-1689 Thomas Culpeper, second baron Culpeper of Thoresway, was a governor of Virginia (1677–1683) and a proprietor of the Northern Neck. In 1649, the soon-to-be-exiled King Charles II granted Culpeper's father and six others ownership of the Northern Neck in Virginia but in the end was not able to make good on the gift. In the meantime, the younger Culpeper served the king as governor of the Isle of Wight and vice president of the Council for Foreign Plantations. In 1681, Culpeper, who already had permission from the king to collect rents from the Northern Neck, secured five-sixths ownership of the land, a claim he was forced to surrender when the Virginia colonists protested. Culpeper became the colony's governor in 1677 but was content to do so absentee until late in 1679, when Charles II forced him to sail to Virginia. There, he acted on the king's instructions by curtailing the power of the General Assembly, authorizing a series of regular taxes, including on tobacco exports, and, generally, clarifying the colony's subordinate relationship with England. Culpeper left Virginia in economic crisis and was replaced in 1683, but he continued to purchase land, and renewed his Northern Neck claim in 1688. The proprietary eventually descended to the family of his son-in-law, Thomas Fairfax, fifth baron Fairfax of Cameron. After supporting William of Orange during the Glorious Revolution (1688), Culpeper died in 1689.
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/Journal_Entry_by_William_Clark_November_7_1805 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 15:55:06 EST <![CDATA[Journal Entry by William Clark (November 7, 1805)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Journal_Entry_by_William_Clark_November_7_1805 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 15:55:06 EST]]> /Meriwether_Lewis_s_Journal_Entries_August_12-13_1805 Wed, 24 Oct 2012 10:02:08 EST <![CDATA[Meriwether Lewis's Journal Entries (August 12–13, 1805)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meriwether_Lewis_s_Journal_Entries_August_12-13_1805 Wed, 24 Oct 2012 10:02:08 EST]]> /ZA Wed, 15 Aug 2012 15:09:05 EST <![CDATA[Zúñiga Chart]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/ZA The Zúñiga chart, a manuscript map of the Chesapeake Bay and Tidewater Virginia, is a copy of a map that was probably originally drawn by Captain John Smith, one of the Jamestown colonists. Named for Don Pedro de Zúñiga, a Spanish ambassador to England, who sent it to King Philip III of Spain in September 1608, the chart is significant for its insight into the locations of Indian villages, the location of Jamestown and the architecture of James Fort, and the concerns and priorities of the English colonists.
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/Fry-Jefferson_Map_of_Virginia Wed, 18 Jan 2012 11:31:16 EST <![CDATA[Fry-Jefferson Map of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fry-Jefferson_Map_of_Virginia The Fry-Jefferson map, first published in 1753, was the definitive map of Virginia in the eighteenth century. Created by two of the colony's most accomplished surveyors, Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson, A Map of the Inhabited Part of Virginia containing the whole Province of Maryland, with Part of Pensilvania, New Jersey and North Carolina included their completed border survey for the western bounds of the Northern Neck and a portion of the Virginia–North Carolina dividing line. For the first time the entire Virginia river system was properly delineated, and the northeast-southwest orientation of the Appalachian Mountains was fully displayed. Published in eight known editions, or states, the map was widely copied, and served as an important resource for mapmakers like Lewis Evans and John Mitchell, whose Map of the British and French Dominions in North America (1755) was used to determine the boundaries of the United States as established in the Treaty of Paris (1783). John Henry also relied heavily on the Fry-Jefferson map as he plotted county boundaries in his New and Accurate Map of Virginia (1770), and Thomas Jefferson, Peter Jefferson's son, used his father's map to compile A Map of the country between Albemarle Sounds, and Lake Erie, which accompanied his Notes on the State of Virginia (written 1781).
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