Encyclopedia Virginia: Fiction http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Harland_Marion_1830-1922 Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:52:17 EST Harland, Marion (1830–1922) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harland_Marion_1830-1922 Marion Harland was a writer of novels, short stories, biographies, travel narratives, cookbooks, and domestic manuals whose career stretched across seven decades of sectional conflict and great change in American life. Harland chronicled much of that change, penning novels that suggested her own divided loyalties between North and South before establishing herself as an expert and often a sly and sarcastic commentator on the domestic arts of homemaking.
Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:52:17 EST]]>
/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 Tue, 24 Jan 2017 11:11:52 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, St. George (1752–1827)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 St. George Tucker was a lawyer, teacher, poet, essayist, inventor, and judge. One of the most influential jurists and legal scholars in the early years of the United States, he sat on three courts in Virginia: the General Court (1789–1804), the Court of Appeals (1804–1811), and the U.S. District Court for the District of Virginia (and later the Eastern District of Virginia) (1813–1825). He also served as rector (1789–1790) and professor of law (1790–1804) at the College of William and Mary. His five-volume edition of Sir William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, published in 1803, was the first major treatise on American law. Born in Bermuda, Tucker studied law as an apprentice to George Wythe in Williamsburg, gaining admission to the bar in 1774. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he smuggled needed supplies into Virginia and fought under Nathanael Greene at the Battle of Guilford Court House (1781) and under George Washington at the siege of Yorktown (1781). After the war he practiced in the county courts before being elevated to a judgeship. At William and Mary, he advocated the study of law as an academic discipline, and in 1796 he published A Dissertation on Slavery, his plan to gradually abolish slavery in Virginia. The General Assembly ignored it. Tucker married twice and had five surviving children, including the jurist and congressman Henry St. George Tucker and the writer and states' rights advocate Nathaniel Beverley Tucker. He died in Nelson County in 1827.
Tue, 24 Jan 2017 11:11:52 EST]]>
/The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_William_Styron_1967 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:03:45 EST <![CDATA[Confessions of Nat Turner, The (1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_William_Styron_1967 The Confessions of Nat Turner, a novel by William Styron, was published in 1967 and won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1968. The title character is based on the historical Nat Turner, a slave preacher and self-styled prophet who, in August 1831, led the only successful slave revolt in Virginia's history, which in just twelve hours left fifty-five white people in Southampton County dead. (A slave named Gabriel conspired to revolt in 1800, but his plans were discovered before he could carry them out.) The historical Nat Turner, in turn, is largely the product of "The Confessions of Nat Turner, as fully and voluntarily made to Thomas R. Gray," a pamphlet published shortly after Turner's trial and execution in November 1831. Although it played a crucial role in shaping perceptions of the event around the central figure of Turner, the pamphlet itself only reached a small portion of the reading public. The story awaited the Virginia-born Styron, who translated the historical record into a popular medium that commanded the full attention of the reading public and the national media. Despite its awards, however, that attention was not always positive. Published at the height of the Black Power movement and after a long summer of race riots in the United States, Styron's novel was labeled by some civil rights activists as racist, especially because of the author's depiction of Turner lusting after white women, one of whom he eventually kills.
Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:03:45 EST]]>
/Page_Thomas_Nelson_1853-1922 Wed, 06 Jul 2016 09:43:05 EST <![CDATA[Page, Thomas Nelson (1853–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Page_Thomas_Nelson_1853-1922 Thomas Nelson Page was the most prominent writer among several southern local colorists whose poems, stories, and novels idealized the Old South and served as a kind of imaginative precursor to Margaret Mitchell's epic novel Gone with the Wind (1936). In fact, few writers have so lauded Virginia's plantation class as Page, or had so great an impact on the ideology of both Virginia and the American South during the Reconstruction period (1865–1877) that followed the American Civil War (1861–1865). In the context of the great social upheaval following that war, stories like Page's hugely influential "Marse Chan" (1884) promoted the image of an Old South replete with gracious aristocrats and loyal servants and a New South fraught with turmoil but ready for reconciliation with the North. This nostalgic, revisionist version of history was embraced with gusto by both northern and southern readers, and its vestiges remain even today in popular concepts of the South.
Wed, 06 Jul 2016 09:43:05 EST]]>
/Keyes_Frances_Parkinson_1885-1970 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 13:02:15 EST <![CDATA[Keyes, Frances Parkinson (1885–1970)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Keyes_Frances_Parkinson_1885-1970 Frances Parkinson Keyes was a prolific journalist, editor, memoirist, and biographer, but was most well known as a bestselling novelist. Problematic for some critics because of her popular and accessible prose, Keyes captivated fiction readers from the 1940s well into the 1960s, writing about politics, murder, religion, and life in the South. Today, however, few of her novels remain in print.
Thu, 07 Apr 2016 13:02:15 EST]]>
/Hamner_Earl_Jr_1923- Fri, 25 Mar 2016 08:22:33 EST <![CDATA[Hamner, Earl Jr. (1923–2016)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hamner_Earl_Jr_1923- Earl Hamner Jr. was a writer of novels, television shows, and movies, most notably the popular semiautobiographical television series The Waltons (1972–1981). Born in Nelson County, Hamner served in the Army during World War II (1939–1945) before attending Northwestern University and the University of Cincinnati. He then worked in radio and televion, writing scripts for The Twilight Zone and novels based on his Virginia upbringing. Hamner's hardscrabble experiences growing up in a large family in depression-era Schuyler informed his 1961 novel Spencer's Mountain, and its film adaptation starring Henry Fonda and Maureen O'Hara. In 1972 it was adapted for television as The Waltons, each episode of which famously ended with family members wishing one another goodnight. Hamner also created the series Falcon Crest, which ran from 1981 to 1990. He died in Los Angeles in 2016.
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 08:22:33 EST]]>
/Anderson_Sherwood_1876-1941 Wed, 28 Oct 2015 09:27:38 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, Sherwood (1876–1941)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_Sherwood_1876-1941 Sherwood Anderson was a poet, novelist, essayist, businessman, and newspaper editor most often associated with the American Midwest. His notable collection of related short stories, Winesburg, Ohio (1919), examined small-town life in the late 1800s. Anderson moved in the highest of American literary circles, entertaining—and to some extent even influencing—such writers as William Faulkner (about whom Anderson wrote the short story "A Meeting South") and Ernest Hemingway, who parodied Anderson in his debut novel The Torrents of Spring (1926). Anderson moved to southwestern Virginia in 1926, where he spent the rest of his years chronicling life in the depression-era South.
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/Pickett_LaSalle_Corbell_1843-1931 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:35:25 EST <![CDATA[Pickett, LaSalle Corbell (1843–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pickett_LaSalle_Corbell_1843-1931 LaSalle Corbell Pickett was a prolific author and lecturer, and the third wife of George E. Pickett, the Confederate general best known for his participation in the doomed frontal assault known as Pickett's Charge during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After her husband's death in 1875, she traveled the country to promote a highly romanticized version of his life and military career that was generally at odds with the historical record. George Pickett emerged from the war with a strained relationship with Robert E. Lee—whom he partly blamed for the destruction of his division at Gettysburg (1863)—and accused of war crimes. But in his wife's history, Pickett and His Men (1899), this not-always-competent soldier was transformed into the ideal Lost Cause hero, "gallant and graceful as a knight of chivalry riding to a tournament." This image largely stuck in the American consciousness, leaving historians to spend much of the next century attempting to separate Pickett from his myth.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:35:25 EST]]>
/Taylor_Peter_1917-1994 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:22:26 EST <![CDATA[Taylor, Peter (1917–1994)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Taylor_Peter_1917-1994 Peter Taylor was a short-story writer and author of the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel A Summons to Memphis (1986). During a writing career that spanned six decades, much of which was spent in Charlottesville, he established himself as a master of short fiction, displaying elegance and lucidity of style in examining family life in the New South. Many early stories were published in the New Yorker, and after joining the faculty at the University of Virginia in 1967, Taylor experienced a mid-life second flowering and produced the fiction for which he is best remembered. In 1978, he was awarded the Gold Medal for the Short Story by the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. Wider public notice followed, although it may still have been true, as he proclaimed himself, that he was "the best-known unknown writer in America."
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:22:26 EST]]>
/Julia_Magruder_1854-1907 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:12:27 EST <![CDATA[Magruder, Julia (1854–1907)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Julia_Magruder_1854-1907 Julia Magruder was the author of sixteen novels, many short stories, and a number of essays on social issues. In her writings throughout her life, she often defended the South against outside criticism. Born in Charlottesville, Virginia, she lived most of her life in Washington, D.C., but traveled widely in Europe and had a vast circle of friends that included her cousin, Helen Magruder, who became Lady Abinger of Inverlochy Castle, Scotland; and the Virginia novelist Amélie Rives. Magruder's novels, mostly written for young female readers seeking marriage and romance, usually follow a heroine who must overcome slight obstacles to marry her true love.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:12:27 EST]]>
/Cheuse_Alan_1940- Mon, 03 Aug 2015 14:52:10 EST <![CDATA[Cheuse, Alan (1940–2015)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cheuse_Alan_1940- Alan Cheuse was a novelist, book reviewer, memoirist, and professor of creative writing at George Mason University. A native of New Jersey, he authored several novels, collections of short fiction, a memoir, and personal essays. As a book reviewer, he was a regular contributor to National Public Radio's All Things Considered since the 1980s. His criticism reflected the strengths of his fiction: a careful attention to voice and character that embodies both the influences of other notable writers and his own distinctive sense of whimsy. He died in 2015 from injuries sustained in a car accident.
Mon, 03 Aug 2015 14:52:10 EST]]>
/Fathers_The_1938 Wed, 20 May 2015 10:39:42 EST <![CDATA[Fathers, The (1938)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fathers_The_1938 The Fathers (1938) is the only novel by Allen Tate, a Kentucky-born poet most famous for his "Ode to the Confederate Dead" (1928). Set just before and during the American Civil War (1861–1865), the book details the tragic fall of two families joined by marriage—the Buchans, of Fairfax County and the Poseys, of Georgetown in the Distict of Columbia. Their violent and psychologically complex story, narrated by the elderly doctor Lacy Buchan, is intended to mirror the decline of "Old Virginia" and the rise of a new society unbound to traditional, agrarian codes. The Fathers was initially well received by critics, with the Washington Post calling it "a sensitive and successful re-creation of the divided moods of Virginia at the outbreak of the Civil War," and the New York Times labeling it "a quiet yet relentless exploration of the darker places of human character." The novel soon fell out of favor, however, with critics arguing that it was lifeless and overly symbolic and abstract. The novel's current critical neglect may reflect the social and political eclipse of Tate's Southern Agrarian ideology, which extolled the moral virtues of the antebellum South against encroaching modernity. Far from being a mere Lost Cause tract, however, The Fathers is widely considered to be an enduring, if flawed, piece of art.
Wed, 20 May 2015 10:39:42 EST]]>
/Cooke_Giles_Buckner_1838-1937 Thu, 19 Feb 2015 14:53:10 EST <![CDATA[Cooke, Giles Buckner (1838–1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooke_Giles_Buckner_1838-1937 Giles Buckner Cooke was a Confederate army officer, educator, and Episcopal minister. Born in Portsmouth, he attended the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington, where he was court-martialed, acquitted, dismissed, reinstated, and disciplined again before finally graduating near the bottom of his class. He supported secession and, at the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865), joined the staff of Confederate general Philip St. George Cocke. For the rest of the war, he served as a staff officer, including for generals Braxton Bragg, G. T. Beauregard, and, beginning in October 1864, Robert E. Lee. After the war, Cooke studied for the Episcopal ministry and became head of a Sunday school for blacks in Petersburg. In 1868, he became principal of Elementary School Number 1 in Petersburg, reportedly the first public school for black children in Virginia, and later organized another school for blacks, Big Oak Private School, which merged with Saint Stephen's Church school. A divinity school was added in 1878 and became the Bishop Payne Divinity and Industrial School. Cooke, who later taught in Kentucky and Maryland, was known for being exacting and upright, although he privately described blacks as "ignorant" and "deceitful." By 1920 he was the last living officer to serve on General Lee's staff, and his wartime diaries became a source of interest to scholars, including Douglas Southall Freeman. Cooke died in 1937 at the age of ninety-nine.
Thu, 19 Feb 2015 14:53:10 EST]]>
/Cooke_John_Esten_1830-1886 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:51:33 EST <![CDATA[Cooke, John Esten (1830–1886)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooke_John_Esten_1830-1886 John Esten Cooke was a novelist, biographer, and veteran of the American Civil War (1861–1865). One of the most important literary figures of nineteenth-century Virginia, Cooke was the prolific author of historical adventures and romances in the tradition of Walter Scott and James Fenimore Cooper. His most famous and perhaps best work, The Virginia Comedians: or, Old Days in the Old Dominion (1854), follows the aristocratic cad Champ Effingham in Virginia before the American Revolution (1775–1783). In fact, Cooke saw himself as a critic of aristocracy, but that criticism was rarely particularly sharp, and after the Civil War, his work unselfconsciously glorified the Confederacy in the tradition of the Lost Cause. "Come!" Cooke wrote in Surry of Eagle's-Nest (1866). "Perhaps as you follow me, you will live in the stormy days of a cavalier epoch: breathe its fiery atmosphere, and see its mighty forms as they defile before you, in a long and noble line." A relative by marriage to Confederate general J. E. B. Stuart, Cooke served with the cavalryman during the war and wrote hagiographic biographies of generals Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and Robert E. Lee.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:51:33 EST]]>
/Blake_or_the_Huts_of_America_1859-1861 Wed, 06 Aug 2014 16:40:03 EST <![CDATA[Blake; or the Huts of America (1859–1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blake_or_the_Huts_of_America_1859-1861 Blake; or the Huts of America is a novel by Martin R. Delany that was serially published in the Anglo-African Magazine in 1859 and the Weekly Anglo-African in 1861 and 1862 (it was not published in complete book form until 1970). Delany was born free in 1812 in Charles Town, Virginia (later West Virginia). Giving a panoramic view of slave life in the nineteenth century, Delany's novel tells the story of Henry Blake, an escaped slave who travels throughout the southern United States and to Cuba in an effort to plan a large-scale slave insurrection. Written in part as a response to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 and the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), Blake's strong, militant, and revolutionary protagonist offers a counterexample to the seemingly docile Uncle Tom character popularized by Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852). Because the final installments of the novel have been lost, twenty-first-century readers may never know if Blake's planned revolution is successful; still, the novel offers an important nineteenth-century depiction of slavery and a potential way to end it.
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 16:40:03 EST]]>
/Bond_Nelson_Slade_1908-2006 Sat, 02 Aug 2014 16:04:32 EST <![CDATA[Bond, Nelson Slade (1908–2006)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bond_Nelson_Slade_1908-2006 Nelson Slade Bond was one of the most prolific and well-known American writers of fantasy and science fiction stories from the 1930s until the 1950s. The author of more than 250 short stories, as well as several novels and novellas, he also wrote extensively for radio and television. In fact, his first successful story, "Mr. Mergenthwirker's Lobblies" (1937), appeared in three different mediums: in print, on radio, and on television. After the height of his writing career, Bond, complaining that "magazines and radio [were] dead, and TV sick," retreated from writing to run a public relations agency and deal in antique books from his home in Roanoke, Virginia.
Sat, 02 Aug 2014 16:04:32 EST]]>
/Adams_Alice_1926-1999 Sat, 02 Aug 2014 14:46:25 EST <![CDATA[Adams, Alice (1926–1999)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Adams_Alice_1926-1999 Alice Adams was the author of eleven novels and six collections of short stories, and was the recipient of an O. Henry Award for short fiction twenty-three times. She was born in Fredericksburg, Virginia, and her life and literary career spanned more than a half century of extraordinary changes for women in American society. In her writing, Adams chronicled those changes in the lives of women following World War II (1939–1945), much as F. Scott Fitzgerald, to whom she has been compared both as a prose stylist and social historian, had chronicled the emergence of the new woman after World War I (1914–1918).
Sat, 02 Aug 2014 14:46:25 EST]]>
/Poe_Edgar_Allan_1809-1849 Tue, 01 Jul 2014 17:03:49 EST <![CDATA[Poe, Edgar Allan (1809–1849)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Poe_Edgar_Allan_1809-1849 Edgar Allan Poe was a poet, short story writer, editor, and critic. Credited by many scholars as the inventor of the detective genre in fiction, he was a master at using elements of mystery, psychological terror, and the macabre in his writing. His most famous poem, "The Raven" (1845), combines his penchant for suspense with some of the most famous lines in American poetry. While editor of the Richmond-based Southern Literary Messenger, Poe carved out a philosophy of poetry that emphasized brevity and beauty for its own sake. Stories, he wrote, should be crafted to convey a single, unified impression, and for Poe, that impression was most often dread. "The Tell-Tale Heart" (1843), for instance, memorably describes the paranoia of its narrator, who is guilty of murder. After leaving Richmond, Poe lived and worked in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and New York, seeming to collect literary enemies wherever he went. Incensed by his especially sharp, often sarcastic style of criticism, they were not inclined to help Poe as his life unraveled because of sickness and poverty. After Poe's death at the age of forty, a former colleague, Rufus W. Griswold, wrote a scathing biography that contributed, in the years to come, to a literary caricature. Poe's poetry and prose, however, have endured.
Tue, 01 Jul 2014 17:03:49 EST]]>
/Cooke_Philip_Pendleton_1816-1850 Tue, 01 Jul 2014 16:59:24 EST <![CDATA[Cooke, Philip Pendleton (1816–1850)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooke_Philip_Pendleton_1816-1850 Philip Pendleton Cooke was a poet whose work emphasized lost love, the natural world, and exoticism, placing him firmly within the romantic literary movement. Cooke practiced law in western Virginia but struggled to make a living at writing. His association with Edgar Allan Poe led to the publication of his most famous work, the poem "Florence Vane" (1840), which continues to be anthologized as an example of romantic poetry.
Tue, 01 Jul 2014 16:59:24 EST]]>
/Cather_Willa_1873-1947 Sun, 15 Jun 2014 07:42:55 EST <![CDATA[Cather, Willa (1873–1947)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cather_Willa_1873-1947 Willa Cather was a Virginia-born modernist writer who is best known for O Pioneers! (1913) and My Ántonia (1918), two novels about Nebraska, where she attended school and spent much of her childhood. Her re-creation of what is now the Midwest is rooted in her own family's experience moving west from the Shenandoah Valley in 1883, and her writing is preoccupied with the larger American experiment of uprooting and then re-establishing civilization. Cather won the Pulitzer Prize in 1923 for her novel One of Ours, about a Nebraska farmer's son, but her settings are not limited to the Great Plains. Cather wrote memorably about New York City, where she worked as a writer and as managing editor for McClure's magazine. Her masterpiece, Death Comes for the Archbishop (1927), is set in both New Mexico and France. And her final novel, Sapphira and the Slave Girl (1940), takes place around her native Winchester, Virginia. Sapphira is considered to be in part autobiographical—the novel's slave-owning family and their abolitionist daughter were all based on Cather's maternal relatives—and her writing required a return to Virginia near the end of her life.
Sun, 15 Jun 2014 07:42:55 EST]]>
/Dos_Passos_John_1896-1970 Mon, 02 Jun 2014 06:59:12 EST <![CDATA[Dos Passos, John (1896–1970)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dos_Passos_John_1896-1970 John Dos Passos was a novelist, poet, critic, and painter whose mother was born in Virginia. He came of age traveling through Europe and, after graduating from Harvard University in 1916, served as an ambulance driver during World War I (1914–1918). Amid the destruction of Victorian Europe, Dos Passos developed left-leaning politics that set him against war and in support of workers' rights. As a modernist writer, he became connected with the so-called Lost Generation of F. Scott Fitzgerald, his Harvard classmate E. E. Cummings, and his longtime friend Ernest Hemingway. Dos Passos is most recognized for his three novels known as the U.S.A. trilogy (1930–1936), which critique American culture from the left. In the 1940s, however, when Dos Passos moved to a farm on the Northern Neck in Westmoreland County, Virginia, his politics turned sharply to the right, ending his relationship with Hemingway and deeply affecting his legacy among critics. Dos Passos, who died in 1970, is buried in Westmoreland County and his papers are at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. The John Dos Passos Prize for Literature has been awarded since 1980 by Longwood University in Farmville.
Mon, 02 Jun 2014 06:59:12 EST]]>
/Hold_To_Have_and_to_1900 Fri, 30 May 2014 13:50:11 EST <![CDATA[Hold, To Have and to (1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hold_To_Have_and_to_1900 To Have and to Hold (1900), the second novel by the Virginia-born writer Mary Johnston, was the prolific author's most popular work. An action-adventure story and romance set in Jamestown in 1621 and 1622, the novel uses the backdrop of colonial Virginia to tell its story, making characters of such noted figures as John Rolfe and Opechancanough, and dramatizing the latter's attack against the colony in 1622. The hero of To Have and to Hold is Captain Ralph Percy. Percy marries a woman he believes to be a penniless Puritan but who is actually a ward of King James and betrothed to the dastardly, suggestively named Lord Carnal. A series of often-unlikely adventures follows, involving swordplay, poison, haunted woods, pirates, and a tame but ferocious panther, until Percy and his wife, at one point separated, reunite. After being serialized in the Atlantic Monthly, To Have and to Hold was published in book form in 1900 and sold more than 135,000 copies in its first week. It was the best-selling novel of the year and the most successful popular novel in the United States between the publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852 and Gone with the Wind in 1936. Critics praised it lavishly and found its history to be unusually reliable. It was adapted for the stage and film. Despite the attention paid to Johnston in her day, however, few scholars study her books in the twenty-first century.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:50:11 EST]]>
/Edmunds_Murrell_1898-1981 Wed, 28 May 2014 12:59:12 EST <![CDATA[Edmunds, Murrell (1898–1981)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edmunds_Murrell_1898-1981 Murrell Edmunds was a poet, novelist, and playwright best known for his biting irony and his strident defense of African Americans during the Jim Crow era, when legislation in Virginia and throughout the South stripped blacks of many basic civil rights. An Army veteran, Edmunds gave up a law practice to write full-time, publishing books that were highly conventional formally but often controversial in their subject matter. He spent much of his career in New Orleans, Louisiana, away from the political judgments of Virginia, and there published one of his best works, Moon of My Delight (1960), a three-act play on race relations in the South following the American Civil War (1861–1865). Edmunds died in New Orleans in 1981.
Wed, 28 May 2014 12:59:12 EST]]>
/Faulkner_William_1897-1962 Tue, 27 May 2014 09:56:45 EST <![CDATA[Faulkner, William (1897–1962)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Faulkner_William_1897-1962 William Faulkner was a Mississippi-born novelist, poet, and screenwriter, winner of the 1949 Nobel Prize in literature, and twice a winner of the Pulitzer Prize in fiction (1955, 1963). Considered one of the most important American writers of the twentieth century, he used primarily southern settings in his work—many of his most famous novels, including The Sound and the Fury (1929) and As I Lay Dying (1930), were set in fictional Yoknapatawpha County, Mississippi—and examined complex social, psychological, and racial issues. A modernist, he often composed his tragic, even Gothic stories in a dense, stream-of-consciousness style that attempted to emulate the ebb and flow of his characters' thoughts. His characters, meanwhile, ranged from the descendants of slaves to the richest of New South aristocrats, from the illiterate and mentally ill to the Harvard educated. During the last years of his life, Faulkner was a writer-in-residence and a professor at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville.
Tue, 27 May 2014 09:56:45 EST]]>
/Fox_John_Jr_1862-1919 Tue, 27 May 2014 07:29:36 EST <![CDATA[Fox, John Jr. (1862–1919)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fox_John_Jr_1862-1919 John Fox Jr. was one of Virginia's best-selling writers in the first decade of the twentieth century. He chronicled in popular fiction the customs and characters of southern Appalachia and produced two of the first million-selling novels in the United States. Though he enjoyed enormous commercial success, especially with The Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come (1903) and The Trail of the Lonesome Pine (1908), today Fox is regarded as a fairly sentimental practitioner of the local-color genre, a style of writing that foregrounds place and regionalism. Still, he is fondly celebrated by the southwestern Virginia town Big Stone Gap, where he resided much of his life. The Kentucky-born, Harvard-educated Fox embodied a contrast that he often explored in his novels: the insular culture of Appalachia set against a more sophisticated outside world.
Tue, 27 May 2014 07:29:36 EST]]>
/Trigiani_Adriana_ca_1970s- Tue, 27 May 2014 05:05:15 EST <![CDATA[Trigiani, Adriana]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Trigiani_Adriana_ca_1970s- Adriana Trigiani is an award-winning author, playwright, screenwriter, and documentary filmmaker. She is perhaps best known for her novels, beginning with Big Stone Gap (2000), the first in a series of stories set in the Appalachian region of southwestern Virginia. The stories are told from the perspective of a lovable character whose wry wit reflects the author's own. Her writing has been described as "heartwarming without being saccharine," and by New York Times reviewer Andrea Higbie "as comfortable as a mug of chamomile tea on a rainy Sunday." Her professional career began in 1985, when she wrote Secrets of the Lava Lamp for the Manhattan Theatre Club. In the succeeding decades, she has distinguished herself as an author, scriptwriter, director, and producer for both television and film.
Tue, 27 May 2014 05:05:15 EST]]>
/Hale_Nancy_1908-1988 Thu, 01 May 2014 11:30:15 EST <![CDATA[Hale, Nancy (1908–1988)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hale_Nancy_1908-1988 Nancy Hale was a prolific author of short stories, novels, nonfiction, plays, and memoirs. A regionalist writer who excelled at describing life in New England, New York City, and finally Virginia, she is best known for her third novel, The Prodigal Women (1942), which chronicles the lives of three young women in Boston, New York City, and a small Virginia town. An astute observer of everyday people, Hale frequently used female protagonists because, she said, they "puzzled" her.
Thu, 01 May 2014 11:30:15 EST]]>
/_Mrs_Stonewall_Jackson_Denounces_The_Long_Roll_by_Mary_Anna_Jackson_October_29_1911 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 08:42:08 EST <![CDATA["Mrs. 'Stonewall' Jackson Denounces 'The Long Roll'" by Mary Anna Jackson (October 29, 1911)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mrs_Stonewall_Jackson_Denounces_The_Long_Roll_by_Mary_Anna_Jackson_October_29_1911 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 08:42:08 EST]]> /_A_Feminist_Novel_Miss_Johnston_s_Hagar_a_Tale_and_a_Theory_by_Helen_Bullis_November_2_1913 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 08:37:39 EST <![CDATA["A Feminist Novel: Miss Johnston's 'Hagar' a Tale and a Theory" by Helen Bullis (November 2, 1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Feminist_Novel_Miss_Johnston_s_Hagar_a_Tale_and_a_Theory_by_Helen_Bullis_November_2_1913 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 08:37:39 EST]]> /Hoffman_William_1925- Mon, 24 Mar 2014 15:31:26 EST <![CDATA[Hoffman, William (1925–2009)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hoffman_William_1925- William Hoffman was the author of fourteen novels, four short-story collections, and two plays. His terrifying experience as a combat medic in Europe during World War II (1939–1945) dominated his earliest writing, including The Trumpet Unblown (1955) and Yancey's War (1966), which, according to poet George Garrett, are "at the highest rank of the American fiction coming out of World War II." Hoffman is also celebrated for novels that combine character-driven portraits of the South with action-mystery plots, and writing that joins tragic intensity with humor. Tales of murders and mysterious runaways—Tidewater Blood (1999) and Wild Thorn (2002), for instance—are fueled by Hoffman's sense of the macabre, while the backwoods of Virginia and his home state of West Virginia provide local color. Booklist has praised the writer's "evocative sense of place," but the Washington Post, in reviewing Lies (2005), wondered if Hoffman's prose hadn't become "swamped" in southern stereotypes.
Mon, 24 Mar 2014 15:31:26 EST]]>
/Jenkins_Will_F_1896-1975 Sat, 22 Mar 2014 13:27:05 EST <![CDATA[Jenkins, Will F. (1896–1975)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jenkins_Will_F_1896-1975 Will F. Jenkins was one of the most prolific fiction writers of the twentieth century. He published in several genres, but was best known for his pioneering science fiction writing under the penname of Murray Leinster. He published approximately 1,800 stories in more than 150 periodicals and 74 novels and collections in a career that began in 1913 and ended in 1974. An avid inventor whose gadgets sometimes appeared in his stories, Jenkins wrote about mad scientists, criminal masterminds, alien invasions, and time travel. A 1946 story imagined personal computers and a network that closely resembles today's Internet. "First Contact" (1945) depicts a tense standoff between two spaceship crews, each fearing the other's intent. Jenkins was born in Gloucester County, and some of his stories were set in Virginia. In "Sidewise in Time" (1934), a Fredericksburg professor encounters time shifts and a parallel universe in which the Confederacy won the American Civil War (1861–1865). During the Cold War, Ivan Efremov, a science fiction writer from the Soviet Union, attacked Jenkins's writing in his story "The Heart of the Serpent" (1959), in which aliens read "First Contact" and judge it to be warmongering. Jenkins, who suffered from Alzheimer's disease, died in Gloucester in 1975.
Sat, 22 Mar 2014 13:27:05 EST]]>
/Meade_Julian_R_1909-1940 Mon, 03 Mar 2014 18:12:26 EST <![CDATA[Meade, Julian R. (1909–1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meade_Julian_R_1909-1940 Mon, 03 Mar 2014 18:12:26 EST]]> /Berkeley_Sir_William_1605-1677 Mon, 17 Feb 2014 15:48:39 EST <![CDATA[Berkeley, Sir William (1605–1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Berkeley_Sir_William_1605-1677 Sir William Berkeley was the longest-serving governor of Virginia (1641–1652, 1660–1677), a playwright, and author of Discourse and View of Virginia (1663), which argued for a more diversified colonial economy. After being educated at Oxford and after a brief study of the law, Berkeley gained access to the royal circle surrounding King Charles I, and one of his plays, The Lost Lady (1638), was performed for the king and queen. In 1641, he was named governor and captain general of Virginia, where he raised tobacco but also, at Green Spring, experimented with more diverse crops. His first stint as governor, marked by his willingness to share power and by the rise in stature of the General Assembly in Jamestown, ended with the king's execution. Berkeley's restoration coincided with King Charles II's, but his second governorship was much less successful. He failed to diversify the tobacco-based economy or to convince many settlers that the colony was adequately protecting them from Indian attacks. In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon challenged Berkeley directly, even laying siege to and then burning Jamestown. Although Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677) was suppressed, Berkeley's authority had been undermined, and he was replaced by Herbert Jeffreys in 1677. In May of that year Berkeley sailed to England to plead his case, but before he could meet the king, he died on July 9.
Mon, 17 Feb 2014 15:48:39 EST]]>
/Caruthers_William_Alexander_1802-1846 Thu, 06 Feb 2014 16:31:10 EST <![CDATA[Caruthers, William Alexander (1802–1846)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Caruthers_William_Alexander_1802-1846 William Alexander Caruthers is regarded as the first important Virginia novelist and one of earliest practitioners of the romantic tradition in the South. Trained as a physician, he wrote three southern-based novels in the mid-1830s: The Kentuckian in New-York; or, The Adventures of Three Southerns, by a Virginian (1834), Cavaliers of Virginia; or, The Recluse of Jamestown. An Historical Romance of the Old Dominion (1834–1835), and The Knights of the Golden Horse-Shoe, a Traditionary Tale of the Cocked Hat Gentry in the Old Dominion (1835). Aspiring to become a writer of national significance, Caruthers could not move beyond identification as a sectional historian and romancer of the Old Dominion. Ignored in his home state for decades, he was eventually recognized as the originator of what became known as the Virginia novel. He contracted tuberculosis and died on August 29, 1846, at a Georgia health resort.
Thu, 06 Feb 2014 16:31:10 EST]]>
/Tucker_George_1775-1861 Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, George (1775–1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_George_1775-1861 George Tucker was a lawyer, philosopher, economist, historian, novelist, politician, and teacher. Born in Bermuda and cousin to the famed jurist St. George Tucker, Tucker served in the House of Delegates (1815–1816) representing Pittsylvania County and won election to three terms in the United States House of Representatives (1819–1825) before, at the invitation of Thomas Jefferson, joining the faculty of the newly opened University of Virginia in Charlottesville. Tucker owned slaves but opposed slavery as a moral evil. During debate over the Missouri Compromise (1820), he argued that emancipation was impractical and that slavery would eventually die out. By the end of his life, his opposition to abolitionists had turned him into an apologist for the "peculiar institution." He was the author of a novel of the U.S. South that dramatized the evils of slavery, The Valley of Shenandoah (1824); two science fiction novels, including A Voyage to the Moon (1827); a biography of Jefferson (1837); a four-volume history of the United States (1856–1857); and numerous essays on aesthetics, metaphysics, causality, morality, economics, slavery, and the nature of progress. Tucker was married three times, including to relatives of William Byrd II and George Washington. He died in 1861 from injuries he sustained after being hit by a falling cotton bale.
Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST]]>
/Pharr_Robert_Deane_1916-1992 Thu, 09 Jan 2014 12:33:54 EST <![CDATA[Pharr, Robert Deane (1916–1992)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pharr_Robert_Deane_1916-1992 Robert Deane Pharr was an acclaimed author of five novels, the first of which, The Book of Numbers (1969), was published while he was a fifty-three-year-old waiter in New York. Setting out to be "a black Sinclair Lewis," Pharr focused on the harsh yet vibrant living conditions faced by countless African Americans in urban America from the 1930s to the 1970s. Critics such as Susan Lardner of the New Yorker celebrated Pharr for his "tough, emotion-laden dialogue" and the profound sense of pain and loss that permeates his work.
Thu, 09 Jan 2014 12:33:54 EST]]>
/Seawell_Molly_Elliot_1860-1916 Wed, 01 Jan 2014 16:58:02 EST <![CDATA[Seawell, Molly Elliot (1860–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Seawell_Molly_Elliot_1860-1916 Molly Elliot Seawell was the author of forty books, including regional fiction, romances, books for boys (primarily nautical stories), and nonfiction. She also penned political columns for newspapers in Washington, D.C., and New York. Socially conservative, she opposed the growing woman suffrage movement, and her consistent depictions of African Americans as servants and slaves—while acceptable to and endorsed by much of her white readership at that time—reflected her belief that blacks were inferior and peripheral members of society. Despite her social views, critics often described her books, many of which were reviewed in the New York Times, as "sweet" or "wholesome." Though her books boasted vividly drawn characters, they did not pursue the themes and styles of literary realism that characterized the more progressive literary trends of her time. Seawell, however, remained a single woman and worked as a prolific writer who supported her household by her various publications.
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 16:58:02 EST]]>
/Vanauken_Sheldon_1914-1996 Tue, 24 Dec 2013 10:37:01 EST <![CDATA[Vanauken, Sheldon (1914–1996)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Vanauken_Sheldon_1914-1996 Sheldon Vanauken was a poet and novelist best known for his memoir A Severe Mercy (1977), about converting to Christianity and his wife's unexpected death at age forty. A less famous sequel, Under the Mercy, was published, to less acclaim, in 1985.
Tue, 24 Dec 2013 10:37:01 EST]]>
/_Miss_Johnston_s_To_Have_and_to_Hold_February_10_1900 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:09:27 EST <![CDATA["Miss Johnston's 'To Have and to Hold'" (February 10, 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Miss_Johnston_s_To_Have_and_to_Hold_February_10_1900 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:09:27 EST]]> /Lewis_Rand_1908 Fri, 18 Oct 2013 13:25:39 EST <![CDATA[Lewis Rand (1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_Rand_1908 Lewis Rand (1908), the fifth novel by the Virginia-born writer Mary Johnston, has been singled out by some critics as her best work. A historical novel set in Virginia at the beginning of the nineteenth century, it tells the story of Lewis Rand, the poor son of an Albemarle County tobacco-roller who, under the mentorship of Thomas Jefferson, escapes poverty, joins the bar, and is elected to the General Assembly before his ambition, and an impulsive murder, finally strikes him down. The backdrop for Johnston's tale is the fierce, sometimes violent rivalry between the populist Democratic-Republican Party and the more aristocratic Federalists, a rivalry echoed by the competition between Rand and the highborn Churchill and Cary families. Lewis Rand was enthusiastically received by critics, who admired Johnston's handling of her historical material. In the Smart Set, H. L. Mencken lauded its achievement, while the New York Times declared it "one of the strongest works of fiction that has seen the light of day in America." Critics reserved special praise for the character of Jacqueline Churchill, Randolph's wife, with one reviewer placing her goodness in the context of the more complex understandings of womanhood raised by a recent, nationally publicized murder trial. Subsequent critics have situated Lewis Rand among the author's best works, but by and large Johnston is ignored by twenty-first-century readers.
Fri, 18 Oct 2013 13:25:39 EST]]>
/Butt_Martha_Haines_1833-1871 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 17:22:49 EST <![CDATA[Butt, Martha Haines (1833–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Butt_Martha_Haines_1833-1871 Martha Haines Butt was a novelist, poet, and essayist who in 1853 became one of five southern women to respond to Harriet Beecher Stowe's antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) with a novel of her own. Antifanaticism: A Tale of the South (1853) defended slavery as moral and Christian, but it never achieved the critical or popular success that Stowe or even the other rebuttals received. A Norfolk native, Butt continued to write, contributing to both regional and national magazines. She championed women's intellectual engagement but criticized efforts on behalf of women's rights, generally affirming the traditional role of women. Late in her life, however, she became involved in the woman suffrage movement and served as vice president of the Virginia State Woman Suffrage Association in 1870. Butt died of pneumonia a year later.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 17:22:49 EST]]>
/Chalmers_Anna_Maria_Mead_1809-1891 Wed, 21 Aug 2013 13:16:26 EST <![CDATA[Chalmers, Anna Maria Mead (1809–1891)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chalmers_Anna_Maria_Mead_1809-1891 Anna Maria Mead Chalmers was a writer and educator. She authored numerous children's books in the 1830s, later wrote short works of fiction and devotion, and contributed to the Boston Home Journal, the New York Churchman, the New York Tribune, and the Southern Literary Messenger. In 1841, she opened a Richmond boarding and day school for girls, called Mrs. Mead's School, and served as principal for twelve years. The rigorous curriculum was comparable to the best available education for boys in Virginia. Chalmers was married three times, and she outlived all three husbands and three out of four of her children. She settled in Halifax County with her third husband in 1856, and there she raised money and taught at Sunday schools for freedpeople that she established. In addition, in 1877 she formed the Southern Churchman Cot fund to support beds for poor children at Retreat for the Sick, a Richmond hospital. She died in Albemarle County in 1891.
Wed, 21 Aug 2013 13:16:26 EST]]>
/Cabell_James_Branch_1879-1958 Mon, 12 Aug 2013 10:22:27 EST <![CDATA[Cabell, James Branch (1879–1958)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cabell_James_Branch_1879-1958 James Branch Cabell was the author of fifty-two books, including fantasy and science fiction novels, comedies of manners about post-bellum Richmond, works of genealogy, collections of short stories, essays, and poetry. His best-known book, Jurgen, A Comedy of Justice (1919), was about an eponymous hero who travels to heaven, hell, and beyond, seducing women and even the devil's wife. Denounced by the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, it became the subject of a landmark, two-year obscenity case following its publication. The novel eventually was deemed fit to be read, and its subsequent popularity propelled Cabell to literary fame. His most comprehensive project, however, is the sprawling, eighteen-volume collection known as the Biography of the Life of Manuel (1927–1930), of which Jurgen is a part. Comprised of novels, essays, and poetry, it traces the life of Manuel, Count of Poictesme (a fictional French province, pronounced "pwa-tem"), and generations of his descendants. While some of Cabell's novels—especially those that are science fiction and fantasy—have achieved cult status, his work fell out of favor beginning in the 1930s. By the time of his death in 1958, he was known primarily as the author of the scandalous Jurgen.
Mon, 12 Aug 2013 10:22:27 EST]]>
/Brock_Sarah_Ann_1831-1911 Tue, 23 Jul 2013 11:28:10 EST <![CDATA[Brock, Sarah Ann (1831–1911)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brock_Sarah_Ann_1831-1911 Sarah Ann Brock, a writer who often published under the pseudonym Virginia Madison, published numerous editorials, historical articles, reviews, essays, letters, travel sketches, short stories, biographies, and translations in her career. She is best known for her memoir of life in Richmond during the American Civil War (1861–1865), Richmond During the War: Four Years of Personal Observation (1867). Published anonymously, the book, which is still in print, offers intelligent analysis and detailed description of the Confederate capital in wartime. In addition, Brock edited a collection of southern poetry about the war, in which she contributed verse about Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. Brock also published a novel, Kenneth, My King (1873) modeled after Charlotte Brontë's 1847 novel Jane Eyre; however, it was poorly reviewed, and after Brock married in 1882, her literary output diminished. She died in 1911.
Tue, 23 Jul 2013 11:28:10 EST]]>
/Andrews_V_C_1923-1986 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:26:53 EST <![CDATA[Andrews, V. C. (1923–1986)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Andrews_V_C_1923-1986 V. C. Andrews was best known as the creator of the Dollanganger trilogy, the story of four children born of an incestuous union and imprisoned in an attic by their sadistic grandmother. A popular success, especially with adolescents and young women, V. C. Andrews wrote in a genre first explored by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley and Bram Stoker and later popularized by Stephen King, Ira Levin, and Tom Tryon. Like them, she attracted an international audience. The Tidewater native told an interviewer that her stories were "based on dreams, and situations taken from my own life, in which I changed the pattern so that what might have happened actually does happen." In 1984 the city of Norfolk named her Professional Woman of the Year.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:26:53 EST]]>
/Blake_or_The_Huts_of_America_1859 Wed, 19 Jun 2013 15:43:05 EST <![CDATA["Blake; or, The Huts of America" (1859)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blake_or_The_Huts_of_America_1859 Wed, 19 Jun 2013 15:43:05 EST]]> /Chapter_2_Mr_Jefferson_an_excerpt_from_Lewis_Rand_by_Mary_Johnston_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 10:11:52 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 2: "Mr. Jefferson"; an excerpt from Lewis Rand by Mary Johnston (1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_2_Mr_Jefferson_an_excerpt_from_Lewis_Rand_by_Mary_Johnston_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 10:11:52 EST]]> /Review_of_Lewis_Rand_October_18_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 10:07:08 EST <![CDATA[Review of Lewis Rand (October 18, 1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Review_of_Lewis_Rand_October_18_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 10:07:08 EST]]> /_Mary_Johnston_s_New_Novel_by_E_F_S_October_3_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 10:00:06 EST <![CDATA["Mary Johnston's New Novel" by E. F. S. (October 3, 1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mary_Johnston_s_New_Novel_by_E_F_S_October_3_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 10:00:06 EST]]> /Review_of_Lewis_Rand_an_excerpt_from_Latest_News_in_the_Book_World_October_12_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 09:56:58 EST <![CDATA[Review of Lewis Rand; an excerpt from "Latest News in the Book World" (October 12, 1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Review_of_Lewis_Rand_an_excerpt_from_Latest_News_in_the_Book_World_October_12_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 09:56:58 EST]]> /Review_of_Lewis_Rand_an_excerpt_from_A_Road_Map_of_the_New_Books_by_H_L_Mencken_January_1909 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 09:53:56 EST <![CDATA[Review of Lewis Rand; an excerpt from "A Road Map of the New Books" by H. L. Mencken (January 1909)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Review_of_Lewis_Rand_an_excerpt_from_A_Road_Map_of_the_New_Books_by_H_L_Mencken_January_1909 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 09:53:56 EST]]> /_Powerful_Novel_by_Mary_Johnston_October_3_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 09:48:55 EST <![CDATA["Powerful Novel by Mary Johnston" (October 3, 1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Powerful_Novel_by_Mary_Johnston_October_3_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 09:48:55 EST]]> /Review_of_To_Have_and_to_Hold_April_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:46:45 EST <![CDATA[Review of To Have and to Hold (April 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Review_of_To_Have_and_to_Hold_April_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:46:45 EST]]> /_Mary_Johnston_in_Her_Home_by_Annie_Kendrick_Walker_March_24_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:42:16 EST <![CDATA["Mary Johnston in Her Home" by Annie Kendrick Walker (March 24, 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mary_Johnston_in_Her_Home_by_Annie_Kendrick_Walker_March_24_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:42:16 EST]]> /_A_Book_Very_Like_To_Have_and_to_Hold_by_L_F_A_Maulsby_June_9_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:36:49 EST <![CDATA["A Book Very Like 'To Have and to Hold'" by L. F. A. Maulsby (June 9, 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Book_Very_Like_To_Have_and_to_Hold_by_L_F_A_Maulsby_June_9_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:36:49 EST]]> /_Miss_Johnston_s_Virginia_by_Thomas_Dixon_Jr_November_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:33:12 EST <![CDATA["Miss Johnston's Virginia" by Thomas Dixon Jr. (November 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Miss_Johnston_s_Virginia_by_Thomas_Dixon_Jr_November_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:33:12 EST]]> /Review_of_Lewis_Rand_November_1_1908 Fri, 22 Feb 2013 10:08:44 EST <![CDATA[Review of Lewis Rand (November 1, 1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Review_of_Lewis_Rand_November_1_1908 Fri, 22 Feb 2013 10:08:44 EST]]> /Chapter_33_In_Which_My_Friend_Becomes_My_Foe_an_excerpt_from_To_Have_and_to_Hold_by_Mary_Johnston_1900 Wed, 13 Feb 2013 11:52:33 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 33: "In Which My Friend Becomes My Foe"; an excerpt from To Have and to Hold by Mary Johnston (1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_33_In_Which_My_Friend_Becomes_My_Foe_an_excerpt_from_To_Have_and_to_Hold_by_Mary_Johnston_1900 Wed, 13 Feb 2013 11:52:33 EST]]> /Known_World_The_2003 Tue, 15 Jan 2013 16:10:28 EST <![CDATA[Known World, The (2003)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Known_World_The_2003 The Known World (2003) is a novel by Edward P. Jones that centers on Henry Townsend, a free black slaveholder living in antebellum Virginia. Winner of the National Book Critics Circle Award for fiction in 2003 and the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 2004, the novel was lavishly praised by critics, with Kirkus Reviews calling it "a harrowing tale that scarcely ever raises its voice." The New York Times noted how racial lines in the book "are intriguingly tangled and not easily drawn." In addition, The Known World has been compared favorably with classic American novels about slavery such as Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), William Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom! (1936), and Toni Morrison's Beloved (1987). Jones's book is distinctive, however, for its focus on the historical reality of black slaveholders before the American Civil War (1861–1865). Although the author, who received a master of fine arts degree in creative writing from the University of Virginia in Charlottesville in 1981, has downplayed the role of his research, the reality of Henry Townsend adheres to the historical record. According to scholarship done in the 1920s by Carter G. Woodson, 12 percent of all free black heads of families in Virginia in 1830 owned slaves.
Tue, 15 Jan 2013 16:10:28 EST]]>
/_Will_you_kill_me_an_excerpt_from_Prisoners_of_Hope_by_Mary_Johnston_1898 Tue, 08 Jan 2013 10:12:36 EST <![CDATA["Will you kill me?"; an excerpt from Prisoners of Hope by Mary Johnston (1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Will_you_kill_me_an_excerpt_from_Prisoners_of_Hope_by_Mary_Johnston_1898 Tue, 08 Jan 2013 10:12:36 EST]]> /_A_people_free_as_the_eagle_an_excerpt_from_Prisoners_of_Hope_by_Mary_Johnston_1898 Tue, 08 Jan 2013 09:39:23 EST <![CDATA["A people free as the eagle"; an excerpt from Prisoners of Hope by Mary Johnston (1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_people_free_as_the_eagle_an_excerpt_from_Prisoners_of_Hope_by_Mary_Johnston_1898 Tue, 08 Jan 2013 09:39:23 EST]]> /_They_hunt_you_down_an_excerpt_from_Prisoners_of_Hope_by_Mary_Johnston_1898 Tue, 08 Jan 2013 09:06:56 EST <![CDATA["They hunt you down"; an excerpt from Prisoners of Hope by Mary Johnston (1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_They_hunt_you_down_an_excerpt_from_Prisoners_of_Hope_by_Mary_Johnston_1898 Tue, 08 Jan 2013 09:06:56 EST]]> /_Turbulent_Virginia_1898 Mon, 07 Jan 2013 16:05:35 EST <![CDATA["Turbulent Virginia" (1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Turbulent_Virginia_1898 Mon, 07 Jan 2013 16:05:35 EST]]> /_World_of_Books_1899 Mon, 07 Jan 2013 15:41:10 EST <![CDATA["World of Books" (1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_World_of_Books_1899 Mon, 07 Jan 2013 15:41:10 EST]]> /_Preface_an_excerpt_from_Antifanaticism_A_Tale_of_the_South_by_Martha_Haines_Butt_1853 Wed, 19 Dec 2012 15:17:09 EST <![CDATA["Preface"; an excerpt from Antifanaticism: A Tale of the South by Martha Haines Butt (1853)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Preface_an_excerpt_from_Antifanaticism_A_Tale_of_the_South_by_Martha_Haines_Butt_1853 Wed, 19 Dec 2012 15:17:09 EST]]> /Shenandoah Wed, 25 Jul 2012 10:54:05 EST <![CDATA[Shenandoah]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Shenandoah Shenandoah is a literary journal published three times a year by Washington and Lee University in Lexington. Founded in 1950 by J. J. Donovan, D. C. G. Kerry, and Tom Wolfe, the journal publishes fiction, poetry, essays, and reviews. Although originally conceived as a forum for undergraduate work, the magazine soon began to publish regional, national, and international writers, traditionally featuring unknown authors alongside such literary heavyweights as James Dickey, Ezra Pound, e.e. cummings, W. H. Auden, Flannery O'Connor, and William Faulkner. The journal has a subscriber list of approximately 1,800. In 2008, Shenandoah was awarded the Governor's Award for the Arts by Virginia governor Tim Kaine.
Wed, 25 Jul 2012 10:54:05 EST]]>
/_Among_the_New_Books_Good_Novel_of_Colonial_Virginia_by_Mary_Johnston_1898 Mon, 30 Apr 2012 14:34:35 EST <![CDATA["Among the New Books; Good Novel of Colonial Virginia by Mary Johnston" (1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Among_the_New_Books_Good_Novel_of_Colonial_Virginia_by_Mary_Johnston_1898 Mon, 30 Apr 2012 14:34:35 EST]]> /_Mary_Johnston_Author_of_Prisoners_of_Hope_1899 Mon, 30 Apr 2012 13:40:13 EST <![CDATA["Mary Johnston, Author of 'Prisoners of Hope.'" (1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mary_Johnston_Author_of_Prisoners_of_Hope_1899 Mon, 30 Apr 2012 13:40:13 EST]]> /Prisoners_of_Hope_1898 Fri, 20 Apr 2012 11:43:21 EST <![CDATA[Prisoners of Hope (1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Prisoners_of_Hope_1898 Prisoners of Hope (1898) is the first novel by the Virginia-born writer Mary Johnston. An action-adventure story and romance set in Gloucester County in 1663, the novel is based in part on the Gloucester County Conspiracy, a planned rebellion by indentured servants who intended to march to the home of Governor Sir William Berkeley and demand their freedom. The hero of Prisoners of Hope is Godfrey Landless, a convict laborer in Virginia who once fought for Oliver Cromwell. Landless takes charge in planning a servant rebellion, only to fall in love with his master's daughter, Patricia. When his plans are revealed, Landless is imprisoned, but eventually wins Patricia's love by saving her from a fictional band of Virginia Indians. Johnston portrays colonial Virginia much as Lost Cause writers and novelists painted the antebellum South: as an idyllic place where an enslaved African American might be viewed as "simply a good-humored, docile, happy-go-lucky, harmless animal." Critics from London to New York praised the novel when it was released, and Johnston went on to become a best-selling author; however, few scholars study her today.
Fri, 20 Apr 2012 11:43:21 EST]]>
/Slave_Ship_The_1924 Fri, 20 Apr 2012 10:58:17 EST <![CDATA[Slave Ship, The (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Ship_The_1924 The Slave Ship (1924) is the eighteenth novel by the Virginia-born writer Mary Johnston. Set in Scotland, Virginia, Africa, and Jamaica, the novel follows twelve years in the life of David Scott, who is captured at the Battle of Culloden in 1746 and then transported to Virginia as a convict laborer. After a daring escape, Scott finds refuge on the slave ship Janet. There he works his way up from clerk to captain, making numerous voyages to the Slave Coast of West Africa and participating in the infamous Middle Passage, during which millions of enslaved Africans were transported to the Americas. Johnston's novel reflects her own extensive research on the Atlantic slave trade and, at times, an impressive attention to detail. Nevertheless, Johnston consistently understates the horrors of the Middle Passage and especially of the captains and crews who violently oversaw their human cargoes. Reviews of The Slave Ship upon its release were generally positive. The New York Times, for instance, praised its evocative descriptions while worrying that Johnston's theme—that master and servant are both slaves—distracted from the brutal reality of African enslavement.
Fri, 20 Apr 2012 10:58:17 EST]]>
/Sapphira_and_the_Slave_Girl_1940 Mon, 06 Jun 2011 14:19:05 EST <![CDATA[Sapphira and the Slave Girl (1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sapphira_and_the_Slave_Girl_1940 Sapphira and the Slave Girl (1940) is the last novel by Willa Cather and the Virginia-born writer's only book set entirely in the state. Based on an incident in Cather's own family, in which her maternal grandmother helped a slave escape in 1856, the novel details the complicated marriage of Henry and Sapphira Colbert, who operate a mill and small farm in Back Creek outside Winchester in the years before the American Civil War. Sapphira wrongly suspects that one of her slaves, Nancy, is in an intimate relationship with her husband, and manipulates those around her to exact revenge. Henry and the couple's daughter, Rachel, intervene by helping Nancy flee to Canada. At the time of its release, Sapphira and the Slave Girl was praised by the New York Times for examining "the question of slavery without any portentous fanfare," but in the years since, the book has not been widely read. Most critics have charged Sapphira with being racist and overly nostalgic, while a few have defended it as a brilliant inversion of old stereotypes and a coded exploration of sexual desire.
Mon, 06 Jun 2011 14:19:05 EST]]>
/Great_Meadow_The_1930 Tue, 23 Nov 2010 10:54:32 EST <![CDATA[ Great Meadow, The (1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Great_Meadow_The_1930 The Great Meadow (1930) is a historical novel by the Kentucky-born writer Elizabeth Madox Roberts (1881–1941). Set in the years between 1774 and 1781, it tells the story of Diony Hall, who migrates from Virginia to Kentucky, which was known as the "great meadow." Hall and her husband, Berk Jarvis, are inspired to move to Kentucky when they hear a speech by Daniel Boone in Virginia. Once there, however, Berk leaves Diony to seek revenge against Indians who attacked his family, and when he fails to return, Diony remarries.
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