Encyclopedia Virginia: Exploration http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Exploration_The_Age_of Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:39:32 EST Exploration, The Age of http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Exploration_The_Age_of The Age of Exploration began in earnest with the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and ended, at least where present-day Virginians are concerned, with the founding of Jamestown in 1607. When Columbus stumbled into two unknown continents, he had been looking for a quick route to the Far East, and, for decades to come, explorers focused on discovering that passage almost as much as they did on exploiting the New World. Early in the sixteenth century, the Spaniards conquered three major civilizations in Central and South America, and in the process unleashed a devastating biological exchange that killed an estimated 95 percent of the area's inhabitants between 1492 and 1650. The Spanish then turned their sights north, planting short-lived colonies on the shores of present-day Georgia and South Carolina and pursuing what came to be known as the Chicora Legend: the belief that the best land, as well as a passage to China, could be found in the area of the Chesapeake Bay. While the French and later the English explored the far northern latitudes of the Atlantic Ocean, the Spanish slowly worked their way up the coast from present-day Florida, a quest that ended only when a Virginia Indian called Don Luís (Paquiquineo) led a fatal attack on a group of Jesuit missionaries in 1571. This defeat helped make room for the English, whose failed colonies at Roanoke in 1585 and 1587 led, finally, to the permanent settlement at Jamestown.
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:39:32 EST]]>
/Don_LuA Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:36:46 EST <![CDATA[Don Luís de Velasco / Paquiquineo (fl. 1561–1571)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Don_LuA Paquiquineo, later Don Luís de Velasco, was a Virginia Indian who encountered Spanish explorers on the Chesapeake Bay in 1561 and returned to Spain with them, either voluntarily or as a captive. There, he appeared before King Philip II and was granted permission to lead a Catholic mission back to the Chesapeake, a land the Spaniards believed the Indians called Ajacán. A brief stop in Mexico City turned into a years-long stay after Paquiquineo became ill. During that time he converted to Christianity, taking the name of the viceroy of New Spain (present-day Mexico), Don Luís de Velasco. After two failed attempts to return home with Dominican missionaries, Don Luís sailed again to Spain, where he joined a group of Jesuit priests, and finally landed on the James River in September 1570—more than nine years after he had left. He initially aided the Jesuits, but quickly reunited with his family and, in February 1571, led an ambush that killed the missionaries save for an altar boy, Alonso de Olmos. While contemporary Spanish chroniclers demonized Paquiquineo, at least one modern scholar has suggested that the violence may have been a symbolic and predictable reaction to violations of the Indians' gift-exchange economy. In 1572 the Spanish dispatched soldiers to Ajacán. They hanged a handful of Indians but did not find Paquiquineo, who subsequently disappeared from history. Based on Jamestown-era rumors, some historians have argued that Paquiquineo and Opechancanough were the same person.
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:36:46 EST]]>
/Gosnold_Bartholomew_1571-August_22_1607 Fri, 14 Dec 2018 13:25:43 EST <![CDATA[Gosnold, Bartholomew (1571–1607)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gosnold_Bartholomew_1571-August_22_1607 Bartholomew Gosnold was one of the leading figures of the English settlement at Jamestown, helping to organize the Virginia Company of London and landing in Virginia with the first group of adventurers in 1607. Born in Suffolk, on the eastern coast of England, in 1571, he joined Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex, on his expedition to the Azores in 1597. Upon his return to England, Gosnold became interested in colonizing North America, planting about twenty colonists in New England in 1602. Although the colony failed, Gosnold is credited for making the first documented European visit to Cape Elizabeth and for naming Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. He used family connections to recruit members for the Virginia Company of London, with Captain John Smith describing Gosnold as "one of the first movers" of the Virginia colony. For political reasons, perhaps, Gosnold did not command the voyage west, but he served on the colony's Council once he arrived and helped bring bickering factions together. He died of disease on August 22, 1607. A grave that archaeologists uncovered at Jamestown in 2003 was initially thought to have belonged to Gosnold, but scholars are no longer certain.
Fri, 14 Dec 2018 13:25:43 EST]]>
/Raleigh_Sir_Walter_ca_1552-1618 Mon, 29 Oct 2018 10:56:55 EST <![CDATA[Raleigh, Sir Walter (ca. 1552–1618)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Raleigh_Sir_Walter_ca_1552-1618 Sir Walter Raleigh was an English soldier, explorer, poet, and courtier who funded three voyages to Roanoke Island (1584–1587) and whose ostentatious manner of dress and love for Queen Elizabeth became legendary. Born a commoner in Devon, England, Raleigh (also spelled Ralegh) nevertheless had connections to Elizabeth through his mother and may have exploited those relationships to win a place at court. He wrote poems to the queen and advised her on policy in Ireland, where in 1580 he had helped to slaughter papal troops. Soon he became one of Elizabeth's favorites, using his wealth and power to pursue dreams of colonizing the Americas, first at Roanoke and then at Guiana. Raleigh's mission, as he wrote in his long poem "The Ocean to Cynthia" (likely penned in the 1590s), was "To seek new worlds for gold, for praise, for glory." In so doing, he relied on the genius of English mathematician and astronomer Thomas Hariot, the master propagandist Richard Hakluyt (the younger), and the iconic artist John White. Raleigh also relied on the faithful protection of Elizabeth, protection that conspicuously disappeared when he secretly married one of her maids of honor. After the queen's death in 1603, Raleigh was accused of plotting against her successor and spent much of the rest of his life in the Tower of London. A second failed expedition to Guiana, during which he disobeyed the king's instructions, resulted in his beheading in 1618.
Mon, 29 Oct 2018 10:56:55 EST]]>
/_Instructions_to_George_Yeardley_by_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_November_18_1618 Wed, 25 Jul 2018 09:38:05 EST <![CDATA["Instructions to George Yeardley" by the Virginia Company of London (November 18, 1618)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Instructions_to_George_Yeardley_by_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_November_18_1618 Wed, 25 Jul 2018 09:38:05 EST]]> /Byrd_William_1674-1744 Tue, 10 Jul 2018 14:07:30 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, William (1674–1744)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_William_1674-1744 William Byrd, sometimes referred to as William Byrd II of Westover to distinguish him from relatives of the same name, was a planter, a surveyor, a member of the governor's Council (1709–1744), and a man of letters. Born in Virginia, Byrd was educated and practiced law in England. He returned to Virginia in 1705, after the death of his father. Shortly afterward he was appointed to the governor's Council, and in the 1720s he served as the London agent of the House of Burgesses. He helped survey the boundary between Virginia and North Carolina and established the town of Richmond on the north side of the James River. He was also a prolific writer, and is perhaps best known today for his diaries and the manuscript narratives of his surveying, both of which are frequently anthologized in textbooks of American literature. Byrd typified both the values of British colonial gentry and the ethos of an emerging American identity invested in the improvement of the self and of the colonial commonwealth.
Tue, 10 Jul 2018 14:07:30 EST]]>
/Louisiana_Purchase Fri, 08 Dec 2017 17:00:12 EST <![CDATA[Louisiana Purchase]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Louisiana_Purchase The Louisiana Purchase (1803) from France resulted in the eventual transfer of about 828,000 square miles of land in North America to the United States. At a cost of about $15 million, the United States nearly doubled its territory and effectively secured control over the Mississippi River by acquiring the port of New Orleans and the vast watershed beyond the river. Beginning in the mid-sixteenth century the French established control of the territory running from the Great Lakes to the Gulf Coast, only to cede much of it to Spain after the Seven Years' War (1756–1763). In 1784, Spain closed the Mississippi to American commerce until the Treaty of San Lorenzo (1795). Five years later, however, the territory reverted to France while remaining under Spanish administration. The new U.S. president, Thomas Jefferson, inaugurated in 1801, spent the next two years negotiating long-term access to the river. Jefferson worried that war in Europe might leave the British in control of Louisiana or even that American settlers might establish new nation-states in the Mississippi valley and negotiate their own treaty with the French. The crisis worsened in 1802 when the Spanish closed the river again; some in the opposition Federalist Party suggested the United States go to war. Then, in 1803, the French suddenly offered to sell imperial rights to all of Louisiana. Jefferson seized upon this unexpected opportunity, but worried that the U.S. Constitution did not allow such a deal. Still, he called Congress to an early session and laid the treaty before the Senate to ratify, which they did. The acquisition of so much territory eventually strained the union between North and South and helped to bring on the American Civil War (1861–1865). Unplanned and unexpected, the Louisiana Purchase presented the federal government and the American people with an array of new challenges and new opportunities.
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/Boone_Daniel_1734-1820 Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:26:45 EST <![CDATA[Boone, Daniel (1734–1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boone_Daniel_1734-1820 Daniel Boone was a legendary frontiersman and a member of the House of Delegates (1781–1782, 1787–1788, 1791). Born in Pennsylvania the son of Quakers, he moved to North Carolina as a young man. His first long hunting trip was in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. Boone briefly lived in Culpeper County after the Cherokee War drove him north, and by the end of the decade he was making regular trips to Kentucky. In 1775 he was hired to cut a road from present-day Tennessee, through the Cumberland Gap, to the Kentucky River—what came to be known as the Wilderness Road. His fame as a woodsman grew, enhanced by violent run-ins with Indians and the embellishments of writers. In 1780 he was elected to the House of Delegates from the newly created Fayette County (in what later became the state of Kentucky). Boone moved several times, ran a store, and twice more won election to the House of Delegates. In 1799 the Spanish granted him land in what was then Louisiana and what later became Missouri. He died there in 1820.
Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:26:45 EST]]>
/Colonial_Virginia Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST <![CDATA[Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colonial_Virginia The colonial period in Virginia began in 1607 with the landing of the first English settlers at Jamestown and ended in 1776 with the establishment of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although a thriving Indian society had existed for thousands of years before the English arrived, war with the European settlers and the introduction of new diseases for which the Indians had no resistance spelled disaster for it. The English colonists, meanwhile, just barely survived, suffering through summer droughts and winter starvation. Salvation came to the colony in the form of smoking tobacco, or what King James I called a "vile and stinking custom," when John Rolfe cultivated a variety of tobacco that sold well in England. In 1619, a General Assembly convened, bringing limited self-government to America. That same year brought the first slaves to Virginia. For most of the 1600s, white indentured servants worked the colony's tobacco fields, but by 1705 the Virginia colony had become a slave society. Nearly all power was in the hands of white male landowners, who ran the government and, by law, belonged to the Church of England. Women who married and worked at home were considered "good wives"; those who refused such "proper" roles were considered troublesome. And while Virginia's ruling men did not encourage women to be independent, they nevertheless fought for their own independence, taking full part in the American Revolution (1775–1783).
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST]]>
/Percy_George_1580-1632_or_1633 Wed, 28 Dec 2016 16:51:13 EST <![CDATA[Percy, George (1580–1632 or 1633)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Percy_George_1580-1632_or_1633 George Percy was one of the original Jamestown settlers and the author of two important primary accounts of the colony. He served as president of the Council (1609–1610) during the Starving Time, and briefly as deputy governor (1611). Born in Sussex, England, to the eighth earl of Northumberland, Percy hailed from a family of Catholic conspirators; his father died while imprisoned in the Tower of London, his uncle was beheaded, and his older brother, the ninth earl of Northumberland, was also imprisoned. While his accounts suggest that Percy was awed by the natural beauty of Virginia, he was nevertheless overwhelmed by the many problems the first colonists faced, including hunger, disease, internal dissention, and often-difficult relations with Virginia Indians. While president of the Council, he and his fellow colonists suffered through the Starving Time, initiated in part by the Indians' siege of Jamestown at the beginning of the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614). Through support from his older brother, Percy seems to have lived in relative comfort, but he also suffered from recurring illness, finally leaving Virginia in 1612. His second account of Jamestown, A Trewe Relacyon , was written in the mid-1620s with the intention of rebutting Captain John Smith's popular version of events in the colony. Percy died in the winter of 1632–1633, leaving no will.
Wed, 28 Dec 2016 16:51:13 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786), founder of the University of Virginia (1819), governor of Virginia (1779–1781), and third president of the United States (1801–1809). Born at Shadwell, his parents' estate in Albemarle County, he attended the College of William and Mary and studied the law under the tutelage of George Wythe. In 1769, Jefferson began construction of Monticello, his home in Albemarle County, and for the rest of his life pursued an interest in architecture, which included design of Poplar Forest and the State Capitol. Jefferson also indulged a passion for science, serving as president of the American Philosophical Society (1797–1814) and publishing Notes on the State of Virginia (1795). After representing Albemarle County in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), Jefferson was a delegate to Virginia's five Revolutionary Conventions and served in the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776) and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He earned a reputation during the American Revolution (1775–1783) as a forceful advocate of revolutionary principles, articulated in A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774), the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking Up Arms (1775), and, most famously, the Declaration of Independence, approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. His two terms as governor were marked by British invasion and Jefferson's controversial flight to Poplar Forest. From 1784 to 1789, he served as a diplomat in France and there may have begun a sexual relationship with his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Jefferson served as secretary of state in the administration of George Washington (1790–1793) and as vice president under John Adams (1797–1801) before being elected president by the U.S. House of Representatives after a tie vote in the Electoral College. As president Jefferson arranged for the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the subsequent Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806). With James Madison, Jefferson helped found the Republican Party and advocated for states' rights and a small federal government, although as president he sometimes pushed the limits of his executive authority. In his retirement he founded the University of Virginia, which was chartered in 1819 and opened for classes in the spring of 1825. Jefferson died at Monticello on July 4, 1826, fifty years after the Declaration of Independence was approved. He is buried at Monticello.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST]]>
/Virginia_Company_of_London Thu, 10 Nov 2016 10:59:52 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Company of London]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Company_of_London The Virginia Company of London was a joint-stock company chartered by King James I in 1606 to establish a colony in North America. Such a venture allowed the Crown to reap the benefits of colonization—natural resources, new markets for English goods, leverage against the Spanish—without bearing the costs. Investors, meanwhile, were protected from catastrophic losses in the event of the project's failure. The company established a settlement at Jamestown in 1607, and over the next eighteen years, the Crown granted the company two new charters, democratizing its governance and reforming its financial model. What began as an enterprise of investors seeking a dividend was funded a decade later almost exclusively by a public lottery. By 1618 the company had found a way to use its most abundant resource—land—to tempt settlers to pay their own passage from England to the colony and then, after arrival, to pay the company a quitrent, or fee, to use the land. Still, the Virginia Company and the colony it oversaw struggled to survive. Disease, mismanagement, Indian attacks, and factionalism in London all took a toll until, in 1623, the Privy Council launched an investigation into the company's finances. A year later, the company's charter was revoked and the king assumed direct control of Virginia.
Thu, 10 Nov 2016 10:59:52 EST]]>
/Newport_Christopher_1561-after_August_15_1617 Tue, 07 Jun 2016 13:58:07 EST <![CDATA[Newport, Christopher (1561–after August 15, 1617)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Newport_Christopher_1561-after_August_15_1617 Christopher Newport was an English privateer, ship captain, and adventurer who helped to establish the first permanent English colony in North America at Jamestown in 1607. Born the son of a shipmaster on the east coast of England, he worked in the commercial shipping trade and, beginning in 1585, as a privateer, or sanctioned pirate, in the war between England and Spain. His assistance in the capture of the Spanish ship Madre de Dios in 1592 won him such wealth and prestige that in 1606 the Virginia Company of London appointed him leader of the voyage to the newly chartered colony. In the first few months, he played a key role in negotiating between Virginia's often-fractious leaders. He also sailed between the colony and England, carrying news and delivering precious supplies. In 1608, he participated in an unsuccessful "coronation" of the Indian chief Powhatan, who refused to submit himself to the English. In 1609, as captain of the Sea Venture, Newport was shipwrecked off the islands of Bermuda, arriving in Virginia the next spring. Newport left the Virginia Company's employment in 1612 and entered the service of the East India Company. He died in Banten (Bantam), Java, sometime after August 15, 1617.
Tue, 07 Jun 2016 13:58:07 EST]]>
/_The_people_of_America_crye_oute_unto_us_an_excerpt_from_Discourse_on_Western_Planting_by_Richard_Hakluyt_the_younger_1584 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:09:56 EST <![CDATA["The people of America crye oute unto us"; an excerpt from Discourse on Western Planting by Richard Hakluyt (the younger) (1584)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_people_of_America_crye_oute_unto_us_an_excerpt_from_Discourse_on_Western_Planting_by_Richard_Hakluyt_the_younger_1584 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:09:56 EST]]> /Bland_Edward_bap_1614-1652 Fri, 09 Oct 2015 14:52:21 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Edward (bap. 1614–1652)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Edward_bap_1614-1652 Fri, 09 Oct 2015 14:52:21 EST]]> /Strachey_William_1572-1621 Mon, 21 Sep 2015 10:18:10 EST <![CDATA[Strachey, William (1572–1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Strachey_William_1572-1621 William Strachey was a member of the Virginia Council, served as secretary and recorder for the colony from 1610 until 1611, and was one of the first historians of the Jamestown settlement. Educated at Cambridge and Gray's Inn, he wrote verse and befriended poets Ben Jonson and John Donne before serving a brief stint as secretary to the English ambassador at Constantinople (1606–1607). Strachey then returned to England, purchased two shares in the Virginia Company of London, and in 1609 sailed on the Sea Venture, the flagship of a resupply fleet bound for the colony. When a storm ran the ship aground on the Bermudas, he and his shipmates were stranded for nearly a year, but eventually managed to construct two small vessels, Patience and Deliverance, and arrived at Jamestown in May 1610. Strachey's account of the adventure, published in 1625 as A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates Knight, probably had served, years earlier, as source material for William Shakespeare's play The Tempest. In Virginia, Strachey was appointed to the Council and made its secretary and recorder, in which capacity the company requested that he produce an extensive account of the colony and its future prospects. When he completed The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia in 1612, the company declined to publish it. In the years since, however, it has become one of the most important sources of information on early Virginia Indian society, politics, and religion. Strachey died in poverty in London in 1621.
Mon, 21 Sep 2015 10:18:10 EST]]>
/John_White_Returns_to_Roanoke_an_excerpt_from_The_fift_voyage_of_Master_John_White_into_the_West_Indies_and_parts_of_America_called_Virginia_in_the_yeere_1590_1600 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 13:43:25 EST <![CDATA[John White Returns to Roanoke; an excerpt from "The fift voyage of Master John White into the West Indies and parts of America called Virginia, in the yeere 1590" (1600)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_White_Returns_to_Roanoke_an_excerpt_from_The_fift_voyage_of_Master_John_White_into_the_West_Indies_and_parts_of_America_called_Virginia_in_the_yeere_1590_1600 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 13:43:25 EST]]> /White_John_d_1593 Thu, 04 Dec 2014 17:14:26 EST <![CDATA[White, John (d. 1593)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/White_John_d_1593 John White was an English artist who in 1585 accompanied a failed colonizing expedition to Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina and who, in 1587, served as governor of a second failed expedition, which came to be known as the Lost Colony. As an artist attached to the first group of colonists, White produced watercolor portraits of Virginia Indians and scenes of their lives and activities. He rendered the local flora and fauna and, using the English polymath Thomas Hariot as a surveyor, created detailed maps of the North American coastline. He also joined Hariot and others on an exploration of the Chesapeake Bay and made contact there with the Chesapeake Indians. Many of White's paintings were published, sometimes in altered form, by Theodor de Bry as etchings in Hariot's illustrated edition of A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia (1590). They are the most accurate visual record of the New World by an artist of his generation. After the first colony failed, White led a second, which was intended for the Chesapeake but which settled again at Roanoke. The colonists included White's daughter, Elinor White Dare, who gave birth to Virginia Dare, the first English child born in America. A poor and unpopular leader, White agreed to be a messenger back to England to inform the colony's backers of the location change and a need for new supplies. Waylaid by the Spanish Armada, he did not return until 1590; the colonists had disappeared. White died three years later.
Thu, 04 Dec 2014 17:14:26 EST]]>
/Byrd_William_ca_1652-1704 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:37:06 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, William (ca. 1652–1704)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_William_ca_1652-1704 William Byrd, also known as William Byrd I, was an Indian trader, explorer, member of the House of Burgesses (1679–1682), member of the governor's Council (1683–1704), and auditor- and receiver-general (1688–1704). Inheriting the bulk of his uncle's Virginia estate, Byrd spent his early years as an Indian trader and explorer. Early in 1676, his trade was cut off after Indian attacks, and he helped to persuade his partner, Nathaniel Bacon, to take unlawful command of a militia and lead it against the Indians. Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677) resulted, but Byrd switched his loyalties to Governor Sir William Berkeley, opening the way for his political career. Elected to the House of Burgesses in 1677, Byrd commanded defense forces at the falls of the James River and operated as one of the most important Indian traders of the seventeenth century. He became an ally of Governor Thomas Culpeper, baron Culpeper of Thoresway, who appointed him to the Council in 1683. Five years later, after much lobbying, he received the combined posts of auditor- and receiver-general, putting him in charge of both collecting and maintaining all the colony's royal revenue. In the absence of Governor Francis Nicholson, he served three stints as president, or acting governor, of the colony. Byrd died in Charles City County in 1704.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:37:06 EST]]>
/The_Legend_of_Captaine_Jones_by_David_Lloyd_1631 Mon, 22 Sep 2014 13:26:51 EST <![CDATA[The Legend of Captaine Jones by David Lloyd (1631)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Legend_of_Captaine_Jones_by_David_Lloyd_1631 Mon, 22 Sep 2014 13:26:51 EST]]> /Elizabeth_I_1533-1603 Wed, 17 Sep 2014 13:17:22 EST <![CDATA[Elizabeth I (1533–1603)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Elizabeth_I_1533-1603 Elizabeth I was queen of England from 1558 to 1603, and Virginia was named in honor of her. Daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn, Elizabeth Tudor became queen at the death of her married but childless half-sister Mary I. Elizabeth remained single, and her image as the "virgin queen" permeated the arts and politics of her reign, even as she used the possibility of marriage to shape foreign policy. Her reign saw the establishment of the Protestant Church of England in a form that has lasted for centuries. She faced a rebellion and plots in favor of her Catholic cousin, Mary, Queen of Scots, whose flight to England and claims to its throne caused Elizabeth first to imprison and then to execute her. Elizabeth oversaw her navy's defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, a victory that marked a high point of English protestant and nationalistic fervor. In the 1580s, she encouraged Sir Walter Raleigh's ventures to the New World, and even though his colonies at Roanoke failed, their brief existence enabled the English explorers to claim much of the eastern coast of North America as "Virginia." Elizabeth's love and patronage of plays, pageants, literature, and the fine arts was at the heart of the English Renaissance. Elizabeth was famous for her linguistic skills, sharp wit and temper, educated mind, frugality, and political caution. In her speeches, civic processions, and travels around the kingdom, she cultivated her popularity with her subjects. Elizabeth died in 1603 and was succeeded by her cousin James VI of Scotland.
Wed, 17 Sep 2014 13:17:22 EST]]>
/Little_Ice_Age_and_Colonial_Virginia_The Thu, 21 Aug 2014 17:35:21 EST <![CDATA[Little Ice Age and Colonial Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Little_Ice_Age_and_Colonial_Virginia_The The Little Ice Age was a climatic period, lasting from about 1300 to 1750, when worldwide temperatures cooled slightly, leading to extreme weather that, in turn, affected the colonizing ventures of Europeans in America. Before their arrival, Europeans assumed America's climate would match that of lands situated along the same lines of latitude elsewhere. Instead, the New World was both hotter and colder than they expected. And as a result of the Little Ice Age, the weather was marked by wet springs that led to flooding, hot summers that led to long droughts, and particularly cold winters. Scientists disagree over the causes of the Little Ice Age, although an environmental scientist at the University of Virginia has pointed the finger at human activity. Regardless, scientists agree that the effect on weather was pronounced. In January 1607, a massive flood struck southwestern England even as the Thames River was frozen over. Both the areas around Roanoke and Jamestown were suffering from millennial droughts when the colonists arrived demanding food from local Indian populations. The resulting scarcity of food contributed to disease and conflict, both of which ended the venture at Roanoke and threatened the survival of Jamestown.
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 17:35:21 EST]]>
/A_Map_of_Virginia_With_a_Description_of_the_Countrey_the_Commodities_People_Government_and_Religion_by_John_Smith_1612 Mon, 11 Aug 2014 09:23:41 EST <![CDATA[A Map of Virginia. With a Description of the Countrey, the Commodities, People, Government and Religion by John Smith (1612)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Map_of_Virginia_With_a_Description_of_the_Countrey_the_Commodities_People_Government_and_Religion_by_John_Smith_1612 Mon, 11 Aug 2014 09:23:41 EST]]> /A_True_relation_of_such_occurrences_and_accidents_of_note_as_hath_hapned_at_Virginia_since_the_first_planting_of_that_Collonyby_John_Smith_1608 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:12:16 EST <![CDATA[A True relation of such occurrences and accidents of note, as hath hapned at Virginia, since the first planting of that Collony by John Smith (1608)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_True_relation_of_such_occurrences_and_accidents_of_note_as_hath_hapned_at_Virginia_since_the_first_planting_of_that_Collonyby_John_Smith_1608 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:12:16 EST]]> /Barlowe_Arthur_ca_1550-ca_1620 Sat, 19 Jul 2014 11:17:14 EST <![CDATA[Barlowe, Arthur (ca. 1550–ca. 1620)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barlowe_Arthur_ca_1550-ca_1620 Arthur Barlowe was an English explorer and sea captain who helped to lead a reconnaissance expedition to Roanoke Island off the coast of present-day North Carolina, preparing for a larger English settlement the following year. Little is known about Barlowe's life other than that by early in the 1580s he was a gentleman-soldier attached to Walter Raleigh's household in London. In 1584, Barlowe and Philip Amadas captained two ships that landed at Roanoke Island in what would become the Virginia Colony. The explorers remained in the region for two months, and upon his return Barlowe produced a report, "The first voyage made to the coastes of America," that appeared in Richard Hakluyt the Younger's Principall Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation, published in 1589. An entertaining narrative, Barlowe's report appears to have been based on a ship's log of the voyage, and the final text may have been reworked by others, including Thomas Hariot, Raleigh's primary assistant, and Raleigh himself. Raleigh used the completed report as a propaganda tool to further his aims of settling a permanent colony in Virginia.
Sat, 19 Jul 2014 11:17:14 EST]]>
/_The_gouernment_left_to_Captaine_Yearly_from_Book_4_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Thu, 17 Jul 2014 09:05:12 EST <![CDATA["The gouernment left to Captaine Yearly," from Book 4 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_gouernment_left_to_Captaine_Yearly_from_Book_4_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Thu, 17 Jul 2014 09:05:12 EST]]> /Smith_Chapter_12_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:25:46 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 12, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_Chapter_12_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:25:46 EST]]> /Chapters_10-11_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:21:02 EST <![CDATA[Chapters 10–11, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapters_10-11_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:21:02 EST]]> /Chapter_7_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Tue, 15 Jul 2014 11:47:32 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 7, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_7_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Tue, 15 Jul 2014 11:47:32 EST]]> /Smith_Chapter_2_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Thu, 10 Jul 2014 11:34:54 EST <![CDATA[Smith, Chapter 2, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_Chapter_2_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Thu, 10 Jul 2014 11:34:54 EST]]> /Chapter_1_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 09 Jul 2014 09:59:13 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 1, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_1_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 09 Jul 2014 09:59:13 EST]]> /_John_Smith_from_The_History_of_the_Worthies_of_England_by_Thomas_Fuller_1661 Mon, 07 Jul 2014 10:26:28 EST <![CDATA["John Smith," from The History of the Worthies of England by Thomas Fuller (1661)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_John_Smith_from_The_History_of_the_Worthies_of_England_by_Thomas_Fuller_1661 Mon, 07 Jul 2014 10:26:28 EST]]> /Chapter_17_of_The_Trve_Travels_Adventvres_and_Observations_of_Captaine_Iohn_Smith_in_Europe_Asia_Africke_and_America_Vol_1_1629 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 13:38:57 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 17 of The Trve Travels, Adventvres and Observations of Captaine Iohn Smith in Europe, Asia, Africke, and America, Vol. 1 (1629)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_17_of_The_Trve_Travels_Adventvres_and_Observations_of_Captaine_Iohn_Smith_in_Europe_Asia_Africke_and_America_Vol_1_1629 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 13:38:57 EST]]> /Chapters_11-12_of_The_Trve_Travels_Adventvres_and_Observations_of_Captaine_Iohn_Smith_in_Europe_Asia_Africke_and_America_Vol_1_1629 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 13:36:33 EST <![CDATA[Chapters 11–12 of The Trve Travels, Adventvres and Observations of Captaine Iohn Smith in Europe, Asia, Africke, and America, Vol. 1 (1629)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapters_11-12_of_The_Trve_Travels_Adventvres_and_Observations_of_Captaine_Iohn_Smith_in_Europe_Asia_Africke_and_America_Vol_1_1629 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 13:36:33 EST]]> /Chapter_7_of_The_Trve_Travels_Adventvres_and_Observations_of_Captaine_Iohn_Smith_in_Europe_Asia_Africke_and_America_Vol_1_1629 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 13:33:28 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 7 of The Trve Travels, Adventvres and Observations of Captaine Iohn Smith in Europe, Asia, Africke, and America, Vol. 1 (1629)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_7_of_The_Trve_Travels_Adventvres_and_Observations_of_Captaine_Iohn_Smith_in_Europe_Asia_Africke_and_America_Vol_1_1629 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 13:33:28 EST]]> /Chapters_1-2_of_The_Trve_Travels_Adventvres_and_Observations_of_Captaine_Iohn_Smith_in_Europe_Asia_Africke_and_America_Vol_1_1629 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 13:29:34 EST <![CDATA[Chapters 1–2 of The Trve Travels, Adventvres and Observations of Captaine Iohn Smith in Europe, Asia, Africke, and America, Vol. 1 (1629)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapters_1-2_of_The_Trve_Travels_Adventvres_and_Observations_of_Captaine_Iohn_Smith_in_Europe_Asia_Africke_and_America_Vol_1_1629 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 13:29:34 EST]]> /Byrd_Richard_E_1888-1957 Sun, 22 Jun 2014 10:17:24 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, Richard E. (1888–1957)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Richard_E_1888-1957 Richard E. Byrd was a naval aviator and explorer of both the Arctic and Antarctica who became famous in 1926 as the first man credited with flying to the North Pole. During World War I (1914–1918), he conducted antisubmarine patrols in the North Atlantic and became a pioneer in navigating long distances, both on water and in the air. Byrd's desire to test navigational equipment in extreme climates took him to Greenland in 1925, and from there he pushed north using a sun compass and shortwave aerial radio transmissions. His roundtrip, aerial expedition to the North Pole, funded by wealthy American industrialists, was completed in about sixteen hours on May 9, 1926, and earned Byrd international fame. His pioneering feat has long been questioned, at times persuasively, by skeptical scientists who claimed that he could not have made the trip in such a short amount of time. Later in his career, Byrd established the United States presence in Antarctica and flew to the South Pole.
Sun, 22 Jun 2014 10:17:24 EST]]>
/Letters_Patents_graunted_by_her_Maiestie_to_Sir_Humfrey_Gilbert_June_11_1578_The Thu, 19 Jun 2014 13:43:39 EST <![CDATA[Letters Patents graunted by her Maiestie to Sir Humfrey Gilbert (June 11, 1578), The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letters_Patents_graunted_by_her_Maiestie_to_Sir_Humfrey_Gilbert_June_11_1578_The Thu, 19 Jun 2014 13:43:39 EST]]> /Hakluyt_Richard_1552-1616 Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:33:44 EST <![CDATA[Hakluyt, Richard (1552–1616)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hakluyt_Richard_1552-1616 Richard Hakluyt, better known as Richard Hakluyt (the younger) or Richard Hakluyt (the minister) to distinguish him from his elder cousin of the same name, was an editor, geographer, and Anglican minister. With his cousin, he acted as one of the chief propagandists of English colonization in North America. In 1582, he published Divers Voyages Touching the Discoverie of America, and the Ilands Adjacent, probably in support of Sir Humphrey Gilbert's plan to settle North America. And when Gilbert's half brother Walter Raleigh inherited Gilbert's patent for colonization, Hakluyt wrote and presented to Queen Elizabeth a Discourse on Western Planting (1584), forcefully arguing for colonization predicated on Protestant proselytizing and economic expansion, both of which, he insisted, would help undermine Spain. Five years later he published Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation, a remarkable collection of documents whose final section focused on English activities in the Americas. Hakluyt also played a key role in producing a book that brought England's first American colony to the attention of a wide and lasting audience: the first volume of Flemish engraver Theodor de Bry's multilingual America series, an edition of Thomas Hariot's narrative with John White's images and maps of the settlement at Roanoke Island. In later years, Hakluyt advised the East India Company; his was one of eight names on the original charter of the Virginia Company of London and he was listed as an investor in the second charter. An official for many years at Westminster Abbey, he died in 1616.
Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:33:44 EST]]>
/Hakluyt_Richard_ca_1530-1591 Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:31:04 EST <![CDATA[Hakluyt, Richard (ca. 1530–1591)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hakluyt_Richard_ca_1530-1591 Richard Hakluyt, better known as Richard Hakluyt (the elder) or Richard Hakluyt (the lawyer) to distinguish him from his younger cousin of the same name, was an active propagandist of English colonization of North America. Although his cousin, the editor of Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation (1589), was better known and more influential, Hakluyt had been his guardian and introduced him to the study of geography. Elected to Parliament in 1558, he corresponded over several decades with cosmographers, merchants, fishermen, and other travelers, gathering information on the new regions they contacted and providing advice and instructions for the pursuit of trade, colonization, diplomacy, and exploration. Hakluyt's arguments that colonization of the Americas would be a boon to English commerce and an opportunity to Christianize the Virginia Indians likely influenced the views of his cousin, who gave them wider currency. In 1585, concurrent with Walter Raleigh's proposed settlement in the Outer Banks of present-day North Carolina, he authored two pamphlets in favor of colonial ventures, but he died in 1591, before the permanent colony, at Jamestown, could be established.
Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:31:04 EST]]>
/Roanoke_Colonies_The Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:28:23 EST <![CDATA[Roanoke Colonies, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Roanoke_Colonies_The The Roanoke Colonies were an ambitious attempt by England's Sir Walter Raleigh to establish a permanent North American settlement with the purpose of harassing Spanish shipping, mining for gold and silver, discovering a passage to the Pacific Ocean, and Christianizing the Indians. After three voyages the enterprise ended in the mysterious disappearance of the "Lost Colony." The first voyage, a reconnaissance venture led by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe, landed in 1584 on the Outer Banks of present-day North Carolina and made mostly friendly contact there with the Algonquian-speaking Indians, even returning to England with two of them: Manteo and Wanchese. Boosted by Barlowe's positive report and Queen Elizabeth's grant to settle "Virginia," the second voyage, in 1585, established a fortified camp on Roanoke Island. John White and Thomas Hariot accompanied explorations of the mainland and the Chesapeake Bay, creating maps, paintings, and descriptions of native culture. But after less than a year in America and shortly after beheading the Indian chief Pemisapan (Wingina), the English abandoned the colony. They returned the next year, this time under White's leadership and intending to settle in the Chesapeake; instead, they reoccupied Roanoke. After White sailed to England to update Raleigh and obtain additional supplies, he was delayed by the Spanish Armada. By the time he returned in 1590, the colonists, including his granddaughter, Virginia Dare, had disappeared.
Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:28:23 EST]]>
/Hariot_Thomas_ca_1560-1621 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 15:17:55 EST <![CDATA[Hariot, Thomas (ca. 1560–1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hariot_Thomas_ca_1560-1621 Thomas Hariot (often spelled Harriot) was an English mathematician, astronomer, linguist, and experimental scientist. During the 1580s, he served as Sir Walter Raleigh's primary assistant in planning and attempting to establish the English colonies on Roanoke Island off the coast of present-day North Carolina. He taught Raleigh's sea captains to sail the Atlantic Ocean using sophisticated navigational methods not well understood in England at the time. He also learned the Algonquian language from two Virginia Indians, Wanchese and Manteo. In 1585, Hariot joined the expedition to Roanoke, which failed and returned to England the next year. During his stay in America, Hariot helped to explore the present-day Outer Banks region and, farther north, the Chesapeake Bay. He also collaborated with the artist John White in producing several maps notable at the time for their accuracy. Although Hariot left extensive papers, the only work published during his lifetime was A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia, which evaluated the economic potential of Virginia. The report appeared most impressively in Theodor de Bry's 1590 edition that included etchings based on the White-Hariot maps and White's watercolors of Indian life. After a brief imprisonment in connection to the Gunpowder Plot (1605), Hariot calculated the orbit of Halley's Comet, sketched and mapped the moon, and observed sunspots. He died in 1621.
Thu, 05 Jun 2014 15:17:55 EST]]>
/The_Original_Jamestown_Settlers_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Mon, 02 Jun 2014 21:23:04 EST <![CDATA[The Original Jamestown Settlers; an excerpt from The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Original_Jamestown_Settlers_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Mon, 02 Jun 2014 21:23:04 EST]]> /_Of_such_a_dish_as_powdered_wife_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Mon, 02 Jun 2014 21:07:32 EST <![CDATA["Of such a dish as powdered wife"; an excerpt from The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Of_such_a_dish_as_powdered_wife_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Mon, 02 Jun 2014 21:07:32 EST]]> /Jamestown_Settlement_Early Fri, 30 May 2014 11:27:18 EST <![CDATA[Jamestown Settlement, Early]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jamestown_Settlement_Early The Jamestown settlement, established in 1607, was the seat of England's first permanent colony in North America. After the failure of the Roanoke colonies, investors in the Virginia Company of London were anxious to find profit farther to the north, and in April 1607 three ships of settlers arrived at the Chesapeake Bay. The enterprise, fraught with disease, dissension, and determined Indian resistance, was a miserable failure at first. "The adventurers who ventured their capital lost it," the historian Edmund S. Morgan has written. "Most of the settlers who ventured their lives lost them. And so did most of the Indians who came near them." John Smith mapped out much of the Bay and established (sometimes violent) relations with the Powhatan Indians there. During the winter of 1609–1610, the colony nearly starved. The resupply ship Sea Venture, carrying much of Virginia's new leadership, was thought lost at sea. When it finally arrived in May 1610, fewer than a hundred colonists still survived. Discipline at Jamestown did not match the urgency of the moment until Sir Thomas Dale's arrival in 1611 and his full implementation of the strict Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall. By year's end, Dale had founded an outside settlement at Henrico, near what became Richmond. The introduction of saleable tobacco soon after helped secure the colony's economy, and as political power expanded into the James River Valley, the influence of Jamestown waned.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:27:18 EST]]>
/Gates_Sir_Thomas_d_1622 Sun, 25 May 2014 12:00:57 EST <![CDATA[Gates, Sir Thomas (d. 1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gates_Sir_Thomas_d_1622 Sir Thomas Gates served as governor of Virginia in 1610 and then as lieutenant governor from 1611 until 1614. Born in the southwest of England, he served in the West Indies with Sir Francis Drake and fought with Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex, in Normandy and Cádiz, where Gates was knighted in 1596. Gates was an original investor in the Virginia Company of London and led an infantry company in the Netherlands until taking command of a massive resupply fleet to Virginia in 1609. Aboard the flagship Sea Venture, Gates and his crew were shipwrecked on Bermuda for nearly a year before finally making it to Virginia. There, Governor Gates encountered a colony on the brink of extinction, saved only by the timely arrival of a new governor, Thomas West, twelfth baron De La Warr. Advocating a strict, military-style regime, Gates instituted a set of rules that were expanded and, in 1612, published as For the Colony in Virginea Britannia. Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall, &c. He participated in sometimes brutal attacks on the Indians during the First Anglo-Powhatan War(1609–1614), and, in England, worked as a tireless advocate for the Virginia Company. Returning to Virginia in 1611, Gates stiffened Jamestown's defenses and, with Sir Thomas Dale, cleared much of the James River of Powhatan Indians. Gates died in the Netherlands in 1622.
Sun, 25 May 2014 12:00:57 EST]]>
/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_A_True_Relation_of_such_occurrences_and_accidents_of_note_as_hath_hapned_in_Virginia_by_John_Smith_1608 Tue, 20 May 2014 13:31:09 EST <![CDATA[Arriving in Virginia; an excerpt from "A True Relation of such occurrences and accidents of note, as hath hapned in Virginia" by John Smith (1608)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_A_True_Relation_of_such_occurrences_and_accidents_of_note_as_hath_hapned_in_Virginia_by_John_Smith_1608 Tue, 20 May 2014 13:31:09 EST]]> /Lewis_and_Clark_Expedition_The Tue, 06 May 2014 16:01:35 EST <![CDATA[Lewis and Clark Expedition, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_and_Clark_Expedition_The The Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) was a federally funded venture to explore the North American West. The expedition's principal objective was to survey the Missouri and Columbia rivers, locating routes that would connect the continental interior to the Pacific Ocean. The Louisiana Purchase of 1803, in which the United States acquired some 828,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River, facilitated the mission, allowing the explorers unprecedented access to land that had previously been owned by Spain and then France. President Thomas Jefferson invested his time, energy, and political capital into this project and took direct charge of its initial planning and organization. The expedition is named for its commanders, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Under their leadership the group of thirty-three, known as the Corps of Discovery, succeeded in reaching the Pacific and returning safely despite considerable challenges, ranging from navigating unfamiliar terrain to maintaining good relations with the numerous Indian tribes that lived in the Louisiana Territory. Along the way, the expedition gathered invaluable scientific, ethnographic, and cartographic information, creating a detailed written record of the journey in a series of journals.
Tue, 06 May 2014 16:01:35 EST]]>
/Somers_Sir_George_1554-1610 Tue, 31 Dec 2013 13:20:05 EST <![CDATA[Somers, Sir George (1554–1610)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Somers_Sir_George_1554-1610 Sir George Somers was an English privateer and sea captain who served as admiral of a large resupply voyage to Jamestown in 1609; his ship the Sea Venture was wrecked and its passengers stranded for almost ten months on the islands of Bermuda. A native of Dorset, in the southwest of England, Somers preyed on Spanish shipping in the West Indies during his early years, earning enough money to buy land and build a nice home near his native town of Lyme Regis. Described as being "a lion at sea," he was knighted by King James I in 1603, and in 1606 was named in the Virginia Company of London's royal charter to settle Virginia. In 1609, Somers sailed on the Sea Venture, the resupply fleet's flagship that was shipwrecked in the Bermudas. There, despite disagreements with the governor, Sir Thomas Gates, Somers helped lead the castaways in their return to Virginia in May 1610. A few weeks later, a new governor, Thomas West, baron De La Warr, ordered Somers back to Bermuda to gather supplies. He died there early in November. His nephew Matthew Somers buried his heart and entrails in Bermuda—soon after named the Somers Islands—before returning the rest of his body to England for burial.
Tue, 31 Dec 2013 13:20:05 EST]]>
/Mundus_novus_1503 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:13:31 EST <![CDATA[Mundus novus (1503)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mundus_novus_1503 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:13:31 EST]]> /Culpeper_Thomas_second_baron_Culpeper_of_Thoresway_1635-1689 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:09:58 EST <![CDATA[Culpeper, Thomas, second baron Culpeper of Thoresway (1635–1689)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Culpeper_Thomas_second_baron_Culpeper_of_Thoresway_1635-1689 Thomas Culpeper, second baron Culpeper of Thoresway, was a governor of Virginia (1677–1683) and a proprietor of the Northern Neck. In 1649, the soon-to-be-exiled King Charles II granted Culpeper's father and six others ownership of the Northern Neck in Virginia but in the end was not able to make good on the gift. In the meantime, the younger Culpeper served the king as governor of the Isle of Wight and vice president of the Council for Foreign Plantations. In 1681, Culpeper, who already had permission from the king to collect rents from the Northern Neck, secured five-sixths ownership of the land, a claim he was forced to surrender when the Virginia colonists protested. Culpeper became the colony's governor in 1677 but was content to do so absentee until late in 1679, when Charles II forced him to sail to Virginia. There, he acted on the king's instructions by curtailing the power of the General Assembly, authorizing a series of regular taxes, including on tobacco exports, and, generally, clarifying the colony's subordinate relationship with England. Culpeper left Virginia in economic crisis and was replaced in 1683, but he continued to purchase land, and renewed his Northern Neck claim in 1688. The proprietary eventually descended to the family of his son-in-law, Thomas Fairfax, fifth baron Fairfax of Cameron. After supporting William of Orange during the Glorious Revolution (1688), Culpeper died in 1689.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:09:58 EST]]>
/Batte_Thomas_fl_1630s-1690s Mon, 08 Jul 2013 15:25:04 EST <![CDATA[Batte, Thomas (fl. 1630s–1690s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Batte_Thomas_fl_1630s-1690s Mon, 08 Jul 2013 15:25:04 EST]]> /Ambler_James_M_1848-1881 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:22:24 EST <![CDATA[Ambler, James M. (1848–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ambler_James_M_1848-1881 James M. Ambler was a Confederate cavalryman during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and, after the war, a United States Navy surgeon. Ambler graduated from medical school in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1870 and joined the Navy, serving on various ships and at the Norfolk Naval Hospital. In 1878, he reluctantly volunteered for service with an Arctic expedition aboard the Jeannette, a ship commanded by George W. De Long. The ship became imprisoned by ice late in 1879, and Ambler did well to keep the crew not only alive but relatively healthy. Still adrift in June 1881, the Jeannette struck ice, which crushed its wooden hull. While a few of the crew's thirty-three men survived, many froze to death, drowned, or starved, including Ambler, who died with De Long sometime around October 30, 1881.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:22:24 EST]]>
/Ralph_Lane_on_the_Killing_of_Pemisapan_an_excerpt_from_An_account_of_the_particularities_of_the_imployments_of_the_English_men_left_in_Virginia_1589 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 11:44:42 EST <![CDATA[Ralph Lane on the Killing of Pemisapan; an excerpt from "An account of the particularities of the imployments of the English men left in Virginia" (1589)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ralph_Lane_on_the_Killing_of_Pemisapan_an_excerpt_from_An_account_of_the_particularities_of_the_imployments_of_the_English_men_left_in_Virginia_1589 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 11:44:42 EST]]> /_All_the_knowen_Seas_an_excerpt_from_The_Principall_Navigations_Voiages_and_Discoveries_of_the_English_Nation_by_Richard_Hakluyt_the_younger_1589 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 08:55:09 EST <![CDATA["All the knowen Seas"; an excerpt from The Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation by Richard Hakluyt (the younger) (1589)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_All_the_knowen_Seas_an_excerpt_from_The_Principall_Navigations_Voiages_and_Discoveries_of_the_English_Nation_by_Richard_Hakluyt_the_younger_1589 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 08:55:09 EST]]> /Letter_from_Antonio_de_Abalia_to_the_Council_of_Indies_October_23_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:54:11 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Antonio de Abalia to the Council of Indies (October 23, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Antonio_de_Abalia_to_the_Council_of_Indies_October_23_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:54:11 EST]]> /La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_25_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:52:19 EST <![CDATA[La Trinidad Expedition Log (August 25, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_25_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:52:19 EST]]> /La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_24_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:50:30 EST <![CDATA[La Trinidad Expedition Log (August 24, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_24_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:50:30 EST]]> /La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_14_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:48:50 EST <![CDATA[La Trinidad Expedition Log (August 14, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_14_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:48:50 EST]]> /List_of_People_on_La_Trinidad_Expedition_August_1_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:46:39 EST <![CDATA[List of People on La Trinidad Expedition (August 1, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/List_of_People_on_La_Trinidad_Expedition_August_1_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:46:39 EST]]> /Instructions_from_Pedro_Menendez_de_Aviles_to_Pedro_de_Coronas_et_al_August_1_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:42:42 EST <![CDATA[Instructions from Pedro Menéndez de Avilés to Pedro de Coronas, et al. (August 1, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Instructions_from_Pedro_Menendez_de_Aviles_to_Pedro_de_Coronas_et_al_August_1_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:42:42 EST]]> /Account_of_the_Lottery_in_Leicester_by_Rogert_Hawfeilde_June_12_1618 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:57:29 EST <![CDATA[Account of the Lottery in Leicester by Rogert Hawfeilde (June 12, 1618)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Account_of_the_Lottery_in_Leicester_by_Rogert_Hawfeilde_June_12_1618 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:57:29 EST]]> /Relation_of_Juan_de_la_Carrera_March_1_1600 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:50:32 EST <![CDATA[Relation of Juan de la Carrera (March 1, 1600)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Relation_of_Juan_de_la_Carrera_March_1_1600 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:50:32 EST]]> /Newes_from_Virginia_The_lost_Flocke_Triumphant_by_Lord_Robert_Rich_1610 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:29:03 EST <![CDATA[Newes from Virginia. The lost Flocke Triumphant by Lord Robert Rich (1610)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Newes_from_Virginia_The_lost_Flocke_Triumphant_by_Lord_Robert_Rich_1610 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:29:03 EST]]> /The_Story_of_Guillaume_Rouffi_an_excerpt_from_Relacion_e_informacion_de_los_Franceses_by_Hernando_de_Manrique_de_Rojas_July_9_1564 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 12:48:49 EST <![CDATA[The Story of Guillaume Rouffi; an excerpt from Relación e información de los Franceses by Hernando de Manrique de Rojas (July 9, 1564)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Story_of_Guillaume_Rouffi_an_excerpt_from_Relacion_e_informacion_de_los_Franceses_by_Hernando_de_Manrique_de_Rojas_July_9_1564 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 12:48:49 EST]]> /A_true_and_sincere_declaration_of_the_purpose_and_ends_of_the_plantation_begun_in_Virginia_by_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_1609 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 12:40:41 EST <![CDATA[A true and sincere declaration of the purpose and ends of the plantation begun in Virginia by the Virginia Company of London (1609)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_true_and_sincere_declaration_of_the_purpose_and_ends_of_the_plantation_begun_in_Virginia_by_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_1609 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 12:40:41 EST]]> /The_Story_of_Marguerite_de_La_Roque_an_excerpt_from_The_Heptameron_of_Margaret_Queen_of_Navarre_by_Marguerite_de_Navarre_1558 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:47:49 EST <![CDATA[The Story of Marguerite de La Roque; an excerpt from The Heptameron of Margaret, Queen of Navarre by Marguerite de Navarre (1558)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Story_of_Marguerite_de_La_Roque_an_excerpt_from_The_Heptameron_of_Margaret_Queen_of_Navarre_by_Marguerite_de_Navarre_1558 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:47:49 EST]]> /_The_natives_are_white_men_an_excerpt_from_De_Orbe_Novo_by_Peter_Martyr_d_Anghiera_1530 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:40:57 EST <![CDATA["The natives are white men"; an excerpt from De Orbe Novo by Peter Martyr d'Anghiera (1530)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_natives_are_white_men_an_excerpt_from_De_Orbe_Novo_by_Peter_Martyr_d_Anghiera_1530 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:40:57 EST]]> /Letter_from_the_Council_of_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_to_the_Mayor_and_Aldermen_of_the_City_of_Norwich_December_4_1617 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:37:40 EST <![CDATA[Letter from the Council of the Virginia Company of London to the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Norwich (December 4, 1617)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_the_Council_of_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_to_the_Mayor_and_Aldermen_of_the_City_of_Norwich_December_4_1617 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:37:40 EST]]> /The_Black_Legend_an_excerpt_from_A_Brief_Account_of_the_Destruction_of_the_Indies_by_Bartolome_de_las_Casas_1552 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:53:22 EST <![CDATA[The Black Legend; an excerpt from A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies by Bartolomé de las Casas (1552)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Black_Legend_an_excerpt_from_A_Brief_Account_of_the_Destruction_of_the_Indies_by_Bartolome_de_las_Casas_1552 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:53:22 EST]]> /Petition_from_Alderman_Johnson_et_al_to_King_James_I_April_1623 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:43:47 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Alderman Johnson, et al., to King James I (April 1623)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Alderman_Johnson_et_al_to_King_James_I_April_1623 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:43:47 EST]]> /The_Story_of_Juan_Ortiz_an_excerpt_fromThe_Discovery_and_Conquest_of_Terra_Floridaby_a_Gentleman_of_Elvas_1557 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:33:27 EST <![CDATA[The Story of Juan Ortiz; an excerpt from The Discovery and Conquest of Terra Florida by a Gentleman of Elvas (1557)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Story_of_Juan_Ortiz_an_excerpt_fromThe_Discovery_and_Conquest_of_Terra_Floridaby_a_Gentleman_of_Elvas_1557 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:33:27 EST]]> /Inter_caetera_by_Pope_Alexander_VI_May_4_1493 Wed, 20 Mar 2013 14:56:28 EST <![CDATA[Inter caetera by Pope Alexander VI (May 4, 1493)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Inter_caetera_by_Pope_Alexander_VI_May_4_1493 Wed, 20 Mar 2013 14:56:28 EST]]> /El_Requerimiento_by_Juan_Lopez_de_Palacios_Rubios_1513 Mon, 18 Mar 2013 14:37:54 EST <![CDATA[El Requerimiento by Juan López de Palacios Rubios (1513)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/El_Requerimiento_by_Juan_Lopez_de_Palacios_Rubios_1513 Mon, 18 Mar 2013 14:37:54 EST]]> /Thomas_Harriot_on_the_Diseases_that_Ravaged_Indian_Towns_an_excerpt_from_A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_1588 Thu, 10 Jan 2013 10:56:23 EST <![CDATA[Diseases that Ravaged Indian Towns; an excerpt from A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia by Thomas Hariot (1588)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Harriot_on_the_Diseases_that_Ravaged_Indian_Towns_an_excerpt_from_A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_1588 Thu, 10 Jan 2013 10:56:23 EST]]> /Thomas_Harriot_on_the_Indians_of_Ossomocomuck_an_excerpt_from_A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_1588 Thu, 10 Jan 2013 09:34:21 EST <![CDATA[The Indians of Ossomocomuck; an excerpt from A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia by Thomas Hariot (1588)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Harriot_on_the_Indians_of_Ossomocomuck_an_excerpt_from_A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_1588 Thu, 10 Jan 2013 09:34:21 EST]]> /Meeting_Granganimeo_an_excerpt_from_The_first_voyage_made_to_the_coasts_of_America_by_Arthur_Barlowe_1589 Wed, 09 Jan 2013 16:08:43 EST <![CDATA[Meeting Granganimeo; an excerpt from "The first voyage made to the coasts of America" by Arthur Barlowe (1589)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meeting_Granganimeo_an_excerpt_from_The_first_voyage_made_to_the_coasts_of_America_by_Arthur_Barlowe_1589 Wed, 09 Jan 2013 16:08:43 EST]]> /Roanoke_Colonists_Appeal_to_John_White_an_excerpt_from_The_voyage_of_Edward_Stafford_and_John_White_by_John_White_1589 Tue, 18 Dec 2012 12:20:52 EST <![CDATA[Roanoke Colonists' Appeal to John White; an excerpt from "The voyage of Edward Stafford and John White" by John White (1589)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Roanoke_Colonists_Appeal_to_John_White_an_excerpt_from_The_voyage_of_Edward_Stafford_and_John_White_by_John_White_1589 Tue, 18 Dec 2012 12:20:52 EST]]> /John_White_s_Change_of_Plans_an_excerpt_from_The_voyage_of_Edward_Stafford_and_John_White_by_John_White_1589 Tue, 18 Dec 2012 12:08:39 EST <![CDATA[John White's Change of Plans; an excerpt from "The voyage of Edward Stafford and John White" by John White (1589)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_White_s_Change_of_Plans_an_excerpt_from_The_voyage_of_Edward_Stafford_and_John_White_by_John_White_1589 Tue, 18 Dec 2012 12:08:39 EST]]> /Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Observations_gathered_out_of_a_Discourse_of_the_Plantation_of_the_Southerne_Colonie_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy_1625 Thu, 13 Dec 2012 10:22:27 EST <![CDATA[Arriving in Virginia; an excerpt from "Observations gathered out of a Discourse of the Plantation of the Southerne Colonie in Virginia" by George Percy (1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Observations_gathered_out_of_a_Discourse_of_the_Plantation_of_the_Southerne_Colonie_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy_1625 Thu, 13 Dec 2012 10:22:27 EST]]> /The_Dying_Time_an_excerpt_from_Observations_gathered_out_of_a_Discourse_of_the_Plantation_of_the_Southerne_Colonie_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 16:00:52 EST <![CDATA[The Dying Time; an excerpt from "Observations gathered out of a Discourse of the Plantation of the Southerne Colonie in Virginia" by George Percy (1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Dying_Time_an_excerpt_from_Observations_gathered_out_of_a_Discourse_of_the_Plantation_of_the_Southerne_Colonie_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 16:00:52 EST]]> /The_Deliverance_and_the_Patience_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 11:34:10 EST <![CDATA[TheDeliverance and the Patience; an excerpt from A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates Knight by William Strachey (1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Deliverance_and_the_Patience_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 11:34:10 EST]]> /Life_and_Death_on_Bermuda_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 11:13:54 EST <![CDATA[Life and Death on Bermuda; an excerpt from A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates Knight by William Strachey (1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Life_and_Death_on_Bermuda_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 11:13:54 EST]]> /Conspiracies_on_Bermuda_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 10:56:19 EST <![CDATA[Conspiracies on Bermuda; an excerpt from A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates Knight by William Strachey (1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Conspiracies_on_Bermuda_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 10:56:19 EST]]> /_The_dangerous_and_dreaded_Iland_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 10:42:51 EST <![CDATA["The dangerous and dreaded Iland"; an excerpt from A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates Knight by William Strachey (1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_dangerous_and_dreaded_Iland_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 10:42:51 EST]]> /Sea_Venture Thu, 06 Dec 2012 01:40:51 EST <![CDATA[Sea Venture]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sea_Venture The Sea Venture was the flagship of a convoy sent from England in June 1609 to re-supply and revive the failing colony at Jamestown. On July 24, just off the coast of the uninhabited island chain of Bermuda, the fleet sailed into a hurricane. The storm separated the flagship from the other vessels and left it gravely damaged. The 150 passengers and crew members, including Christopher Newport, the ship's captain, and the colony's intended new leaders, escaped death at sea but found themselves marooned on Bermuda. Before the ship sank, crewmen salvaged many of their supplies and even the rigging. For ten months the castaways remained on Bermuda, while their countrymen in Virginia and England assumed them dead. During that time, they built two small boats, which they named the Patience and the Deliverance, and sailed to Virginia, arriving on May 24, 1610. Word of their odyssey fascinated English men and women, who saw in the story providential design: surely, many concluded, God had saved the Sea Venture voyagers. The tale also attracted London's leading playwright: the Sea Venture contributed to the inspiration behind William Shakespeare's last major play, The Tempest. Most importantly for the still-floundering Virginia colony, the amazing story encouraged the English to stick with their American enterprise and even expand their colonial presence in North America.
Thu, 06 Dec 2012 01:40:51 EST]]>
/Meriwether_Lewis_s_Report_to_Thomas_Jefferson_April_7_1805 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 15:20:34 EST <![CDATA[Meriwether Lewis's Report to Thomas Jefferson (April 7, 1805)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meriwether_Lewis_s_Report_to_Thomas_Jefferson_April_7_1805 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 15:20:34 EST]]> /Thomas_Jefferson_s_Instructions_to_Meriwether_Lewis_June_20_1803 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:00:29 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Jefferson's Instructions to Meriwether Lewis (June 20, 1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Jefferson_s_Instructions_to_Meriwether_Lewis_June_20_1803 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:00:29 EST]]> /Journal_Entry_by_William_Clark_November_7_1805 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 15:55:06 EST <![CDATA[Journal Entry by William Clark (November 7, 1805)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Journal_Entry_by_William_Clark_November_7_1805 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 15:55:06 EST]]> /Meriwether_Lewis_s_Journal_Entries_August_12-13_1805 Wed, 24 Oct 2012 10:02:08 EST <![CDATA[Meriwether Lewis's Journal Entries (August 12–13, 1805)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meriwether_Lewis_s_Journal_Entries_August_12-13_1805 Wed, 24 Oct 2012 10:02:08 EST]]> /ZA Wed, 15 Aug 2012 15:09:05 EST <![CDATA[Zúñiga Chart]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/ZA The Zúñiga chart, a manuscript map of the Chesapeake Bay and Tidewater Virginia, is a copy of a map that was probably originally drawn by Captain John Smith, one of the Jamestown colonists. Named for Don Pedro de Zúñiga, a Spanish ambassador to England, who sent it to King Philip III of Spain in September 1608, the chart is significant for its insight into the locations of Indian villages, the location of Jamestown and the architecture of James Fort, and the concerns and priorities of the English colonists.
Wed, 15 Aug 2012 15:09:05 EST]]>
/Sir_Walter_Raleigh_s_Patent_to_Settle_Virginia_1584 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 15:27:38 EST <![CDATA[Sir Walter Raleigh's Patent to Settle Virginia (1584)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sir_Walter_Raleigh_s_Patent_to_Settle_Virginia_1584 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 15:27:38 EST]]> /Instructions_from_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_to_the_First_Settlers_1606 Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:24:30 EST <![CDATA[Instructions from the Virginia Company of London to the First Settlers (1606)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Instructions_from_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_to_the_First_Settlers_1606 In these instructions, dated November 1606, the Virginia Company of London informs the men who would settle what became Jamestown of its priorities once they land. In particular, the company suggests how to look for a Northwest Passage, how to search for gold, and how to treat the Virginia Indians, whom it calls "naturals." Captain Christopher Newport and Bartholomew Gosnold are mentioned by name. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:24:30 EST]]>
/Letter_from_the_Council_in_Virginia_to_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_1607 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:40:01 EST <![CDATA[Letter from the Council in Virginia to the Virginia Company of London (1607)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_the_Council_in_Virginia_to_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_1607 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:40:01 EST]]> /_In_wishing_him_well_he_killed_him_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Juan_Rogel_ca_1611 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:56:15 EST <![CDATA["In wishing him well, he killed him"; excerpt from Relation of Juan Rogel (ca. 1611)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_In_wishing_him_well_he_killed_him_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Juan_Rogel_ca_1611 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:56:15 EST]]> /Fry-Jefferson_Map_of_Virginia Wed, 18 Jan 2012 11:31:16 EST <![CDATA[Fry-Jefferson Map of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fry-Jefferson_Map_of_Virginia The Fry-Jefferson map, first published in 1753, was the definitive map of Virginia in the eighteenth century. Created by two of the colony's most accomplished surveyors, Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson, A Map of the Inhabited Part of Virginia containing the whole Province of Maryland, with Part of Pensilvania, New Jersey and North Carolina included their completed border survey for the western bounds of the Northern Neck and a portion of the Virginia–North Carolina dividing line. For the first time the entire Virginia river system was properly delineated, and the northeast-southwest orientation of the Appalachian Mountains was fully displayed. Published in eight known editions, or states, the map was widely copied, and served as an important resource for mapmakers like Lewis Evans and John Mitchell, whose Map of the British and French Dominions in North America (1755) was used to determine the boundaries of the United States as established in the Treaty of Paris (1783). John Henry also relied heavily on the Fry-Jefferson map as he plotted county boundaries in his New and Accurate Map of Virginia (1770), and Thomas Jefferson, Peter Jefferson's son, used his father's map to compile A Map of the country between Albemarle Sounds, and Lake Erie, which accompanied his Notes on the State of Virginia (written 1781).
Wed, 18 Jan 2012 11:31:16 EST]]>
/A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Hariot_1588 Wed, 18 Jan 2012 11:30:02 EST <![CDATA[A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia (1588)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Hariot_1588 A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia, by Thomas Hariot, was the first book about North America to be produced by an Englishman who had actually visited the continent. First published in 1588 and reprinted first by Richard Hakluyt (the younger) and then by Theodor de Bry, Hariot's report documented his trip to Roanoke Island off the Outer Banks of present-day North Carolina from 1585 to 1586. With its descriptions of the region's flora and fauna, along with the Native Americans who lived there, A briefe and true report came to be one of the most important texts produced in relation to the beginnings of English settlement in the Americas. The de Bry editions included engravings of images by John White, who had accompanied Hariot and the 600 other colonists. Together, Hariot's text and White's images played a crucial role in encouraging English investors to continue their colonial endeavors in the New World, and thus led directly to the beginnings of English settlement in Virginia.
Wed, 18 Jan 2012 11:30:02 EST]]>
/The_First_Anglo-Powhatan_War_Begins_an_excerpt_from_A_Trewe_Relacyon_of_the_procedeings_and_ocurrentes_of_Momente_which_have_hapned_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy Mon, 07 Nov 2011 14:23:11 EST <![CDATA[The First Anglo-Powhatan War Begins; an excerpt from "A Trewe Relacyon of the procedeings and ocurrentes of Momente which have hapned in Virginia" by George Percy]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_First_Anglo-Powhatan_War_Begins_an_excerpt_from_A_Trewe_Relacyon_of_the_procedeings_and_ocurrentes_of_Momente_which_have_hapned_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy Mon, 07 Nov 2011 14:23:11 EST]]>