Encyclopedia Virginia: Colonial History (ca. 1560–1763) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Wythe_George_1726_or_1727-1806 Tue, 12 Dec 2017 11:33:56 EST Wythe, George (1726 or 1727–1806) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wythe_George_1726_or_1727-1806 Tue, 12 Dec 2017 11:33:56 EST]]> /Ambler_Richard_1690-ca_1766 Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:31:11 EST <![CDATA[Ambler, Richard (1690–ca. 1766)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ambler_Richard_1690-ca_1766 Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:31:11 EST]]> /Rind_Clementina_d_1774 Mon, 27 Nov 2017 13:51:40 EST <![CDATA[Rind, Clementina (d. 1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rind_Clementina_d_1774 Clementina Rind was a public printer for Virginia and publisher from August 1773 to September 1774 of one of two Virginia Gazettes printedin Williamsburg. Born about 1740, she married the Maryland printer William Rind after 1762 and they moved to Williamsburg later in 1765 or early in 1766. There, in May 1766, William Rind established the Virginia Gazette in direct competition to a paper of the same name published by Alexander Purdie and John Dixon. He soon also became the colony's public printer, publishing all of the government's official documents. Rind died in 1773 and Clementina Rind took over the newspaper and won appointment to succeed her husband as public printer. She managed the business well and supplemented her income by printing other material, such as Thomas Jefferson's tract A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774). Although nonpartisan, her Virginia Gazette included news that suggested solidarity with the patriot cause in the years before the American Revolution (1775–1783). She died in Williamsburg in 1774.
Mon, 27 Nov 2017 13:51:40 EST]]>
/Stratford_Hall Tue, 21 Nov 2017 14:25:40 EST <![CDATA[Stratford Hall]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Stratford_Hall Stratford Hall is a 1,500-acre plantation located in Westmoreland County on the Potomac River. The politician and planter Thomas Lee purchased the land for Stratford in 1717; although no records exist to indicate when the house was built, construction likely began in 1738 and was completed sometime in the 1740s. The plantation was home to two signers of the Declaration of Independence—Richard Henry Lee and Francis Lightfoot Lee—and was the birthplace of the Confederate general Robert E. Lee. Thomas Lee's descendants lived at Stratford until the 1820s, when Henry Lee IV sold the plantation to cover his debts. Since 1929, the Robert E. Lee Memorial Association, or RELMA, has owned Stratford Hall.
Tue, 21 Nov 2017 14:25:40 EST]]>
/Free_Blacks_in_Colonial_Virginia Thu, 26 Oct 2017 09:18:09 EST <![CDATA[Free Blacks in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Free_Blacks_in_Colonial_Virginia Thu, 26 Oct 2017 09:18:09 EST]]> /Ambler_Jaquelin_1742-1798 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:21:50 EST <![CDATA[Ambler, Jaquelin (1742–1798)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ambler_Jaquelin_1742-1798 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:21:50 EST]]> /Colonial_Virginia Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST <![CDATA[Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colonial_Virginia The colonial period in Virginia began in 1607 with the landing of the first English settlers at Jamestown and ended in 1776 with the establishment of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although a thriving Indian society had existed for thousands of years before the English arrived, war with the European settlers and the introduction of new diseases for which the Indians had no resistance spelled disaster for it. The English colonists, meanwhile, just barely survived, suffering through summer droughts and winter starvation. Salvation came to the colony in the form of smoking tobacco, or what King James I called a "vile and stinking custom," when John Rolfe cultivated a variety of tobacco that sold well in England. In 1619, a General Assembly convened, bringing limited self-government to America. That same year brought the first slaves to Virginia. For most of the 1600s, white indentured servants worked the colony's tobacco fields, but by 1705 the Virginia colony had become a slave society. Nearly all power was in the hands of white male landowners, who ran the government and, by law, belonged to the Church of England. Women who married and worked at home were considered "good wives"; those who refused such "proper" roles were considered troublesome. And while Virginia's ruling men did not encourage women to be independent, they nevertheless fought for their own independence, taking full part in the American Revolution (1775–1783).
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST]]>
/Washington_George_and_Slavery Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:50:15 EST <![CDATA[Washington, George and Slavery]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_George_and_Slavery George Washington owned enslaved people from age eleven until his death, when his will promised his slaves freedom. His actions and private statements suggest a long evolution in his stance on slavery, based on experience and a possible awakening of conscience. Born in 1732, Washington came of age in a time when large-scale tobacco planting, carried out by enslaved labor, dominated the economy and society of colonial Virginia. Washington made no official public statements on slavery or emancipation as a Virginia legislator, as a military officer, or as president of the United States. As a young man he acted as most of his slaveholding peers did—making full and lawful use of slave labor, buying and selling slaves, and even raffling off a debtor's slaves, including children, to recoup a loan. His marriage brought many slaves under his control, but he did not legally own these "dower" slaves. After the American Revolution (1775–1783) his private statements became more in line with abolitionist goals than with the economic and political positions of his Virginia peers, until he reached the point, around 1789, when his "regret" over slavery grew so strong that he eventually rewrote his will with provisions to free slaves. Washington was the only southern Founding Father to free all his slaves.
Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:50:15 EST]]>
/George_Washington_1732-1799 Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:45:05 EST <![CDATA[Washington, George (1732–1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_Washington_1732-1799 George Washington served as commander in chief of the Continental army during the American Revolution (1775–1783), as president of the United States Constitutional Convention (1787), and as first president of the United States (1789–1797). Born to a family of middling wealth, Washington's formal education ended when he was about fifteen. Thanks to his half-brother's marriage into the wealthy Fairfax family, Washington acquired social polish, a taste for aristocratic living, and connections to Virginia's political elite. Long months on the frontier as a surveyor toughened the young Washington, preparing him for service in Virginia's militia during the French and Indian War (1754–1763). He held positions of command at a remarkably young age. Marriage to Martha Custis brought him great wealth. Increasingly restive under British taxation and trade restrictions, Washington took a leading role in the nascent revolutionary movement after British regulars killed colonists and seized private property at the battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts in April 1775. As commander in chief, he led American forces for the entire eight-year war, losing more battles than he won but managing to keep the army together under the most difficult circumstances. By the middle of the war, he was already hailed as the "Father of His Country." His enormous prestige after the war led to his being chosen to lead the Constitutional Convention and to his election as first president.
Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:45:05 EST]]>
/Slave_Literacy_and_Education_in_Virginia Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:59:20 EST <![CDATA[Slave Literacy and Education in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Literacy_and_Education_in_Virginia Many enslaved African Americans in Virginia learned to read and write, either on their own or at the behest of their masters. As many as 5 percent of slaves may have been literate by the start of the American Revolution (1775–1783), their educations often tied to religious instruction. Many slaveholders viewed Christian teaching as their duty, and converts to the Church of England were required to be literate enough to read a catechism. The Anglican bishop Edmund Gibson and the minister Dr. Thomas Bray both promoted slave education in America with the Associates of Dr. Bray founding a number of schools, including in Williamsburg and Fredericksburg. Virginia law never explicitly prohibited the education of slaves, but in the years after Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800), the General Assembly made it more difficult. Elite whites worried that slaves who could read and write could travel through white society more easily and be exposed to ideas of freedom, making them more inclined to rebel. The gathering of slaves for the purpose of education was prohibited, so individuals stole away to learn on their own, often at great personal risk. During the antebellum period, the percentage of literate slaves had doubled to 10 percent. The laws became even stricter after Nat Turner's Revolt in 1831—Turner was a literate preacher—but during and after the American Civil War (1861–1865) freedpeople quickly established their own schools. Literacy rates rose to 30 percent and then, by 1910, to as high as 70 percent.
Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:59:20 EST]]>
/Smythe_Sir_Thomas_ca_1558-1625 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:26:41 EST <![CDATA[Smythe, Sir Thomas (ca. 1558–1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smythe_Sir_Thomas_ca_1558-1625 Sir Thomas Smythe was an English merchant who served as the first of three treasurers of the Virginia Company of London. Although his surname is sometimes rendered Smith, he always spelled it Smythe. Like his father, he was a successful haberdasher and investor in trading companies, including the East India Company. He was briefly imprisoned after a rebellion against Queen Elizabeth I, but was knighted by King James I in 1603 and appointed royal ambassador to Russia. In 1609, in conjunction with the company's second charter, he became treasurer (essentially chairperson) of the Virginia Company of London, a joint-stock company that funded the English colony at Jamestown. Smythe's administration was tumultuous and ended with the election of his rival Sir Edwin Sandys as treasurer in 1619. Four years later the Crown opened an investigation into the company for mismanagement and in 1624 revoked its charter. Smythe died in Kent in 1625.
Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:26:41 EST]]>
/Virginia_s_First_Africans Wed, 05 Jul 2017 09:45:01 EST <![CDATA[Africans, Virginia's First]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_s_First_Africans Virginia's first Africans arrived at Point Comfort, on the James River, late in August 1619. There, "20. and odd Negroes" from the English ship White Lion were sold in exchange for food and some were transported to Jamestown, where they were sold again, likely into slavery. Historians have long believed these Africans to have come to Virginia from the Caribbean, but Spanish records suggest they had been captured in a Spanish-controlled area of West Central Africa. They probably were Kimbundu-speaking people, and many of them may have had at least some knowledge of Catholicism. While aboard the São João Bautista bound for Mexico, they were stolen by the White Lion and another English ship, the Treasurer. Once in Virginia, they were dispersed throughout the colony. The number of Virginia's Africans increased to thirty-two by 1620, but then dropped sharply by 1624, likely because of the effects of disease and the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632). Evidence suggests that many were baptized and took Christian names, and some, like Anthony and Mary Johnson, won their freedom and bought land. By 1628, after a shipload of about 100 Angolans was sold in Virginia, the Africans' population jumped dramatically.
Wed, 05 Jul 2017 09:45:01 EST]]>
/Bluett_Benjamin_1580-1621 Fri, 12 May 2017 09:47:48 EST <![CDATA[Bluett, Benjamin (1580–1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bluett_Benjamin_1580-1621 Fri, 12 May 2017 09:47:48 EST]]> /Carter_Robert_1728-1804 Fri, 05 May 2017 11:32:43 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Robert (1728–1804)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Robert_1728-1804 Robert Carter, also known as Robert Carter III and Councillor Carter, was a member of Virginia's Council of State (1758–1776) who, after a religious conversion, emancipated more than five hundred of his enslaved African Americans. Heir to a fortune in land and slaves built by his grandfather, Robert "King" Carter, Carter studied law in London before returning to Virginia in 1751. His contemporaries remarked on his lack of learning and social grace, and he twice ran unsuccessfully for the House of Burgesses, receiving only a handful of votes each time. Through the influence of his wife's uncle, Carter was appointed to the Council. In 1763, he served on the Virginia Committee of Correspondence, and in 1766 drafted the Council's response to the Stamp Act. In 1777, he converted to evangelical Christianity, aligning himself with the Baptists. In 1788, he converted again, this time to the teachings of the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg. On August 1, 1791, he took the legal steps to gradually manumit, or free, more than 500 of his slaves, the largest individual emancipation before 1860. After the death of his wife, Carter moved to Baltimore, Maryland, where he died in 1804.
Fri, 05 May 2017 11:32:43 EST]]>
/Carter_Charles_1732-1806 Wed, 19 Apr 2017 17:48:12 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Charles (1732–1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Charles_1732-1806 Charles Carter, a planter and member-elect of the Council of State, spent much of his adulthood managing Corotoman, the Lancaster County plantation he inherited from his father, John Carter. Later he inherited Shirley Plantation in Charles City County and relocated there after renovating its main house. He was a successful and wealthy planter and entrepreneur, owning more than 13,000 acres of land in thirteen counties at his death. Carter served as a member of the House of Burgesses from 1758 until the American Revolution (1775–1783). Carter supported the reaction against greater parliamentary regulation of colonial affairs and sat in the four Revolutionary Conventions that met in 1774 and 1775. Despite these efforts, he declined a seat on the Council of State in the new commonwealth of Virginia. He died in 1806.
Wed, 19 Apr 2017 17:48:12 EST]]>
/Buchanan_John_1748-1822 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:47:08 EST <![CDATA[Buchanan, John (1748–1822)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Buchanan_John_1748-1822 John Buchanan was an Episcopal clergyman who served as the rector of Henrico Parish (1785–1822) and the treasurer of the Diocese of Virginia (1793–1822). Born in Scotland, he may have attended university there and received his license to minister in Virginia in 1775. A decade later he became rector of Henrico Parish and, after inheriting a large estate from his half brother, lived an easy and social life. Buchanan, who preached at Saint John's Church in Richmond, was famously close friends with the Presbyterian minister John D. Blair, and after the Richmond Theatre fire in 1811 the two helped raise money for the construction of Monumental Church on the site of the disaster. While they may have intended to share the church, the Episcopalians appropriated it for themselves. Buchanan died in 1822.
Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:47:08 EST]]>
/Beverley_William_ca_1696-1756 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:53:15 EST <![CDATA[Beverley, William (ca. 1696–1756)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beverley_William_ca_1696-1756 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:53:15 EST]]> /Beverley_Robert_ca_1740-1800 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:37:06 EST <![CDATA[Beverley, Robert (ca. 1740–1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beverley_Robert_ca_1740-1800 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:37:06 EST]]> /Abrahall_Robert_fl_1620s-1680s Wed, 29 Mar 2017 10:08:32 EST <![CDATA[Abrahall, Robert (fl. 1620s–1680s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Abrahall_Robert_fl_1620s-1680s Wed, 29 Mar 2017 10:08:32 EST]]> /Godwyn_Preface_and_Introduction_from_The_Negro_s_and_Indians_Advocate_by_Morgan_1680 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:18:01 EST <![CDATA[Godwyn, Preface and Introduction from The Negro's and Indians Advocate by Morgan (1680)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Godwyn_Preface_and_Introduction_from_The_Negro_s_and_Indians_Advocate_by_Morgan_1680 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:18:01 EST]]> /Harvey_Sir_John_ca_1581_or_1582-by_1650 Mon, 13 Mar 2017 13:16:22 EST <![CDATA[Harvey, Sir John (ca. 1581 or 1582–by 1650)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harvey_Sir_John_ca_1581_or_1582-by_1650 Mon, 13 Mar 2017 13:16:22 EST]]> /_Letter_from_Virginia_Slaves_to_Bishop_Edmund_Gibson_August_4_September_8_1723 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:53:23 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Virginia Slaves to Bishop Edmund Gibson (August 4, September 8, 1723)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Letter_from_Virginia_Slaves_to_Bishop_Edmund_Gibson_August_4_September_8_1723 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:53:23 EST]]> /Blair_John_ca_1687-1771 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:59:09 EST <![CDATA[Blair, John (ca. 1687–1771)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_John_ca_1687-1771 John Blair sat on the governor's Council (1745–1770), becoming its president in 1757 and serving as acting governor on four occasions. Born in Scotland, he came to Virginia as a child, living in Williamsburg and earning a degree there at the College of William and Mary, founded by his uncle, James Blair. John Blair served as deputy auditor general from 1728 until 1771, reforming and improving the procedures by which the government collected revenue. In addition, he served as York County justice of the peace (1724–1745) and as a naval officer on the James River (1727–1728). Upon the death of his father, Archibald Blair, he joined the House of Burgesses representing Jamestown (1724–1736). In 1736, he was elected as a burgess from Williamsburg, serving until 1740. He is probably the same John Blair who also served as mayor of Williamsburg in 1751. After the governor's death and in ill health himself, Blair resigned from the Council in 1770 rather than serve as acting governor a fifth time. He died in 1771.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:59:09 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Rev_Jonathan_Boucher_to_Rev_John_Waring_March_9_1767 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:31:13 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. Jonathan Boucher to Rev. John Waring (March 9, 1767)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_Jonathan_Boucher_to_Rev_John_Waring_March_9_1767 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:31:13 EST]]> /Associates_of_Dr_Bray Mon, 20 Feb 2017 17:26:26 EST <![CDATA[Associates of Dr. Bray]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Associates_of_Dr_Bray The Associates of Dr. Bray was a philanthropic group founded in 1724 by the English clergyman Thomas Bray to educate enslaved African Americans in the British North American colonies. Educated at Oxford, Bray founded two groups—the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (1699) and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (1701)—charged with spreading literacy and Christianity throughout England and America. A friend's bequest led to the establishment of the Associates of Dr. Bray, dedicated to the religious education of enslaved African Americans in particular. After briefly merging with a group intent on founding a convict colony in Georgia, the Associates concentrated on their primary function. Missions to Georgia and South Carolina failed, but in 1757 Benjamin Franklin suggested that a school be established in Philadelphia. When that succeeded, Franklin recommended that Bray schools be opened in New York; Newport, Rhode Island; and Williamsburg, Virginia. The Williamsburg school operated from 1760 to 1774; it employed a single teacher and was overseen by a number of people, including successive presidents of the College of William and Mary. A similar school opened in Fredericksburg in 1765 and closed five years later due to low enrollment and hostility from local slaveholders. By the second year of the American Revolution (1775–1783), all the Bray schools had closed.
Mon, 20 Feb 2017 17:26:26 EST]]>
/Percy_George_1580-1632_or_1633 Wed, 28 Dec 2016 16:51:13 EST <![CDATA[Percy, George (1580–1632 or 1633)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Percy_George_1580-1632_or_1633 George Percy was one of the original Jamestown settlers and the author of two important primary accounts of the colony. He served as president of the Council (1609–1610) during the Starving Time, and briefly as deputy governor (1611). Born in Sussex, England, to the eighth earl of Northumberland, Percy hailed from a family of Catholic conspirators; his father died while imprisoned in the Tower of London, his uncle was beheaded, and his older brother, the ninth earl of Northumberland, was also imprisoned. While his accounts suggest that Percy was awed by the natural beauty of Virginia, he was nevertheless overwhelmed by the many problems the first colonists faced, including hunger, disease, internal dissention, and often-difficult relations with Virginia Indians. While president of the Council, he and his fellow colonists suffered through the Starving Time, initiated in part by the Indians' siege of Jamestown at the beginning of the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614). Through support from his older brother, Percy seems to have lived in relative comfort, but he also suffered from recurring illness, finally leaving Virginia in 1612. His second account of Jamestown, A Trewe Relacyon , was written in the mid-1620s with the intention of rebutting Captain John Smith's popular version of events in the colony. Percy died in the winter of 1632–1633, leaving no will.
Wed, 28 Dec 2016 16:51:13 EST]]>
/Carter_John_ca_1613-1670 Tue, 27 Dec 2016 14:24:46 EST <![CDATA[Carter, John (ca. 1613–1670)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_John_ca_1613-1670 John Carter was a member of the governor's Council and the House of Burgesses. His family had familial and business connections with the Virginia Company of London, and Carter left England for Virginia during the 1630s. In 1642 he began acquiring the extensive property on the north bank of the Rappahannock River that became the family seat known as Corotoman. Carter married five times and founded one of the greatest of the colonial Virginia families. During the 1640s and 1650s Carter served in the House of Burgesses, which elected him to the governor's Council in 1658. He was again a burgess in 1660, when Charles II was restored to the throne, and Governor Sir William Berkeley reappointed Carter, a royalist, to the Council. He remained a councillor until his death ten years later.
Tue, 27 Dec 2016 14:24:46 EST]]>
/Carter_Edward_d_by_1682 Wed, 21 Dec 2016 15:01:11 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Edward (d. by 1682)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Edward_d_by_1682 Wed, 21 Dec 2016 15:01:11 EST]]> /Lewis_Fielding_1725-1781_or_1782 Tue, 20 Dec 2016 13:32:15 EST <![CDATA[Lewis, Fielding (1725–1781 or 1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_Fielding_1725-1781_or_1782 Fielding Lewis was a merchant, justice of the peace for Spotsylvania County (1749–1781), and member of the House of Burgesses (1760–1769) who helped to found the Fredericksburg Gun Manufactory during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Born at Warner Hall, his family's Gloucester County estate, he moved to Fredericksburg in the 1740s, helping to manage his father's store there. Lewis married George Washington's cousin and, after her death, Washington's sister, serving in the General Assembly and as a justice of the peace. He was known, in particular, for his financial acumen and sometimes advised his brother-in-law on investments. Early in the 1770s Lewis built for his family a large Georgian mansion (later named Kenmore) that was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970. In 1775, the third Revolutionary Convention tasked Lewis and his fellow merchant Charles Dick with establishing a weapons factory in Fredericksburg; by May 1777 the Fredericksburg Gun Manufactory produced about twenty muskets per week. The enterprise cost Lewis £7,000 of his own money, which the state never repaid. He died sometime late in 1781 or early in 1782.
Tue, 20 Dec 2016 13:32:15 EST]]>
/Burwell_Lewis_bap_1622-c_1652 Thu, 01 Dec 2016 16:44:36 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lewis (bap. 1622–ca. 1652)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lewis_bap_1622-c_1652 Thu, 01 Dec 2016 16:44:36 EST]]> /Burwell_Lewis_1651_or_1652-1710 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 16:45:43 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lewis (1651 or 1652–1710)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lewis_1651_or_1652-1710 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 16:45:43 EST]]> /Armistead_John_fl_1650s-1690s Mon, 28 Nov 2016 15:58:01 EST <![CDATA[Armistead, John (fl. 1650s–1690s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Armistead_John_fl_1650s-1690s John Armistead was a member of the governor's Council of Virginia late in the seventeenth century. A planter in Gloucester County, he also entered into several successful business ventures. Becoming active in politics, Armistead sat on the county court and served as sheriff. He opposed the tobacco cutting riots and favored English policies put in place after Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677). Armistead twice represented Gloucester in the House of Burgesses before the governor appointed him to the Council in 1688. Armistead relinquished his seat in 1691 when he refused to take the oaths to the new monarchs William and Mary. Although restored to his place later in the decade, Armistead did not rejoin the Council. His date of death is unknown.
Mon, 28 Nov 2016 15:58:01 EST]]>
/Burwell_Robert_1720-1777 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 14:45:01 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Robert (1720–1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Robert_1720-1777 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 14:45:01 EST]]> /Burwell_Lucy_1683-1716 Tue, 22 Nov 2016 16:12:20 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lucy (1683–1716)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lucy_1683-1716 Lucy Burwell is best known for rejecting the fervent and sometimes menacing courtship of Governor Sir Francis Nicholson. The teenaged daughter of a key Virginia family chose to marry Edmund Berkeley, twelve years her senior, instead of the forty-five-year-old governor. Humiliated by this rejection, Nicholson taunted and threatened the Burwells and their allies among Virginia's elite. These actions, along with his attempted reforms of the colony's politics, led to a petition against Nicholson. Queen Anne ultimately removed him from office. In exercising her prerogative to choose her own husband, Burwell became a symbol of Virginia's opposition to heavy-handed rule. She bore Berkeley at least five children before her death in 1716.
Tue, 22 Nov 2016 16:12:20 EST]]>
/Burwell_Lewis_d_1743 Tue, 22 Nov 2016 15:59:41 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lewis (d. 1743)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lewis_d_1743 Tue, 22 Nov 2016 15:59:41 EST]]> /Jefferson_Thomas_and_Books Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:09:35 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and Books]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Books "I cannot live without books," Thomas Jefferson declared in a letter to John Adams on June 10, 1815. To the man who had authored the Declaration of Independence and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom and founded the University of Virginia, books and reading were "a necessary of life." Jefferson relied on his books as his chief source of inspiration and practical knowledge, and believed that education was the means to an enlightened and informed citizenry that would help preserve democracy. Jefferson owned between 9,000 and 10,000 books in his lifetime—some were inherited from his father, Peter Jefferson, and his mentor, George Wythe; others were acquired in Williamsburg; Washington, D.C.; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; New York City; or Europe. Their subjects included history, philosophy, law, architecture, science and literature. In 1815, Jefferson sold his 6,500-volume library to Congress to replace the one that was destroyed when the British burned the U.S. Capitol on August 24, 1814. He then replenished his personal supply of books by building a smaller collection that reflected his retirement interests. The year before he died, he drew up a catalog of books for the library at the University of Virginia. The list, composed of 6,860 volumes with an estimated total cost of more than $24,000, was the culmination of his lifetime of reading.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:09:35 EST]]>
/Menokin Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:08:24 EST <![CDATA[Menokin]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Menokin Menokin, located in Richmond County, was the home of Francis Lightfoot Lee and his wife, Rebecca Tayloe Lee. Constructed from 1769 to 1771, the home sat on a 1,000-acre plantation and was a wedding gift from Rebecca Lee's father, John Tayloe II. The designer is unknown but may have been the English craftsman William Buckland, who also worked on George Mason's Gunston Hall. The Lees lived at Menokin on and off until their deaths in 1797, and two years later the house was inherited by John Tayloe III, who owned it until 1823. The property changed hands a number of times before falling into disrepair and being abandoned by the mid-twentieth century. In the 1960s, the Omohundro family, which inherited Menokin in 1935, removed the interior paneling and woodwork to protect it from damage; in 1995, T. Edgar Omohundro deeded the property to the Menokin Foundation. Beginning in 1985, archaeological investigations evaluated the site and dated its occupation back to the Rappahannock Indians, who lived and hunted there prior to the arrival of the English. In the early twenty-first century, the Menokin Foundation opened a visitors center and began plans to preserve the site by replacing the missing walls and roof with glass and steel.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:08:24 EST]]>
/Williamsburg_during_the_Colonial_Period Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:07:08 EST <![CDATA[Williamsburg during the Colonial Period]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Williamsburg_during_the_Colonial_Period Williamsburg was the capital of the Virginia colony from 1699 until 1779. Plotted on land first used by Virginia Indians, it was settled by the English during and just after the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632) and called Middle Plantation, for its location equidistant between the York and James rivers. In subsequent years, wealth and political prestige gradually shifted upriver from the first seat of English government, at Jamestown, and talk of moving the capital gained momentum during Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), when rebels burned the statehouse. The Crown did not agree to move the capital until after the establishment of the College of William and Mary at Middle Plantation, in 1693, and another fire at the statehouse, in 1698. In 1699, Middle Plantation became Williamsburg, after King William III, and the colony's new capital. At the behest of the General Assembly, officials laid out streets and began building a new statehouse. Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood oversaw the construction of a powder magazine (1715), the enlargement of Bruton Parish Church (1715), a public theater (1718), and the completion of the Governor's Palace (1722). When the statehouse burned and smallpox hit in 1748, officials briefly considered, but then rejected, the idea of moving the capital, paving the way for a boom in building and population growth. During the American Revolution (1775–1783), Virginia's royal governor dissolved the General Assembly and fled the city. After British troops invaded Virginia in 1779, Governor Thomas Jefferson moved the capital to Richmond.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:07:08 EST]]>
/Cary_Archibald_1721-1787 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:01:35 EST <![CDATA[Cary, Archibald (1721–1787)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cary_Archibald_1721-1787 Archibald Cary was a member of the Convention of 1776, Speaker of the Senate of Virginia (1776–1786), and one of the wealthiest and most influential men in Virginia during and after the American Revolution (1775–1783). Raised in Williamsburg and at his family home of Ampthill, in Chesterfield County, Cary probably attended the College of William and Mary, later working a large farm on land deeded to him from his father. He served in the House of Burgesses, representing Goochland County (1748–1749) and Chesterfield County (1756–1775) and in 1766 was named presiding judge of the Chesterfield County Court. He used his power to curtail the activities of local Baptists. Although Cary voted against Patrick Henry's Resolves on the Stamp Act in 1765, thinking them too inflammatory, he went on to unfailingly support colonial protests against the power of Parliament. In 1773 he was appointed to the Committee of Correspondence and, from 1774 to 1776, to five Revolutionary Conventions. He was a member of the committee that drafted the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the first state constitution. From 1776 until 1786 he served as Speaker of the Senate of Virginia, in many respects as powerful a voice as many of his contemporaries but little known outside Virginia. He died at Ampthill in 1787.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:01:35 EST]]>
/Dunmore_John_Murray_fourth_earl_of_c_1730-1809 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:54:23 EST <![CDATA[Dunmore, John Murray, fourth earl of (ca. 1730–1809)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dunmore_John_Murray_fourth_earl_of_c_1730-1809 John Murray, fourth earl of Dunmore, was Virginia's last royal governor. Dunmore, a member of the House of Lords, reluctantly assumed the office in 1771, not wanting to relinquish his position as governor of New York. He won support by asserting Virginia's land claims west of the Allegheny Mountains, but his impulsive nature alienated key politicians, and the lack of instructions from London hindered his ability to govern. Dunmore received a last measure of popularity in October 1774 when he led volunteers in a defeat of Indians at Point Pleasant on the state's western frontier, later known as Dunmore's War. Tensions between the colony and Great Britain increased rapidly, causing him to remove gunpowder from the public magazine in Williamsburg in April 1775. This action caused his authority to unravel, and he fled to Hampton Roads in June. On November 7 Dunmore declared martial law and offered to free any runaway slaves who supported royal authority. His troops lost the Battle of Great Bridge on December 9 and his fleet shelled Norfolk early in 1776. He left for Great Britain later in the year, where he supported the interests of Loyalist Virginians. In 1787 Dunmore became governor of the Bahamas, during which time he fell from royal favor. He died at his home in England in 1809.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:54:23 EST]]>
/Bland_Richard_1710-1776 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:53:02 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Richard (1710–1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Richard_1710-1776 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:53:02 EST]]> /Henry_Patrick_1736-1799 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:49:54 EST <![CDATA[Henry, Patrick (1736–1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Henry_Patrick_1736-1799 Patrick Henry was a lawyer, orator, and statesman whose career spanned the founding of the United States. An early critic of British authority and leader in the movement toward independence, Henry dedicated most of his life to Virginia politics. He served as a member of the House of Burgesses (1765–1774), as the first governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia (1776–1779), as a member of the House of Delegates (1779–1784; 1788–1791), and again as governor (1784–1786). He was a founding member of the Virginia Committee of Correspondence (1773) and a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses (1774–1776). He also attended the Virginia Conventions of 1774, March 1775, July–August 1775, May 1776, and 1788. He is best remembered, however, for the speech he delivered during the Virginia Convention of 1775 that famously ended with the words, "Give me liberty, or give me death!" Henry's Virginia contemporaries recognized him as "the man who gave the first impulse to the ball of revolution." Henry retired from public life in 1791 and declined invitations to serve on the Supreme Court, as secretary of state, and as a vice presidential candidate. Only a request from George Washington, made during the divisive conflict over the Alien and Sedition Acts and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, brought him back into the public arena. Henry won election to the General Assembly in the spring of 1799, but died before the House of Delegates convened that autumn.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:49:54 EST]]>
/Braxton_Carter_1736-1797 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:46:59 EST <![CDATA[Braxton, Carter (1736–1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Braxton_Carter_1736-1797 Carter Braxton was a member of the Continental Congress (1776) who supported and signed the Declaration of Independence, and of the Council of State (1786–1791; 1794–1797). Born to power—his maternal grandfather was the wealthy land and slave owner Robert "King" Carter—Braxton married it, as well, wedding first a niece of the Speaker of the House of Burgesses and then, after her death, the daughter of a member of the governor's Council. Braxton acquired large amounts of land and numbers of slaves, and he both cultivated and traded tobacco. While in the House of Burgesses (1761–1775), he served on various prestigious committees and, in May 1775, confronted Patrick Henry and a group of militiamen over their demand for reimbursement of Virginia gunpowder seized by the Crown. Braxton arranged for his father-in-law to pay for it. Although he supported independence, he published a pamphlet that challenged the democratic ideas of John Adams and, as a result, was sent home from the Continental Congress. The American Revolution (1775–1783) left Braxton virtually insolvent, but his political connections intact. He served on the Council of State, and during his second term, advised Henry, his one-time adversary and now Virginia governor. Braxton died in Richmond in 1797.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:46:59 EST]]>
/Francis_Lightfoot_Lee_1734-1797 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:45:25 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Francis Lightfoot (1734–1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Francis_Lightfoot_Lee_1734-1797 Francis Lightfoot Lee, known as Frank, was a member of the House of Burgesses (1758–1774), the Continental Congress (1775–1779), and the Senate of Virginia (1778–1782). Born into the Lee family of Stratford Hall, Lee was a dedicated if reluctant public servant for most of his life. He is best known for signing the Declaration of Independence and for representing Loudoun and Richmond counties in the House of Burgesses; he also provided political and emotional support to his controversy-prone brothers, Richard Henry Lee and Arthur Lee, throughout their careers. (Arthur Lee wrote of Francis Lee, "He was calmness and philosophy itself.") He died on January 17, 1797, at his estate, Menokin, in present-day Warsaw, Virginia.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:45:25 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786), founder of the University of Virginia (1819), governor of Virginia (1779–1781), and third president of the United States (1801–1809). Born at Shadwell, his parents' estate in Albemarle County, he attended the College of William and Mary and studied the law under the tutelage of George Wythe. In 1769, Jefferson began construction of Monticello, his home in Albemarle County, and for the rest of his life pursued an interest in architecture, which included design of Poplar Forest and the State Capitol. Jefferson also indulged a passion for science, serving as president of the American Philosophical Society (1797–1814) and publishing Notes on the State of Virginia (1795). After representing Albemarle County in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), Jefferson was a delegate to Virginia's five Revolutionary Conventions and served in the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776) and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He earned a reputation during the American Revolution (1775–1783) as a forceful advocate of revolutionary principles, articulated in A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774), the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking Up Arms (1775), and, most famously, the Declaration of Independence, approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. His two terms as governor were marked by British invasion and Jefferson's controversial flight to Poplar Forest. From 1784 to 1789, he served as a diplomat in France and there may have begun a sexual relationship with his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Jefferson served as secretary of state in the administration of George Washington (1790–1793) and as vice president under John Adams (1797–1801) before being elected president by the U.S. House of Representatives after a tie vote in the Electoral College. As president Jefferson arranged for the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the subsequent Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806). With James Madison, Jefferson helped found the Republican Party and advocated for states' rights and a small federal government, although as president he sometimes pushed the limits of his executive authority. In his retirement he founded the University of Virginia, which was chartered in 1819 and opened for classes in the spring of 1825. Jefferson died at Monticello on July 4, 1826, fifty years after the Declaration of Independence was approved. He is buried at Monticello.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST]]>
/Lee_Richard_Henry_1732-1794 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:39:48 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Richard Henry (1732–1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Richard_Henry_1732-1794 Richard Henry Lee was a planter, merchant, politician, and a member of the prominent Lee family of Virginia. Son of Thomas Lee, Richard Henry Lee pursued his father's interest in westward expansion and was a key political figure during the American Revolution (1775–1783): it was Lee who, at the Second Continental Congress in 1776, made the motion to declare independence from Britain. Lee began his career as a justice of the peace for Westmoreland County (1757); he later served as a member of the House of Burgesses (1758–1775), the House of Delegates (1777, 1780, 1785), and the United States Senate (1789–1792). He also represented Virginia at the two Continental Congresses (1774–1779, 1784–1787) and served as president of Congress in 1784. In 1792 Lee retired from public service, citing his poor health. He passed away two years later at Chantilly-on-the-Potomac, his estate in the Northern Neck of Virginia. Lee was mired in controversy throughout his political career, and his legacy has been influenced in part by his enemies. But Lee's prominent role in the events that shaped Virginia and the nation in the mid- to late seventeenth century cannot be denied; it places him high on the list of America's forgotten founders.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:39:48 EST]]>
/Dismal_Swamp_Land_Company_Articles_of_Agreement_November_3_1763 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 11:52:34 EST <![CDATA[Dismal Swamp Land Company Articles of Agreement (November 3, 1763)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dismal_Swamp_Land_Company_Articles_of_Agreement_November_3_1763 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 11:52:34 EST]]> /Clayton_John_ca_1666-1737 Tue, 15 Nov 2016 16:32:50 EST <![CDATA[Clayton, John (ca. 1666–1737)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clayton_John_ca_1666-1737 Tue, 15 Nov 2016 16:32:50 EST]]> /Berkeley_John_ca_1560-1622 Tue, 15 Nov 2016 16:28:46 EST <![CDATA[Berkeley, John (ca. 1560–1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Berkeley_John_ca_1560-1622 John Berkeley was a member of the governor's Council and overseer of an ironworks in Virginia. Berkeley, born in Gloucestershire, England, came to the attention of the Virginia Company of London in 1621 because of his experience in iron smelting and forging. In July 1621, before he reached Virginia, he was appointed to the governor's Council. Upon arrival in the colony, Berkeley continued the construction of an ironworks near Falling Creek, in what is now Chesterfield County. Before he could begin production, Berkeley and twenty-six others at the ironworks were killed during the Powhatans' concerted uprising of March 22, 1622.
Tue, 15 Nov 2016 16:28:46 EST]]>
/Parish_in_Colonial_Virginia_The Mon, 14 Nov 2016 11:05:15 EST <![CDATA[Parish in Colonial Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Parish_in_Colonial_Virginia_The A parish in colonial Virginia was a unit of both civil and religious authority that covered a set geographical territory. Each Church of England parish in the colony was served by a single minister and governed by a vestry usually composed of local elites. As a religious institution, a parish contained a mother, or central, church, and frequently two or more so-called chapels of ease in outlying areas that the minister served on successive Sundays. As a civil institution, the parish vestry was charged with overseeing a wide range of responsibilities that included social welfare and presenting moral offenders to the courts. The contemporary understanding of parishes and vestries as institutions that deal primarily, if not exclusively, with internal parochial affairs is at odds with the extent of duties associated with the colonial parish. Indeed, according to the historian John Nelson, local government in early Virginia should be understood as "parish-county" government, these two "linked institutions sharing, dividing up, and intermingling their interests and responsibilities."
Mon, 14 Nov 2016 11:05:15 EST]]>
/Brent_Margaret_ca_1601-1671 Mon, 14 Nov 2016 08:50:44 EST <![CDATA[Brent, Margaret (ca. 1601–1671)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brent_Margaret_ca_1601-1671 Mon, 14 Nov 2016 08:50:44 EST]]> /Carter_Charles_1732-1796 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:18:15 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Charles (1732–1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Charles_1732-1796 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:18:15 EST]]> /Brent_Giles_ca_1652-1679 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:03:47 EST <![CDATA[Brent, Giles (ca. 1652–1679)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brent_Giles_ca_1652-1679 Giles Brent was a participant in Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677). A Catholic of both Indian and English heritage, he learned the Indian language from his mother, inherited all of his father's land, and became a prosperous young planter and militia captain. In July 1675 Brent served in a party that killed several Doeg Indians in retaliation for the Indians' having killed some white Virginians. He joined forces loyal to Nathaniel Bacon in order to battle the Pamunkey and collaborated with Bacon until the rebel leader turned his forces against the governor, Sir William Berkeley, in 1676 and laid siege to Jamestown. Brent then gathered approximately 1,000 men to confront Bacon's forces. When the men learned that Bacon had burned Jamestown, they deserted Brent. He died in Middlesex County on September 2, 1679.
Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:03:47 EST]]>
/Bland_Theodorick_bap_1630-1672 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:00:32 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Theodorick (bap. 1630–1672)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Theodorick_bap_1630-1672 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:00:32 EST]]> /Bland_Anna_Bennett_d_1687 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 16:58:28 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Anna Bennett (d. 1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Anna_Bennett_d_1687 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 16:58:28 EST]]> /Borden_Benjamin_1675-1743 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 16:54:26 EST <![CDATA[Borden, Benjamin (1675–1743)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Borden_Benjamin_1675-1743 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 16:54:26 EST]]> /Virginia_Company_of_London Thu, 10 Nov 2016 10:59:52 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Company of London]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Company_of_London The Virginia Company of London was a joint-stock company chartered by King James I in 1606 to establish a colony in North America. Such a venture allowed the Crown to reap the benefits of colonization—natural resources, new markets for English goods, leverage against the Spanish—without bearing the costs. Investors, meanwhile, were protected from catastrophic losses in the event of the project's failure. The company established a settlement at Jamestown in 1607, and over the next eighteen years, the Crown granted the company two new charters, democratizing its governance and reforming its financial model. What began as an enterprise of investors seeking a dividend was funded a decade later almost exclusively by a public lottery. By 1618 the company had found a way to use its most abundant resource—land—to tempt settlers to pay their own passage from England to the colony and then, after arrival, to pay the company a quitrent, or fee, to use the land. Still, the Virginia Company and the colony it oversaw struggled to survive. Disease, mismanagement, Indian attacks, and factionalism in London all took a toll until, in 1623, the Privy Council launched an investigation into the company's finances. A year later, the company's charter was revoked and the king assumed direct control of Virginia.
Thu, 10 Nov 2016 10:59:52 EST]]>
/Gooch_Sir_William_1681-1751 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 16:00:40 EST <![CDATA[Gooch, Sir William (1681–1751)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gooch_Sir_William_1681-1751 Sir William Gooch served as lieutenant governor of Virginia, the colony's chief administrator at the time, from 1727 until 1749, and is the namesake of Goochland County. Born in England, Gooch served in the army during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701­–1714) and later during a Jacobite uprising in Scotland. Appointed lieutenant governor by George I in 1727, Gooch was one of Virginia's ablest and most successful chief executives and was second only to Sir William Berkeley in the length of time he lived in the colony. Succeeding where his predecessors had failed, Gooch worked with, rather than against, Virginia's strong planter class to implement new policies. The most significant legislation Gooch engineered was the Tobacco Inspection Act of 1730, which created a network of warehouses that graded the quality of the harvest and destroyed low-quality product. The program, combined with market forces, helped spur profitable harvests. Gooch's tenure coincided with a period of prosperity and population growth most associated today with large plantation houses. Gooch was wounded in both ankles in the English attack on Cartagena in what is now Colombia, which he helped to lead in 1740, while still lieutenant governor; he subsequently suffered poor health for the rest of his life. A staunch member of the Church of England, he focused on what he perceived as threats from new Protestant denominations such as the Methodists and Baptists. He retired from political life and sailed back to England in 1749, where he died in 1751.
Wed, 09 Nov 2016 16:00:40 EST]]>
/Lynching_in_Virginia Mon, 07 Nov 2016 10:09:49 EST <![CDATA[Lynching in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lynching_in_Virginia Lynching involves the extralegal punishment of perceived wrongdoing by a mob. Lynching became pervasive in the American South late in the nineteenth century and, at its height, from 1880 to 1930, killed at least eighty-six men in Virginia, all but fifteen of them African Americans. Many historians believe the term can be traced to Charles Lynch, a Bedford County militia colonel during the American Revolution (1775–1783) who punished captured Loyalists outside the law. Although a regular feature of the Revolution, mob violence spiked during the 1830s in response to immigration and tensions over slavery. In the South, meanwhile, slavery had long encouraged violence against African Americans, implicating even non-slaveholding whites who were often called upon to search for escaped slaves. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), these two traditions—mob violence and violence against African Americans—joined to create an epidemic of lynchings that killed probably as many as 4,000 people from 1880 until the mid-twentieth century; the large majority of those victims were African Americans living in the South. White Virginians, who lynched the fewest number of people of any southern state, justified the practice by demonizing African Americans and arguing that the courts provided insufficient protection against their supposed criminal tendencies. Blacks and whites understood lynching as a means of enforcing white supremacy. Vocal black critics, such as the editor John Mitchell Jr., encouraged armed defense but were ignored by white lawmakers. In the 1920s, after a rash of mob violence, Virginia passed the South's first antilynching law, although no white person was ever convicted under the legislation.
Mon, 07 Nov 2016 10:09:49 EST]]>
/Two_Penny_Acts_1755_1758 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:06:52 EST <![CDATA[Two Penny Acts (1755, 1758)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Two_Penny_Acts_1755_1758 The General Assembly adopted the Two Penny Acts of 1755 and 1758 as temporary relief measures in response to the failure of the Virginia colony's tobacco crops. Tobacco was Virginia's principal export, but it also backed the colony's currency, and these crop failures threatened Virginia's system of taxation for support of local and provincial government, including the parishes and clergy of the Church of England. The Two Penny Acts allowed vestries and county courts to collect taxes and pay salaries in money calculated at the usual market price for tobacco rather than in tobacco at windfall rates. Although it reduced their annual salaries, relatively few Virginia clergymen objected to the 1755 act, which expired after ten months. They were less amenable to the second act, however. Reverend Jacob Rowe spoke so vehemently against it that he was forced to apologize to the House of Burgesses. Reverend John Camm, meanwhile, took the protest to London and succeeded in having the act revoked, which set up a conflict between Lieutenant Governor Francis Fauquier and the power of the Crown. When clergymen sued for their back wages, the controversy known as the Parsons' Cause erupted and became a precedent for resistance to English authority.
Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:06:52 EST]]>
/Camm_John_bap_1717-1779 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:01:45 EST <![CDATA[Camm, John (bap. 1717–1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Camm_John_bap_1717-1779 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:01:45 EST]]> /Fauquier_Francis_bap_1703-1768 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 11:20:32 EST <![CDATA[Fauquier, Francis (bap. 1703–1768)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fauquier_Francis_bap_1703-1768 Francis Fauquier served as lieutenant governor of Virginia from 1758 until his death in 1768 and during the terms of two absentee governors, John Campbell, fourth earl of Loudoun, and Sir Jeffery Amherst. Born and educated in London, Fauquier was influential in business and the arts before coming to Virginia. Beginning in the midst of the French and Indian War (1754–1763), his administration was fraught with unusual difficulties. He struggled to establish defenses against Indian raids on the frontier and to recruit and supply Virginia regiments to supplement British expeditionary forces; he worked for a compromise between colonials and English merchants over the issue of paper money; and he maintained a strong grip upon the government in the midst of the Stamp Act crisis and revelations of irregularities in the Treasurer's Office following the death of Speaker John Robinson (1705–1766). Influenced by the Enlightenment, Fauquier had a good relationship with Virginia's colonial leaders and generally promoted education. Before his death, he stipulated that the families of his slaves not be split up upon his death.
Thu, 03 Nov 2016 11:20:32 EST]]>
/Allen_Arthur_ca_1652-1710 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:28:33 EST <![CDATA[Allen, Arthur (ca. 1652–1710)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allen_Arthur_ca_1652-1710 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:28:33 EST]]> /Act_of_Toleration_1689 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:24:40 EST <![CDATA[Act of Toleration (1689)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Act_of_Toleration_1689 The Act of Toleration, or "An Act for Exempting their Majestyes Protestant Subjects dissenting from the Church of England from the Penalties of certaine Lawes," passed by Parliament in 1689, represented the most significant religious reform in England since its break with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s. Instituted in the wake of the Glorious Revolution (1688–1689) that deposed the Catholic James II in favor of his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch Calvinist husband, William, the act exempted religious dissenters from certain penalties and disadvantages under which they had suffered for more than a century. Under the act's provisions, Trinitarian Protestants (not Catholics) could operate without interference from the state if they swore an oath of allegiance to the government. This excluded those Anglicans who supported a return to the Stuart monarchy (the line of James II). Offering this toleration to Presbyterians, Baptists, and other orthodox dissenters built a stronger base of support for King William's rule, but it also legally endorsed an unprecedented level of religious diversity in England. This reform would have cascading—if contested—consequences for religion in the American colonies, including Virginia.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:24:40 EST]]>
/Sound_in_Jefferson_s_Virginia Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:13:42 EST <![CDATA[Sound in Jefferson's Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sound_in_Jefferson_s_Virginia Sound in Thomas Jefferson's Virginia included natural, man-made, and melodic noises. The areas surrounding Monticello, the Albemarle County estate of Jefferson, and the city of Charlottesville, reverberated with thunder, cicadas, bells, work songs, fiddles, and drums. Nearby taverns, parlors, dances, and political rallies resonated with the sounds of crowd noises, toasts, songs, military salutes, fireworks, and shouts. Jefferson's world was as noisy as any small town of its time, filled with the sounds of nature (especially cicadas), Western art music, political music, and the sounds of the enslaved. In taverns, patrons sang drinking songs and patriotic tunes. In parlors, young women performed with keyboards and lutes. At dances, men played fiddles, and in the military, they participated in fife and drum corps. In slave quarters, enslaved men and women, though regularly ignored, sang spirituals and played fiddles and drums, sometimes to communicate with one another.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:13:42 EST]]>
/Witchcraft_in_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 25 Oct 2016 12:11:32 EST <![CDATA[Witchcraft in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Witchcraft_in_Colonial_Virginia Witchcraft was a genuine concern for colonial Virginians. The colony's English settlers brought with them a strong belief in the devil's power and his presence in the New World. This belief was first manifested in the Jamestown colonists' early perceptions of the Virginia Indians, whom they believed to be devil worshippers. After 1622, some colonists began to accuse one another of practicing witchcraft. Though witchcraft cases in Virginia were less common and the sentences less severe than the more famous witch trials of Salem, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, evidence exists that about two dozen such trials took place in Virginia between 1626 and 1730. They ranged from civil defamation suits to criminal accusations. The most famous of these was the trial of Grace Sherwood of Princess Anne County, in which the judges determined her guilt by administering a water test. Records indicate that the last witchcraft trial in the mainland colonies took place in Virginia in 1730; five years later, Parliament repealed the Witchcraft Act of 1604, the statute under which British American colonists prosecuted accused witches. Since then, witchcraft has been largely forgotten as an aspect of life in colonial Virginia.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 12:11:32 EST]]>
/Brooke_George_d_1782 Fri, 14 Oct 2016 12:03:51 EST <![CDATA[Brooke, George (d. 1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brooke_George_d_1782 George Brooke was a member of the House of Burgesses (1765, 1771, 1774), the Convention of 1776, and the Senate of Virginia (1776–1779), and served as treasurer of Virginia from 1779 until his death. Born in King William County, he moved to King and Queen County after his marriage and formed a mercantile partnership with one of his wife's relatives. He earned a reputation as a reliable businessman and was involved in settling the controversial and politically sensitive estate of Speaker John Robinson. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he sat in the Revolutionary Conventions, although he missed the vote for independence in 1776, and was paymaster to several Virginia regiments. At the end of his life he served as treasurer of Virginia, helping to supervise the transfer of the capital from Williamsburg to Richmond and to keep the state's fiscal affairs intact during British raids in 1781. He died in 1782.
Fri, 14 Oct 2016 12:03:51 EST]]>
/Ariss_John_ca_1729-1799 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 16:51:10 EST <![CDATA[Ariss, John (ca. 1729–1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ariss_John_ca_1729-1799 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 16:51:10 EST]]> /An_act_ascertaining_the_place_for_erecting_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_February_8_1693 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:48:37 EST <![CDATA[An act ascertaining the place for erecting the College of William and Mary in Virginia (February 8, 1693)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_ascertaining_the_place_for_erecting_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_February_8_1693 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:48:37 EST]]> /The_Third_of_Five_Student_Speeches_written_by_Francis_Nicolson_and_James_Blair_May_1_1699 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:44:46 EST <![CDATA[The Third of Five Student Speeches written by Francis Nicolson and James Blair (May 1, 1699)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Third_of_Five_Student_Speeches_written_by_Francis_Nicolson_and_James_Blair_May_1_1699 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:44:46 EST]]> /An_act_for_the_Seatinge_of_the_middle_Plantation_February_1_1632 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:40:30 EST <![CDATA[An act for the Seatinge of the middle Plantation (February 1, 1632)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_the_Seatinge_of_the_middle_Plantation_February_1_1632 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:40:30 EST]]> /The_Statutes_of_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_1758 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:36:35 EST <![CDATA[The Statutes of the College of William and Mary in Virginia (1758)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Statutes_of_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_1758 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:36:35 EST]]> /Amendments_proposed_by_the_Council_to_the_Bill_Entituled_an_Act_continuing_the_Act_directing_the_building_the_Capitol_and_the_City_of_Williamsburgh_with_additions_1705 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:27:20 EST <![CDATA[Amendments proposed by the Council to the Bill Entituled an Act, continuing the Act directing the building the Capitol and the City of Williamsburgh, with additions (1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Amendments_proposed_by_the_Council_to_the_Bill_Entituled_an_Act_continuing_the_Act_directing_the_building_the_Capitol_and_the_City_of_Williamsburgh_with_additions_1705 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:27:20 EST]]> /An_Act_Continuing_the_Act_directing_the_building_the_Capitol_and_the_city_of_Williamsburg_with_additions_1699 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:24:34 EST <![CDATA[An Act Continuing the Act directing the building the Capitol and the city of Williamsburg; with additions (1699)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_Continuing_the_Act_directing_the_building_the_Capitol_and_the_city_of_Williamsburg_with_additions_1699 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:24:34 EST]]> /Jefferson_Thomas_and_the_Practice_of_Law Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:07:34 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and the Practice of Law]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_the_Practice_of_Law Thomas Jefferson's life in the law has been generally overlooked, despite the years he devoted to its practice and the impact it had on the American Revolution (1775–1783) and subsequent generations. Admitted to the Virginia bar in 1765 after more than two years of reading law under the tutelage of George Wythe, Jefferson practiced before the General Court in Williamsburg, specializing in land cases. By the time Edmund Randolph took over his practice in 1774, he had handled more than 900 matters, with clients ranging from common farmers and indentured servants to the most powerful and wealthy of the colony's planter elite. In Bolling v. Bolling (1771) and Blair v. Blair (1772) he became involved in the private, often sensational affairs of the gentry, while in Howell v. Netherland (1770) he attempted to win the freedom of a mixed-race man he believed to be illegally bound to servitude. Jefferson was influenced by an English tradition distinguishing between common law—a tradition preserved by courts through precedent—and natural law, or rights ordained by God. In this way, his legal training left its mark on his revolutionary writings, in particular the "Summary View of the Rights of British America" (1774) and the Declaration of Independence (1776). Following the Revolution, he used these principles to campaign for legal reform in Virginia, drafting, among many other bills, the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786).
Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:07:34 EST]]>
/Slave_Housing_in_Virginia Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:15:07 EST <![CDATA[Slave Housing in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Housing_in_Virginia Slave housing in Virginia varied widely depending on the context: whether it was rural or urban, whether it was on an elite plantation or a small farm, and even whether it was located close to or far from the slaveholder's main house. Many of the first Africans who came to Virginia lived in barracks-style housing and other, less-than-permanent accommodations. As the enslaved population grew, however, houses were designed and constructed specifically for black laborers and, in particular, those living in family units. Most slave quarters were constructed of wood, and many were log and earthfast structures with no foundations. Those located closest to elite plantation houses were generally better built, with wooden frames and masonry chimneys and foundations. Separate one or two-room structures, designed to accommodate one- or two-family units, were the most popular house type, although many enslaved laborers slept where they worked—in kitchens, laundries, and stables. Slaves who were hired out in cities sometimes resided in separate "shanty towns." Few intact slave quarters exist in the twenty-first century—likely fewer than 300—and most of those are relatively large and well-built.
Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:15:07 EST]]>
/_On_the_Beauty_and_Fertility_of_America_chapter_14_of_A_Huguenot_Exile_in_Virginia_by_Durand_de_Dauphine_1687 Tue, 20 Sep 2016 11:31:17 EST <![CDATA["On the Beauty and Fertility of America"; chapter 14 of A Huguenot Exile in Virginia by Durand de Dauphiné (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_On_the_Beauty_and_Fertility_of_America_chapter_14_of_A_Huguenot_Exile_in_Virginia_by_Durand_de_Dauphine_1687 Tue, 20 Sep 2016 11:31:17 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_14_1765 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (September 14, 1765)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_14_1765 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_October_31_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:14 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (October 31, 1768)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_October_31_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:14 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_February_1_1772 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:50:27 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (February 1, 1772)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_February_1_1772 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:50:27 EST]]> /Letter_from_Rev_James_Marye_Jr_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_25_1764 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:49:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. James Marye Jr. to Rev. John Waring (September 25, 1764)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_James_Marye_Jr_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_25_1764 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:49:44 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_November_17_1774 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:48:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert Carter Nicholas to Rev. John Waring (November 17, 1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_November_17_1774 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:48:35 EST]]> /Letter_from_Rev_John_Waring_to_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_April_20_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:47:17 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. John Waring to Robert Carter Nicholas (April 20, 1768)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_John_Waring_to_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_April_20_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:47:17 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_Yates_and_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_30_1762 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:42:18 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William Yates and Robert Carter Nicholas to Rev. John Waring (September 30, 1762)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_Yates_and_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_30_1762 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:42:18 EST]]> /Hunter_William_d_1761 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:35:39 EST <![CDATA[Hunter, William (d. 1761)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hunter_William_d_1761 William Hunter was official printer to the Virginia colony (1750–1761), publisher of the Virginia Gazette (1751–1761), deputy postmaster general for the British North American colonies (1753–1761), and justice of the peace on the York County Court (1759–1761). Born in Yorktown, Hunter apprenticed to Virginia's first public printer, William Parks, and upon the latter's death in 1750, took over the position at a higher salary. His tenure was arguably the pinnacle of the colonial-era printing monopoly, with Hunter providing faithful service to the colonial administration. In 1753, he and his friend Benjamin Franklin won appointment as deputy postmasters of the colonies, with Hunter responsible for areas south of Annapolis, Maryland. The next year, Hunter became ill while inspecting postal routes with Franklin, and remained ill for several years, spending some of that time in England. In his absence, the printing office was run by John Stretch, whose loyalties seemed to lean away from the lieutenant governor and toward the General Assembly, creating royal pressure for Hunter to return to Virginia. Hunter's business flourished, but he died suddenly in 1761. His life has been seen as an exemplar of the role of familial connections in Virginia, in that his brother's merchant connections and associates gained through his sisters' marriages proved essential to his success and his legacy.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:35:39 EST]]>
/Campbell_Christiana_ca_1722-1792 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:24:05 EST <![CDATA[Campbell, Christiana (ca. 1723–1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Campbell_Christiana_ca_1722-1792 Christiana Campbell was a tavern-keeper in Williamsburg from 1755 until the late 1770s. Campbell, who was raised in Williamsburg, opened her tavern to support herself and her two daughters after her husband died in 1752. For more than twenty years she ran one of Williamsburg's most successful businesses. On the eve of the American Revolution (1775–1783), the colony's leaders periodically met at Campbell's tavern to discuss their connections with England and whether they should seek independence. Campbell evidently closed her tavern in the late 1770s, and, at some point after October 8, 1787, relocated to Fredericksburg, where she died in 1792.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:24:05 EST]]>
/Vobe_Jane_by_1733-1787 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:22:49 EST <![CDATA[Vobe, Jane (by 1733–1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Vobe_Jane_by_1733-1787 Jane Vobe operated taverns in Williamsburg (1751–1785) and in Manchester, in Chesterfield County (1786). Little is known of Vobe's life beyond what historians have gleaned from extant records, but her business was one of Williamsburg's most successful. In 1765 a French traveler recorded in his diary that Vobe's establishment was "where all the best people" stay; six years later, Vobe closed her tavern and opened another in 1772 in a different location in the Virginia capital. Politicians and military men often gathered at her tavern to discuss events related to the American Revolution (1775–1783). George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Nelson, and the Baron von Steuben were among her customers. After the Virginia capital moved to Richmond and the Revolution ended, Vobe relocated to Manchester, where she managed a tavern until her death, which was reported in 1786.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:22:49 EST]]>
/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Cary_amp_Co_May_1_1759 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:14:09 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Robert Cary & Co. (May 1, 1759)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Cary_amp_Co_May_1_1759 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:14:09 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Augustine_Washington_July_18_1755 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:08:18 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Augustine Washington (July 18, 1755)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Augustine_Washington_July_18_1755 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:08:18 EST]]> /Letter_from_John_Robinson_to_George_Washington_September_15_1754 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:06:30 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Robinson to George Washington (September 15, 1754)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Robinson_to_George_Washington_September_15_1754 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:06:30 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Augustine_Washington_May_31_1754 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:05:03 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Augustine Washington (May 31, 1754)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Augustine_Washington_May_31_1754 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:05:03 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_David_Humphreys_July_25_1785 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:02:00 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to David Humphreys (July 25, 1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_David_Humphreys_July_25_1785 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:02:00 EST]]> /Letter_from_John_Adams_to_Benjamin_Rush_April_22_1812 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 16:51:31 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Adams to Benjamin Rush (April 22, 1812)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Adams_to_Benjamin_Rush_April_22_1812 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 16:51:31 EST]]> /Blair_James_ca_1655-1743 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:10:35 EST <![CDATA[Blair, James (ca. 1655–1743)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_James_ca_1655-1743 James Blair was an Anglican minister, a notoriously combative member of the governor's Council (1694–1695; 1696–1697; 1701–1743) who worked successfully to have three governors removed, and, with Francis Nicholson, the cofounder of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg. Born and educated in Edinburgh, Scotland, Blair came to Virginia in 1685 as rector of Henrico Parish. He married, acquired land, and in 1689 became commissary, or the Anglican bishop's representative in America. Blair's clerical convocations in 1690, 1705, and 1719 were notoriously rancorous in part due to his tendency to sympathize more with the laity than his fellow clerics; however, the 1690 meeting proved especially significant for Blair's "Seven Propositions," which led to the founding of the College of William and Mary. As president for life, Blair secured funding and overcame powerful opposition from men like Virginia governor Sir Edmund Andros. In the meantime, Blair consolidated his own power by becoming rector of James City Parish in Williamsburg, and in 1698 he successfully fought to have Andros removed. Over the years, Blair did the same to two more governors while continually expanding his college. By the 1720s he had rebuilt the school after a fire; housed an Indian school, chapel, library, and president's house; drafted the first college statutes; hired the first full-time faculty; and transferred the original charter to the president and masters. Blair died in Williamsburg in 1743.
Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:10:35 EST]]>
/Newport_Christopher_1561-after_August_15_1617 Tue, 07 Jun 2016 13:58:07 EST <![CDATA[Newport, Christopher (1561–after August 15, 1617)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Newport_Christopher_1561-after_August_15_1617 Christopher Newport was an English privateer, ship captain, and adventurer who helped to establish the first permanent English colony in North America at Jamestown in 1607. Born the son of a shipmaster on the east coast of England, he worked in the commercial shipping trade and, beginning in 1585, as a privateer, or sanctioned pirate, in the war between England and Spain. His assistance in the capture of the Spanish ship Madre de Dios in 1592 won him such wealth and prestige that in 1606 the Virginia Company of London appointed him leader of the voyage to the newly chartered colony. In the first few months, he played a key role in negotiating between Virginia's often-fractious leaders. He also sailed between the colony and England, carrying news and delivering precious supplies. In 1608, he participated in an unsuccessful "coronation" of the Indian chief Powhatan, who refused to submit himself to the English. In 1609, as captain of the Sea Venture, Newport was shipwrecked off the islands of Bermuda, arriving in Virginia the next spring. Newport left the Virginia Company's employment in 1612 and entered the service of the East India Company. He died in Banten (Bantam), Java, sometime after August 15, 1617.
Tue, 07 Jun 2016 13:58:07 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_and_His_Family Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:04:45 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and His Family]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_His_Family Thomas Jefferson regularly commented on the importance of family. In 1789 he wrote to his brother Randolph that "no society is so precious as that of one's own family" and—in another letter, to Francis Willis—that he longed for domestic tranquility within the "bosom" of his family. Jefferson was raised at Shadwell, his father's Albemarle County plantation, with nine siblings. The absence of extant letters between Jefferson and his parents has led some historians to suggest a frosty relationship, but his letters to siblings suggest that the family was, in fact, close and loving. Jefferson married Martha Wayles Skelton in 1772, and by all accounts the two were very much in love. Of their six children, only two—Martha and Mary (later Maria)—survived to adulthood. The elder Martha Jefferson died a few months after giving birth in 1782, and Jefferson's daughters, and later his grandchildren, became the focus of his domestic life. While president in 1802, his family life attracted public attention when the Richmond journalist James Thomson Callender accused him of fathering children with his slave—and his wife's likely half-sister—Sally Hemings. Many historians now accept that Jefferson fathered Hemings's six children. His later years were marked by family strife, including a feud between his two sons-in-law and alcohol-fueled violence perpetrated by the husband of one of his granddaughters. Debts also accumulated, but Jefferson maintained his home at Monticello as a refuge for family, and they surrounded him there on his death in 1826.
Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:04:45 EST]]>
/Clayton_John_1656_or_1657-1725 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:42:16 EST <![CDATA[Clayton, John (1656 or 1657–1725)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clayton_John_1656_or_1657-1725 John Clayton conducted key observations of Virginia's flora and fauna while helping secure the Church of England's authority. The Oxford graduate and clergy member left England to become rector of Jamestown's James City Parish. Clayton, known for his scientific observations, took an interest in the natural world of Virginia and recorded his observations of numerous natural phenomena. John Brickell later plagiarized his works when writing his Natural History of North-Carolina (1737). Clayton, known for his intellectual sermons, became Virginia's commissary, or first personal representative of the bishop of London. From his position, he aggressively converted dissenters. Clayton returned to England in 1686.
Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:42:16 EST]]>
/Chilton_Edward_1658-1707 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:36:45 EST <![CDATA[Chilton, Edward (1658–1707)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chilton_Edward_1658-1707 Edward Chilton served as attorney general of Virginia and was the coauthor of The Present State of Virginia, and the College (printed in 1727). He arrived in Virginia by 1682, when he served as a clerk for the governor's Council and the General Assembly. He also acquired several thousand acres of land. In 1694 Chilton returned to England, where he became a barrister. He remained involved with Virginia affairs and testified before the Board of Trade about conditions in the colony in 1696. The following year Chilton, along with James Blair and Henry Hartwell, prepared a report on the colony titled The Present State of Virginia, and the College. He requested and acquired the position of Barbados's attorney general in 1699. He died in Portsmouth, England, in 1707.
Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:36:45 EST]]>
/Don_LuA Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:55:46 EST <![CDATA[Don Luís de Velasco / Paquiquineo (fl. 1561–1571)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Don_LuA Paquiquineo, later Don Luís de Velasco, was a Virginia Indian who encountered Spanish explorers on the Chesapeake Bay in 1561 and returned to Spain with them, either voluntarily or as a captive. There, he appeared before King Philip II and was granted permission to lead a Catholic mission back to the Chesapeake, a land the Spaniards believed the Indians called Ajacán. A brief stop in Mexico City turned into a years-long stay after Paquiquineo became ill. During that time he converted to Christianity, taking the name of the viceroy of New Spain (present-day Mexico), Don Luís de Velasco. After two failed attempts to return home with Dominican missionaries, Don Luís sailed again to Spain, where he joined a group of Jesuit priests, and finally landed on the James River in September 1570—more than nine years after he had left. He initially aided the Jesuits, but quickly reunited with his family and, in February 1571, led an ambush that killed the missionaries save for an altar boy, Alonso de Olmos. While contemporary Spanish chroniclers demonized Paquiquineo, at least one modern scholar has suggested that the violence may have been a symbolic and predictable reaction to violations of the Indians' gift-exchange economy. In 1572 the Spanish dispatched soldiers to Ajacán. They hanged a handful of Indians but did not find Paquiquineo, who subsequently disappeared from history. Based on Jamestown-era rumors, some historians have argued that Paquiquineo and Opechancanough were the same person.
Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:55:46 EST]]>
/Cocke_William_1672-1720 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:58:52 EST <![CDATA[Cocke, William (1672–1720)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cocke_William_1672-1720 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:58:52 EST]]> /Indian_Enslavement_in_Virginia Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:25:04 EST <![CDATA[Indian Enslavement in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indian_Enslavement_in_Virginia Indians were enslaved in Virginia by settlers and traders from shortly after the founding of Jamestown until the end of the eighteenth century, peaking late in the seventeenth century and providing a workforce for English plantations and households. By this time the Atlantic slave trade was at its peak, flooding Virginia with cheaper African labor. African slavery took nearly a century to develop, however, and in the meantime those white Virginians who required men and women to work as servants or in tobacco fields mostly relied on indentured servants and enslaved Indians. Europeans sold guns for slaves in an existing indigenous trading market, and encouraged allied tribes to provide the slaves by targeting Indian groups on the periphery of English settlements (similar to African participation in the capture of slaves in Africa). While there are examples of continued enslavement of Indians throughout the early settlement period, mass enslavement typically coincided with the upheaval of war that led to Indian prisoners who could be sold as slaves. Virginia's laws were neither clear nor effective with respect to the enslavement of Indians, at times banning the practice and at other times encouraging it. Some scholars argue that Indian enslavement had declined by 1800 because Indians were prone to illness or escape, but others maintain that it was only when Indians, wracked by war and enslavement, could not provide a sufficient quantity of cheap workers that English colonists turned primarily to chattel African slavery. American Indians were most clearly deemed free by Virginia law early in the 1800s, and Indians who were unable to gain their freedom often became assimilated within the predominantly African slave communities.
Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:25:04 EST]]>
/Smith_John_bap_1580-1631 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:14:40 EST <![CDATA[Smith, John (bap. 1580–1631)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_John_bap_1580-1631 Captain John Smith was a soldier and writer who is best known for his role in establishing the Virginia colony at Jamestown, England's first permanent colony in North America. A farmer's son, Smith was a soldier of fortune in Europe before he joined the Virginia Company of London expedition of 1606–1607. At Jamestown, Smith served on the local council; explored and mapped the Chesapeake Bay; established a sometimes-contentious relationship with Powhatan, the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco; and was president of the colony from September 1609 to September 1610. He was unpopular among his fellow colonists, however, who forced his return to England in October 1610. Smith never returned to Virginia, but he did travel to and map a portion of the northeast coast of North America, which he named New England. Much of what is known about Smith's life comes from his own detailed and informative accounts of his experiences. Although many of his contemporaries considered him a braggart and he almost certainly embellished his own accomplishments, his narratives provide invaluable insights into English and native life during the Virginia colony's formative years.
Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:14:40 EST]]>
/Archaeology_at_Mount_Vernon Fri, 01 Apr 2016 08:27:02 EST <![CDATA[Mount Vernon, Archaeology at]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Archaeology_at_Mount_Vernon Archaeology at Mount Vernon, the Fairfax County plantation home of George Washington, began in the 1930s and has continued over the subsequent decades. As part of research and renovation efforts undertaken by the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, excavations have sought to uncover evidence of daily life on the property during the eighteenth century. In 1987, the association, which has owned and operated the estate since 1860, hired a full-time archaeologist. Since then, archaeological digs at the Mansion House Farm have taken place at the main slave quarter, known as the House for Families, and the blacksmith shop (1987–1990), the fruit garden and nursery (1988–1991), the South Grove trash dump, or midden (1990–1993), the dung repository (1992–1994), and the Upper Garden (2005–2010). Extensive work has also been conducted at the distillery, located near the outlying gristmill (1999–2005). These investigations have turned up a rich array of artifacts and other kinds of evidence attesting to the lives of the Washington family and their enslaved laborers, including the size and nature of structures in which they lived and worked, the tools they manufactured and used, and the foods they ate.
Fri, 01 Apr 2016 08:27:02 EST]]>
/Association_for_the_Preservation_of_Virginia_Antiquities Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:58:17 EST <![CDATA[Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Association_for_the_Preservation_of_Virginia_Antiquities Organized in 1889, the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities (APVA), currently known as APVA/Preservation Virginia, was the nation's first statewide historic preservation organization. Spearheaded by an elite mix of female antiquarians and their "gentlemen advisers," it became a sanctioned instrument of conservatives who strove to counter social and political changes after the American Civil War (1861–1865) by emphasizing southern history and tradition. The APVA enshrined old buildings, graveyards, and historical sites—many of which were forlorn, if not forgotten—and exhibited them as symbols of Virginia's identity. As the national preservation movement evolved, the APVA became less overtly political and now identifies itself as a professional organization dedicated to preserving and promoting the Commonwealth's heritage.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:58:17 EST]]>
/Dinwiddie_Robert_1692-1770 Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:48:41 EST <![CDATA[Dinwiddie, Robert (1692–1770)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dinwiddie_Robert_1692-1770 Robert Dinwiddie was a member of the governor's Council from 1742 to 1751 and then lieutenant governor of Virginia from 1751 to 1758. Born into a Scottish merchant family, Dinwiddie began his public career in Bermuda, where he worked as an Admiralty agent and collector of customs before earning a seat on the colony's governor's Council. In 1738, the Crown appointed Dinwiddie surveyor general for the southern part of America, and he lived in in Virginia from 1741 until 1745. He returned in 1751, this time as lieutenant governor and immediately shocked the colony by instituting a fee of one pistole for signing and sealing every patent conferring legal title to land. The House of Burgesses loudly objected and sent representatives to London. In 1754, the Crown found a compromise, upholding Dinwiddie's fee but only on patents of 100 acres or more. Controversy followed Dinwiddie into the French and Indian War (1754–1763). His policy of corporate and imperial advancement led to conflict with the French and the defeat of Virginia forces under George Washington at Fort Necessity in 1754. The politics of the resulting war made governing difficult for Dinwiddie, and he resigned in 1758, soon after defying a British order, handed down by Governor John Campbell, fourth earl of Loudoun, that put an embargo on all colonial exports. Dinwiddie returned to England and died there in 1770.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:48:41 EST]]>
/Brent_George_ca_1640-by_1_September_1700 Thu, 10 Mar 2016 17:09:37 EST <![CDATA[Brent, George (ca. 1640–by 1700)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brent_George_ca_1640-by_1_September_1700 George Brent was a prominent Catholic who served as acting attorney general of Virginia. His family suffered during the English Civil Wars, and early in the 1660s Brent left for Maryland. By 1670 he had settled near relatives in Stafford County, Virginia, where he became a successful attorney, businessman, tobacco planter, and land speculator. Brent held public office despite the strictures against office holding by Catholics and was the colony's acting attorney general from 1686 until 1688, when he was elected to the House of Burgesses. After England's Glorious Revolution unleashed anti-Catholic sentiments in the colonies, Brent's public career came to an end. During the 1690s he served as an agent for the Northern Neck proprietors, granting himself and his friends large tracts of land. At the time of his death by September 1700, he owned more than 15,000 acres in Virginia.
Thu, 10 Mar 2016 17:09:37 EST]]>
/Savage_Thomas_ca_1595-before_September_1633 Mon, 29 Feb 2016 11:05:43 EST <![CDATA[Savage, Thomas (ca. 1595–before September 1633)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Savage_Thomas_ca_1595-before_September_1633 Thomas Savage (sometimes spelled Salvage or Savadge) was an English interpreter of Indian languages. At age thirteen, he arrived at Jamestown in 1608 to work as a laborer, but was instead given by Captain Christopher Newport to Powhatan, the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco, a political alliance of twenty-eight to thirty-two Algonquian-speaking Virginia Indian groups. Savage remained with the Indians for almost three years, during which time he learned their language and became familiar with their customs. According to contemporary accounts, Savage was well treated and well liked by Powhatan, who often sent the boy to Jamestown to deliver messages to the English. After the outbreak of the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614), however, Savage feared for his safety among the Indians, and in 1610 he escaped to Jamestown. He remained in Virginia, where he established a successful career as an interpreter and settled on the Eastern Shore. He died in or before September 1633.
Mon, 29 Feb 2016 11:05:43 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Architecture Thu, 25 Feb 2016 16:31:40 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and Architecture]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Architecture Thomas Jefferson was a passionate student of architecture whose designs are among the most influential in the early history of the United States. As a student at the College of William and Mary he purchased his first book on the subject and later assembled one of the largest libraries on architecture in America. He was particularly influenced by the classical style of Andrea Palladio, who emphasized symmetry, proportion, and the use of columns. These principles then came to define the architecture of the early United States, first in Richmond, with Jefferson's design of the State Capitol, and then in Washington, D.C., where he influenced decisions on the design of the U.S. Capitol and the White House. Jefferson is perhaps best known for his homes—Monticello, in Albemarle County, and Poplar Forest, in Bedford County—which became laboratories for Jefferson's design interests and his many influences. Monticello, in particular, brought together Jefferson's obsessions with classical forms and his admiration for contemporary France. During his retirement, Jefferson established the University of Virginia, creating a distinctive, U-shaped design of connected pavilions and a domed Rotunda circling a long, narrow green space. Along with Monticello, the university is considered to be one of the highlights of American architecture and cemented Jefferson's legacy as a designer.
Thu, 25 Feb 2016 16:31:40 EST]]>
/George_I_1660-1727 Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:41:12 EST <![CDATA[George I (1660–1727)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_I_1660-1727 George I was king of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 until his death in 1727, and of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (also known as Hanover, after its capital), in present-day northern Germany, from 1698 until his death. The first of three Hanoverian monarchs in Britain, George I gained the throne after several royal deaths and a newly established accession order intended to secure a Protestant monarchy. He never fully learned to speak English and instead conducted government affairs mostly in French and his native German. His frequent trips to Hanover, as well as his controversial treatment of his ex-wife, caused many to scorn the foreign king. In the colonies, however, his reign was more applauded. Although the development of the British constitution by 1714 ensured that George I had little direct involvement in Virginia affairs, his almost thirteen years on the throne came during several defining developments in the colony's history: the transformation from indentured servitude to slavery as the primary source of plantation labor, the shift from sweet-scented to Oronoco tobacco as the dominant tobacco crop, and the beginning of what historians have called the "golden age" of Virginia politics. All of these developments can be attributed to the broader policies and people George I had at least a modest role in promoting. Historians often cite the peaceful royal succession following his sudden death in 1727 as his most significant legacy.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:41:12 EST]]>
/Slave_Clothing_and_Adornment_in_Virginia Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:22:03 EST <![CDATA[Slave Clothing and Adornment in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Clothing_and_Adornment_in_Virginia Slave clothing and adornment varied across time and across Virginia. In West Africa, where many American slaves originated, clothing was minimal, and even that was generally stripped from newly enslaved people just prior to the Middle Passage. In Virginia, slaves were outfitted with European clothing they often found to be constricting and uncomfortable. The fabrics used for construction tended to be inferior, with their owners using whatever was most cost-effective. Homespun Virginia cloth and imported osnaburg fabric (made from flax and hemp) were common in the eighteenth century. By the nineteenth century, with the rise of cotton production, blends such as jean cloth became more common and allowed owners to provide slaves clothing that was untailored and ready-made. The most common practice was to distribute clothes in twice-a-year allotments, with liveried (uniformed) and domestic slaves receiving higher-quality clothing than field slaves, who wore the plainest and coarsest clothing. Children wore simple gowns. Boys transitioned to breeches, or short pants, and then to long pants and girls wore adult dresses when they began to menstruate. Plain leather shoes and sometimes hats were also included in allotments, while women, reflecting West African traditions, sometimes wore cloth head wraps. To aid in running away, some slaves stole better clothes while others saved money and purchased or, in some instances, earned better attire.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:22:03 EST]]>
/Hamor_Ralph_bap_1589-by_October_11_1626 Thu, 28 Jan 2016 16:40:19 EST <![CDATA[Hamor, Ralph (bap. 1589–by October 11, 1626)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hamor_Ralph_bap_1589-by_October_11_1626 Ralph Hamor was a secretary of the Virginia colony, member of the governor's Council, and author of A True Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia (1615). Baptized Raphe Hamor, he used that given name his entire life, although later references to him most often used a modernized spelling. Hamor was educated at Oxford and possibly Cambridge, and soon became involved in the Virginia Company of London, sailing to the colony in 1609. He served as its secretary until June 1614, when he likely returned to London. There he wrote A True Discourse, which offered the first published account of the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, as well as Rolfe's cultivation of tobacco, the martial administration of Sir Thomas Dale, and the establishment of the city of Henrico. As such, Hamor's book became an essential source for understanding Virginia, both then and now. He returned to Virginia in 1617 and prospered, joining the governor's Council in 1621, surviving the Indian attacks of 1622, and subsequently participating in the sometimes violent interactions with Virginia Indians that constituted the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632). He was tangentially involved in some of the controversy that surrounded the demise of the Virginia Company and remained on the Council until his death in 1626.
Thu, 28 Jan 2016 16:40:19 EST]]>
/Richmond_During_the_Colonial_Period Fri, 08 Jan 2016 17:31:16 EST <![CDATA[Richmond during the Colonial Period]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Richmond_During_the_Colonial_Period Richmond was the most prominent of the towns that emerged at the fall line of the James River during Virginia's colonial period. As early as 1608, the English settlers eyed a community near the seven-mile-long series of rapids that divided the head of navigation at the river's downstream end and the calm stretch of water upriver from it. The area provided a series of strategic advantages: as a port, as a location for mills, and as a transitional territory between the Tidewater-based Powhatan Indians and the Monacan Indians of the Piedmont. The English attempted to settle there with limited success in the first half of the seventeenth century, but the establishment of Fort Charles after 1644 and the end of the Third Anglo-Powhatan War (1644–1646) brought increased English settlement. In 1679 the General Assembly expanded William Byrd's landholdings around the falls, hoping to stabilize the area further. Within a few years Byrd transformed the location into an international trading center. Byrd's son of the same name established the town of Richmond on the north side of the James River in 1733; the General Assembly formally recognized the town in 1742. Benefitting from its prime location and strengthened by nearby communities such as Westham on the west side of the falls and Rocky Ridge across the river, Richmond served as a key port for Virginia's interior and emerged as an industrial location by the advent of the American Revolution (1775–1783).
Fri, 08 Jan 2016 17:31:16 EST]]>
/Buckland_William_1734-by_December_15_1774 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 15:26:17 EST <![CDATA[Buckland, William (1734–by December 15, 1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Buckland_William_1734-by_December_15_1774 William Buckland was a builder and architect best known for his work on George Mason's Gunston Hall, in Fairfax County. Born in England, Buckland trained as a joiner and carpenter before coming to Virginia as the indentured servant of Thomson Mason in 1755. He worked on the interior detailing of Gunston Hall for the next four years. Buckland moved to Richmond County in 1761, where he purchased a farm and likely continued to work as a builder, although the specifics of his work have largely been lost. Mentions of Buckland in the Carter and Tayloe papers suggest he may have contributed design and construction to Sabine Hall, home of Landon Carter, and Mount Airy, home of John Tayloe II. In 1771, Buckland moved to Annapolis, Maryland, and there designed the Hammond-Harwood House and the courthouse in Caroline County. He died in 1774.
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 15:26:17 EST]]>
/An_Act_for_better_regulating_and_training_the_Militia_August_1755 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:32:27 EST <![CDATA[An Act for better regulating and training the Militia (August 1755)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_better_regulating_and_training_the_Militia_August_1755 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:32:27 EST]]> /An_act_for_regulating_and_disciplining_the_Militia_May_5_1777 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:28:31 EST <![CDATA[An act for regulating and disciplining the Militia (May 5, 1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_regulating_and_disciplining_the_Militia_May_5_1777 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:28:31 EST]]> /Byrd_William_1674-1744 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 09:22:29 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, William (1674–1744)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_William_1674-1744 William Byrd, sometimes referred to as William Byrd II of Westover to distinguish him from relatives of the same name, was a planter, a surveyor, a member of the governor's Council (1709–1744), and a man of letters. Born in Virginia, Byrd was educated and practiced law in England. He returned to Virginia in 1705, after the death of his father. Shortly afterward he was appointed to the governor's Council, and in the 1720s he served as the London agent of the House of Burgesses. He helped survey the boundary between Virginia and North Carolina and established the town of Richmond on the north side of the James River. He was also a prolific writer, and is perhaps best known today for his diaries and the manuscript narratives of his surveying, both of which are frequently anthologized in textbooks of American literature. Byrd typified both the values of British colonial gentry and the ethos of an emerging American identity invested in the improvement of the self and of the colonial commonwealth.
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 09:22:29 EST]]>
/Methodists_in_Early_Virginia Thu, 17 Dec 2015 16:13:39 EST <![CDATA[Methodists in Early Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Methodists_in_Early_Virginia Methodists had only a small presence in Virginia at the beginning of the American Revolution (1775–1783), but by the time of the American Civil War (1861–1865) they had become, along with the Baptists, one of the state's dominant denominations. Organized at the University of Oxford in the 1730s by John Wesley and a group of fellow students, Methodism came to Virginia in the mid-1700s. Robert Williams arrived in the colony in 1772 and soon formed Virginia's first Methodist circuit. The Brunswick Circuit, as it was called, hosted major revivals in 1775–1776, a time in which the colony's Methodist population almost doubled. Following John Wesley's lead, many Methodists were antislavery and, during the Revolution, loyal to the British government. In 1784, the group formed its own national church, the American Methodist Episcopal Church, and a second major revival occurred in Virginia from 1785 until 1788. Thousands of converts were won over by the promise of forgiveness of sins and a style of worship that emphasized trances, dreams, visions, and bodily movement. By the time of the Second Great Awakening, the Methodists, although still hosting revivals in Virginia, had become more politically and socially mainstream. Their presence transformed Virginia religion, however, by helping to usher in an era free from state-sponsored religion.
Thu, 17 Dec 2015 16:13:39 EST]]>
/Gunston_Hall Thu, 17 Dec 2015 16:11:05 EST <![CDATA[Gunston Hall]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gunston_Hall Gunston Hall is the stately Georgian home of Virginia lawmaker George Mason in Fairfax County on the Potomac River. Mason inherited the land on which Gunston Hall is located from his father in 1735; construction on the house began in 1754. Completed in 1759, Gunston Hall was one of the finest homes in colonial America. While the house's exterior is typical of most Chesapeake plantation homes, the elegant interior reflects the full range of English rococo style, showing French, neoclassical, and chinoiserie influences, and stood out at a time when the prevailing building style was most often described as "neat and plain." The house's innovative architectural flourishes and intricate woodwork can be attributed to its English architect, William Buckland, and master carver, William Bernard Sears. Mason farmed part of the Gunston Hall grounds, growing tobacco and wheat, among other crops, and raising livestock. A slave community called Log Town stood at some distance from the house. Today, Gunston Hall is owned by the Commonwealth of Virginia and operated by the National Society of the Colonial Dames of America.
Thu, 17 Dec 2015 16:11:05 EST]]>
/Contract_and_Recommendation_for_William_Buckland_1755_1759 Wed, 09 Dec 2015 09:56:17 EST <![CDATA[Contract and Recommendation for William Buckland (1755; 1759)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Contract_and_Recommendation_for_William_Buckland_1755_1759 Wed, 09 Dec 2015 09:56:17 EST]]> /Gosnold_Bartholomew_1571-August_22_1607 Mon, 07 Dec 2015 14:17:21 EST <![CDATA[Gosnold, Bartholomew (1571–1607)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gosnold_Bartholomew_1571-August_22_1607 Bartholomew Gosnold was one of the leading figures of the English settlement at Jamestown, helping to organize the Virginia Company of London and landing in Virginia with the first group of adventurers in 1607. Born in Suffolk, on the eastern coast of England, in 1571, he joined Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex, on his expedition to the Azores in 1595. Upon his return to England, Gosnold became interested in colonizing North America, planting about twenty colonists in New England in 1602. Although the colony failed, Gosnold is credited for making the first documented European visit to Cape Elizabeth and for naming Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. He used family connections to recruit members for the Virginia Company of London, with Captain John Smith describing Gosnold as "one of the first movers" of the Virginia colony. For political reasons, perhaps, Gosnold did not command the voyage west, but he served on the colony's Council once he arrived and helped bring bickering factions together. He died of disease on August 22, 1607. A grave that archaeologists uncovered at Jamestown in 2003 was initially thought to have belonged to Gosnold, but scholars are no longer certain.
Mon, 07 Dec 2015 14:17:21 EST]]>
/Burwell_Lewis_1711_or_1712-1756_gt Mon, 30 Nov 2015 17:32:40 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lewis (1711 or 1712–1756)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lewis_1711_or_1712-1756_gt Lewis Burwell, often referred to as President Lewis Burwell to distinguish him from others of the same name, was a member of the governor's Council (1743–1756) and served as acting governor of Virginia for a year beginning in November 1750. Born in Gloucester County to a prominent family that included Robert "King" Carter, Burwell was educated in England before returning to Virginia and serving in the House of Burgesses (1742). The next year, George II appointed him to the Council, and in 1750, he became the body's senior member. With the governor and lieutenant governor away from Virginia at the time, this made him president, or acting governor. During his year as president, the General Assembly never met, but Burwell did commission the Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia. Ill health limited his role in later years, and he died in 1756.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 17:32:40 EST]]>
/Anglo-Powhatan_War_Second_1622-1632 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 12:01:39 EST <![CDATA[Anglo-Powhatan War, Second (1622–1632)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anglo-Powhatan_War_Second_1622-1632 The Second Anglo-Powhatan War was fought from 1622 until 1632, pitting English colonists in Virginia against the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Tsenacomoco, led by Opitchapam and his brother (or close kinsman) Opechancanough. After the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614), which ended with the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, the English colony began to grow. The headright system begun in 1618 granted land to new immigrants who, in turn, sought to make their fortunes off tobacco. As English settlements pressed up the James River and toward the fall line, Indian leaders devised a plan to push them back and, in so doing, assert their supremacy over the newcomers. On March 22, 1622, Opechancanough led a series of coordinated surprise attacks that concentrated on settlements upriver from Jamestown and succeeded in killing nearly a third of the English population. Perhaps assuming that the English were sufficiently humiliated, he did not pursue a final destruction of the colony. What followed, then, was a ten-year war in which the English repeatedly attacked the Indian food supply. After the conflict's only full-scale battle, fought in 1624, colonists estimated that they had destroyed enough food to feed 4,000 men for a year. Peace finally arrived in 1632, but by then the balance of power in Virginia had tipped toward the English. The colonial population had grown significantly and Opechancanough's power waned.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 12:01:39 EST]]>
/Powhatan_d_1618 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:47:51 EST <![CDATA[Powhatan (d. 1618)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Powhatan_d_1618 Powhatan, whose given name was Wahunsonacock, was the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco, a political alliance of Virginia Indians whose core six groups all settled along the James, Mattaponi, and Pamunkey rivers. Introduced to the Jamestown colonists in 1607 as Powhatan, he was for a decade the most powerful point of contact for the English; in 1614, the marriage of his daughter, Pocahontas, to John Rolfe, helped end, at least temporarily, years of war. Coming to power in Powhatan, the Powhatan Indians' principal frontier town on the James River, Wahunsonacock likely was raised much as any other Algonquian-speaking Indian would have been—learning archery and hunting from the men of his village. By 1607, he was paramount chief of Tsenacomoco, having expanded it, through a combination of force and diplomacy, to between twenty-eight and thirty-two tribes and petty chiefdoms. Powhatan negotiated with the English, and especially John Smith, attempting to reach accommodation with the colonists and, when he could not, attempting to intimidate or kill them. In 1609, he moved his capital from Werowocomoco to Orapax, which was farther west, and intensified his efforts to kill Smith and expel the English. Pocahontas's marriage ended that stage of the conflict, and relations were peaceful until Powhatan's death in 1618. When his brother, Opechancanough, became leader of Tsenacomoco, he launched the attack that inaugurated the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632).
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:47:51 EST]]>
/Pocahontas_d_1617 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:38:59 EST <![CDATA[Pocahontas (d. 1617)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pocahontas_d_1617 Pocahontas was the daughter of Powhatan, paramount chief of an alliance of Virginia Indians in Tidewater Virginia. An iconic figure in American history, Pocahontas is largely known for saving the life of the Jamestown colonist John Smith and then romancing him—although both events are unlikely to be true. She did meet Smith several times, sometimes serving as Powhatan's silent figurehead and a symbolic liaison between the chief and the English colonists; she was not, however, a "princess" or a diplomat in any modern sense. Sometime around 1610, she married an Indian named Kocoum, and in 1613 she was captured by the English and confined at Jamestown, where she converted to Christianity and married the colonist John Rolfe. The marriage, approved by Powhatan, brought an end to the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614) and set the stage for Pocahontas's visit to London in 1616. At the request of the Virginia Company of London, she met both King James I and the bishop of London, after which she reunited briefly with Smith. Early in her return voyage to Virginia, she became ill and died at Gravesend in March 1617. In the centuries since, Pocahontas's life has slipped into myth, serving to represent Virginia's early claim to be the foundation-place of America. Many elite Virginians, meanwhile, have tenuously claimed her as a relative, even leading to a "Pocahontas clause" in the Racial Integrity Act of 1924.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:38:59 EST]]>
/Rolfe_John_d_1622 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:30:10 EST <![CDATA[Rolfe, John (d. 1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rolfe_John_d_1622 John Rolfe served as secretary and recorder general of Virginia (1614–1619) and as a member of the governor's Council (1614–1622). He is best known for having married Pocahontas in 1614 and for being the first to cultivate marketable tobacco in Virginia. Joined by his first wife, whose name is unknown, Rolfe sailed on the Sea Venture, a Virginia-bound ship that wrecked off the islands of Bermuda in 1609. There his wife gave birth to a daughter, but mother and child soon died. In Virginia, Rolfe turned to experimenting with tobacco, a plant first brought to England from Florida. The Virginia Indians planted a variety that was harsh to English smokers, so Rolfe developed a Spanish West Indies seed, Nicotiana tabacum, that became profitable and, indeed, transformed the colony's economy. In 1614, Rolfe married Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco. The marriage helped bring an end to the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614), but Pocahontas died in 1617 while visiting England with Rolfe and their son, Thomas. While in England, Rolfe penned A True Relation of the state of Virginia Lefte by Sir Thomas Dale Knight in May Last 1616 (1617), promoting the interests of the Virginia Company of London. Back in Virginia, he married Joane Peirce about 1619 and had a daughter, Elizabeth. He died in 1622.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:30:10 EST]]>
/Bucke_Richard_1581_or_1582-ca_1624 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:27:53 EST <![CDATA[Bucke, Richard (1581 or 1582–ca. 1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bucke_Richard_1581_or_1582-ca_1624 Richard Bucke was an Anglican minister who came to Jamestown in 1610, may have performed the marriage ceremony for Pocahontas and John Rolfe in 1614, and in 1619 opened with prayer the first legislative assembly in Virginia. Born and educated in England, Bucke was delayed on his way to Virginia by a storm and spent almost ten months in Bermuda. For a time he was the only minister in Jamestown, and his experiences in the colony seem to have been difficult. His date of death appears to have been around 1624.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:27:53 EST]]>
/Indians_in_Virginia Mon, 23 Nov 2015 11:36:25 EST <![CDATA[Indians in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indians_in_Virginia Indians have lived in the area now known as Virginia for thousands of years. Their histories, ancestral connections, and traditions are intertwined with the 6,000 square miles of Tidewater land the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Virginia called Tsenacomoco. The early inhabitants of Virginia were hunter-gatherers who followed the migratory patterns of animals. Over time, and as the region warmed, they settled into towns along riverbanks and outlined their homelands, developing intimate, balanced relationships with the animals, plants, and geographic formations. They hunted, fished, and farmed, and developed complex social and religious systems and vast trade networks. By the early 1600s, Virginia Indians lived in three broad cultural groups based on the language families found in the area: Algonquian, Iroquoian, and Siouan. Scholars know most about the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Tsenacomoco, who eventually grouped together into a paramount chiefdom. Led by Powhatan, the polity ultimately included twenty-eight to thirty-two small chiefdoms and tribes, stretching from the James to the Potomac rivers and encompassing much of Virginia's coastal plain. In 1607, Englishmen arrived and changed Indian life forever. In the midst of a severe drought, the colonists' demands for food and their inability to fully understand Indian cultural practices led in part to three protracted and violent conflicts over four decades, ending in 1646 with the Algonquian-speaking Indians largely subject to English rule. The General Assembly set aside land for the former tribes of Tsenacomoco, although in subsequent years some Indians were forced to move and some groups became dispersed. In the years that followed, they contributed to the developing American culture while working to maintain their own traditions during difficult periods of disease, hunger, forced relocations, and restrictive colonial and later statewide policies that curtailed their rights to travel unmolested through lands now occupied by settlers, to visit their traditional hunting and fishing grounds, and to testify in court on their own behalf. At the beginning of the twentieth century, a cultural renaissance bloomed and some scholars began to study Indian history more closely. At the same time, the General Assembly did much to deny Indian identity, including passing in 1924 the Act to Preserve Racial Integrity, which criminalized interracial marriage and separated Virginians into two simplified racial categories: white and colored. These wrongs were addressed in part by the Supreme Court's decision in Loving v. Virginia (1967) and by state legislation in the late 1980s that allowed Virginia Indians to change the racial designation on their birth certificates without cost. Virginia Indians in the twenty-first century actively cultivate their own culture while educating others about their history.
Mon, 23 Nov 2015 11:36:25 EST]]>
/Olive_Branch_Petition_1775 Fri, 20 Nov 2015 08:03:56 EST <![CDATA[Olive Branch Petition (1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Olive_Branch_Petition_1775 Fri, 20 Nov 2015 08:03:56 EST]]> /Second_Charter_of_Virginia_1609 Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:13:14 EST <![CDATA[Second Charter of Virginia (1609)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Second_Charter_of_Virginia_1609 Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:13:14 EST]]> /Jefferson_Thomas_and_Religion Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:41:46 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and Religion]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Religion Thomas Jefferson was deeply but unconventionally religious. An empiricist, he believed that a rational and benevolent God was evident in the beauty and order of the universe. He professed "Christianism," a belief in the morals taught by Jesus of Nazareth, but he rejected Jesus's divinity, resurrection, the atonement, and biblical miracles. As such, Jefferson's beliefs resisted conventional labels, and in 1819 he suggested to a correspondent that "I am of a sect by myself, as far as I know." Jefferson meticulously cut up four copies of the Gospels (in English, French, Greek, and Latin), retaining only selected passages, without miracles, to create The Jefferson Bible, his own book for spiritual guidance and solace. Jefferson's career was also marked by religious controversy. He was denounced as an "arch-infidel" in the presidential election of 1800, and his efforts to prevent the appointment of a minister to teach religion at the University of Virginia, one of the first state-owned colleges in the United States, met strong resistance. Jefferson embraced god-given human rights and opposed their abridgment by government. He is known as one of the founders of American religious freedom, and his phrase "a wall of separation between Church & State" has been viewed as emblematic by historians and by the modern United States Supreme Court.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:41:46 EST]]>
/Carver_William_d_1676 Thu, 29 Oct 2015 07:51:39 EST <![CDATA[Carver, William (d. 1676)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carver_William_d_1676 Thu, 29 Oct 2015 07:51:39 EST]]> /Indentured_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Wed, 28 Oct 2015 15:08:38 EST <![CDATA[Indentured Servants in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indentured_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Indentured servants were men and women who signed a contract (also known as an indenture or a covenant) by which they agreed to work for a certain number of years in exchange for transportation to Virginia and, once they arrived, food, clothing, and shelter. Adults usually served for four to seven years and children sometimes for much longer, with most working in the colony's tobacco fields. With a long history in England, indentured servitude became, during most of the seventeenth century, the primary means by which Virginia planters filled their nearly inexhaustible need for labor. At first, the Virginia Company of London paid to transport servants across the Atlantic, but with the institution of the headright system in 1618, the company enticed planters and merchants to incur the cost with the promise of land. As a result, servants flooded into the colony, where they were greeted by deadly diseases and often-harsh conditions that killed a majority of newcomers and left the rest to the mercy of sometimes-cruel masters. The General Assembly passed laws regulating contract terms, as well as the behavior and treatment of servants. Besides benefiting masters with long indentures, these laws limited servant rights while still allowing servants to present any complaints in court. By the end of the seventeenth century, the number of new servants in Virginia had dwindled, and the colony's labor needs were largely met by enslaved Africans.
Wed, 28 Oct 2015 15:08:38 EST]]>
/Convict_Labor_During_the_Colonial_Period Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:14:45 EST <![CDATA[Convict Labor during the Colonial Period]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Convict_Labor_During_the_Colonial_Period In 1615, English courts began to send convicts to the colonies as a way of alleviating England's large criminal population. This practice was unpopular in the colonies and by 1697 colonial ports refused to accept convict ships. In response, Parliament passed the Transportation Act of 1718 to create a more systematic way to export convicts. Instead of relying on merchants to make arrangements on their own to ship felons to the colonies, the British government subsidized the shipment of convicts through a network of merchants, giving a contract for the service to one individual at a time. Between 1700 and 1775, approximately 52,200 convicts sailed for the colonies, more than 20,000 of them to Virginia. Most of these convicts landed and were settled along the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers. Although many were unskilled and thus put to work in agriculture, particularly tobacco production, others with skills were sold to tradesmen, shipbuilders, and iron manufacturers, and for other similar occupations. Convict laborers could be purchased for a lower price than indentured white or enslaved African laborers, and because they already existed outside society's rules, they could be more easily exploited. Nevertheless, Virginia tried repeatedly to pass laws to prevent England from sending convicts, though those laws were overturned by the Crown. At the beginning of the American Revolution (1775–1783), colonial ports virtually ceased accepting convict ships. By 1776, when the last boatload of convicts arrived on the James River, many of the convicts had served their seven-to-fourteen-year terms and returned to Great Britain, while others had become honest citizens and blended into Virginia's colonial economy.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:14:45 EST]]>
/Bermuda_Hundred_During_the_Colonial_Period Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:13:37 EST <![CDATA[Bermuda Hundred during the Colonial Period]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bermuda_Hundred_During_the_Colonial_Period Bermuda Hundred was established by Sir Thomas Dale in 1613 at the confluence of the James and Appomattox rivers. Virginia Indians had occupied the site for at least 10,000 years before Dale planted a settlement there. The term "hundred" comes from the English practice of locating ten towns, or tithings (groups of ten families), at a settlement. One of Bermuda Hundred's most famous residents was John Rolfe, who may have grown his first marketable tobacco there—Nicotiana tabacum, a West Indian plant with which he had been experimenting since 1612. Rolfe may have lived there with his wife Pocahontas, the daughter of the Powhatan Indians' paramount chief, Powhatan. The population of Bermuda Hundred, like that of other early English settlements in Virginia, was nearly wiped out by a massive assault orchestrated by one of Powhatan's successors, Opechancanough. The settlement survived, however, becoming one of Virginia's first ports in 1691, the site of a tobacco inspection in 1731, and the site of a new ferry to City Point in 1732. In 1738, the General Assembly considered Bermuda Hundred for the colony's new capital. After 1780, when Richmond became the new capital of Virginia, Bermuda Hundred began to decline.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:13:37 EST]]>
/Dance_During_the_Colonial_Period Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:10:53 EST <![CDATA[Dance during the Colonial Period]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dance_During_the_Colonial_Period Dancing was the dominant pastime of colonial Virginians of all classes, though it was a special occupation of the planter elite. As the Virginia colony stabilized late in the seventeenth century, its inhabitants attempted to model their emerging culture after that of England, where dancing was hugely popular. Soon dancing began to take place in plantation homes, taverns, and halls built for the express purpose of hosting formal parties. A market developed for professional instructors, or dance masters, who were expected to know the latest dances from Europe. Dancing served a recreational, social, and political purpose; being a skilled dancer was an indication of good breeding, while balls gave men and women the opportunity to express themselves through their dress, partner, and choice of dance. Most dances fell into two main categories: "fancy" dances, such as minuets, allemandes, and hornpipes; and "country" dances. Country dances were simpler to learn and more egalitarian, as each dancing couple interacted with every other couple on the floor. Enslaved persons and lower-class whites held their own informal dance parties where they often performed jigs and reels—more loosely structured dances derived from the traditions of Africans and Scots, respectively—which were adapted by the upper class. By the 1790s, dancing schools had grown in number and in popularity, and lessons became available to Virginians of various classes. At about this time, the gentry class began to feel more ambivalent toward the more democratic country dances, which threatened social discord and even blurred racial boundaries in a culture that was becoming increasingly defensive of its slave system.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:10:53 EST]]>
/An_act_declaring_what_persons_shall_be_deemed_mulattoes_October_1785 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:10:57 EST <![CDATA[An act declaring what persons shall be deemed mulattoes (October 1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_declaring_what_persons_shall_be_deemed_mulattoes_October_1785 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:10:57 EST]]> /An_act_declaring_who_shall_not_bear_office_in_this_country_October_1705 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:07:33 EST <![CDATA[An act declaring who shall not bear office in this country (October 1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_declaring_who_shall_not_bear_office_in_this_country_October_1705 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:07:33 EST]]> /Letters_between_King_Philip_III_and_Don_Pedro_de_Zuniga_1609-1610 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:34:39 EST <![CDATA[Letters between King Philip III and Don Pedro de Zúñiga (1609–1610)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letters_between_King_Philip_III_and_Don_Pedro_de_Zuniga_1609-1610 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:34:39 EST]]> /Letters_between_King_Philip_III_and_Don_Pedro_de_Zuniga_1607-1608 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:33:37 EST <![CDATA[Letters between King Philip III and Don Pedro de Zúñiga (1607–1608)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letters_between_King_Philip_III_and_Don_Pedro_de_Zuniga_1607-1608 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:33:37 EST]]> /_An_act_for_suppressing_outlying_slaves_1691 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:31:10 EST <![CDATA["An act for suppressing outlying slaves" (1691)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_suppressing_outlying_slaves_1691 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:31:10 EST]]> /Law_Prohibiting_Indentured_Servants_from_Hiring_Themselves_Out_1642-1643 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:29:23 EST <![CDATA[Law Prohibiting Indentured Servants from Hiring Themselves Out (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Law_Prohibiting_Indentured_Servants_from_Hiring_Themselves_Out_1642-1643 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:29:23 EST]]> /The_Duties_of_Servants_and_Masters_an_excerpt_from_The_Whole_Duty_of_Man_1658 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:27:55 EST <![CDATA[The Duties of Servants and Masters; an excerpt from The Whole Duty of Man (1658)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Duties_of_Servants_and_Masters_an_excerpt_from_The_Whole_Duty_of_Man_1658 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:27:55 EST]]> /Indenture_between_the_Four_Adventurers_of_Berkeley_Hundred_and_Robert_Coopy_of_North_Nibley_1619 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:22:21 EST <![CDATA[Indenture between the Four Adventurers of Berkeley Hundred and Robert Coopy of North Nibley (1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indenture_between_the_Four_Adventurers_of_Berkeley_Hundred_and_Robert_Coopy_of_North_Nibley_1619 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:22:21 EST]]> /_How_long_Servants_without_Indentures_shall_Serve_1657-1658 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:19:34 EST <![CDATA["How long Servants without Indentures shall Serve" (1658)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_How_long_Servants_without_Indentures_shall_Serve_1657-1658 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:19:34 EST]]> /Laws_Concerning_Indentured_Servants_1619 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:17:39 EST <![CDATA[Laws Concerning Indentured Servants (1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Laws_Concerning_Indentured_Servants_1619 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:17:39 EST]]> /_Eight_hundred_choise_persons_an_excerpt_from_A_Declaration_of_the_Supplies_intended_to_be_sent_to_Virginia_1620 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:11:49 EST <![CDATA["Eight hundred choise persons"; an excerpt from A Declaration of the Supplies intended to be sent to Virginia by the Virginia Company of London (1620)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Eight_hundred_choise_persons_an_excerpt_from_A_Declaration_of_the_Supplies_intended_to_be_sent_to_Virginia_1620 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:11:49 EST]]> /_The_people_of_America_crye_oute_unto_us_an_excerpt_from_Discourse_on_Western_Planting_by_Richard_Hakluyt_the_younger_1584 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:09:56 EST <![CDATA["The people of America crye oute unto us"; an excerpt from Discourse on Western Planting by Richard Hakluyt (the younger) (1584)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_people_of_America_crye_oute_unto_us_an_excerpt_from_Discourse_on_Western_Planting_by_Richard_Hakluyt_the_younger_1584 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:09:56 EST]]> /_An_Acte_towching_dyvers_Orders_for_Artificers_Laborers_Servantes_of_Husbandrye_and_Apprentises_1563 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:08:16 EST <![CDATA["An Acte towching dyvers Orders for Artificers Laborers Servantes of Husbandrye and Apprentises" (1563)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Acte_towching_dyvers_Orders_for_Artificers_Laborers_Servantes_of_Husbandrye_and_Apprentises_1563 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:08:16 EST]]> /Bennett_Richard_bap_1609-ca_1675 Fri, 09 Oct 2015 14:58:41 EST <![CDATA[Bennett, Richard (bap. 1609–ca. 1675)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bennett_Richard_bap_1609-ca_1675 Fri, 09 Oct 2015 14:58:41 EST]]> /Basse_Nathaniel_bap_1589-1654 Fri, 09 Oct 2015 14:57:29 EST <![CDATA[Basse, Nathaniel (bap. 1589–1654)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Basse_Nathaniel_bap_1589-1654 Fri, 09 Oct 2015 14:57:29 EST]]> /Bland_Giles_bap_1647-1677 Fri, 09 Oct 2015 14:55:11 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Giles (bap. 1647–1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Giles_bap_1647-1677 Fri, 09 Oct 2015 14:55:11 EST]]> /Bland_Edward_bap_1614-1652 Fri, 09 Oct 2015 14:52:21 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Edward (bap. 1614–1652)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Edward_bap_1614-1652 Fri, 09 Oct 2015 14:52:21 EST]]> /Howell_Henry_E_1920-1997 Thu, 08 Oct 2015 17:10:21 EST <![CDATA[Howell, Henry E. (1920–1997)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Howell_Henry_E_1920-1997 Henry E. Howell served in the House of Delegates (1960–1962, 1964–1965) and the Senate of Virginia (1966–1971), representing the Norfolk area. He was lieutenant governor of Virginia from 1971 to 1974. Howell ran unsuccessfully for governor three times, losing in the Democratic runoff primary in 1969 and in the general elections of 1973 and 1977. Howell was a harsh critic of Virginia's conservative Democratic political organization headed by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. Howell's principal achievements were as a member of the General Assembly and as an attorney representing clients in federal courts and before the Virginia State Corporation Commission. Howell was an avowed populist, a champion of the ordinary citizen against big economic interests and their political allies. He challenged the poll tax and represented plaintiffs seeking greater representation for urban areas in the General Assembly. Howell also sued the governor to stop the commonwealth from deducting the amount of federal appropriations to "impacted area" school systems from the State's aid to those school systems. Howell's consumer advocacy included numerous rate cases that resulted in rebates from automobile insurance, electric power, and telephone companies. Howell campaigned for Democratic candidates in his later years and died in 1997.
Thu, 08 Oct 2015 17:10:21 EST]]>
/Robinson_John_1705-1766 Mon, 28 Sep 2015 11:21:59 EST <![CDATA[Robinson, John (1705–1766)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robinson_John_1705-1766 John Robinson, one of the most powerful political leaders in colonial Virginia, served as Speaker of the House of Burgesses and treasurer from 1738 to 1766. His death revealed mismanagement of funds and led to a significant political crisis. Born in Middlesex County, Robinson attended school at the College of William and Mary and may have studied law. He first won election to the House of Burgesses in 1728 and began his long stint as Speaker a decade later. He ran the General Assembly's lower chamber along the lines of a modern floor leader and protected the House's interests against powerful opposition from lieutenant governors, the chief executives during his time. Though highly respected for his political acumen and his strengthening of the House of Burgesses, Robinson took two actions late in his career that hurt his reputation among historians. First, he opposed the Virginia Resolves in 1765, notably accusing Patrick Henry of speaking treasonous words against King George III. Second, he mishandled government funds while treasurer by augmenting his loans to Virginia's indebted elites with old paper money slated for destruction. Though these loans possibly kept the colony's economy from collapsing, a later investigation showed that the treasury accounts were more than £100,000 in arrears. Robinson's death in 1766 revealed the extent of his debt to the colony, which wasn't fully paid by his estate until 1781.
Mon, 28 Sep 2015 11:21:59 EST]]>
/Strachey_William_1572-1621 Mon, 21 Sep 2015 10:18:10 EST <![CDATA[Strachey, William (1572–1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Strachey_William_1572-1621 William Strachey was a member of the Virginia Council, served as secretary and recorder for the colony from 1610 until 1611, and was one of the first historians of the Jamestown settlement. Educated at Cambridge and Gray's Inn, he wrote verse and befriended poets Ben Jonson and John Donne before serving a brief stint as secretary to the English ambassador at Constantinople (1606–1607). Strachey then returned to England, purchased two shares in the Virginia Company of London, and in 1609 sailed on the Sea Venture, the flagship of a resupply fleet bound for the colony. When a storm ran the ship aground on the Bermudas, he and his shipmates were stranded for nearly a year, but eventually managed to construct two small vessels, Patience and Deliverance, and arrived at Jamestown in May 1610. Strachey's account of the adventure, published in 1625 as A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates Knight, probably had served, years earlier, as source material for William Shakespeare's play The Tempest. In Virginia, Strachey was appointed to the Council and made its secretary and recorder, in which capacity the company requested that he produce an extensive account of the colony and its future prospects. When he completed The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia in 1612, the company declined to publish it. In the years since, however, it has become one of the most important sources of information on early Virginia Indian society, politics, and religion. Strachey died in poverty in London in 1621.
Mon, 21 Sep 2015 10:18:10 EST]]>
/Pamunkey_Tribe Mon, 24 Aug 2015 11:10:45 EST <![CDATA[Pamunkey Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pamunkey_Tribe The Pamunkey tribe is an Indian tribe that the Commonwealth of Virginia has recognized since the seventeenth century. In 1983, while granting recognition to several other tribes, Virginia again acknowledged the Pamunkey tribe's status. In 2015, the federal government officially recognized the tribe. The tribe has a reservation located on the Pamunkey River in King William County and is one of the nation's oldest, dating back to 1646. Of the reservation's 1,200 acres, 500 are wetlands. In 2012 about eighty Pamunkey tribal members lived on the reservation, with many more residing in nearby Richmond and Newport News, as well as throughout Virginia and the United States. Pamunkey people have served in every American war and major conflict, beginning with the Revolutionary War (1775–1783).
Mon, 24 Aug 2015 11:10:45 EST]]>
/Newspaper_Advertisement_for_Runaway_Slaves_George_Washington_August_20_1761 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:16:54 EST <![CDATA[Newspaper Advertisement for Runaway Slaves, George Washington (August 20, 1761)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Newspaper_Advertisement_for_Runaway_Slaves_George_Washington_August_20_1761 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:16:54 EST]]> /Archer_Gabriel_ca_1574-ca_1610 Mon, 10 Aug 2015 12:26:57 EST <![CDATA[Archer, Gabriel (ca. 1574–ca. 1610)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Archer_Gabriel_ca_1574-ca_1610 Gabriel Archer chronicled an expedition to New England in 1602 and was among the first settlers of the Virginia colony at Jamestown in 1607. Probably born in Essex County, England, Archer attended Cambridge University. In 1602, he joined Bartholomew Gosnold in exploring Cape Cod, or what was then known as North Virginia, and his account of the trip was published posthumously in 1625. It is the first detailed English account of any part of New England. Five years later Archer was wounded in an attack by Virginia Indians upon first landing on the James River, but soon recovered. He joined Christopher Newport in exploring up the river, writing a narrative of that expedition, too. When John Smith returned from captivity among the Indians, Archer sought his execution but Newport intervened in Smith's favor. Archer returned to England not long after. A second stint in Virginia began in 1609 and included more conflict with Smith, who left the colony in the autumn of 1609. Archer died sometime that winter during the so-called Starving Time.
Mon, 10 Aug 2015 12:26:57 EST]]>
/_What_tyme_Indians_serve_1670 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 13:50:53 EST <![CDATA["What tyme Indians serve" (1670)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_What_tyme_Indians_serve_1670 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 13:50:53 EST]]> /John_White_Returns_to_Roanoke_an_excerpt_from_The_fift_voyage_of_Master_John_White_into_the_West_Indies_and_parts_of_America_called_Virginia_in_the_yeere_1590_1600 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 13:43:25 EST <![CDATA[John White Returns to Roanoke; an excerpt from "The fift voyage of Master John White into the West Indies and parts of America called Virginia, in the yeere 1590" (1600)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_White_Returns_to_Roanoke_an_excerpt_from_The_fift_voyage_of_Master_John_White_into_the_West_Indies_and_parts_of_America_called_Virginia_in_the_yeere_1590_1600 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 13:43:25 EST]]> /Cary_Henry_d_by_1750 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 15:10:23 EST <![CDATA[Cary, Henry (d. by 1750)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cary_Henry_d_by_1750 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 15:10:23 EST]]> /Cary_Miles_d_1709 Thu, 14 May 2015 15:44:15 EST <![CDATA[Cary, Miles (d. 1709)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cary_Miles_d_1709 Miles Cary was a commander of the militia, justice of the peace, and member of the House of Burgesses, serving intermittently from 1682 until 1706. Born in Warwick County and educated in England, he was elected to the House of Burgesses in 1682 and 1684. Reelected in 1688, he served until 1706 with the exception of several assemblies. He became one of the most influential members of the General Assembly through service on important committees. Cary held other important administrative posts including clerk of the General Court, register of the Virginia Court of Vice Admiralty, and surveyor general of Virginia. A founding trustee of the College of William and Mary, he served on its board probably until his death and was rector for a pair of one-year terms beginning in 1695 and in 1704. He controlled nearly 2,000 acres of land in Warwick County, where he was one of the wealthiest and most influential citizens. He died in 1709, probably at his plantation in Warwick County.
Thu, 14 May 2015 15:44:15 EST]]>
/Opechancanough_d_1646 Thu, 07 May 2015 09:32:36 EST <![CDATA[Opechancanough (d. 1646)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Opechancanough_d_1646 Opechancanough was paramount chief of Tsenacomoco, a political alliance of Virginia Indians, and famously led massive assaults against the English colonists in 1622 and 1644. The younger brother (or cousin) of Powhatan, who was paramount chief at the time of the Jamestown landing in 1607, Opechancanough was possibly chief of the Youghtanund Indians and, as such, protected one of Tsenacomoco's most critical territories. Still, when another chief seduced his favorite wife, neither Opechancanough nor Powhatan had the power to return her. Although the colonist John Smith portrayed Opechancanough as immediately hostile to the English, the chief actually treated Smith well upon the Englishman's capture. As Powhatan aged, Opechancanough filled the apparent power vacuum, and while he did not immediately become paramount chief upon Powhatan's death in 1618, he appeared to wield the most power. He organized a large-scale assault on the English colonists in March 1622, starting the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632); another assault, this time in April 1644, inaugurated the much shorter Third Anglo-Powhatan War (1644–1646), which ended with Opechancanough's capture. Neither attack deterred English expansion, and Opechancanough died in English custody. By early in the 1700s, the defeated Powhatans were distancing themselves from his memory, and popular writing about him since has tended to downplay his military and diplomatic achievements.
Thu, 07 May 2015 09:32:36 EST]]>
/A_Dissertation_on_Slavery_With_a_Proposal_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_It_In_the_State_of_Virginia_1796 Wed, 04 Feb 2015 10:35:56 EST <![CDATA[A Dissertation on Slavery: With a Proposal for the Gradual Abolition of It, In the State of Virginia (1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Dissertation_on_Slavery_With_a_Proposal_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_It_In_the_State_of_Virginia_1796 A Dissertation on Slavery: With a Proposal for the Gradual Abolition of It, In the State of Virginia (1796), is an essay by St. George Tucker. When he submitted it to the General Assembly in 1796, Tucker was a law professor at the College of William and Mary and a judge on the bench of the General Court. In A Dissertation on Slavery, he discusses the history of slavery, the Virginia slave code, and the morality of slaveholding, and presents a plan for ending slavery. He wrestles with the tensions between the natural rights philosophy of the American Revolution (1775–1783) and the continued existence of slavery. Tucker's attempt to resolve this tension had little immediate effect—the House of Delegates tabled his proposal and Tucker believed that many of the assembly's members refused even to read it—but it did point to a society that somewhat resembled late nineteenth and early twentieth century Virginia. In his essay, Tucker proposed that enslaved African Americans be freed, but, for various reasons, should not enjoy the full rights and privileges of citizenship. Some historians have since pointed out that this circumstance actually came to pass, if not in precisely the manner that Tucker had prescribed.
Wed, 04 Feb 2015 10:35:56 EST]]>
/Board_of_Trade Thu, 08 Jan 2015 16:00:38 EST <![CDATA[Board of Trade]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Board_of_Trade The Board of Trade, established in 1696 by William III, was an English advisory board for trade and colonial government. It was preceded by a variety of committees that had been appointed by monarchs and ministers, beginning in 1622, to oversee the American colonies. In the seventeenth century, sustained work on colonial affairs in England was made difficult by political instability relating to the English Civil Wars (1642–1648). But even in the first half of the eighteenth century, after a dedicated Board of Trade was formed and as the colonies were growing larger and more profitable, the board often (after an initial burst of activity) left the colonies alone. As a result, colonial legislative bodies such as the House of Burgesses became more efficient and therefore more self-reliant. In 1748 the Board of Trade's ambitious new president inaugurated a period of increased board interest in colonial activity. In the 1760s and 1770s the Board of Trade's power declined as Parliament, the Privy Council, and the secretary of state for the colonies became more involved in colonial affairs. After the colonies declared independence from Great Britain in 1776, they no longer required the board's oversight.
Thu, 08 Jan 2015 16:00:38 EST]]>
/Beverley_Robert_ca_1667-1722 Thu, 08 Jan 2015 15:49:27 EST <![CDATA[Beverley, Robert (d. 1722)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beverley_Robert_ca_1667-1722 Robert Beverley, also known as Robert Beverley Jr. or Robert Beverley the historian, was a member of the House of Burgesses (1699–1706) and clerk of that body, and served as chief clerk of the governor's Council. He is best known, however, as author of The History and Present State of Virginia, In Four Parts (1705), the first published history of a British colony by a native of North America. Probably born in Middlesex County, Beverley worked as a clerk in Jamestown, using family connections to advance politically while acquiring substantial wealth. In 1703 he sailed to England to appeal a suit he lost before the General Court, and there he penned his history, a collection of personal history, official accounts, and material borrowed from others. Beverley self-consciously identified himself as a Virginian and used the books to settle political scores. In particular, he was highly critical of Lieutenant Governor Francis Nicholson, who made sure that Beverley lost his positions as clerk of the House of Burgesses and of King and Queen County. In his later years, Beverley retired to his large estate, Beverley Park, where he experimented with wine-making. He may have accompanied Alexander Spotswood on his journey to the crest of Blue Ridge Mountains. Beverley died in 1722.
Thu, 08 Jan 2015 15:49:27 EST]]>
/Burwell_Nathaniel_1750-1814 Thu, 18 Dec 2014 16:37:18 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Nathaniel (1750–1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Nathaniel_1750-1814 Nathaniel Burwell was appointed to the James City County Court, served in the county militia, represented James City County in the House of Delegates (1778–1779), and was elected to the Convention of 1788 to consider the proposed constitution of the United States. The son of Carter Burwell, Nathaniel Burwell spent part of his adulthood at Carter's Grove plantation in James City County. He was a major landholder in the region, owning small industrial operations such as an iron forge and two gristmills. Later he built Carter Hall in what became Clarke County.
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 16:37:18 EST]]>
/White_John_d_1593 Thu, 04 Dec 2014 17:14:26 EST <![CDATA[White, John (d. 1593)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/White_John_d_1593 John White was an English artist who in 1585 accompanied a failed colonizing expedition to Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina and who, in 1587, served as governor of a second failed expedition, which came to be known as the Lost Colony. As an artist attached to the first group of colonists, White produced watercolor portraits of Virginia Indians and scenes of their lives and activities. He rendered the local flora and fauna and, using the English polymath Thomas Hariot as a surveyor, created detailed maps of the North American coastline. He also joined Hariot and others on an exploration of the Chesapeake Bay and made contact there with the Chesapeake Indians. Many of White's paintings were published, sometimes in altered form, by Theodor de Bry as etchings in Hariot's illustrated edition of A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia (1590). They are the most accurate visual record of the New World by an artist of his generation. After the first colony failed, White led a second, which was intended for the Chesapeake but which settled again at Roanoke. The colonists included White's daughter, Elinor White Dare, who gave birth to Virginia Dare, the first English child born in America. A poor and unpopular leader, White agreed to be a messenger back to England to inform the colony's backers of the location change and a need for new supplies. Waylaid by the Spanish Armada, he did not return until 1590; the colonists had disappeared. White died three years later.
Thu, 04 Dec 2014 17:14:26 EST]]>
/Carter_Robert_ca_1664-1732 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:43:27 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Robert (ca. 1664–1732)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Robert_ca_1664-1732 Robert Carter, also known as Robert "King" Carter, was a land baron, Speaker of the House of Burgesses (1696–1698), treasurer of the colony (1699–1705), and a member of the governor's Council (1700–1732). As senior member of the council, he served as president, or acting governor, from 1726 until 1727. Carter, as his nickname attests, was the richest and one of the most powerful Virginians of his day. Virginia-born, he inherited land from his father and his elder half-brother and spent much of the rest of his life accumulating more, most of it part of the Northern Neck Proprietary, for which he served as Virginia agent from 1702 until 1711 and from 1722 until 1732. At the time of his death, he held at least 295,000 acres of land, as well as numerous slaves. He also served as an agent for slave traders. Appointed to the Council by Governor Francis Nicholson, Carter nevertheless opposed Nicholson's, and later Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood's, policies, designed to assert royal control, sometimes at the expense of the interests of the great planters. Carter died in 1732, leaving a will that filled forty pages.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:43:27 EST]]>
/Byrd_William_1728-1777 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:38:33 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, William (1728–1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_William_1728-1777 William Byrd, sometimes referred to as William Byrd III of Westover to distinguish him from relatives of the same name, was a planter, soldier, a member of the House of Burgesses (1754–1756), and a member of the governor's Council (1756–1775). Born at the family estate of Westover, in Charles City County, Byrd studied law in England, where he gambled and began to accumulate debts that would last a lifetime. He wed Elizabeth Carter upon his return, but the marriage was unhappy and she died of a probable suicide in 1760. By then Byrd had been forced to sell off large parts of his estate, Belvidere, to settle debts. He also served in the military during this time, traveling widely and commanding first the 2nd Virginia Regiment and then succeeding George Washington at the head of the 1st. He married a second time, in 1761, and when the American Revolution (1775–1783) began, offered his services to the king. Dunmore's Proclamation (1775), which offered freedom to slaves who fought for the British, changed his loyalties. Commands were not offered, however, and in January 1777, Byrd killed himself.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:38:33 EST]]>
/Byrd_William_ca_1652-1704 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:37:06 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, William (ca. 1652–1704)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_William_ca_1652-1704 William Byrd, also known as William Byrd I, was an Indian trader, explorer, member of the House of Burgesses (1679–1682), member of the governor's Council (1683–1704), and auditor- and receiver-general (1688–1704). Inheriting the bulk of his uncle's Virginia estate, Byrd spent his early years as an Indian trader and explorer. Early in 1676, his trade was cut off after Indian attacks, and he helped to persuade his partner, Nathaniel Bacon, to take unlawful command of a militia and lead it against the Indians. Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677) resulted, but Byrd switched his loyalties to Governor Sir William Berkeley, opening the way for his political career. Elected to the House of Burgesses in 1677, Byrd commanded defense forces at the falls of the James River and operated as one of the most important Indian traders of the seventeenth century. He became an ally of Governor Thomas Culpeper, baron Culpeper of Thoresway, who appointed him to the Council in 1683. Five years later, after much lobbying, he received the combined posts of auditor- and receiver-general, putting him in charge of both collecting and maintaining all the colony's royal revenue. In the absence of Governor Francis Nicholson, he served three stints as president, or acting governor, of the colony. Byrd died in Charles City County in 1704.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:37:06 EST]]>
/Byrd_Mary_Willing_1740-1814 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:35:12 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, Mary Willing (1740–1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Mary_Willing_1740-1814 Mary Willing Byrd was the wife of William Byrd III and, after his death, the inheritor and protector of the Byrd family estate of Westover, in Charles City County. Born in Philadelphia and the goddaughter of Benjamin Franklin, she married Byrd in 1761; he was then serving in the French and Indian War (1754–1763). During the American Revolution (1775–1783), William Byrd, in debt and accused of loyalty to the British, committed suicide. Mary Willing Byrd spent much of the war settling his massive debts and attempting to stay on the right side of both British and American forces. Although charged by the Americans in 1781 with trading with the enemy, she was never tried. Byrd died in March 1814, still in control of Westover.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:35:12 EST]]>
/Drysdale_Hugh_1672_or_1673-1726 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:20:17 EST <![CDATA[Drysdale, Hugh (1672 or 1673–1726)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Drysdale_Hugh_1672_or_1673-1726 Hugh Drysdale was lieutenant governor of Virginia, ruling the colony in the absence of Governor George Hamilton, first earl of Orkney, from 1722 until his death in 1726. Born in Ireland and educated in Dublin and at Oxford, Drysdale served in the English army and probably saw action in Portugal early in the War of Spanish Succession (1701–1714). He retired in 1722 and likely knew Orkney, a leading military man and a member of the official household of George I. Through this connection, Drysdale was appointed lieutenant governor of Virginia and impressed the Council of State with his "Courteous disposition." He called the General Assembly in 1723 and amid fears of an insurrection proposed reforms to laws related to crimes committed by slaves. Taking the side of planters, Drysdale also approved a bill aimed at raising the price of tobacco. He failed, however, at reforming land office practices that had allowed the former governor Alexander Spotswood to accumulate large quantities of land. Shortly after calling a second assembly in 1726, Drysdale died in Williamsburg.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:20:17 EST]]>
/Drummond_William_d_1677 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:18:35 EST <![CDATA[Drummond, William (d. 1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Drummond_William_d_1677 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:18:35 EST]]> /Digges_Edward_1621-1675 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:17:38 EST <![CDATA[Digges, Edward (1621–1675)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Digges_Edward_1621-1675 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:17:38 EST]]> /Dawson_Thomas_1715-1760 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:16:21 EST <![CDATA[Dawson, Thomas (1715–1760)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dawson_Thomas_1715-1760 Thomas Dawson was an Anglican priest, rector of Bruton Parish (1743–1759), commissary of the bishop of London (1752–1759), member of the governor's Council (1753–1760), and president of the College of William and Mary (1755–1760). Born in England, Dawson traveled to Virginia in 1735 and attended the College of William and Mary, where he studied and worked. He was ordained as a deacon and priest of the Church of England by the bishop of Carlisle in 1740 and served as rector of the Bruton Parish Church. He was named commissary of the bishop of London on September 21, 1752, and was appointed to the governor's Council in 1753. In 1755 Dawson became president of the College of William and Mary. His popularity among Virginia clergymen declined in the 1750s when he neglected to formally protest the Two Penny Acts; his tenure as president of William and Mary was tainted by a power struggle between the faculty, composed of clergymen, and the board of visitors, composed of laypeople. However, Dawson remained an advocate for the education of children and African Americans throughout his life. At the end of his life, Dawson became dependent on alcohol, and in 1760 the board of visitors accused him of habitual drunkenness, infrequent attendance at college prayers, and gambling. Dawson died shortly thereafter, on November 29, 1760.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:16:21 EST]]>
/Davies_Samuel_1723-1761 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:14:42 EST <![CDATA[Davies, Samuel (1723–1761)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davies_Samuel_1723-1761 Samuel Davies was an evangelical Presbyterian pastor and educator who lived and worked in Hanover County from 1748 to 1759. He played a critical role in the early years of the Great Awakening, the series of religious revivals that would eventually lead to the disestablishment of the Church of England as America's official church. Davies was a skilled orator whose sermons were filled with vivid language and punctuated with passionate calls for conversion; his rhetorical style influenced future revolutionary and Governor Patrick Henry, who as a boy accompanied his mother to Davies's church. Unlike other itinerant preachers of his day, Davies worked within the confines English law set for dissenters, and in doing so established no fewer than eight licensed meetinghouses in colonial Virginia. Davies also wrote poetry as a means of spreading God's word, and was one of the first colonial Americans to compose hymns. In 1753 he traveled to London to raise funds for the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University), and in 1759 left Virginia to become president of the college. He died in Princeton, New Jersey, on February 4, 1761, at age thirty-seven, and is buried in the presidents' plot of Princeton Cemetery.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:14:42 EST]]>
/Church_of_England_in_Virginia Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:44:59 EST <![CDATA[Church of England in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Church_of_England_in_Virginia The Church of England was the established church of the Virginia colony. It came to Virginia as early as 1607, when the first English colonists settled Jamestown, but was not formally established by the House of Burgesses until 1619. Religious life in Virginia reflected the economic, geographic, and political circumstances of the colony. People from all segments of society attended Anglican services (although slaves often worshipped in segregated galleries or attended a separate service). Because Virginians tended to settle in plantations scattered throughout the countryside rather than in towns, parishes were typically larger than those in England. This made it difficult for those who lived in outlying areas to make the weekly trip to their parish's main church. Instead, most parishes maintained multiple "chapels of ease" to accommodate far-flung parishioners. The Church of England in Virginia was subject to laws passed by the General Assembly and, unlike in England, was supervised at the parish level by vestries (boards of local parishioners). In Virginia a vestry had the authority to choose—or refuse to induct—a minister for its parish. This led to a tense relationship between the congregation and the clergy. The status of the Church of England in Virginia improved late in the seventeenth century, after the bishop of London appointed minister James Blair to represent his interests in the colony, and on the eve of the American Revolution (1775–1783), the church was as powerful as it had ever been.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:44:59 EST]]>
/Allen_Arthur_1608-1669 Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:39:07 EST <![CDATA[Allen, Arthur (1608–1669)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allen_Arthur_1608-1669 Arthur Allen became an agent for tobacco merchants in Bristol, England, and arrived in Virginia during the 1640s. He amassed one of the largest plantations in Surry County by the 1660s. There, he built a three story brick house that reflected his status as one of the county's wealthiest men. Allen died in 1669; his house became known as Bacon's Castle after Nathaniel Bacon's followers occupied it during the 1676 insurrection.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:39:07 EST]]>
/Bacon_s_Rebellion_1676-1677 Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:30:13 EST <![CDATA[Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bacon_s_Rebellion_1676-1677 Bacon's Rebellion, fought from 1676 to 1677, began with a local dispute with the Doeg Indians on the Potomac River. Chased north by Virginia militiamen, who also attacked the otherwise uninvolved Susquehannocks, the Indians began raiding the Virginia frontier. The governor, Sir William Berkeley, persauded the General Assembly to adopt a plan that isolated the Susquehannocks while bringing in Indian allies on Virginia's side. Others saw in the Susquehannock War an opportunity for a general Indian war that would yield Indian slaves and lands, and would give vent to popular anti-Indian sentiment. They found a leader in Nathaniel Bacon, a recent arrival to Virginia and a member of the governor's Council. Bacon demanded a commission to fight the Indians; when none was forthcoming, he led "volunteers" against some of Virginia's closest Indian allies. This led to a civil war pitting Bacon's followers against Berkeley loyalists. The conflict was often bitter and personal—at one point, Berkeley bared his chest and dared Bacon to kill him—and involved the looting of both rebel and loyalist properties. Berkeley expelled Bacon from the Council, reinstated him, and then expelled him a second time. After the governor fled Jamestown for the Eastern Shore, he returned, only to be chased away by Bacon's army, which burned the capital. Bacon died suddenly in October 1676, but bitter fighting continued into January. The Crown dispatched troops to Virginia, which arrived shortly after the rebellion had been quelled. The causes of Bacon's Rebellion have long been disputed. Today it is generally regarded as part of a general crisis in Virginia's social, economic, and political arrangements. The argument that it should be seen as a revolt against English tyranny and a precursor to the American Revolution (1775–1783) has been discredited.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:30:13 EST]]>
/The_Legend_of_Captaine_Jones_by_David_Lloyd_1631 Mon, 22 Sep 2014 13:26:51 EST <![CDATA[The Legend of Captaine Jones by David Lloyd (1631)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Legend_of_Captaine_Jones_by_David_Lloyd_1631 Mon, 22 Sep 2014 13:26:51 EST]]> /Elizabeth_I_1533-1603 Wed, 17 Sep 2014 13:17:22 EST <![CDATA[Elizabeth I (1533–1603)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Elizabeth_I_1533-1603 Elizabeth I was queen of England from 1558 to 1603, and Virginia was named in honor of her. Daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn, Elizabeth Tudor became queen at the death of her married but childless half-sister Mary I. Elizabeth remained single, and her image as the "virgin queen" permeated the arts and politics of her reign, even as she used the possibility of marriage to shape foreign policy. Her reign saw the establishment of the Protestant Church of England in a form that has lasted for centuries. She faced a rebellion and plots in favor of her Catholic cousin, Mary, Queen of Scots, whose flight to England and claims to its throne caused Elizabeth first to imprison and then to execute her. Elizabeth oversaw her navy's defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, a victory that marked a high point of English protestant and nationalistic fervor. In the 1580s, she encouraged Sir Walter Raleigh's ventures to the New World, and even though his colonies at Roanoke failed, their brief existence enabled the English explorers to claim much of the eastern coast of North America as "Virginia." Elizabeth's love and patronage of plays, pageants, literature, and the fine arts was at the heart of the English Renaissance. Elizabeth was famous for her linguistic skills, sharp wit and temper, educated mind, frugality, and political caution. In her speeches, civic processions, and travels around the kingdom, she cultivated her popularity with her subjects. Elizabeth died in 1603 and was succeeded by her cousin James VI of Scotland.
Wed, 17 Sep 2014 13:17:22 EST]]>
/James_II_1633-1701 Wed, 17 Sep 2014 13:07:32 EST <![CDATA[James II (1633–1701)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/James_II_1633-1701 James II was king of England, Ireland, and—as James VII—Scotland from 1685 to 1688. He was the second son of Charles I, who was tried by Parliament and executed after the English Civil Wars (1642–1648). James spent much of his youth in exile in France and Spain; he returned to London in 1660 when his older brother was restored to the throne as Charles II. James maintained an active role in his brother's court and, as lord high admiral, administered the Royal Navy. In 1668 or 1669 James converted from Protestantism to Catholicism, a decision that would alter the course of his political life. His relations with Parliament, the Church of England, and the political nation soured soon after he took the throne in 1685. He was deposed in the so-called Glorious Revolution (1688–1689) led by his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband and cousin, William III of Orange, who would rule in James's stead as Mary II and William III. James II spent his later years in exile, again in France, leaving once to attempt, unsuccessfully, an invasion of Ireland in 1689–1690. He died in 1701 of a cerebral hemorrhage at the court-in-exile, Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
Wed, 17 Sep 2014 13:07:32 EST]]>
/James_VI_and_I_1566-1625 Wed, 17 Sep 2014 12:33:36 EST <![CDATA[James VI and I (1566–1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/James_VI_and_I_1566-1625 James Stuart became king of Scotland in 1567 (as James VI) and king of England and Ireland (as James I) in 1603. He ruled both kingdoms until his death in 1625. The son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, James became king of Scotland as an infant when his mother abdicated. When Elizabeth I died in 1603, James became king of England and moved there with his family. As king, James encouraged moderation within the Church of England, the essential nature of which he maintained despite the wishes of his Catholic and Puritan subjects, and cultivated a reputation for peace that at times frustrated his bellicose courtiers. He supported the Virginia Company of London's establishment in 1607 of the first permanent English colony in North America, the first settlement of which was named Jamestown in his honor. His relations with his Parliaments remained contentious over the issues of union with Scotland, taxation and fiscal responsibility, corruption, and foreign policy. His extravagant expenditures on his family's separate courts, his male favorites, and royal buildings reflected his belief that kings were meant to spend the money that the government had the obligation to provide. James was renowned for his intellectual abilities, his flamboyant generosity, and his passion for hunting. At court he and his queen, Anne, celebrated their love of theater and pageantry through their patronage of playwrights and designers such as William Shakespeare and Inigo Jones. He also commissioned the rich and poetic translation of the Bible that is known as the King James Bible. James died in 1625 and was succeeded by his son, who ruled as Charles I.
Wed, 17 Sep 2014 12:33:36 EST]]>
/George_III_1738-1820 Wed, 17 Sep 2014 12:16:06 EST <![CDATA[George III (1738–1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_III_1738-1820 George III was king of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760 to 1811. The third monarch from the House of Hanover, George was just twenty-two years old when he succeeded his grandfather, George II, as king in 1760. His reign was shaped by the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), the Irish Rebellion (1798), and the French Revolution (1783–1815), but he is best known as the "tyrant," called "unfit to be the ruler of a free people" in the Declaration of Independence (1776), who lost the American Revolution (1775–1783). In reality, George III supported his cabinet's authority and, with a few exceptions, influenced but did not dictate policy; once the fighting began, he counseled his ministers to be consistent in their opposition to the American rebellion until the defeat at Yorktown. American patriots, hostile British contemporaries, and nineteenth-century historians all painted George III as personally responsible for the conflict and its loss, but historical scholarship since the 1930s has overturned this anachronistic and overly personalized reading of the king. Despite the American loss, George III was popular among his subjects in the decades following the war, and the fiftieth year of his reign was celebrated countrywide in 1809–1810. In 1810, an attack of an illness, probably porphyria, which had plagued him for nearly two decades, robbed him of his sight, hearing, and sanity. On February 5, 1811, his son George, Prince of Wales, was appointed regent and ruled in his place until January 29, 1820, when George III died at Windsor Castle.
Wed, 17 Sep 2014 12:16:06 EST]]>
/Thorpe_George_bap_1576-1622 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 12:29:16 EST <![CDATA[Thorpe, George (bap. 1576–1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thorpe_George_bap_1576-1622 George Thorpe was an investor in the Virginia Company of London and a member of the governor's Council (1620–1622) who presented himself as an agent of Christian salvation for Virginia Indians. Born into a gentry family in Gloucestershire, he studied law at the Middle Temple and served briefly in Parliament (1614) before becoming a chief organizer of Berkeley Hundred, a society founded in 1618 and allotted land by the Crown for settlement in Virginia. A company of settlers sailed to the colony in 1619, but Thorpe and his fellow investors relieved the group's captain of his duties. Thorpe took charge of the plantation in Virginia and, at the behest of the Virginia Company, at least 10,000 acres of land set aside for a university, including an Indian college, east of present-day Richmond. Evidence suggests that Thorpe had previously cared for a Virginia Indian and, upon his arrival in the colony in May 1620, was motivated to befriend the Indians and convert them to Christianity. The next year, Thorpe informed company officials that he had secured a visit with Opechancanough, one of the most powerful chiefs of Tsenacomoco. Although Opechancanough accepted Thorpe's gift of a new house and led the Englishman to believe he might convert, he was actually planning a large-scale attack against English settlements on the James River. Thorpe was killed in those attacks on March 22, 1622.
Mon, 15 Sep 2014 12:29:16 EST]]>
/Exploration_The_Age_of Tue, 26 Aug 2014 16:41:12 EST <![CDATA[Exploration, The Age of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Exploration_The_Age_of The Age of Exploration began in earnest with the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and ended, at least where present-day Virginians are concerned, with the founding of Jamestown in 1607. When Columbus stumbled into two unknown continents, he had been looking for a quick route to the Far East, and, for decades to come, explorers focused on discovering that passage almost as much as they did on exploiting the New World. Early in the sixteenth century, the Spaniards conquered three major civilizations in Central and South America, and in the process unleashed a devastating biological exchange that killed an estimated 95 percent of the area's inhabitants between 1492 and 1650. The Spanish then turned their sights north, planting short-lived colonies on the shores of present-day Georgia and South Carolina and pursuing what came to be known as the Chicora Legend: the belief that the best land, as well as a passage to China, could be found in the area of the Chesapeake Bay. While the French and later the English explored the far northern latitudes of the Atlantic Ocean, the Spanish slowly worked their way up the coast from present-day Florida, a quest that ended only when a Virginia Indian called Don Luís (Paquiquineo) led a fatal attack on a group of Jesuit missionaries in 1571. This defeat helped make room for the English, whose failed colonies at Roanoke in 1585 and 1587 led, finally, to the permanent settlement at Jamestown.
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 16:41:12 EST]]>
/Little_Ice_Age_and_Colonial_Virginia_The Thu, 21 Aug 2014 17:35:21 EST <![CDATA[Little Ice Age and Colonial Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Little_Ice_Age_and_Colonial_Virginia_The The Little Ice Age was a climatic period, lasting from about 1300 to 1750, when worldwide temperatures cooled slightly, leading to extreme weather that, in turn, affected the colonizing ventures of Europeans in America. Before their arrival, Europeans assumed America's climate would match that of lands situated along the same lines of latitude elsewhere. Instead, the New World was both hotter and colder than they expected. And as a result of the Little Ice Age, the weather was marked by wet springs that led to flooding, hot summers that led to long droughts, and particularly cold winters. Scientists disagree over the causes of the Little Ice Age, although an environmental scientist at the University of Virginia has pointed the finger at human activity. Regardless, scientists agree that the effect on weather was pronounced. In January 1607, a massive flood struck southwestern England even as the Thames River was frozen over. Both the areas around Roanoke and Jamestown were suffering from millennial droughts when the colonists arrived demanding food from local Indian populations. The resulting scarcity of food contributed to disease and conflict, both of which ended the venture at Roanoke and threatened the survival of Jamestown.
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 17:35:21 EST]]>
/Burwell_Carter_1716-1756 Thu, 21 Aug 2014 17:25:29 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Carter (1716–1756)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Carter_1716-1756 Carter Burwell was a key member of the House of Burgesses who built Carter's Grove plantation. The heir of substantial estates from both his father and his grandfather Robert "King" Carter, he became a powerful figure in James City County politics. The constituency's voters elected him to the House of Burgesses in 1742. He served until 1755, chairing the influential Committee of Privileges and Elections and working as an important ally of John Robinson, the body's powerful speaker. He is best known for the Georgian home he had built at Carter's Grove, considered an important example of the era's architecture.
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 17:25:29 EST]]>
/A_Map_of_Virginia_With_a_Description_of_the_Countrey_the_Commodities_People_Government_and_Religion_by_John_Smith_1612 Mon, 11 Aug 2014 09:23:41 EST <![CDATA[A Map of Virginia. With a Description of the Countrey, the Commodities, People, Government and Religion by John Smith (1612)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Map_of_Virginia_With_a_Description_of_the_Countrey_the_Commodities_People_Government_and_Religion_by_John_Smith_1612 Mon, 11 Aug 2014 09:23:41 EST]]> /Allerton_Isaac_ca_1630-1702 Sat, 09 Aug 2014 07:14:13 EST <![CDATA[Allerton, Isaac (ca. 1630–1702)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allerton_Isaac_ca_1630-1702 Sat, 09 Aug 2014 07:14:13 EST]]> /Aggie_Mary_fl_1728-1731 Thu, 07 Aug 2014 15:02:35 EST <![CDATA[Aggie, Mary (fl. 1728–1731)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Aggie_Mary_fl_1728-1731 Mary Aggie was a slave who became a principal in a court case that changed Virginia's statute law. Although unsuccessful in suing for her freedom in 1728, she demonstrated her belief in Christianity to the satisfaction of the presiding judge, Lieutenant Governor William Gooch. In 1730 she was convicted by the York County court of oyer and terminer of stealing from her owner, which ordinarily would have doomed her to death or severe corporal punishment. In 1731, however, Gooch had her case sent to the General Court, where he hoped she could secure the benefit of clergy, a privilege in English law dating back centuries in which literate persons could escape death or the severest penalties for first convictions on most capital offenses. Before a final verdict could be rendered, on May 6, 1731, Gooch and the governor's Council pardoned Aggie on the condition that she would be sold out of the colony. The General Assembly referred to Aggie's cases in passing a law on July 1, 1732, that allowed virtually all Virginians to plead benefit of clergy except in certain cases, a privilege that continued for another sixty years.
Thu, 07 Aug 2014 15:02:35 EST]]>
/A_True_relation_of_such_occurrences_and_accidents_of_note_as_hath_hapned_at_Virginia_since_the_first_planting_of_that_Collonyby_John_Smith_1608 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:12:16 EST <![CDATA[A True relation of such occurrences and accidents of note, as hath hapned at Virginia, since the first planting of that Collony by John Smith (1608)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_True_relation_of_such_occurrences_and_accidents_of_note_as_hath_hapned_at_Virginia_since_the_first_planting_of_that_Collonyby_John_Smith_1608 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:12:16 EST]]> /Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Short_Report_of_the_American_Journey_Which_Was_Made_from_the_2nd_of_October_of_Last_Year_to_the_First_of_December_of_this_Current_Year_1702_by_Franz_Louis_Michel_1702 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 11:30:16 EST <![CDATA[Arriving in Virginia; an excerpt from "Short Report of the American Journey, Which Was Made from the 2nd of October of Last Year to the First of December of this Current Year 1702" by Frantz Ludwig Michel (1702)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Short_Report_of_the_American_Journey_Which_Was_Made_from_the_2nd_of_October_of_Last_Year_to_the_First_of_December_of_this_Current_Year_1702_by_Franz_Louis_Michel_1702 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 11:30:16 EST]]> /_An_act_to_repeal_part_of_an_act_directing_the_trial_of_slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_negroes_mulattoes_or_indians_bond_or_free_1788 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:11:28 EST <![CDATA["An act to repeal part of an act, directing the trial of slaves committing capital crimes, and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them, and for the better government of negroes, mulattoes, or indians, bond or free" (1788)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_to_repeal_part_of_an_act_directing_the_trial_of_slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_negroes_mulattoes_or_indians_bond_or_free_1788 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:11:28 EST]]> /_An_act_about_the_casuall_killing_of_slaves_1669 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 09:33:25 EST <![CDATA["An act about the casuall killing of slaves" (1669)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_about_the_casuall_killing_of_slaves_1669 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 09:33:25 EST]]> /Grove_The_Travel_Journal_of_William_Hugh_1732 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:58:58 EST <![CDATA[The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove (1732)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Grove_The_Travel_Journal_of_William_Hugh_1732 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:58:58 EST]]> /Will_of_Mary_Willing_Byrd_December_1813 Mon, 21 Jul 2014 13:51:09 EST <![CDATA[Will of Mary Willing Byrd (December 1813)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Will_of_Mary_Willing_Byrd_December_1813 Mon, 21 Jul 2014 13:51:09 EST]]> /Barlowe_Arthur_ca_1550-ca_1620 Sat, 19 Jul 2014 11:17:14 EST <![CDATA[Barlowe, Arthur (ca. 1550–ca. 1620)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barlowe_Arthur_ca_1550-ca_1620 Arthur Barlowe was an English explorer and sea captain who helped to lead a reconnaissance expedition to Roanoke Island off the coast of present-day North Carolina, preparing for a larger English settlement the following year. Little is known about Barlowe's life other than that by early in the 1580s he was a gentleman-soldier attached to Walter Raleigh's household in London. In 1584, Barlowe and Philip Amadas captained two ships that landed at Roanoke Island in what would become the Virginia Colony. The explorers remained in the region for two months, and upon his return Barlowe produced a report, "The first voyage made to the coastes of America," that appeared in Richard Hakluyt the Younger's Principall Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation, published in 1589. An entertaining narrative, Barlowe's report appears to have been based on a ship's log of the voyage, and the final text may have been reworked by others, including Thomas Hariot, Raleigh's primary assistant, and Raleigh himself. Raleigh used the completed report as a propaganda tool to further his aims of settling a permanent colony in Virginia.
Sat, 19 Jul 2014 11:17:14 EST]]>
/Baylor_John_III_1705-1772 Sat, 19 Jul 2014 09:20:00 EST <![CDATA[Baylor, John, III (1705–1772)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Baylor_John_III_1705-1772 John Baylor III was a wealthy planter and one of the most significant importers and breeders of thoroughbred horses in pre-Revolutionary America. The son of a slave dealer described by Robert "King" Carter as "the greatest merchant in our country," Baylor was educated in England and, upon his return to Virginia, granted land along the Mattaponi River, where he built his estate, Newmarket. He represented Caroline County in the House of Burgesses (1742–1752; 1756–1765) and on the county court before falling out of political favor in a dispute over how best to oppose the Stamp Act (1765). Baylor's deepest passion was elite horseflesh and it nearly bankrupted him. By the mid-1750s, he had given up racing and was instead importing, at great expense, a dozen or more of the colony's best thoroughbreds, which attracted the mares of George Washington, among others, for breeding. In 1764, he purchased the thoroughbred Fearnought for the unprecedented price of a thousand guineas, and it became Virginia's premier breeding horse, whose genes were prized even into the twentieth century. Baylor, however, sank into debt and died at Newmarket in 1772 after a long illness.
Sat, 19 Jul 2014 09:20:00 EST]]>
/Puritans_in_Colonial_Virginia Thu, 17 Jul 2014 17:30:20 EST <![CDATA[Puritans in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Puritans_in_Colonial_Virginia Thu, 17 Jul 2014 17:30:20 EST]]> /_The_gouernment_left_to_Captaine_Yearly_from_Book_4_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Thu, 17 Jul 2014 09:05:12 EST <![CDATA["The gouernment left to Captaine Yearly," from Book 4 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_gouernment_left_to_Captaine_Yearly_from_Book_4_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Thu, 17 Jul 2014 09:05:12 EST]]> /Smith_Chapter_12_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:25:46 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 12, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_Chapter_12_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:25:46 EST]]> /Chapters_10-11_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:21:02 EST <![CDATA[Chapters 10–11, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapters_10-11_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:21:02 EST]]> /Chapter_7_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Tue, 15 Jul 2014 11:47:32 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 7, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_7_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Tue, 15 Jul 2014 11:47:32 EST]]> /Smith_Chapter_2_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Thu, 10 Jul 2014 11:34:54 EST <![CDATA[Smith, Chapter 2, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_Chapter_2_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_1624 Thu, 10 Jul 2014 11:34:54 EST]]> /Chapter_1_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 09 Jul 2014 09:59:13 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 1, Book 3 of The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_1_Book_3_of_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Wed, 09 Jul 2014 09:59:13 EST]]> /_John_Smith_from_The_History_of_the_Worthies_of_England_by_Thomas_Fuller_1661 Mon, 07 Jul 2014 10:26:28 EST <![CDATA["John Smith," from The History of the Worthies of England by Thomas Fuller (1661)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_John_Smith_from_The_History_of_the_Worthies_of_England_by_Thomas_Fuller_1661 Mon, 07 Jul 2014 10:26:28 EST]]> /Chapter_17_of_The_Trve_Travels_Adventvres_and_Observations_of_Captaine_Iohn_Smith_in_Europe_Asia_Africke_and_America_Vol_1_1629 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 13:38:57 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 17 of The Trve Travels, Adventvres and Observations of Captaine Iohn Smith in Europe, Asia, Africke, and America, Vol. 1 (1629)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_17_of_The_Trve_Travels_Adventvres_and_Observations_of_Captaine_Iohn_Smith_in_Europe_Asia_Africke_and_America_Vol_1_1629 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 13:38:57 EST]]> /Chapters_11-12_of_The_Trve_Travels_Adventvres_and_Observations_of_Captaine_Iohn_Smith_in_Europe_Asia_Africke_and_America_Vol_1_1629 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 13:36:33 EST <![CDATA[Chapters 11–12 of The Trve Travels, Adventvres and Observations of Captaine Iohn Smith in Europe, Asia, Africke, and America, Vol. 1 (1629)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapters_11-12_of_The_Trve_Travels_Adventvres_and_Observations_of_Captaine_Iohn_Smith_in_Europe_Asia_Africke_and_America_Vol_1_1629 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 13:36:33 EST]]> /Chapter_7_of_The_Trve_Travels_Adventvres_and_Observations_of_Captaine_Iohn_Smith_in_Europe_Asia_Africke_and_America_Vol_1_1629 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 13:33:28 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 7 of The Trve Travels, Adventvres and Observations of Captaine Iohn Smith in Europe, Asia, Africke, and America, Vol. 1 (1629)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_7_of_The_Trve_Travels_Adventvres_and_Observations_of_Captaine_Iohn_Smith_in_Europe_Asia_Africke_and_America_Vol_1_1629 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 13:33:28 EST]]> /Chapters_1-2_of_The_Trve_Travels_Adventvres_and_Observations_of_Captaine_Iohn_Smith_in_Europe_Asia_Africke_and_America_Vol_1_1629 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 13:29:34 EST <![CDATA[Chapters 1–2 of The Trve Travels, Adventvres and Observations of Captaine Iohn Smith in Europe, Asia, Africke, and America, Vol. 1 (1629)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapters_1-2_of_The_Trve_Travels_Adventvres_and_Observations_of_Captaine_Iohn_Smith_in_Europe_Asia_Africke_and_America_Vol_1_1629 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 13:29:34 EST]]> /Monacan_Indian_Nation Tue, 01 Jul 2014 13:40:09 EST <![CDATA[Monacan Indian Nation]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Monacan_Indian_Nation The Monacan Indian Nation is a state-recognized Indian tribe whose tribal area is located near Bear Mountain in Amherst County. The original territory of the Siouan-speaking tribe and its allies comprised more than half of present-day Virginia, including almost all of the Piedmont region and parts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Early in the twenty-first century about 1,600 Monacans belonged to the tribe, one of the oldest groups of indigenous people still existing in its ancestral homeland, and the only group in the state whose culture descends from Eastern Siouan speakers.
Tue, 01 Jul 2014 13:40:09 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Luis_de_QuirA Mon, 30 Jun 2014 08:34:52 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Luis de Quirós and Juan Baptista de Segura to Juan de Hinistrosa (September 12, 1570)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Luis_de_QuirA Mon, 30 Jun 2014 08:34:52 EST]]> /Third_Charter_of_Virginia_1612 Thu, 26 Jun 2014 16:54:43 EST <![CDATA[Third Charter of Virginia (1612)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Third_Charter_of_Virginia_1612 Thu, 26 Jun 2014 16:54:43 EST]]> /First_Charter_of_Virginia_1606 Thu, 26 Jun 2014 16:08:52 EST <![CDATA[First Charter of Virginia (1606)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/First_Charter_of_Virginia_1606 Thu, 26 Jun 2014 16:08:52 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Thorpe_to_Sir_Edwin_Sandys_June_27_1621 Thu, 26 Jun 2014 10:48:02 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Thorpe to Sir Edwin Sandys (June 27, 1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Thorpe_to_Sir_Edwin_Sandys_June_27_1621 Thu, 26 Jun 2014 10:48:02 EST]]> /The_massacre_upon_the_two_and_twentieth_of_March_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_1624 Thu, 26 Jun 2014 10:43:51 EST <![CDATA[The massacre upon the two and twentieth of March"; an excerpt from The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_massacre_upon_the_two_and_twentieth_of_March_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_1624 Thu, 26 Jun 2014 10:43:51 EST]]> /Letters_Patents_graunted_by_her_Maiestie_to_Sir_Humfrey_Gilbert_June_11_1578_The Thu, 19 Jun 2014 13:43:39 EST <![CDATA[Letters Patents graunted by her Maiestie to Sir Humfrey Gilbert (June 11, 1578), The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letters_Patents_graunted_by_her_Maiestie_to_Sir_Humfrey_Gilbert_June_11_1578_The Thu, 19 Jun 2014 13:43:39 EST]]> /Hakluyt_Richard_1552-1616 Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:33:44 EST <![CDATA[Hakluyt, Richard (1552–1616)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hakluyt_Richard_1552-1616 Richard Hakluyt, better known as Richard Hakluyt (the younger) or Richard Hakluyt (the minister) to distinguish him from his elder cousin of the same name, was an editor, geographer, and Anglican minister. With his cousin, he acted as one of the chief propagandists of English colonization in North America. In 1582, he published Divers Voyages Touching the Discoverie of America, and the Ilands Adjacent, probably in support of Sir Humphrey Gilbert's plan to settle North America. And when Gilbert's half brother Walter Raleigh inherited Gilbert's patent for colonization, Hakluyt wrote and presented to Queen Elizabeth a Discourse on Western Planting (1584), forcefully arguing for colonization predicated on Protestant proselytizing and economic expansion, both of which, he insisted, would help undermine Spain. Five years later he published Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation, a remarkable collection of documents whose final section focused on English activities in the Americas. Hakluyt also played a key role in producing a book that brought England's first American colony to the attention of a wide and lasting audience: the first volume of Flemish engraver Theodor de Bry's multilingual America series, an edition of Thomas Hariot's narrative with John White's images and maps of the settlement at Roanoke Island. In later years, Hakluyt advised the East India Company; his was one of eight names on the original charter of the Virginia Company of London and he was listed as an investor in the second charter. An official for many years at Westminster Abbey, he died in 1616.
Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:33:44 EST]]>
/Hakluyt_Richard_ca_1530-1591 Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:31:04 EST <![CDATA[Hakluyt, Richard (ca. 1530–1591)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hakluyt_Richard_ca_1530-1591 Richard Hakluyt, better known as Richard Hakluyt (the elder) or Richard Hakluyt (the lawyer) to distinguish him from his younger cousin of the same name, was an active propagandist of English colonization of North America. Although his cousin, the editor of Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation (1589), was better known and more influential, Hakluyt had been his guardian and introduced him to the study of geography. Elected to Parliament in 1558, he corresponded over several decades with cosmographers, merchants, fishermen, and other travelers, gathering information on the new regions they contacted and providing advice and instructions for the pursuit of trade, colonization, diplomacy, and exploration. Hakluyt's arguments that colonization of the Americas would be a boon to English commerce and an opportunity to Christianize the Virginia Indians likely influenced the views of his cousin, who gave them wider currency. In 1585, concurrent with Walter Raleigh's proposed settlement in the Outer Banks of present-day North Carolina, he authored two pamphlets in favor of colonial ventures, but he died in 1591, before the permanent colony, at Jamestown, could be established.
Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:31:04 EST]]>
/Roanoke_Colonies_The Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:28:23 EST <![CDATA[Roanoke Colonies, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Roanoke_Colonies_The The Roanoke Colonies were an ambitious attempt by England's Sir Walter Raleigh to establish a permanent North American settlement with the purpose of harassing Spanish shipping, mining for gold and silver, discovering a passage to the Pacific Ocean, and Christianizing the Indians. After three voyages the enterprise ended in the mysterious disappearance of the "Lost Colony." The first voyage, a reconnaissance venture led by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe, landed in 1584 on the Outer Banks of present-day North Carolina and made mostly friendly contact there with the Algonquian-speaking Indians, even returning to England with two of them: Manteo and Wanchese. Boosted by Barlowe's positive report and Queen Elizabeth's grant to settle "Virginia," the second voyage, in 1585, established a fortified camp on Roanoke Island. John White and Thomas Hariot accompanied explorations of the mainland and the Chesapeake Bay, creating maps, paintings, and descriptions of native culture. But after less than a year in America and shortly after beheading the Indian chief Pemisapan (Wingina), the English abandoned the colony. They returned the next year, this time under White's leadership and intending to settle in the Chesapeake; instead, they reoccupied Roanoke. After White sailed to England to update Raleigh and obtain additional supplies, he was delayed by the Spanish Armada. By the time he returned in 1590, the colonists, including his granddaughter, Virginia Dare, had disappeared.
Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:28:23 EST]]>
/Raleigh_Sir_Walter_ca_1552-1618 Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:25:44 EST <![CDATA[Raleigh, Sir Walter (ca. 1552–1618)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Raleigh_Sir_Walter_ca_1552-1618 Sir Walter Raleigh was an English soldier, explorer, poet, and courtier who funded three voyages to Roanoke Island (1584–1587) and whose ostentatious manner of dress and love for Queen Elizabeth became legendary. Born a commoner in Devon, England, Raleigh (also spelled Ralegh) nevertheless had connections to Elizabeth through his mother and may have exploited those relationships to win a place at court. He wrote poems to the queen and advised her on policy in Ireland, where in 1580 he had helped to slaughter papal troops. Soon he became one of Elizabeth's favorites, using his wealth and power to pursue dreams of colonizing the Americas, first at Roanoke and then at Guiana. Raleigh's mission, as he wrote in his long poem "The Ocean to Cynthia" (likely penned in the 1590s), was "To seek new worlds for gold, for praise, for glory." In so doing, he relied on the genius of English mathematician and astronomer Thomas Hariot, the master propagandist Richard Hakluyt (the younger), and the iconic artist John White. Raleigh also relied on the faithful protection of Elizabeth, protection that conspicuously disappeared when he secretly married one of her maids of honor. After the queen's death in 1603, Raleigh was accused of plotting against her successor and spent much of the rest of his life in the Tower of London. A second failed expedition to Guiana, during which he disobeyed the king's instructions, resulted in his beheading in 1618.
Fri, 13 Jun 2014 11:25:44 EST]]>
/_Recruiting_Women_to_Come_to_Virginia_Excerpts_from_the_Records_of_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_1619_1621 Fri, 06 Jun 2014 15:30:14 EST <![CDATA[Recruiting Women to Come to Virginia; excerpts from the Records of the Virginia Company of London (1619, 1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Recruiting_Women_to_Come_to_Virginia_Excerpts_from_the_Records_of_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_1619_1621 Fri, 06 Jun 2014 15:30:14 EST]]> /Hariot_Thomas_ca_1560-1621 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 15:17:55 EST <![CDATA[Hariot, Thomas (ca. 1560–1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hariot_Thomas_ca_1560-1621 Thomas Hariot (often spelled Harriot) was an English mathematician, astronomer, linguist, and experimental scientist. During the 1580s, he served as Sir Walter Raleigh's primary assistant in planning and attempting to establish the English colonies on Roanoke Island off the coast of present-day North Carolina. He taught Raleigh's sea captains to sail the Atlantic Ocean using sophisticated navigational methods not well understood in England at the time. He also learned the Algonquian language from two Virginia Indians, Wanchese and Manteo. In 1585, Hariot joined the expedition to Roanoke, which failed and returned to England the next year. During his stay in America, Hariot helped to explore the present-day Outer Banks region and, farther north, the Chesapeake Bay. He also collaborated with the artist John White in producing several maps notable at the time for their accuracy. Although Hariot left extensive papers, the only work published during his lifetime was A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia, which evaluated the economic potential of Virginia. The report appeared most impressively in Theodor de Bry's 1590 edition that included etchings based on the White-Hariot maps and White's watercolors of Indian life. After a brief imprisonment in connection to the Gunpowder Plot (1605), Hariot calculated the orbit of Halley's Comet, sketched and mapped the moon, and observed sunspots. He died in 1621.
Thu, 05 Jun 2014 15:17:55 EST]]>
/Letter_from_the_Governor_s_Council_to_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_January_20_1623 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 12:01:20 EST <![CDATA[Letter from the Governor's Council to the Virginia Company of London (January 20, 1623)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_the_Governor_s_Council_to_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_January_20_1623 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 12:01:20 EST]]> /_An_act_for_the_reliefe_of_such_loyall_persons_as_have_suffered_losse_by_the_late_rebels_1677 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 14:53:27 EST <![CDATA[An act for the releife of such loyall persons as have suffered losse by the late rebels (1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_the_reliefe_of_such_loyall_persons_as_have_suffered_losse_by_the_late_rebels_1677 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 14:53:27 EST]]> /The_Humble_Petition_of_Sarah_Drummond_1677 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 11:18:09 EST <![CDATA[The Humble Petition of Sarah Drummond (1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Humble_Petition_of_Sarah_Drummond_1677 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 11:18:09 EST]]> /An_Ordinance_and_Constitution_of_Treasurer_and_Company_in_England_for_a_Council_and_Assembly_in_Virginia_1621 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:31:14 EST <![CDATA[An Ordinance and Constitution of Treasurer and Company in England for a Council and Assembly in Virginia (1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Ordinance_and_Constitution_of_Treasurer_and_Company_in_England_for_a_Council_and_Assembly_in_Virginia_1621 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:31:14 EST]]> /An_excerpt_from_A_Declaration_of_the_state_of_the_Colonie_and_Affaires_in_Virginia_1622 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:20:28 EST <![CDATA[An excerpt from A Declaration of the state of the Colonie and Affaires in Virginia (1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_excerpt_from_A_Declaration_of_the_state_of_the_Colonie_and_Affaires_in_Virginia_1622 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:20:28 EST]]> /_Declaration_Edward_Waterhouse_s Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:05:48 EST <![CDATA[A Declaration of the State of the Colony and Affaires in Virginia (1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Declaration_Edward_Waterhouse_s A Declaration of the state of the Colonie and Affaires in Virginia. With a Relation of the barbarous Massacre in the time of peace and League, treacherously executed upon the English Infidels, 22 March last … (1622), written by Edward Waterhouse, was the Virginia Company of London's official publication about an assault by Virginia Indians on the English plantations along the James River that took place on March 22, 1622. The company's secretary, Waterhouse collected information from eyewitnesses and Virginia's governing officials and concluded that the surprise attack, which killed more than a quarter of the colony's population, was executed with the purpose of their "utter extirpation." Waterhouse describes a time, just prior to the attack, of "firme peace and amitie," when Indians and colonists freely mingled. He notes that the Indians used this to their advantage, insinuating themselves into the homes of colonists, using the colonists' own tools to "basely and barbarously" kill them, and then disappearing into the woods. Outraged that most Indians, and in particular their leader Opechancanough, had not accepted Christianity, Waterhouse declares that the attack justified a policy whereby the English "destroy them who sought to destroy us." The attack, and the company's response to it, marks a point at which colonists, no longer dependent on the Indians economically, began in earnest to kill them and seize their land.
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/Voyage_of_Anthony_Chester_1707 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:02:21 EST <![CDATA[Voyage of Anthony Chester (1707)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Voyage_of_Anthony_Chester_1707 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:02:21 EST]]> /_Ordinances_Directions_and_Instructions_to_Captaine_John_Woodleefe_by_Sir_William_Throckmorton_et_al_September_4_1619 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 08:55:33 EST <![CDATA["Ordinances Directions and Instructions to Captaine John Woodleefe" by Sir William Throckmorton, et al. (September 4, 1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Ordinances_Directions_and_Instructions_to_Captaine_John_Woodleefe_by_Sir_William_Throckmorton_et_al_September_4_1619 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 08:55:33 EST]]> /Letter_from_Sir_William_Throckmorton_et_al_to_Sir_George_Yeardley_February_18_1619 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 08:23:40 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Sir William Throckmorton et al. to Sir George Yeardley (February 18, 1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Sir_William_Throckmorton_et_al_to_Sir_George_Yeardley_February_18_1619 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 08:23:40 EST]]> /Inventory_of_George_Thorpe_s_Estate_1634 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 08:17:02 EST <![CDATA[Inventory of George Thorpe's Estate (1634)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Inventory_of_George_Thorpe_s_Estate_1634 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 08:17:02 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Thorpe_to_John_Smyth_December_19_1620 Tue, 03 Jun 2014 17:35:30 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Thorpe to John Smyth (December 19, 1620)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Thorpe_to_John_Smyth_December_19_1620 Tue, 03 Jun 2014 17:35:30 EST]]> /The_Original_Jamestown_Settlers_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Mon, 02 Jun 2014 21:23:04 EST <![CDATA[The Original Jamestown Settlers; an excerpt from The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Original_Jamestown_Settlers_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Mon, 02 Jun 2014 21:23:04 EST]]> /_Of_such_a_dish_as_powdered_wife_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Mon, 02 Jun 2014 21:07:32 EST <![CDATA["Of such a dish as powdered wife"; an excerpt from The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Of_such_a_dish_as_powdered_wife_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Mon, 02 Jun 2014 21:07:32 EST]]> /Tsenacomoco_Powhatan_Paramount_Chiefdom Fri, 30 May 2014 17:53:06 EST <![CDATA[Tsenacomoco (Powhatan Paramount Chiefdom)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tsenacomoco_Powhatan_Paramount_Chiefdom Tsenacomoco, otherwise known as the Powhatan paramount chiefdom, was a political alliance of Algonquian-speaking Virginia Indians that occupied the area first settled by the English at Jamestown. The origins of Tsenacomoco date to the Late Woodland Period (AD 900–1650). By 1607, twenty-eight to thirty-two groups, each with its own chief, paid tribute to Powhatan, the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco. With boundaries that stretched from the James River to the Potomac and west to the fall line, Tsenacomoco had a population of around 15,000 people. The name of the paramount chiefdom was first reported by the early English settler William Strachey and, while some scholars disagree, it may be translated to mean "densely inhabited place." Living in riverside towns, the Indians of Tsenacomoco cleared land for farming and used the forests for hunting. The wide, slow-moving rivers, meanwhile, provided means for travel, trade, and war. After the English arrived in 1607, Powhatan attempted to subsume them into Tsenacomoco, and, when that failed, he fought them in the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614), which ended only with the marriage of his daughter Pocahontas to John Rolfe. A successor to Powhatan, Opechancanough, fought two more wars, both of them unsuccessful. With Opechancanough's death in 1646 came the end of Tsenacomoco.
Fri, 30 May 2014 17:53:06 EST]]>
/Towns_and_Town_Life_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 17:50:59 EST <![CDATA[Towns and Town Life in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Towns_and_Town_Life_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Much of what is known about towns and town life in early Virginia Indian society is drawn from archaeological investigation, the observations of English settlers, and the work of Captain John Smith, who between 1607 and 1609 explored and mapped the Chesapeake Bay area. Through a combination of these sources, we know that most Virginia Indian towns were located close to fertile soil and along waterways, which were both a source of food and drinking water and a means of transport. Towns generally conformed to one of two layouts: a dispersed settlement pattern, in which the houses were scattered according to which fields were being cultivated at the time; and a nucleated settlement pattern, in which a palisade surrounds a tightly packed group of houses. The latter layout was usually found in frontier areas, where the threat of attack by enemy tribes was greater. Indian towns were busy, intensely social places and each resident, regardless of age or sex, was expected to play a particular role. This resulted in a tight-knit community that could be supportive, but constricting. Privacy was limited, so great emphasis was placed on manners and politeness and on releasing tension through a nightly group activity like singing and dancing. The quality of life in Indian towns declined in Virginia after the English arrived and began to encroach on Indian land.
Fri, 30 May 2014 17:50:59 EST]]>
/Starving_Time_The Fri, 30 May 2014 17:45:33 EST <![CDATA[Starving Time, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Starving_Time_The The Starving Time refers to the winter of 1609–1610 when about three-quarters of the English colonists in Virginia died of starvation or starvation-related diseases. In his unpublished account A Trewe Relacyon, George Percy, who served as president during these grim months, wrote that Englishmen felt "the sharpe pricke of hunger which noe man trewly descrybe butt he which hathe tasted the bitternesse thereof." Already for two years, the Jamestown colonists had died at alarming rates, mostly of summertime diseases. In 1609, the beginning of the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614) prompted the Indians to lay siege to the English fort, helping to provoke the famine. Settlers were forced to eat snakes, vipers, rats, mice, musk turtles, cats, dogs, horses, and perhaps even raptors. In addition, multiple gruesome stories suggest, and archaeological evidence has partially corroborated, that settlers devoured each other. The siege lifted in May 1610, and when the survivors of the Sea Venture wreck arrived in Virginia, they found just 60 gaunt remnants of the 240 people who had crowded the fort the previous November. Many observers argued that the colonists' idleness—their persistent refusal to work for their food—contributed to the famine. It is likely, though, that malnutrition and despair worked together to create symptoms that imitated laziness. In the end, Virginia survived, but just barely.
Fri, 30 May 2014 17:45:33 EST]]>
/Segura_Juan_Baptista_de_1529-1571 Fri, 30 May 2014 17:40:42 EST <![CDATA[Segura, Juan Baptista de (1529–1571)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Segura_Juan_Baptista_de_1529-1571 Juan Baptista de Segura was a priest and vice-provincial of the Jesuits in the Spanish province of La Florida. In 1570 he led a mission to the Chesapeake Bay and was killed the next year in an ambush led by Don Luís de Velasco (formerly Paquiquineo), a Virginia Indian who had converted to Christianity. Born in Toledo and educated at a time when Spanish clerics vigorously debated the best way of converting American Indians, Segura joined the Society of Jesus in 1556 and was ordained a priest the following year. Ten years after that he was named vice-provincial of the Jesuits in La Florida. An intellectual and idealist, Segura was also an indecisive leader who advised his superior that the Jesuits should abandon La Florida and then, just a few months later, organized a mission to the Chesapeake Bay. Segura insisted, against the advice of Florida governor Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, that the Jesuits did not need military protection on their mission. He instead placed his faith in Don Luís, who promised that the land he called Ajacán would be rich in potential converts and natural resources. Segura established his mission near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay in September 1570, but when Don Luís returned to his family, the Jesuits were without support. In February 1571 the Virginia Indian killed Segura and his fellow missionaries, leaving only an altar boy alive.
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/Religion_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 17:31:30 EST <![CDATA[Religion in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Religion_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Knowledge of religion in early Virginia Indian society largely comes from English colonists like Captain John Smith, who stated that all Indians had "religion, Deare, and Bow and Arrowes." Because Smith and his countrymen almost exclusively dealt with the Powhatans of Tsenacomoco—an alliance of twenty-eight to thirty-two petty tribes and chiefdoms centered around the James, Mattaponi, and Pamunkey rivers—the most is known about them. The Powhatans worshipped a number of spirits, the most important of whom was Okee. Men cut their hair in imitation of Okee's. To assuage his anger in times of crisis or court his pleasure before the hunt, they made sacrifices. Other spirits included the benevolent Ahone, the Great Hare creator god, an unnamed female divinity, and the Sun god. In charge of managing relations with these various spirits were the kwiocosuk, or shamans, who lived apart from common Powhatans and wielded the society's ultimate authority. Quiocosins , or holy temples, housed the shamans and hosted various rituals. When weroances, or chiefs, died, they were reduced to bundles of bones and, for several years, stored in the temples. The Powhatans also had a variety of rituals associated with eating, hunting, male initiation, and the killing of prisoners of war. Smith described what appeared to be a "conjuration" and, on another occasion, a three-day dance that may have been a yearly harvest festival.
Fri, 30 May 2014 17:31:30 EST]]>
/Political_Organization_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 15:26:54 EST <![CDATA[Political Organization in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Political_Organization_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Political organization in early Virginia Indian society likely was similar across the several distinct and culturally diverse groups that lived in the area; however, due to the records left by the English colonists, the most is known about the Powhatan Indians of Tsenacomoco. The alliance's six core groups lived along the James, Mattaponi, and Pamunkey rivers, with their capital, Werowocomoco, situated on the present-day York River. Each constituent group consisted of one or more towns ruled by a weroance, or chief, whose position was inherited matrilineally. For guidance, the weroance consulted his council, or cockarouses, and whenever he acted he was first obligated to seek the approval of his one or more kwiocosuk, or shamans. The mamanatowick, or paramount chief, ruled all of Tsenacomoco and likely combined the authority of weroance and kwiocosuk. He lived an opulent and exalted life—bejeweling himself in necklaces, bracelets, and a crown and traveling with a fifty-man bodyguard—but he was not an absolute ruler. He, too, consulted his council and, lacking a standing army or police force, he was not always able to enforce his will on subordinates. In the end, the ultimate authority in Tsenacomoco was religious, not political. Although the paramount chief was seen to own all of the land and its wealth, the shamans were empowered to intervene with the gods, mollifying them with sacrifices on the occasion of famine, flood, or other disasters.
Fri, 30 May 2014 15:26:54 EST]]>
/Personal_Names_by_Virginia_Indians_During_the_Precolonial_and_Colonial_Eras_Uses_of Fri, 30 May 2014 15:20:33 EST <![CDATA[Personal Names by Early Virginia Indians, Uses of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Personal_Names_by_Virginia_Indians_During_the_Precolonial_and_Colonial_Eras_Uses_of Early Virginia Indians—the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Tsenacomoco, in particular, and possibly other groups—used multiple personal names. Although these names had specific meanings, most were not translated by English colonists at Jamestown, and many of those meanings have been lost. Often, Indians held more than one name simultaneously, with different names used in different situations. Pocahontas, for instance, had a formal given name; a "secret," or highly personal name; and nicknames that were updated throughout her life, sometimes commenting on her personality or her position within the community. Indian men and boys were expected to earn names that described their feats as hunters and warriors. Chiefs, such as Powhatan, often took new names when assuming power and sometimes even changed their names again after that. After the mid-seventeenth century, Virginia Indians began to adopt English first names, which they sometimes paired with shortened versions of their Indian names.
Fri, 30 May 2014 15:20:33 EST]]>
/Bacon_Nathaniel_1647-1676 Fri, 30 May 2014 14:39:07 EST <![CDATA[Bacon, Nathaniel (1647–1676)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bacon_Nathaniel_1647-1676 Nathaniel Bacon was a member of the governor's Council and, in 1676, a leader of Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), a dramatic uprising against the governor that ended with Bacon's sudden death. Bacon was born and educated in England and moved to Virginia with his wife in 1674. A relative of both the governor, Sir William Berkeley, and his wealthy wife, Frances Culpeper Stephens Berkeley, the tall, handsome, and arrogant Bacon farmed land on the James River and, in 1675, was appointed to the Council. His rebellion erupted in a climate of political and economic uncertainty made worse by a series of Indian attacks. When the governor rebuked Bacon's attempt at reprisals, Bacon ignored him and was removed from the Council, after which he marched a militia to Jamestown. There, he was pardoned by the governor who then changed his mind, setting up a confrontation a few weeks later in which, at the House of Burgesses, Berkeley bared his chest and dared Bacon to shoot him. After issuing a declaration of grievance calling for a new assembly to be chosen under his own authority, Bacon marched his men to the lower Rappahannock River and attacked the friendly Pamunkey Indians. His subsequent siege of Jamestown provoked action from the English king, but Bacon died suddenly of dysentery on October 26, 1676. His rebellion remains one of the most controversial events in Virginia history.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:39:07 EST]]>
/Ashuaquid_fl_1607 Fri, 30 May 2014 14:31:10 EST <![CDATA[Ashuaquid (fl. 1607)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ashuaquid_fl_1607 Ashuaquid, an Arrohateck chief, was the head of a tribe consisting of about sixty warriors who resided in a town on the north bank of the James River about thirteen miles below the fall line, well within the territory that was part of Powhatan's original inheritance. Powhatan frequently placed a close relative, such as a son, brother, or sister, in such leadership positions, but evidence of Ashuaquid's relationship to Powhatan is lacking. In May 1607, Ashuaquid's tribe twice welcomed Christopher Newport and a small group of men who were exploring the upper reaches of the James River. Later, after learning that the colonists' fort at Jamestown had been attacked by Indians hostile to the settlers, Ashuaquid advised the colonists on who their enemies were and how to better defend against them. The Arrohateck tribe is last mentioned in William Strachey's record of his visit to Virginia in 1609. The Arrohateck site had been abandoned by 1611 and the fate of Ashuaquid is unknown.
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/Ann_fl_1706-1712 Fri, 30 May 2014 14:26:22 EST <![CDATA[Ann (fl. 1706–1712)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ann_fl_1706-1712 Ann was a Pamunkey chief and a successor to the most famous Pamunkey queen, Cockacoeske, who led the Pamunkey for thirty years until her death in 1686. Cockacoeske was succeeded by an unidentified niece, perhaps the leader whose mark and the name "Mrs. Betty, the Queen," appear on a petition requesting the confirmation of a sale of Pamunkey land to English subjects that was submitted to the General Court on October 22, 1701. Sparse documentation and the Powhatan Indians' practice of changing their names on important occasions have led to confusion in identifying the principal leaders of the Pamunkey. It has been conjectured that the niece who succeeded Cockacoeske, Mrs. Betty, and Ann were the same woman and that she changed her name to Ann after Queen Anne ascended the English throne in 1702. In the few records that bear the mark of Ann, she fought for the rights of her people. For example, eighteenth-century petitions that she and the great men of the Pamunkey submitted to the colonial government request that squatters on Indian land be removed, that ownership of tribal lands be confirmed, and that the annual tribute be reduced. Ann likely died about 1723.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:26:22 EST]]>
/Marriage_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 14:11:31 EST <![CDATA[Marriage in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Marriage_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society What is known of marriage in early Virginia Indian society is limited to the observations of Jamestown colonists, visiting English observers, and later American historians, and is mostly applicable to the Algonquian-speaking Powhatans of Tsenacomoco, a paramount chiefdom of twenty-eight to thirty-two groups living in Tidewater Virginia. Marriage was crucial for survival in Indian society, because men and women needed to work as partners in order to accomplish their many daily and seasonal tasks. The man initiated courtship and looked for a woman who would perform her assigned tasks well. The woman could decline a marriage offer, but if she did choose to accept it, her parents also needed to approve the offer. The groom's parents, meanwhile, paid a bridewealth, or marriage payment, to the bride's parents to compensate them for her lost labor. Men were allowed to have additional wives, so long as the husband could afford to provide for them; for chiefs especially, these wives served as symbols of wealth. It is estimated that the paramount chief Powhatan (Wahunsonacock) had as many as one hundred wives during his lifetime. While a man's first marriage was expected to last for life, additional marriages were likely negotiated for shorter terms. Unless a woman was married to a chief, she was allowed to conduct extramarital affairs, provided she had her husband's permission (which was usually given). Punishment for dishonesty on this score could be severe, however. Virginia Indians held onto their marriage traditions long after contact with the English, and marriage between Indians and the English was rare.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:11:31 EST]]>
/Law_and_Justice_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 14:08:06 EST <![CDATA[Law and Justice in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Law_and_Justice_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Law and justice in early Virginia Indian society were not well understood by English observers, whose main concern was replacing the native system with their own. William Strachey wrote that the Indians ruled not by "posetive lawes," but by custom, and Henry Spelman, who lived among the Patawomeck Indians and spoke their language, wrote that he thought that the "Infidels wear [were] lawless" until he witnessed five of them brutally executed by being beaten and thrown into a fire. In fact, most of what is known about the laws and punishments among the Powhatan Indians can be reduced to a series of often graphically violent anecdotes in which men and women are killed for the crimes of infanticide, stealing, carrying on unsanctioned affairs, and even interrupting a weroance, or chief, while he is speaking. Powhatan custom demanded that revenge be exacted for wrongs against the person and against the chiefdom; the chiefs and paramount chief were powerless to intervene. This led to nearly constant, small-scale warfare, but it also caused problems with the English. Whenever a slight was made against an Indian, revenge was likely and was sometimes directed at the entire group rather than just at the individual. In the end, the English copied this practice, passing a law in 1641 giving colonists the power to hold otherwise innocent Indians hostage when the guilty party eluded capture.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:08:06 EST]]>
/Languages_and_Interpreters_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 14:04:47 EST <![CDATA[Languages and Interpreters in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Languages_and_Interpreters_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Early Virginia Indians spoke dialects of Algic, Iroquoian, or Siouan, three large linguistic families that include many of the more than eight hundred indigenous languages in North America. Among Virginia's Algic-speakers were the Powhatan Indians, who lived in the Tidewater and encountered the Jamestown settlers in 1607. Little is known of their language—a form of Algic known as Virginia Algonquian—although Captain John Smith and William Strachey both composed influential vocabulary lists. The Nottoways and the Meherrins lived south of the James near the fall line and spoke Iroquoian. Although the Meherrin language was never recorded, it has been identified as Iroquoian based on geography. In 1820, John Wood interviewed the elderly Nottoway "queen" Edie Turner and created a word list that eventually was recognized as Iroquoian. Virginia's Siouan-speakers, meanwhile, largely lived west of the fall line and included the Monacans, the Mannahoacs, and the Saponis. Many Virginia Indians, encouraged by the requirements of trade, diplomacy, and warfare, spoke multiple languages, and when the English arrived, they and the Powhatans eagerly exchanged boys to learn each other's language and serve as interpreters. By the twentieth century, most if not all Virginia Indian languages had become extinct, meaning that no native speakers survived. In 2005, the Terrence Malick film The New World presented a form of Algonquian based on the Smith and Strachey lists and the work of the linguist Blair Rudes.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:04:47 EST]]>
/Houses_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 13:51:51 EST <![CDATA[Houses in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Houses_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Houses in early Virginia Indian society became necessary after the Ice Age, when the Indians began depending less on the hunt for survival. Among the Powhatan Indians, especially, but elsewhere in the region, too, a house, or a yi-hakan in Algonquian, typically had a circular or oval floor plan and was rarely if ever longer than forty feet. (The Powhatans designed special houses for their weroances, or chiefs, and their kwiocosuk, or shamans.) Built by women, Indian houses consisted of long, bent sapling poles that were covered with either woven-reed mats or bark. They had a single door, which also served as the only source of light and ventilation. Construction was labor-intensive and time-consuming, and Englishmen, who often were hosted by the Powhatans, complained that they were dark, smoky, and flea-infested. Within a hundred years of the landing at Jamestown, the Indians had begun to adopt English-style houses, but adapted them to native methods and materials (building, for instance, bark-covered cabins). After another hundred years, Indian houses had become largely indistinguishable from those built by non-Indians.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:51:51 EST]]>
/Hold_To_Have_and_to_1900 Fri, 30 May 2014 13:50:11 EST <![CDATA[Hold, To Have and to (1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hold_To_Have_and_to_1900 To Have and to Hold (1900), the second novel by the Virginia-born writer Mary Johnston, was the prolific author's most popular work. An action-adventure story and romance set in Jamestown in 1621 and 1622, the novel uses the backdrop of colonial Virginia to tell its story, making characters of such noted figures as John Rolfe and Opechancanough, and dramatizing the latter's attack against the colony in 1622. The hero of To Have and to Hold is Captain Ralph Percy. Percy marries a woman he believes to be a penniless Puritan but who is actually a ward of King James and betrothed to the dastardly, suggestively named Lord Carnal. A series of often-unlikely adventures follows, involving swordplay, poison, haunted woods, pirates, and a tame but ferocious panther, until Percy and his wife, at one point separated, reunite. After being serialized in the Atlantic Monthly, To Have and to Hold was published in book form in 1900 and sold more than 135,000 copies in its first week. It was the best-selling novel of the year and the most successful popular novel in the United States between the publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852 and Gone with the Wind in 1936. Critics praised it lavishly and found its history to be unusually reliable. It was adapted for the stage and film. Despite the attention paid to Johnston in her day, however, few scholars study her books in the twenty-first century.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:50:11 EST]]>
/Gift_Exchange_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 13:47:21 EST <![CDATA[Gift Exchange in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gift_Exchange_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Algonquian-speaking Virginia Indians during the Late Woodland Period (AD 900–1650) practiced a gift-exchange economy. All Indians were required to give, accept, and, at a later date, reciprocate; failure to do so could lead to punishments of varying kinds. Rather than value the goods being exchanged, Indians valued the relationships of the people exchanging, with participants in the economy collecting personal debts rather than material wealth. In fact, goods were not owned but continuously passed from gift-giver to receiver. This system contrasted sharply with the commodity-exchange system with which Europeans were familiar, and each culture's unfamiliarity with the other's economy led to tensions and even violence. In 1571, a baptized Virginia Indian named Don Luís led a party that killed a group of Jesuit missionaries, an act of violence that can be best explained as a response to a violation of gift-exchange protocol. The Jesuits had declined to offer gifts to Don Luís's people while trading with neighboring groups, an act of humiliation that led to their deaths. At Roanoke, the Indians allowed such slights to pass, instead manipulating the English colonists for their own political advantage. At Jamestown, however, English ignorance of the gift exchange unleashed more violence, which was often symbolic. In one case, the mouths of English corpses were stuffed with bread, a repeated gift of sustenance for which the English had failed to reciprocate. The derisive term "Indian giver," the meaning of which has changed over time, has come to represent the frustration that resulted from each group's ignorance of the other's economic system.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:47:21 EST]]>
/Games_by_Early_Virginia_Indians_Uses_of Fri, 30 May 2014 13:45:34 EST <![CDATA[Games by Early Virginia Indians, Uses of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Games_by_Early_Virginia_Indians_Uses_of Early Virginia Indians played a variety of games, with some of these games reserved especially for men and others for women, girls, and boys. The men and boys had wrestling, footraces, and a game that resembled modern-day football, but the rules were never described in detail by the Jamestown colonists and later English settlers who observed them played among the Powhatan Indians. Gambling among Indian men, along with alcohol consumption, seems to have increased as a form of escapism with the arrival of the Europeans and was made worse by the availability of European trade goods. That behavior seems to have waned over time, however, and was not observed in the twentieth- or twenty-first-century Virginia Indian communities.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:45:34 EST]]>
/Fishing_and_Shellfishing_by_Early_Virginia_Indians Fri, 30 May 2014 13:44:02 EST <![CDATA[Fishing and Shellfishing by Early Virginia Indians]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fishing_and_Shellfishing_by_Early_Virginia_Indians Virginia Indians living around the Chesapeake Bay and other people living along the bays and rivers of the Chesapeake region have long relied on harvesting fish and shellfish. Lacking long-handled tongs, Indian boys encountered by the Jamestown colonists dived for oysters in the Chesapeake, in addition to gathering clams and mussels and turning the byproducts of consumption into jewelry. Hard clamshells were crafted into cylinders and beaded, and by the seventeenth century this so-called wampum was being used as money. Indians fished using rods, line, and bone crafted into fishhooks; in shallow water, they speared fish with javelins. Spying Atlantic sturgeon asleep on the water's surface, Indians sometimes noosed the giant fish, requiring them to hold on, at risk to life and limb, as the sturgeon darted and dived in an attempt to escape. Powhatan Indians also used small fires, set in hearths aboard canoes, to throw bright lights and attract fish close enough to the surface and to the boat to be speared. Weirs and V-shaped rock dams also trapped fish. Ill-equipped to feed themselves, the English colonists generally expressed surprise and admiration at the Virginia Indians' expertise in fishing, eventually hiring Indian men to do the job for them.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:44:02 EST]]>
/First_Anglo-Powhatan_War_1609-1614 Fri, 30 May 2014 13:41:56 EST <![CDATA[First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/First_Anglo-Powhatan_War_1609-1614 Fri, 30 May 2014 13:41:56 EST]]> /Education_Early_Virginia_Indian Fri, 30 May 2014 13:35:10 EST <![CDATA[Education, Early Virginia Indian]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Education_Early_Virginia_Indian Early Virginia Indians educated their children for the purpose of preparing them to be adults. Boys and girls were expected to absorb the community's values, including stoicism in the face of hardship, and master the skills necessary to survive and thrive. For men that included hunting and warfare and for women collecting plants, building houses, and making household furnishings. English colonists had little to say about how Indian girls were reared, either out of lack of interest or because such knowledge was considered to be none of their business. Powhatan boys were trained in hunting and warfare by their fathers and older male relatives in order to win personal names, learn marksmanship, and earn the right to join the hunt. Between the ages of ten and fifteen, they engaged in the several-months-long huskanaw ritual, in which they were ritually—but not actually—killed and then given a drug which turned them briefly violent and ritually erased their memories of boyhood. The English colonists saw this sort of training for boys as frivolous; they believed that boys, instead of girls, should plant and farm. Although education practices among the Virginia Indians changed in the years after contact with the English, what remained was an ingrained reluctance to send their children outside the family for instruction.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:35:10 EST]]>
/Domesticated_Animals_During_the_Pre-Colonial_Era Fri, 30 May 2014 13:17:46 EST <![CDATA[Domesticated Animals by Early Virginia Indians, Uses of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Domesticated_Animals_During_the_Pre-Colonial_Era Virginia Indians did not domesticate animals, in large part, because good candidates for domestication did not live in the Eastern Woodlands of North America. The one exception was wolves, which the Indians domesticated into dogs. Likely about knee-high and with an average weight of twenty pounds, these animals were not specialized or even especially tame, and were used only in hunting land fowl such as wild turkey. According to the Jamestown colonists, the Powhatan Indians did not eat their dogs but may have sacrificed them ritually. With no horses or oxen, Powhatans were unable to clear forests easily or practice plow agriculture. English colonists concluded that the Indians were "lazy" and "backward"; in fact, they had great physical endurance, although many suffered from arthritis while relatively young. Colonists brought horses, cows, goats, pigs, and large dogs from England, but because most of these animals required grass or other pasture vegetation for grazing, the Indians did not adopt them. Pigs, however, were turned loose into the forest and hunted by both Indians and colonists.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:17:46 EST]]>
/Divorce_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 13:15:50 EST <![CDATA[Divorce in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Divorce_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Divorce was permitted, if not common, in early Virginia Indian society. What is known of the practice is limited to the observations of Jamestown colonists, visiting English observers, and later American historians, and applicable mostly to the Algonquian-speaking Powhatans and possibly speakers from other language families. A divorce among common married people could be obtained in cases of mere "disagreement." Because daily labor was divided between the sexes and every adult needed at least one opposite-sex partner to get all the work done, marriage was encouraged among the Indians as a means of survival. If a married person divorced or was widowed or abandoned, remarriage was therefore expected. If a spouse was captured and did not return, a divorce was assumed in order to encourage remarriage. The paramount chief Powhatan divorced each of his wives as soon as she gave him a child, sending her either to one of his under chiefs or back to her home, but eventually taking the child into his household. Among nonchiefs, the children were raised by one of the parents; accounts differ as to how custody was settled. English colonists reacted to the relative ease by which Virginia Indians obtained a divorce by characterizing them as sexually promiscuous. In the centuries following the settlement of Jamestown in 1607, however, divorce among the Indians came into line with English and new American practices, becoming much more difficult.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:15:50 EST]]>
/Cooking_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Fri, 30 May 2014 13:11:07 EST <![CDATA[Cooking in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooking_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Early Virginia Indians hunted, fished, and collected wild grains and berries, which they prepared in various ways. Meats were roasted, while grains and tubers were pounded into ashcakes and then baked. For many millennia, boiling water was difficult, but by the Late Woodland Period (AD 900–1600), technology had improved among the Powhatan Indians of Virginia such that a large ceramic stew pot became the focus of family eating. Roasted meats, shellfish, and wild berries were all added to the stew, which boiled throughout the day. Rather than prepare set meals, family members who spent the day gathering food or doing chores added to the stew as able and ate from it as necessary. Wild grains and, later, domesticated corn were harvested and baked into bread. The Powhatans generally avoided seasonings, including salt, and likely enjoyed food for its texture rather than its flavor. Although the Indians domesticated beans and squash, they ate more corn (maize) than any other crop, sucking unripe ears for their sweet juice, baking cornbread, or roasting it. They also made cooking wrappers, baskets, and mats out of the husks. What is known of Indian cooking in this period is based on research from paleobotanists and paleozoologists about what wild foods were available, as well as eye-witness accounts from English colonists. Most of these accounts concern the Algonquian-speaking Powhatans, but they likely apply to the speakers of Siouan and Iroquoian languages in Virginia.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:11:07 EST]]>
/Cockacoeske_d_by_July_1_1686 Fri, 30 May 2014 13:08:48 EST <![CDATA[Cockacoeske (d. by July 1, 1686)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cockacoeske_d_by_July_1_1686 Cockacoeske, also known as Cockacoeweske, was a Pamunkey chief, and a descendant of Opechancanough, brother of the paramount chief Powhatan. After the death of her husband, Totopotomoy, chief of the Pamunkey from about 1649 until 1656, Cockacoeske became queen of the Pamunkey. In 1676, a few months before the outbreak of Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), the insurrection's leader, Nathaniel Bacon, and his followers attacked the Pamunkey, took captives, and killed some of Cockacoeske's people. That summer she appeared before a committee of burgesses and governor's Council members in Jamestown to discuss the number of warriors she could provide to defend the colony against frontier tribes. She gave a speech reminding the colonists of Pamunkey warriors killed while fighting alongside the colonists. In February 1677 she asked the General Assembly for the release of Pamunkey who had been taken captive and for the restoration of Pamunkey property. An astute politician, Cockacoeske signed the Treaty of Middle Plantation on May 29, 1677, reuniting under her authority several tribes that had not been under Powhatan domination since 1646. Cockacoeske ruled the Pamunkey until her death in 1686.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:08:48 EST]]>
/Chauco_fl_1622-1623 Fri, 30 May 2014 13:06:01 EST <![CDATA[Chauco (fl. 1622–1623)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chauco_fl_1622-1623 Chauco was one of several Virginia Indians who saved the lives of English colonists by warning of Opechancanough's plans to attack their settlements on March 22, 1622. He is named in no more than two known documents, leaving details about his parentage, birth, death, and tribal affiliation unknown. It is possible that he was the person referred to in 1624 as Chacrow, an Indian who a decade earlier had lived with an English colonist and knew how to use a gun. The story of a Christian Indian who, like Pocahontas, helped the Virginia colonists survive the hostilities of their own people is a popular Virginia legend.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:06:01 EST]]>
/Chickahominy_Tribe Fri, 30 May 2014 11:53:14 EST <![CDATA[Chickahominy Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chickahominy_Tribe The Chickahominy tribe is a state-recognized Indian tribe located on 110 acres in Charles City County, midway between Richmond and Williamsburg. Early in the twenty-first century its population numbered about 875 people living within a five-mile radius of the tribal center, with several hundred more residing in other parts of the United States.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:53:14 EST]]>
/Patawomeck_Tribe Fri, 30 May 2014 11:51:31 EST <![CDATA[Patawomeck Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Patawomeck_Tribe The Patawomeck tribe is a state-recognized Indian tribe based in Fredericksburg. Dating its presence on the south bank of the Potomac River to about AD 1300, the tribe lived relatively far from the English settlement at Jamestown but nevertheless played a major role in the politics and warfare of the early colonial period. In an effort to maintain its own independence, the Patawomeck tribe regularly played its more powerful Indian neighbors and the English colonists against one another. Tribal members traded food to starving colonists in 1609; hosted an English boy, Henry Spelman, for a time; and helped the English kidnap Pocahontas, daughter of the paramount chief Powhatan. Not only did the Patawomeck not participate in the weroance, or chief, Opechancanough's attack against the English in 1622, they possibly helped the English to poison Opechancanough the next year. (He survived.) English settlements did not encroach on Patawomeck land until the 1650s. At first the county courts and General Assembly defended the Patawomeck against bad English behavior that included an attempt to frame the Patawomeck weroance for murder in 1662. But just four years later, in 1666, the governor's Council called for the Patawomeck Indians' "utter destruction." The tribe disappeared from colonial records after that. In February 2010, the Commonwealth of Virginia granted the Patawomeck Indians state recognition, against the advice of the state-appointed Virginia Council on Indians.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:51:31 EST]]>
/Rappahannock_Tribe Fri, 30 May 2014 11:47:55 EST <![CDATA[Rappahannock Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rappahannock_Tribe The Rappahannock tribe is a state-recognized Indian tribe whose tribal area is located in Indian Neck in King and Queen County. In the late twentieth century, the tribe owned 140.5 acres of land and the Rappahannock Cultural Center and had about 500 members on its tribal roll.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:47:55 EST]]>
/Nansemond_Tribe Fri, 30 May 2014 11:44:08 EST <![CDATA[Nansemond Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Nansemond_Tribe The Nansemond tribe is a state-recognized Indian tribe whose members live mostly in the cities of Chesapeake and Suffolk. In 2009 about 200 Nansemond tribal members were registered in Virginia.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:44:08 EST]]>
/Upper_Mattaponi_Tribe Fri, 30 May 2014 11:42:41 EST <![CDATA[Upper Mattaponi Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Upper_Mattaponi_Tribe The Upper Mattaponi tribe is a state-recognized Indian tribe whose tribal grounds consist of thirty-two acres in King William County, near the upper reaches of the Mattaponi River. In 2009, the tribe consisted of 575 members, many of whom live in Virginia.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:42:41 EST]]>
/Mattaponi_Tribe Fri, 30 May 2014 11:41:10 EST <![CDATA[Mattaponi Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mattaponi_Tribe The Mattaponi tribe is a state-recognized Indian tribe located on a 150-acre reservation that stretches along the borders of the Mattaponi River at West Point in King William County. Early in the twenty-first century the tribe included about 450 people, 75 of whom lived on the reservation.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:41:10 EST]]>
/Eastern_Chickahominy_Tribe Fri, 30 May 2014 11:39:07 EST <![CDATA[Eastern Chickahominy Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Eastern_Chickahominy_Tribe The Chickahominy Tribe Eastern Division is a state-recognized Indian tribe located about twenty-five miles east of Richmond in New Kent County. Early in the twenty-first century its population numbered about 132 people, with 67 of those living in Virginia and the rest residing in other parts of the United States.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:39:07 EST]]>
/Jamestown_Settlement_Early Fri, 30 May 2014 11:27:18 EST <![CDATA[Jamestown Settlement, Early]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jamestown_Settlement_Early The Jamestown settlement, established in 1607, was the seat of England's first permanent colony in North America. After the failure of the Roanoke colonies, investors in the Virginia Company of London were anxious to find profit farther to the north, and in April 1607 three ships of settlers arrived at the Chesapeake Bay. The enterprise, fraught with disease, dissension, and determined Indian resistance, was a miserable failure at first. "The adventurers who ventured their capital lost it," the historian Edmund S. Morgan has written. "Most of the settlers who ventured their lives lost them. And so did most of the Indians who came near them." John Smith mapped out much of the Bay and established (sometimes violent) relations with the Powhatan Indians there. During the winter of 1609–1610, the colony nearly starved. The resupply ship Sea Venture, carrying much of Virginia's new leadership, was thought lost at sea. When it finally arrived in May 1610, fewer than a hundred colonists still survived. Discipline at Jamestown did not match the urgency of the moment until Sir Thomas Dale's arrival in 1611 and his full implementation of the strict Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall. By year's end, Dale had founded an outside settlement at Henrico, near what became Richmond. The introduction of saleable tobacco soon after helped secure the colony's economy, and as political power expanded into the James River Valley, the influence of Jamestown waned.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:27:18 EST]]>
/Custis_John_1678-1749 Wed, 28 May 2014 16:58:24 EST <![CDATA[Custis, John (1678–1749)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_John_1678-1749 John Custis was a member of the governor's Council and a tobacco planter often referred to as John Custis, of Williamsburg, to distinguish him from his grandfather, father, and other relatives of the same name. He is best known as Martha Dandridge Custis Washington's first father-in-law. The Northampton County native studied the tobacco trade in London in his early years, which helped him acquire a better economic understanding compared with his contemporaries. Custis married Frances Parke, and their relationship became known in Virginia lore for its quarrelsomeness, immortalized on his tombstone. The couple produced the heir Daniel Parke Custis, but after her death he fathered a son, John, with his slave Alice. Custis freed his son and gave him gifts of money, land, and slaves.
Wed, 28 May 2014 16:58:24 EST]]>
/Cornish_Richard_alias_Richard_Williams_d_after_January_3_1625 Tue, 27 May 2014 15:02:52 EST <![CDATA[Cornish, Richard alias Richard Williams (d. after January 3, 1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cornish_Richard_alias_Richard_Williams_d_after_January_3_1625 Tue, 27 May 2014 15:02:52 EST]]> /Fry_Joshua_ca_1700-May_31_1754 Tue, 27 May 2014 07:02:47 EST <![CDATA[Fry, Joshua (ca. 1700–May 31, 1754)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fry_Joshua_ca_1700-May_31_1754 Joshua Fry was a surveyor, soldier, and politician who is best known as the creator, along with Peter Jefferson, of the Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia. Born in England, Fry came to Virginia in or about 1726 and secured a teaching position at the College of William and Mary. After his marriage in 1736, he served Essex County as justice of the peace, sheriff, and coroner. In 1745 Fry became a resident of the newly formed Albemarle County, which he represented as a court justice, first lieutenant of the county, and a member of the House of Burgesses (1745–1754). In 1751 Fry, long a surveyor, helped create the Fry-Jefferson map, considered the definitive map of eighteenth-century Virginia. Following the map's completion, Fry was appointed a commissioner of the Treaty of Logstown (1752) between Virginia, the Ohio Company, and representatives of the Six Nations of the Iroquois. In 1754 Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie commissioned Fry colonel of the Virginia Regiment. Fry died on May 31, 1754, after falling from his horse while leading his troops into the Ohio territory.
Tue, 27 May 2014 07:02:47 EST]]>
/Gates_Sir_Thomas_d_1622 Sun, 25 May 2014 12:00:57 EST <![CDATA[Gates, Sir Thomas (d. 1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gates_Sir_Thomas_d_1622 Sir Thomas Gates served as governor of Virginia in 1610 and then as lieutenant governor from 1611 until 1614. Born in the southwest of England, he served in the West Indies with Sir Francis Drake and fought with Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex, in Normandy and Cádiz, where Gates was knighted in 1596. Gates was an original investor in the Virginia Company of London and led an infantry company in the Netherlands until taking command of a massive resupply fleet to Virginia in 1609. Aboard the flagship Sea Venture, Gates and his crew were shipwrecked on Bermuda for nearly a year before finally making it to Virginia. There, Governor Gates encountered a colony on the brink of extinction, saved only by the timely arrival of a new governor, Thomas West, twelfth baron De La Warr. Advocating a strict, military-style regime, Gates instituted a set of rules that were expanded and, in 1612, published as For the Colony in Virginea Britannia. Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall, &c. He participated in sometimes brutal attacks on the Indians during the First Anglo-Powhatan War(1609–1614), and, in England, worked as a tireless advocate for the Virginia Company. Returning to Virginia in 1611, Gates stiffened Jamestown's defenses and, with Sir Thomas Dale, cleared much of the James River of Powhatan Indians. Gates died in the Netherlands in 1622.
Sun, 25 May 2014 12:00:57 EST]]>
/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_A_True_Relation_of_such_occurrences_and_accidents_of_note_as_hath_hapned_in_Virginia_by_John_Smith_1608 Tue, 20 May 2014 13:31:09 EST <![CDATA[Arriving in Virginia; an excerpt from "A True Relation of such occurrences and accidents of note, as hath hapned in Virginia" by John Smith (1608)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_A_True_Relation_of_such_occurrences_and_accidents_of_note_as_hath_hapned_in_Virginia_by_John_Smith_1608 Tue, 20 May 2014 13:31:09 EST]]> /Letter_from_the_Rev_Joseph_Mead_to_Sir_Martin_Stuteville_January_23_1630 Thu, 15 May 2014 21:55:47 EST <![CDATA[Letter from the Rev. Joseph Mead to Sir Martin Stuteville (January 23, 1630)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_the_Rev_Joseph_Mead_to_Sir_Martin_Stuteville_January_23_1630 Thu, 15 May 2014 21:55:47 EST]]> /Runaway_Slaves_1642-1643 Mon, 05 May 2014 08:52:52 EST <![CDATA[Runaway Servants (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Runaway_Slaves_1642-1643 Mon, 05 May 2014 08:52:52 EST]]> /Jarratt_Devereux_1733-1801 Sun, 23 Mar 2014 08:44:29 EST <![CDATA[Jarratt, Devereux (1733–1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jarratt_Devereux_1733-1801 Devereux Jarratt was the rector of Bath Parish in Dinwiddie County and the most influential evangelical leader in Virginia's Anglican Church in the eighteenth century. At a time when critics regarded Virginia's official denomination as lifeless, and many of its parsons as little more than bureaucrats, Jarratt summoned his parishioners to a heartfelt devotion to Christ. He was spurred on by, and also contributed to, the revivals of the Great Awakening in Virginia, which first began in earnest among Presbyterians in the 1740s. Jarratt himself experienced a life-changing conversion early in the 1750s through the ministry of evangelical Presbyterians, although he remained an Anglican throughout his career. In 1775 and 1776, Jarratt and other evangelical preachers helped to generate a massive revival of religion in south-central Virginia, the high point of his nearly forty years in ministry.
Sun, 23 Mar 2014 08:44:29 EST]]>
/Jenings_Edmund_1659-1727 Sat, 22 Mar 2014 14:23:52 EST <![CDATA[Jenings, Edmund (1659–1727)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jenings_Edmund_1659-1727 Edmund Jenings served as Virginia's attorney general (ca. 1680–1691) and secretary of state (1696–1712), as well as on the governor's Council (1691–1726). As the president, or senior member, of that body, he also served as acting governor (1706–1710). Born and educated in England, Jenings came to Virginia with an introduction from the future King James II and an appointment to the post of attorney general. He became a political ally of Ralph Wormeley II and Richard Lee II, and helped his own political rise by marrying their relative, Frances Corbin. On the Council, Jenings tended to support the authority of royal governors, and although described by Robert Quary as "a man who is thought by all parties to be an indifferent person and unconcerned on either side," he made powerful enemies by defending the widely disliked Governor Francis Nicholson. After Nicholson's replacement died in office, Jenings served for four years as acting governor. He was largely ineffective, however, and during his later years he appeared to suffer from mental illness. When he became overwhelmed by debt, one of his political opponents, Robert "King" Carter, took over Jenings's management of the Northern Neck Proprietary, using that position to mortgage Jenings's land and property. In 1726, with another governor ill, the Council recommended Jenings's removal rather than let him serve again as acting governor. He died the next year.
Sat, 22 Mar 2014 14:23:52 EST]]>
/Richard_Kemp_ca_1600-ca_1650 Thu, 20 Mar 2014 05:23:25 EST <![CDATA[Kemp, Richard (ca. 1600–ca. 1650)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Richard_Kemp_ca_1600-ca_1650 Thu, 20 Mar 2014 05:23:25 EST]]> /Court_Ruling_on_Anthony_Johnson_and_His_Servant_1655 Mon, 10 Mar 2014 11:04:11 EST <![CDATA[Court Ruling on Anthony Johnson and His Servant (1655)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Court_Ruling_on_Anthony_Johnson_and_His_Servant_1655 Mon, 10 Mar 2014 11:04:11 EST]]> /Mason_George_1725-1792 Thu, 06 Mar 2014 08:32:00 EST <![CDATA[Mason, George (1725–1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mason_George_1725-1792 George Mason was a wealthy planter and an influential lawmaker who served as a member of the Fairfax County Court (1747–1752; 1764–1789), the Truro Parish vestry (1749–1785), the House of Burgesses (1758–1761), and the House of Delegates (1776–1780). In 1769, he helped organize a nonimportation movement to protest British imperial policies, and he later wrote the Fairfax Resolves (1774), challenging Parliament's authority over the American colonies. In 1775, Mason was elected to the Fairfax County committees of public safety and correspondence. He represented Fairfax County in Virginia's third revolutionary convention (1775) and in the fifth convention (1776), where he drafted Virginia's first state constitution and its Declaration of Rights, which is widely considered his greatest accomplishment. As a member of the House of Delegates, he advocated sound money policies and the separation of church and state. Mason represented Virginia at the Mount Vernon Conference (1785) on Potomac River navigation and at the federal Constitutional Convention (1787). Although Mason initially supported constitutional reform, he ultimately refused to sign the Constitution, and he led the Anti-Federalist bloc in the Virginia convention (1788) called to consider ratification of the Constitution. After Virginia approved it, Mason retired to his elegant home, Gunston Hall, on the Northern Neck, where he died in 1792.
Thu, 06 Mar 2014 08:32:00 EST]]>
/Munford_Robert_d_1783 Sat, 01 Mar 2014 05:01:32 EST <![CDATA[Munford, Robert (d. 1783)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Munford_Robert_d_1783 Robert Munford is best known today as a playwright, but he was far better known in his lifetime for his civic and military roles. He served in the military before, during, and after the American Revolution (1775–1783), and was active in colony, state, and local government in Virginia. Among other duties, Munford chaired committees whose members included Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson. His literary output, consisting of two plays, a few poems, and a translation, were little known in his day. The Candidates and The Patriots both depict life in eighteenth-century Virginia and are believed to be the first comedies written in America, taking as their subject the politics of the day, from life in the House of Burgesses to the Revolutionary War.
Sat, 01 Mar 2014 05:01:32 EST]]>
/Francis_Nicholson_1655-1728 Fri, 21 Feb 2014 10:55:31 EST <![CDATA[Nicholson, Francis (1655–1728)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Francis_Nicholson_1655-1728 Francis Nicholson served as lieutenant governor of the Dominion of New England (1688–1689), lieutenant governor of Virginia (1690–1692), governor of Maryland (1694–1698), governor of Virginia (1698–1705), governor of Nova Scotia (1712–1715), and governor of South Carolina (1721–1725). Born in Yorkshire, England, Nicholson began his military service around 1680, when he was stationed in Tangier, on the North African coast. A brief term of office in New England prepared him for appointment as lieutenant governor of Virginia in 1690, during which time he cultivated amicable relations with the local elites, including the Reverend James Blair. After serving for four years as governor of Maryland, Nicholson returned to Virginia as governor, although by this time his relations with Blair and others had soured. The Virginians recoiled at Nicholson's military gruffness and his uncouth public courtship of Lucy Burwell, daughter of Major Lewis Burwell of Gloucester County. In the meantime, the governor's attempts at reform threatened the power of such men as William Byrd I, so that several members of the governor's Council—including Nicholson's former ally, Blair—convinced the Crown to remove him. Still, Nicholson made important contributions to Virginia's military and economic stability, and played a leading role in the creation of the capital at Williamsburg. After serving as governor of Nova Scotia and then South Carolina, he died in London in 1728.
Fri, 21 Feb 2014 10:55:31 EST]]>
/Nickson_John_fl_1687 Wed, 19 Feb 2014 16:54:44 EST <![CDATA[Nickson, John (fl. 1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Nickson_John_fl_1687 Wed, 19 Feb 2014 16:54:44 EST]]> /Sandys_Sir_Edwin_1561-1629 Tue, 18 Feb 2014 16:43:18 EST <![CDATA[Sandys, Sir Edwin (1561–1629)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sandys_Sir_Edwin_1561-1629 Sir Edwin Sandys, one of the founders of the Virginia Company, was an author and parliamentarian as well as a colonizer. The son and namesake of an Archbishop of York, Sandys served a brief diplomatic mission that led to travels through Europe which became the basis for A Relation of the State of Religion (1605), a survey of religion on the continent that focused on Catholicism. As a member of Parliament for more than three decades, Sandys was an influential and outspoken critic of King James I, as well as an important supporter of English colonization efforts in Bermuda and especially Virginia. Sandys likely helped reorganize the Virginia colony in 1609, transferring control from the king to a company-appointed governor. In 1618, he helped draw up the "Great Charter," which established the General Assembly, and in 1619 he was elected treasurer, the Virginia Company's top leadership position. He failed at diversifying Virginia's economy away from tobacco, but succeeded in a strong effort to promote emigration and bolster its population. A negotiated tobacco monopoly with England in 1622 eventually led to an investigation of the financially troubled Virginia Company and Sandys's leadership in particular. The king revoked the charter and in 1624 the company dissolved. Sandys died in Kent in 1629.
Tue, 18 Feb 2014 16:43:18 EST]]>
/Parke_Daniel_1669-1710 Tue, 18 Feb 2014 14:54:47 EST <![CDATA[Parke, Daniel (1669–1710)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Parke_Daniel_1669-1710 Daniel Parke was a Virginia politician who gained his first public office at age nineteen, when he was elected to the House of Burgesses for James City County (1688). By age twenty-six, he had acquired a seat on the governor's Council (1695–1697). He relocated to England in 1697. He served as an aide-de-camp to John Churchill, duke of Marlborough, during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), and carried news of Marlborough's victory at the Battle of Blenheim to Queen Anne in 1704. The queen rewarded Parke with a governorship in the Leeward Islands, a small island chain in the Caribbean, which he assumed in 1706. But Parke's accomplishments masked a darker side. Arrogant and at times violent, he became estranged from his wife and children in Virginia, had a number of extramarital relationships, and fathered offspring out of wedlock. Ultimately, Parke's sexual improprieties contributed to his political undoing. Residents of the Leeward Islands complained that he had "debauched" many of their wives and daughters, in addition to exceeding his authority as their governor; a bloody riot ended Parke's governorship, and his life, on December 7, 1710, when an angry mob pulled him from his home and murdered him.
Tue, 18 Feb 2014 14:54:47 EST]]>
/Parks_William_d_1750 Tue, 18 Feb 2014 12:24:05 EST <![CDATA[Parks, William (d. 1750)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Parks_William_d_1750 William Parks was the first authorized printer in Virginia, the first "public printer" for the colonial government (1730–1750), publisher of the first authoritative collection of Virginia's laws (1733), and proprietor of its first newspaper, the Virginia Gazette (1736–1750). Born in England, Parks began producing official documents for the Maryland colony in 1726 and became its official printer the next year, with responsibility for all government publishing. In 1728, he expanded his business to Virginia, working as the public printer for both colonies from 1730 until 1737, when Maryland authorities accused him of neglecting his work and terminated his contract. In Virginia, his work was praised and it often flattered the local gentry. More importantly, it marked a shift by the colonial government from manuscript to print media while also enabling the growth of a public sphere in Virginia, especially through the publication of the Virginia Gazette. Responding to a story in that newspaper, a member of the House of Burgesses accused Parks of libel in 1742, but the General Assembly determined the story was true and so dismissed the charges. In the meantime, Parks published the Virginia Almanack, served as Williamsburg's postmaster, and built a large estate of property in Maryland and Virginia. His paper mill was the first south of Pennsylvania. Parks died in 1750 aboard a ship bound for England, where he was buried.
Tue, 18 Feb 2014 12:24:05 EST]]>
/Berkeley_Sir_William_1605-1677 Mon, 17 Feb 2014 15:48:39 EST <![CDATA[Berkeley, Sir William (1605–1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Berkeley_Sir_William_1605-1677 Sir William Berkeley was the longest-serving governor of Virginia (1641–1652, 1660–1677), a playwright, and author of Discourse and View of Virginia (1663), which argued for a more diversified colonial economy. After being educated at Oxford and after a brief study of the law, Berkeley gained access to the royal circle surrounding King Charles I, and one of his plays, The Lost Lady (1638), was performed for the king and queen. In 1641, he was named governor and captain general of Virginia, where he raised tobacco but also, at Green Spring, experimented with more diverse crops. His first stint as governor, marked by his willingness to share power and by the rise in stature of the General Assembly in Jamestown, ended with the king's execution. Berkeley's restoration coincided with King Charles II's, but his second governorship was much less successful. He failed to diversify the tobacco-based economy or to convince many settlers that the colony was adequately protecting them from Indian attacks. In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon challenged Berkeley directly, even laying siege to and then burning Jamestown. Although Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677) was suppressed, Berkeley's authority had been undermined, and he was replaced by Herbert Jeffreys in 1677. In May of that year Berkeley sailed to England to plead his case, but before he could meet the king, he died on July 9.
Mon, 17 Feb 2014 15:48:39 EST]]>
/Old_Dominion Thu, 30 Jan 2014 16:53:45 EST <![CDATA[Old Dominion]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Old_Dominion Old Dominion is one of the best-known nicknames for Virginia, along with Mother of Presidents and Mother of States. The nickname probably derives from the fact that Virginia was the first, and therefore the oldest, of the overseas dominions of the kings and queens of England. The seal and coat of arms of the colony in use from 1607 until 1624, when the Virginia Company of London directed the colonization of Virginia, included the words, "En Dat Virginia Quintam" (also spelled "Quintum"), indicating that Virginia was the fifth of the realms, or domains, of the Crown. At that time, the kings and queens of England also claimed the thrones of Scotland, Ireland, and France (dating back to the Norman Conquest in 1066). The same words appeared on the seal between 1625, when Virginia became the English king's first royal colony, and the 1707 Acts of Union that combined the kingdoms of England and Scotland into the kingdom of Great Britain. The motto on the seal of Virginia was then altered to "En Dat Virginia Quartam," there being thereafter four, not five, royal dominions. That motto was used on the colonial seal until the beginning of the American Revolution (1775–1783).
Thu, 30 Jan 2014 16:53:45 EST]]>
/Sherwood_Grace_ca_1660-1740 Wed, 01 Jan 2014 16:10:48 EST <![CDATA[Sherwood, Grace (ca. 1660–1740)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sherwood_Grace_ca_1660-1740 Grace Sherwood was the defendant in colonial Virginia's most notorious witch trial, which took place in Princess Anne County in 1706. Sherwood was rumored to be a witch as early as 1698, when she and her husband sued their neighbors for defamation and slander. They lost their cases, and in 1705 another neighbor pressed criminal charges of witchcraft against Grace Sherwood. She was subjected to a water test in which the accused is bound, thrown into a body of water (in this case, the Lynnhaven River), and found guilty if he or she floats. Sherwood floated, but instead of sentencing her to death, the justices jailed her and ordered a re-trial. Whether a second trial occurred is not known. By 1714, Sherwood had been released from prison and returned to her home in Pungo, where she died in 1740.
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 16:10:48 EST]]>
/Somers_Sir_George_1554-1610 Tue, 31 Dec 2013 13:20:05 EST <![CDATA[Somers, Sir George (1554–1610)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Somers_Sir_George_1554-1610 Sir George Somers was an English privateer and sea captain who served as admiral of a large resupply voyage to Jamestown in 1609; his ship the Sea Venture was wrecked and its passengers stranded for almost ten months on the islands of Bermuda. A native of Dorset, in the southwest of England, Somers preyed on Spanish shipping in the West Indies during his early years, earning enough money to buy land and build a nice home near his native town of Lyme Regis. Described as being "a lion at sea," he was knighted by King James I in 1603, and in 1606 was named in the Virginia Company of London's royal charter to settle Virginia. In 1609, Somers sailed on the Sea Venture, the resupply fleet's flagship that was shipwrecked in the Bermudas. There, despite disagreements with the governor, Sir Thomas Gates, Somers helped lead the castaways in their return to Virginia in May 1610. A few weeks later, a new governor, Thomas West, baron De La Warr, ordered Somers back to Bermuda to gather supplies. He died there early in November. His nephew Matthew Somers buried his heart and entrails in Bermuda—soon after named the Somers Islands—before returning the rest of his body to England for burial.
Tue, 31 Dec 2013 13:20:05 EST]]>
/Spotswood_Alexander_1676-1740 Tue, 31 Dec 2013 10:15:31 EST <![CDATA[Spotswood, Alexander (1676–1740)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Spotswood_Alexander_1676-1740 Alexander Spotswood served as lieutenant governor of Virginia from 1710 until 1722, ruling robustly in the absence of Governor George Hamilton, earl of Orkney. Born in Tangier, Morocco, Spotswood moved with his mother to England in 1683 and joined the military in 1693. After a seventeen-year military career, Spotswood was commissioned lieutenant governor of Virginia. Spotswood initially sought to improve relations with American Indians through regulated trade, to end piracy, and to increase gubernatorial power. He frequently and publicly expressed his unbridled contempt for those members of the House of Burgesses and governor's Council who disagreed with his policies and practices. But by the end of his administration, Spotswood had shifted from seeking to impose imperial will on Virginians to becoming a Virginian himself. He constructed ironworks in Spotsylvania County, making him the largest iron producer in the thirteen colonies, and designed and constructed the Bruton Parish Church building, a Williamsburg powder magazine, and the Governor's Palace. He also served as deputy postmaster general for North America after 1730. He died in 1740 in Annapolis, Maryland, while raising troops for the British campaign against the Spanish in South America.
Tue, 31 Dec 2013 10:15:31 EST]]>
/Calthorpe_Christopher_ca_1560-1763 Fri, 13 Dec 2013 10:25:21 EST <![CDATA[Calthorpe, Christopher (ca. 1560–1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Calthorpe_Christopher_ca_1560-1763 Fri, 13 Dec 2013 10:25:21 EST]]> /Mundus_novus_1503 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:13:31 EST <![CDATA[Mundus novus (1503)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mundus_novus_1503 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:13:31 EST]]> /_Miss_Johnston_s_To_Have_and_to_Hold_February_10_1900 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:09:27 EST <![CDATA["Miss Johnston's 'To Have and to Hold'" (February 10, 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Miss_Johnston_s_To_Have_and_to_Hold_February_10_1900 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:09:27 EST]]> /Cheesman_John_ca_1598-by_1665 Mon, 25 Nov 2013 13:38:32 EST <![CDATA[Cheesman, John (ca. 1598–by 1665)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cheesman_John_ca_1598-by_1665 Mon, 25 Nov 2013 13:38:32 EST]]> /Berry_Sir_John_baptized_1636-1690 Mon, 25 Nov 2013 13:37:43 EST <![CDATA[Berry, Sir John (baptized 1636–1690)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Berry_Sir_John_baptized_1636-1690 Sir John Berry was one of three royal commissioners sent by King Charles II to put down Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677) in Virginia. Having joined the English navy as a boatswain early in the 1660s, Berry quickly won promotion and commanded warships during the Second (1665–1667) and Third (1672–1674) Anglo-Dutch Wars. In October 1676 the king named Berry to a commission that led an armed force of ten naval vessels and more than 1,000 soldiers to put down Bacon's Rebellion and to investigate its causes. The rebellion had ended by the time Berry arrived in January 1677, and the commissioners clashed with Virginia's governor, Sir William Berkeley, as they followed royal instructions to impose order on the colony. Berry's crew fell ill, and he sailed for London in June. Berry was promoted to vice admiral in December 1688. He remained a naval commissioner until his death in 1690.
Mon, 25 Nov 2013 13:37:43 EST]]>
/Women_in_Colonial_Virginia Thu, 21 Nov 2013 17:57:52 EST <![CDATA[Women in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Women_in_Colonial_Virginia The record of women in colonial Virginia begins with Native Americans and gradually includes European and African women. The experiences of these women differed widely depending on their ethnicity, their status, and the gender roles defined by their culture. In the colony's early years, survival, not tradition, influenced the roles of men and women, whether white or black, free or unfree. Planters' wives, indentured servants, and slaves labored in the tobacco fields alongside one another, while an unmarried woman with land could engage in business the same way a man might. As Jamestown grew from a fortified outpost into the capital of a permanent colony, colonists began to envision a stable society based on the patriarchal system they had known in England, where men held authority over their wives, children, and other dependents. But the uneven sex ratio, the scattered nature of settlement, the high mortality rate, and frequent remarriages made the transfer of such ideas difficult, if not impossible. Historians agree that a society with less emphasis on gender roles gradually ceded to the traditional patriarchal system, but the exact timing of this change is not entirely clear. By the mid-seventeenth century, the colony's lawmakers began to use ideas about gender and race to codify two distinct roles for Virginia women: the so-called good wife, typically free and white, who performed domestic work in her home and raised her children; and the agricultural laborer, typically enslaved and black. By the end of the seventeenth century, members of the planter elite had separated themselves from the rest of Virginia's residents with their landed wealth, enslaved laborers, and wives who managed their homes. Although middling women (women of moderate means) continued to work alongside their husbands in the fields and operate taverns and other businesses well into the eighteenth century, all classes of women became relegated to the private sphere while their husbands increasingly dominated the public world. By the end of the colonial period, women, whether rich or poor, urban or rural, were expected to skillfully manage a household and provide an example for their children—acts that bolstered patriarchal authority in colonial Virginia.
Thu, 21 Nov 2013 17:57:52 EST]]>
/Custis_Daniel_Parke_1711-1757 Wed, 20 Nov 2013 11:35:00 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Daniel Parke (1711–1757)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_Daniel_Parke_1711-1757 Daniel Parke Custis, a planter, is best known as Martha Dandridge Custis Washington's first husband. Custis found his early life constrained by his father, John Custis (1679–1749), who squelched at least two of his courtships and was reluctant to give him land. Martha Dandridge, twenty years younger than Custis, eventually won his father's approval. He was a major landholder—inheriting 18,000 acres of land upon his father's death—but Custis declined to take a major role in Virginia politics. Martha Dandridge Custis inherited his property after Custis died without a will. She was one of the wealthiest young widows in Virginia when she married George Washington in 1759.
Wed, 20 Nov 2013 11:35:00 EST]]>
/Poplar_Forest Tue, 05 Nov 2013 08:26:33 EST <![CDATA[Poplar Forest]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Poplar_Forest Poplar Forest, located in Bedford County, was Thomas Jefferson's villa retreat. Jefferson's wife, Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson, inherited the Poplar Forest land from her father in 1773, and work on the distinctive octagonal house began in 1806. Although the house was framed by 1809, the year he retired from public service, Jefferson finished Poplar Forest slowly, directing work on the property until his death in 1826. Located about seventy miles from Monticello, Jefferson's second home became more than just a getaway; it served as an inspiration as he worked on its idealistic, innovative, and modern design, which integrated architecture and landscape. Poplar Forest's design shows the influence of ancient Roman, Renaissance, and eighteenth-century French and English architecture. It was the first octagonal house in America and one of the few houses built to Jefferson's designs that survive. It was also an intimate place where Jefferson spent time with his family. After Jefferson's death, ownership of the house and property passed to his grandson, Francis Eppes, who had resided there with his family since 1823, the year of Jefferson's last visit. In 1828 Eppes sold it and the surrounding 1,074 acres to a neighboring farmer. Poplar Forest was privately owned until 1984, when it was purchased by a group of local citizens that had formed the nonprofit Corporation for Jefferson's Poplar Forest. The house opened to the public in 1986. The archaeological excavation of the grounds and the restoration of the house and grounds began in 1990.
Tue, 05 Nov 2013 08:26:33 EST]]>
/Wingfield_Edward_Maria_1550-1631 Sat, 02 Nov 2013 17:38:03 EST <![CDATA[Wingfield, Edward Maria (1550–1631)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wingfield_Edward_Maria_1550-1631 Edward Maria Wingfield was a founding member of the Virginia Company of London and the first president of the Council of Virginia, a group of Jamestown settlers appointed by the company to make local decisions for the colony. Born into a political and military family, Wingfield followed his uncle Jaques Wingfield to Ireland and spent many years fighting there during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. He studied law briefly, fought the Spanish in the Low Countries, returned to Ireland, and served in Parliament before retiring from military service in 1600. From then on he focused on colonization, helping his cousin Bartholomew Gosnold recruit members for the proposed colony in Virginia. Unlike most of the original investors named in the First Charter, Wingfield actually traveled to Virginia and served as the colony's first president. Wingfield was unable to keep the peace among the settlement's leaders—he and Captain John Smith clashed repeatedly—and he was deposed as president and sent back to England. There he wrote his Discourse on Virginia, defending himself against attacks and providing a valuable description of the colony's origins. He died in 1631, having remained active in the Virginia Company's efforts.
Sat, 02 Nov 2013 17:38:03 EST]]>
/West_Thomas_twelfth_baron_De_La_Warr_1577-1618 Sun, 27 Oct 2013 13:44:10 EST <![CDATA[West, Thomas, twelfth baron De La Warr (1576–1618)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/West_Thomas_twelfth_baron_De_La_Warr_1577-1618 Thomas West, twelfth baron De La Warr, served as the first governor of Virginia appointed by the Virginia Company of London, living in the colony only briefly but holding the title until his death. Born to a wealthy and well-connected Protestant family, De La Warr attended Oxford without taking a degree and served with his first cousin, Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex, in Ireland. After managing to escape the taint of Essex's failed rebellion against Queen Elizabeth, De La Warr invested in the Virginia Company and, after James I issued its second charter, was appointed governor and captain-general for life. He arrived at Jamestown in 1610 just in time to save the colony from abandonment. After establishing a strict, military-like regime and renewing a brutal campaign against the Indians, he left Virginia in March 1611 because of illness. De La Warr attempted to return to Virginia in 1618, having never relinquished his title of governor, but he died en route. Three of his brothers also lived in the colony, two of whom, Francis West and John West, also served as governor. The Delaware River was named for De La Warr.
Sun, 27 Oct 2013 13:44:10 EST]]>
/Keppel_William_Anne_second_earl_of_Albemarle_1702-1754 Sun, 27 Oct 2013 13:25:11 EST <![CDATA[Keppel, William Anne, second earl of Albemarle (1702–1754)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Keppel_William_Anne_second_earl_of_Albemarle_1702-1754 William Anne Keppel, second earl of Albemarle, served as governor of Virginia from 1737 until his death in 1754. His father was a confidant of William of Orange and later was made first earl of Albemarle. William Anne Keppel succeeded to his father's titles and estates in 1718. In a distinguished military career, he rose to the rank of lieutenant general and proved himself during the War of the Austrian Succession. Albemarle became ambassador to France in 1748 and a member of the Privy Council two years later. George II commissioned him governor of Virginia on November 4, 1737. Albemarle never went to America and instead employed lieutenant governors to administer the government in Williamsburg. Relations between Albemarle and his lieutenant governors were strained over their respective appointive powers, and he outmaneuvered them in making colonial appointments. These patronage policies undermined the lieutenant governors and contributed to increasing the importance of colonial assemblies and politicians. Unintentionally, Albemarle helped weaken imperial ties between the colony and England. He died in Paris on December 22, 1754.
Sun, 27 Oct 2013 13:25:11 EST]]>
/Howard_Francis_fifth_baron_Howard_of_Effingham_bap_1643-1695 Sun, 27 Oct 2013 13:00:35 EST <![CDATA[Howard, Francis, fifth baron Howard of Effingham (bap. 1643–1695)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Howard_Francis_fifth_baron_Howard_of_Effingham_bap_1643-1695 Francis Howard, fifth baron Howard of Effingham, served as royal governor of Virginia from 1683 until 1692, and during his tenure brought Virginia under stronger English control. Born into a prosperous rural family in Surrey County, England, Effingham inherited the barony Effingham unexpectedly in 1681. The title provided him influence at court and soon led to his appointment as governor of Virginia. The monarchy strove for firmer authority over its dominions, and Virginia drew special attention after Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677). Unlike his two predecessors, Effingham successfully asserted the power of the governor's office, constraining the House of Burgesses by taking away its right to name its clerk and removing two powerful opposition figures from the governor's Council. Eventually the gentry accepted tighter royal oversight. Effingham resided in Virginia for just five years of his tenure, with ill health forcing him to accept the appointment of a lieutenant governor in 1690. He died in 1695, in England.
Sun, 27 Oct 2013 13:00:35 EST]]>
/Dandridge_William_1689-1744 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:21:58 EST <![CDATA[Dandridge, William (1689–1744)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dandridge_William_1689-1744 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:21:58 EST]]> /Dale_Sir_Thomas_d_1619 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:21:10 EST <![CDATA[Dale, Sir Thomas (d. 1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dale_Sir_Thomas_d_1619 Sir Thomas Dale served as deputy governor of Virginia (1611–1616) and member of the Council of State (1612–1616), and is best known for issuing strict military and civil regulations designed to bring order and discipline to the Jamestown settlement. Fluent in English, Dutch, and probably French, Dale began his lifelong military career serving the Netherlands and by 1594 was a captain in the English army. After being knighted by James I, Dale was recommended for a three-year post in Virginia by the king's son and Dale's friend, Prince Henry. He took charge of the colony's discipline, erecting forts, and fighting Indians. In 1611, he issued military regulations that, combined with earlier civil orders, were printed with the title For The Colony in Virginea Britannia. Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall, &c. (1612). The codes effected martial law on the colony, bringing order to a fractious and inefficient colony. In 1611, Dale founded the City of Henrico, or Henricus, in honor of Prince Henry, and in 1614, as acting governor, he assented to the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe. His successful campaigns against the Indians, his discipline, and his husbandry of the colony's resources helped to make Virginia largely self-sufficient. He left the colony with Pocahontas and Rolfe in 1616 and died three years later leading an English force on the east coast of India.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:21:10 EST]]>
/Custis_John_ca_1654-1714 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:15:46 EST <![CDATA[Custis, John (ca. 1654–1714)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_John_ca_1654-1714 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:15:46 EST]]> /Custis_John_ca_1629-1696 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:14:48 EST <![CDATA[Custis, John (ca. 1629–1696)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_John_ca_1629-1696 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:14:48 EST]]> /Culpeper_Thomas_second_baron_Culpeper_of_Thoresway_1635-1689 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:09:58 EST <![CDATA[Culpeper, Thomas, second baron Culpeper of Thoresway (1635–1689)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Culpeper_Thomas_second_baron_Culpeper_of_Thoresway_1635-1689 Thomas Culpeper, second baron Culpeper of Thoresway, was a governor of Virginia (1677–1683) and a proprietor of the Northern Neck. In 1649, the soon-to-be-exiled King Charles II granted Culpeper's father and six others ownership of the Northern Neck in Virginia but in the end was not able to make good on the gift. In the meantime, the younger Culpeper served the king as governor of the Isle of Wight and vice president of the Council for Foreign Plantations. In 1681, Culpeper, who already had permission from the king to collect rents from the Northern Neck, secured five-sixths ownership of the land, a claim he was forced to surrender when the Virginia colonists protested. Culpeper became the colony's governor in 1677 but was content to do so absentee until late in 1679, when Charles II forced him to sail to Virginia. There, he acted on the king's instructions by curtailing the power of the General Assembly, authorizing a series of regular taxes, including on tobacco exports, and, generally, clarifying the colony's subordinate relationship with England. Culpeper left Virginia in economic crisis and was replaced in 1683, but he continued to purchase land, and renewed his Northern Neck claim in 1688. The proprietary eventually descended to the family of his son-in-law, Thomas Fairfax, fifth baron Fairfax of Cameron. After supporting William of Orange during the Glorious Revolution (1688), Culpeper died in 1689.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:09:58 EST]]>
/Crewes_James_1622_or_1623-1677 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:06:57 EST <![CDATA[Crewes, James (1622 or 1623–1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crewes_James_1622_or_1623-1677 James Crewes took part in Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677). Born in England, by 1655 Crewes had settled in Virginia, where he kept a store at his Henrico County home and engaged in the fur trade. Fearful of Indian attacks, Crewes and his neighbors persuaded Nathaniel Bacon to organize local men to defend the colony. After Bacon attacked some Indians during the spring of 1676, he was rebuked by Governor Sir William Berkeley. Crewes took Bacon's side and possibly marched with a company of Bacon's men to Lower Norfolk County. He was captured and was among a group of prisoners delivered to the governor on January 19, 1677. Singled out at a court-martial as "a most notorious Actor & Assistor in the Rebellion," Crewes was one of seven men convicted of treason and rebellion against the king on January 24. He was sentenced to hang two days later.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:06:57 EST]]>
/Craford_William_d_by_April_15_1762 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:05:04 EST <![CDATA[Craford, William (d. by April 15, 1762)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Craford_William_d_by_April_15_1762 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:05:04 EST]]> /Cotton_John_d_after_October_24_1683 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 12:00:35 EST <![CDATA[Cotton, John (d. after October 24, 1683)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cotton_John_d_after_October_24_1683 John Cotton wrote about the events of Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677). Little is known about Cotton before 1657, when he witnessed a will in York County with his wife, Ann Cotton. He owned a plantation on Queen's Creek and often acted as an agent and attorney in the local courts. He was in Jamestown early in June 1676 when the governor arrested and released Nathaniel Bacon, after he had attacked a group of Virginia Indians. It is not known whether Cotton witnessed all the events he wrote about in his long narrative of the rebellion. His name is not attached to any surviving documents signed by Bacon's supporters nor on the official list of those who suffered property losses as a consequence of their support for the governor. Cotton last appears in the York County records in 1683, but the date and place of his death are unknown. Passed down through the Burwell family, Cotton's narrative was first published in 1814 in the Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 12:00:35 EST]]>
/Cotton_Ann_fl_1650s-1670s Mon, 23 Sep 2013 11:59:39 EST <![CDATA[Cotton, Ann (fl. 1650s–1670s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cotton_Ann_fl_1650s-1670s Ann Cotton wrote one of the earliest personal accounts of Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677). Nothing is known about her life until 1657, when she and her husband, John Cotton, witnessed a will in York County, where they lived. Unlike most other women in colonial Virginia, she was educated and literate. After the events of Bacon's Rebellion, she composed a highly personal narrative of the rebellion for a friend in England. The time and place of Cotton's death are unknown. The whereabouts of her original letter is not known. It was first published in the Richmond Enquirer in 1804 and in the first volume of Peter Force's Tracts and Other Papers, Relating Principally to the Origin, Settlement and Progress of the Colonies in North America in 1836, making it one of the first personal accounts of the rebellion to be published.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 11:59:39 EST]]>
/Corbyn_Henry_1628_or_1629-ca_1676 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 11:56:07 EST <![CDATA[Corbyn, Henry (1628 or 1629–ca. 1676)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Corbyn_Henry_1628_or_1629-ca_1676 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 11:56:07 EST]]> /Copeland_Joseph_d_after_April_22_1691 Wed, 11 Sep 2013 11:18:01 EST <![CDATA[Copeland, Joseph (d. after April 22, 1691)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Copeland_Joseph_d_after_April_22_1691 Wed, 11 Sep 2013 11:18:01 EST]]> /Cooper_Susannah_Sanders_d_after_9_June_1751 Wed, 11 Sep 2013 10:44:05 EST <![CDATA[Cooper, Susannah Sanders (d. after June 9, 1751)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooper_Susannah_Sanders_d_after_9_June_1751 Wed, 11 Sep 2013 10:44:05 EST]]> /Cole_William_1638_or_1639-1694 Thu, 05 Sep 2013 13:10:55 EST <![CDATA[Cole, William (1638 or 1639–1694)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cole_William_1638_or_1639-1694 Thu, 05 Sep 2013 13:10:55 EST]]> /Clayton_John_1695-1773 Thu, 05 Sep 2013 09:12:18 EST <![CDATA[Clayton, John (1695–1773)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clayton_John_1695-1773 John Clayton was a botanist and the clerk of Gloucester County (ca. 1720–1773). Born and educated in England, he first appears in colonial records in 1720 as the Gloucester County clerk, a position he held for more than fifty years. He owned a tobacco plantation and more than thirty slaves, and by 1735 was regularly providing naturalists such as Mark Catesby and John Frederick Gronovius with botanical specimens to be identified. Clayton himself identified and was the first to name the genus Agastache, a group of perennial, flowering herbs. In 1737, the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus named the wildflowers of the genus Claytonia in Clayton's honor. During this same time period, Clayton compiled for Gronovius a Catalogue of Herbs, Fruits, and Trees Native to Virginia, which Gronovius translated into Latin and published as Flora Virginica, without Clayton's permission, in 1739. This and subsequent editions were the first, and until the mid-twentieth century, the only compilations of Virginia's native plants. Clayton was elected to the American Philosophical Society (1743), the Swedish Royal Academy of Science (1747), and the Virginian Society for the Promotion of Usefull Knowledge (1773), of which he was the first president. He died that same year.
Thu, 05 Sep 2013 09:12:18 EST]]>
/Claiborne_William_1600-1679 Wed, 04 Sep 2013 14:07:19 EST <![CDATA[Claiborne, William (1600–1679)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Claiborne_William_1600-1679 William Claiborne served as a member of the governor's Council (1623–1637; 1642–1661) and as secretary of the colony (1626–1634). Born in England and educated at Cambridge, Claiborne came to Virginia in 1621 as surveyor of the colony and by 1623 was a member of the Council. He operated a lucrative trading post on Kent Island but was evicted by Maryland authorities, who claimed the land as their own. In 1626, Claiborne became secretary of the colony and led a powerful faction on the Council that clashed with Governor Sir John Harvey and eventually evicted him from office. After serving in the militia during the Anglo-Powhatan War of 1644–1646, Claiborne, a Puritan sympathizer, helped negotiate the surrender of Virginia to Parliament in 1652 after the English Civil Wars. When Charles II was restored to the throne, Claiborne, who had a civil relationship with the long-serving loyalist governor Sir William Berkeley, retired from public life. He defended the governor during Bacon's Rebellion (1676), losing much of his property in the process. Claiborne died in 1679.
Wed, 04 Sep 2013 14:07:19 EST]]>
/Berkeley_Frances_Culpeper_Stephens_b_ap_1634-ca_1695 Fri, 23 Aug 2013 14:21:15 EST <![CDATA[Berkeley, Frances Culpeper Stephens (1634–ca. 1695)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Berkeley_Frances_Culpeper_Stephens_b_ap_1634-ca_1695 Frances Culpeper Stephens Berkeley, best known as Lady Frances Berkeley, was the wife of Sir William Berkeley, the long-serving governor of the Virginia colony and whose authority was challenged so dramatically by his wife's relative Nathaniel Bacon. After arriving in Virginia with her parents about 1650, Frances Culpeper first married Captain Samuel Stephens, who became governor of the Albemarle settlements in present-day North Carolina. Upon Stephens's death, his wife inherited his large estate and soon married the Virginia governor, taking up residence at his estate, Green Spring, and vigorously supporting him during Bacon's Rebellion during the summer of 1676. Lady Berkeley pleaded her husband's case before King Charles II in 1676 but when she returned to Virginia the next year, it was with Governor Berkeley's replacement, Herbert Jeffreys. After Berkeley's death in 1677, Lady Berkeley became a leader of the so-called Green Spring faction, a powerful political group often at odds with the new governor. She married the colony's treasurer Philip Ludwell, but by the 1680s, her political influence had waned, despite Ludwell's service as deputy governor of North Carolina and South Carolina. Lady Berkeley died about 1695.
Fri, 23 Aug 2013 14:21:15 EST]]>
/Churchhill_William_b_1649-1710 Thu, 22 Aug 2013 16:25:10 EST <![CDATA[Churchhill, William (1649–1710)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Churchhill_William_b_1649-1710 Thu, 22 Aug 2013 16:25:10 EST]]> /Chiles_Walter_1609-after_July_6_1653 Thu, 22 Aug 2013 15:00:10 EST <![CDATA[Chiles, Walter (1609–after July 6, 1653)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chiles_Walter_1609-after_July_6_1653 Thu, 22 Aug 2013 15:00:10 EST]]> /Chicheley_Sir_Henry_1614_or_1615-1683 Thu, 22 Aug 2013 14:02:22 EST <![CDATA[Chicheley, Sir Henry (1614 or 1615–1683)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chicheley_Sir_Henry_1614_or_1615-1683 Sir Henry Chicheley represented Lancaster County in the House of Burgesses (1656), was a member of the governor's Council (1670–1683), and served as lieutenant governor of Virginia (1678–1680; 1680–1682) during the mostly absentee administration of Sir Thomas Culpeper. Born in England and educated at Oxford, Chicheley was a Royalist during the English Civil Wars and was imprisoned for his role in a plot against Parliament. The terms of his parole allowed him to sail for Virginia, where he promptly married into a powerful family and befriended the governor, Sir William Berkeley. After acquiring land, Chicheley experimented with various agriculture techniques and supported restrictions on tobacco cultivation, but he failed in his attempt to convince London to enact such restrictions. Chicheley commanded a militia set to attack hostile Indians but Governor Berkeley held him back, a move that in part sparked Bacon's Rebellion (1676). During the failed uprising, Chicheley remained loyal to the governor and was taken hostage for a time. As acting governor in the rebellion's aftermath, Chicheley struggled with falling tobacco prices and colonists who destroyed crops in order to create a price-boosting shortage. His measured response prevented the problem from growing worse. Chicheley died in 1683.
Thu, 22 Aug 2013 14:02:22 EST]]>
/Cheesman_Edmund_d_1677 Thu, 22 Aug 2013 12:10:21 EST <![CDATA[Cheesman, Edmund (d. 1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cheesman_Edmund_d_1677 Thu, 22 Aug 2013 12:10:21 EST]]> /Cary_Miles_bap_1623-1667 Wed, 21 Aug 2013 12:23:51 EST <![CDATA[Cary, Miles (bap. 1623–1667)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cary_Miles_bap_1623-1667 Wed, 21 Aug 2013 12:23:51 EST]]> /Cary_Henry_ca_1650-by_1720 Mon, 19 Aug 2013 12:39:38 EST <![CDATA[Cary, Henry (ca. 1650–by 1720)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cary_Henry_ca_1650-by_1720 Mon, 19 Aug 2013 12:39:38 EST]]> /Carter_Landon_1710-1778 Thu, 15 Aug 2013 11:45:44 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Landon (1710–1778)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Landon_1710-1778 Landon Carter was a prominent member of the House of Burgesses (1752–1768) and perhaps the most prolific published Virginia writer of his generation—the author of four major political pamphlets, nearly fifty newspaper essays, and a revealing personal diary. Carter was the son of the powerful landowner Robert "King" Carter and for a time managed some of his father's land. Upon King Carter's death, Landon Carter inherited a substantial Richmond County estate and built his home, Sabine Hall, there. After three failed attempts, Carter was elected to the House of Burgesses in 1752 and was rewarded with powerful committee appointments. He publicly defended the House in published pamphlets and newspaper essays until he was defeated in his bid for reelection in 1768. The first to raise the alarm in Virginia over the Stamp Act, Carter was chair of the Richmond County Committee (1774–1776) and a wholehearted supporter of independence during the American Revolution (1775–1783). He died at Sabine Hall in 1778.
Thu, 15 Aug 2013 11:45:44 EST]]>
/_A_strange_dream_this_day_an_excerpt_from_the_diary_of_Landon_Carter_1776A Wed, 14 Aug 2013 14:00:11 EST <![CDATA["A strange dream this day"; an excerpt from the diary of Landon Carter (1776–1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_strange_dream_this_day_an_excerpt_from_the_diary_of_Landon_Carter_1776A Wed, 14 Aug 2013 14:00:11 EST]]> /Bolling_Robert_1738-1775 Wed, 14 Aug 2013 10:18:38 EST <![CDATA[Bolling, Robert (1738–1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bolling_Robert_1738-1775 Robert Bolling was a poet, a member of the House of Burgesses (1761–1765), the sheriff of Buckingham County, and a member of the county court (1761–1775). Trained as a lawyer, he nearly fought a duel with William Byrd (1728–1777), a judge on the General Court, when Bolling accused the judges of bias in a murder case. Bolling was also involved in a suit brought by his youngest brother over an inheritance. The younger Bolling was represented by George Wythe, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and Robert Bolling by Thomas Jefferson, the Declaration's author. Bolling is best known as a poet, however. He published more poetry than any other colonial American between 1759 and 1775, including the grotesque "Neanthe" (ca. 1763), which reflected elements of Italian traditions, colonial Virginia folklore, and English poetry. In addition, during the failed courtship of his distant cousin, Bolling kept a journal, "A Circumstantial Account," which provides a unique view of eighteenth-century Virginia gentry. Bolling died suddenly in 1775 while attending the Virginia Convention of July–August 1775.
Wed, 14 Aug 2013 10:18:38 EST]]>
/Capps_William_fl_1609-1630 Tue, 13 Aug 2013 09:44:42 EST <![CDATA[Capps, William (fl. 1609–1630)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Capps_William_fl_1609-1630 Tue, 13 Aug 2013 09:44:42 EST]]> /Berkeley_Norborne_baron_de_Botetourt_1717-1770 Fri, 09 Aug 2013 13:50:56 EST <![CDATA[Berkeley, Norborne, baron de Botetourt (1717–1770)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Berkeley_Norborne_baron_de_Botetourt_1717-1770 Norborne Berkeley, baron de Botetourt, was royal governor of Virginia from 1768 until his death in 1770. Born Norborne Berkeley in London, England, he served in the House of Commons from 1741 until 1764, when he procured the revival of the barony of Botetourt and became a member of the House of Lords. In 1768 King George III commissioned Botetourt royal governor of Virginia. Unlike his predecessor, Sir Jeffery Amherst, who had refused to reside in the colony, Botetourt moved to Williamsburg and lived there for almost two years. The new governor was well liked by Virginians, who believed that he disapproved of British policies; in reality, he advised the Crown to stand firm against colonial protests, and had supported taxing the colonists as a member of the House of Lords. Botetourt died on October 15, 1770, and was buried in the chapel at the College of William and Mary.
Fri, 09 Aug 2013 13:50:56 EST]]>
/Blaikley_Catherine_Kaidyee_ca_1695-ca_1771 Fri, 09 Aug 2013 11:39:10 EST <![CDATA[Blaikley, Catherine Kaidyee (ca. 1695–1771)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blaikley_Catherine_Kaidyee_ca_1695-ca_1771 Catherine Kaidyee Blaikley was a midwife who, during the mid-eighteenth century in Virginia, purportedly delivered as many as three thousand babies. Probably born in York County, Blaikley married a watchmaker who, when he died in 1736, left her a substantial estate, including land in Henrico County, a mill in Brunswick County, and a lot in Williamsburg. Catherine Blaikley maintained her relatively high standard of living by becoming a midwife in Williamsburg in 1739. By the time of her death in 1771, male midwives also were delivering babies, a process that led to male physicians gradually replacing female midwives.
Fri, 09 Aug 2013 11:39:10 EST]]>
/Lewis_Burwell_d_by_1779 Wed, 31 Jul 2013 15:27:35 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lewis (d. by 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_Burwell_d_by_1779 Wed, 31 Jul 2013 15:27:35 EST]]> /Bridges_Charles_bap_1672-1747 Tue, 23 Jul 2013 10:10:31 EST <![CDATA[Bridges, Charles (bap. 1672–1747)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bridges_Charles_bap_1672-1747 Charles Bridges was the first documented painter to live and work in Virginia and to produce work of good quality. Born to a gentry family in Northamptonshire, England, Bridges settled in London, where he may have trained as a painter and begun a career as a portraitist. After his wife's death, he moved to Williamsburg with his children in 1735. More than two dozen portraits of Virginians are attributable to Bridges, including members of the Blair, Bolling, Carter, Custis, Grymes, Lee, Ludwell, Moore, Page, and Randolph families. He returned to England about 1744 and died in Northamptonshire in December 1747.
Tue, 23 Jul 2013 10:10:31 EST]]>
/_Women_Causing_Scandalous_Suites_to_be_Ducked_1662 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 11:18:51 EST <![CDATA["Women Causing Scandalous Suites to be Ducked" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Women_Causing_Scandalous_Suites_to_be_Ducked_1662 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 11:18:51 EST]]> /Bohun_Lawrence_d_1621 Tue, 16 Jul 2013 11:56:40 EST <![CDATA[Bohun, Lawrence (d. 1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bohun_Lawrence_d_1621 Lawrence Bohun was a member of the govenror's Council and physician general of the Virginia colony. Born probably in England, Bohun may have received his medical training at Leiden. He sailed to Virginia in 1610 as personal physician to the governor. Bohun returned to England and in 1612 was named as a shareholder in the third charter of the Virginia Company of London. While practicing medicine in London, he retained his interest in Virginia and may have been involved in an attempt to introduce silk culture there. Appointed physician general of the colony and a member of the Council in 1620, Bohun sailed for Virginia but was killed on March 19, 1621, when Spanish warships attacked his ship in the West Indies.
Tue, 16 Jul 2013 11:56:40 EST]]>
/Beverley_Robert_bap_1635-1687 Fri, 12 Jul 2013 11:03:52 EST <![CDATA[Beverley, Robert (bap. 1635–1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beverley_Robert_bap_1635-1687 Robert Beverley, also known as Major Robert Beverley or as Robert Beverley the immigrant, served as clerk of the House of Burgesses from 1677 until his death in 1687 despite attempts by the Privy Council and various royal governors to displace him. Born in England, Beverley moved to Virginia after the death of his first wife. There, he served as surveyor of Middlesex County, justice of the peace, a church vestryman, a major in the militia, and, in 1676, acting attorney general. He became wealthy exporting tobacco and importing other goods, and during Bacon's Rebellion (1676), stoutly defended his friend the royal governor Sir William Berkeley. In 1677 he was elected clerk of the House but ran afoul of Berkeley's successor, to whom he refused to turn over the legislative journals. Beverley was arrested in 1682 and confined to jail for two years, charged with conspiring to destroy tobacco in order to inflate the crop's market price. After his release, he was elected to the House of Burgesses and reelected the House's clerk. He was accused to altering a bill after it was passed but he died before a trial could be held.
Fri, 12 Jul 2013 11:03:52 EST]]>
/Great_Awakening_in_Virginia_The Thu, 11 Jul 2013 14:20:03 EST <![CDATA[Great Awakening in Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Great_Awakening_in_Virginia_The The Great Awakening was the most significant cultural upheaval in colonial America. The term refers to a series of religious revivals that began early in the eighteenth century and led, eventually, to the disestablishment of the Church of England as the official church during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Triggered by the preaching of the Anglican itinerant George Whitefield, the Great Awakening began in New England and the Middle Colonies, where thousands converted to an evangelical faith centered on the experience of the "new birth" of salvation. It also featured intense, emotional scenes of penitential sinners and new converts being filled, as they saw it, with the Holy Spirit, with associated outcries, visions, dreams, and spirit journeys. The Great Awakening's effects in Virginia developed slowly, beginning early in the 1740s. By the 1760s, evangelical Presbyterians and Baptists were making major inroads among Virginians, and challenging the established church in the colony. Perhaps the most notable historical result of the Great Awakening in Virginia was the end of the state's establishment of religion, which was ultimately accomplished through the Act for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786). The cause of religious freedom was championed politically by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, but it depended on the popular support of legions of evangelicals, especially Baptists.
Thu, 11 Jul 2013 14:20:03 EST]]>
/Batte_Thomas_fl_1630s-1690s Mon, 08 Jul 2013 15:25:04 EST <![CDATA[Batte, Thomas (fl. 1630s–1690s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Batte_Thomas_fl_1630s-1690s Mon, 08 Jul 2013 15:25:04 EST]]> /John_Banister_1649_or_1650-1692 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 12:41:41 EST <![CDATA[Banister, John (1649 or 1650–1692)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_Banister_1649_or_1650-1692 John Banister was a naturalist and Anglican minister in the Virginia colony. Born in England, he became interested in North American plants while studying at the University of Oxford. After arriving in Virginia in 1679, he took charge of Bristol Parish, near the mouth of the Appomattox River. Exploring as far west as the Virginia foothills, Banister collected specimens of the colony's flora and fauna, many of which he sent back to England. He was not able to complete his own comprehensive natural history of Virginia, but his numerous lists, notes, and drawings were used by European naturalists in their published works on North American plants and animals. Other naturalists named plants for Banister, and William Houstoun gave the name Banisteria to a class of tropical and subtropical viny plants. In his Species Plantanum (1753), Carolus Linnaeus cited species and specimens that Banister had procured and described. While on a collecting expedition Banister was accidentally killed by one of his traveling companions sometime between May 12 and May 16, 1692.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 12:41:41 EST]]>
/Bacon_Nathaniel_bap_1620-1692 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:43:16 EST <![CDATA[Bacon, Nathaniel (bap. 1620–1692)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bacon_Nathaniel_bap_1620-1692 Nathaniel Bacon, a member of the governor's Council, was often referred to as Nathaniel Bacon (the elder) in order to distinguish him from his namesake cousin, known as Nathaniel Bacon (the rebel) (1647–1676). Little is known about his early life. By 1653 Bacon had moved to Virginia. He settled in Isle of Wight County before moving to York County. In March 1656 Bacon represented York County in the House of Burgesses, and by December of that year he had become a member of the governor's Council, where he served for three years. After another term as a burgess in 1659, he had once again been named to the Council by August 1660. As the senior member of the Council by January 1682, on three separate occasions in the 1680s and early in 1690 he served as president and acting governor of the colony. Bacon had no children, and when he died on March 16, 1692, his niece Abigail Smith Burwell inherited his vast estate.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:43:16 EST]]>
/Argall_Samuel_bap_1580-1626 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:32:09 EST <![CDATA[Argall, Samuel (bap. 1580–1626)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Argall_Samuel_bap_1580-1626 Samuel Argall was a longtime resident of Jamestown and the deputy governor of Virginia (1617–1619). He pioneered a faster means of traveling to Virginia by following the 30th parallel, north of the traditional Caribbean route, and he first arrived in June 1610, just after the "Starving Time" when the surviving colonists were ready to quit for Newfoundland. Although he joined in the war against the Virginia Indians, Argall also engaged in diplomacy, negotiating provisions from Iopassus (Japazaws) of the Patawomeck tribe. Argall explored the Potomac River region in the winter of 1612 and spring of 1613, and there, with Iopassus's complicity, kidnapped Pocahontas, a move that helped establish an alliance between the Patawomecks and the Virginians. In 1613 and 1614, Argall explored as far north as present-day Maine and Nova Scotia, and made hostile contact with the Dutch colony at Manhattan. He also helped negotiate peace with the Pamunkey and Chickahominy tribes. As deputy governor, Argall improved military preparedness but did not enforce martial law in the same way as Sir Thomas Dale had, making his administration a bridge between the old politics and a new more democratic era. Knighted by James I in 1622, Argall led an English fleet against the Spanish in 1625 and died at sea in 1626.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:32:09 EST]]>
/Andros_Sir_Edmund_1637-ca_1714 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:28:06 EST <![CDATA[Andros, Sir Edmund (1637–ca. 1714)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Andros_Sir_Edmund_1637-ca_1714 Sir Edmund Andros served as governor of Virginia from 1692 until 1698. Born in London, Andros enjoyed ties to the family of Charles II, served in the army, was appointed governor of New York by the future James II in 1674 and in 1686 of the Dominion of New England. His stay in New England was unpopular enough that he ended up imprisoned before returning to England. During the Glorious Revolution (1688) he supported William of Orange, who appointed him governor of Virginia with the hopes that he would aid New York during King William's War (1689–1697) and raise the salaries of the Anglican clergy. Andros's efforts were hindered by the war's effect on the tobacco trade; when prices fell, so did the salaries of clergymen, who were paid in the crop. Forced to battle with the clergymen's leader, James Blair, Andros raised salaries some but not enough. In the meantime, he subtly extended royal power in Virginia, tying the colony's laws closer to England's. Just staying in power despite a host of political enemies, Andros left office due to poor health, leaving Virginia in 1699. He served as lieutenant governor of Guernsey before dying in England sometime around 1714.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:28:06 EST]]>
/Amherst_Sir_Jeffery_1717-1797 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:23:40 EST <![CDATA[Amherst, Sir Jeffery (1717–1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Amherst_Sir_Jeffery_1717-1797 Jeffery Amherst was a British army general and royal governor of Virginia from 1759 until 1768. Born in Kent County, England, Amherst served as commander of British forces in North America in 1758. He captured strategic forts at Ticonderoga, Niagara, Quebec, and Montreal. For these military successes, he was rewarded with the office of governor in Virginia. He never visited Virginia, leaving the colony's administration to the lieutenant governor, Francis Fauquier. After Fauquier's death, the British ministry decided that the royal governor should reside in Williamsburg and no longer entrust the government of the colony to a lieutenant governor. Amherst, refusing to live in Virginia, was dismissed from office. Amherst died in Kent County in 1797.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:23:40 EST]]>
/Ralph_Lane_on_the_Killing_of_Pemisapan_an_excerpt_from_An_account_of_the_particularities_of_the_imployments_of_the_English_men_left_in_Virginia_1589 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 11:44:42 EST <![CDATA[Ralph Lane on the Killing of Pemisapan; an excerpt from "An account of the particularities of the imployments of the English men left in Virginia" (1589)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ralph_Lane_on_the_Killing_of_Pemisapan_an_excerpt_from_An_account_of_the_particularities_of_the_imployments_of_the_English_men_left_in_Virginia_1589 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 11:44:42 EST]]> /_All_the_knowen_Seas_an_excerpt_from_The_Principall_Navigations_Voiages_and_Discoveries_of_the_English_Nation_by_Richard_Hakluyt_the_younger_1589 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 08:55:09 EST <![CDATA["All the knowen Seas"; an excerpt from The Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation by Richard Hakluyt (the younger) (1589)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_All_the_knowen_Seas_an_excerpt_from_The_Principall_Navigations_Voiages_and_Discoveries_of_the_English_Nation_by_Richard_Hakluyt_the_younger_1589 Tue, 25 Jun 2013 08:55:09 EST]]> /_An_act_for_regulating_the_Elections_of_Burgesses_for_settling_their_Privileges_and_for_ascertaining_their_allowances_1705 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:01:25 EST <![CDATA["An act for regulating the Elections of Burgesses; for settling their Privileges; and for ascertaining their allowances" (1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_regulating_the_Elections_of_Burgesses_for_settling_their_Privileges_and_for_ascertaining_their_allowances_1705 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:01:25 EST]]> /Francis_Howard_to_William_Blathwayt_1687 Wed, 19 Jun 2013 11:53:40 EST <![CDATA[Francis Howard to William Blathwayt (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Francis_Howard_to_William_Blathwayt_1687 Wed, 19 Jun 2013 11:53:40 EST]]> /Letter_from_Antonio_de_Abalia_to_the_Council_of_Indies_October_23_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:54:11 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Antonio de Abalia to the Council of Indies (October 23, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Antonio_de_Abalia_to_the_Council_of_Indies_October_23_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:54:11 EST]]> /La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_25_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:52:19 EST <![CDATA[La Trinidad Expedition Log (August 25, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_25_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:52:19 EST]]> /La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_24_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:50:30 EST <![CDATA[La Trinidad Expedition Log (August 24, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_24_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:50:30 EST]]> /La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_14_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:48:50 EST <![CDATA[La Trinidad Expedition Log (August 14, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/La_Trinidad_Expedition_Log_August_14_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:48:50 EST]]> /List_of_People_on_La_Trinidad_Expedition_August_1_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:46:39 EST <![CDATA[List of People on La Trinidad Expedition (August 1, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/List_of_People_on_La_Trinidad_Expedition_August_1_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:46:39 EST]]> /Instructions_from_Pedro_Menendez_de_Aviles_to_Pedro_de_Coronas_et_al_August_1_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:42:42 EST <![CDATA[Instructions from Pedro Menéndez de Avilés to Pedro de Coronas, et al. (August 1, 1566)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Instructions_from_Pedro_Menendez_de_Aviles_to_Pedro_de_Coronas_et_al_August_1_1566 Wed, 15 May 2013 13:42:42 EST]]> /Account_of_the_Lottery_in_Leicester_by_Rogert_Hawfeilde_June_12_1618 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:57:29 EST <![CDATA[Account of the Lottery in Leicester by Rogert Hawfeilde (June 12, 1618)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Account_of_the_Lottery_in_Leicester_by_Rogert_Hawfeilde_June_12_1618 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:57:29 EST]]> /Relation_of_Juan_de_la_Carrera_March_1_1600 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:50:32 EST <![CDATA[Relation of Juan de la Carrera (March 1, 1600)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Relation_of_Juan_de_la_Carrera_March_1_1600 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:50:32 EST]]> /Letter_from_Francis_Perkins_in_Jamestown_to_a_Friend_in_England_March_28_1608 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:36:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Francis Perkins in Jamestown to a Friend in England (March 28, 1608)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Francis_Perkins_in_Jamestown_to_a_Friend_in_England_March_28_1608 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:36:44 EST]]> /Newes_from_Virginia_The_lost_Flocke_Triumphant_by_Lord_Robert_Rich_1610 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:29:03 EST <![CDATA[Newes from Virginia. The lost Flocke Triumphant by Lord Robert Rich (1610)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Newes_from_Virginia_The_lost_Flocke_Triumphant_by_Lord_Robert_Rich_1610 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:29:03 EST]]> /_A_Declaration_of_the_State_of_the_Colonie_and_Affaires_in_Virginia_July_22_1620 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:17:50 EST <![CDATA["A Declaration of the State of the Colonie and Affaires in Virginia" (July 22, 1620)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Declaration_of_the_State_of_the_Colonie_and_Affaires_in_Virginia_July_22_1620 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 13:17:50 EST]]> /Relation_of_Bartolome_Martinez_October_24_1610 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 12:56:57 EST <![CDATA[Relation of Bartolomé Martínez (October 24, 1610)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Relation_of_Bartolome_Martinez_October_24_1610 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 12:56:57 EST]]> /The_Story_of_Guillaume_Rouffi_an_excerpt_from_Relacion_e_informacion_de_los_Franceses_by_Hernando_de_Manrique_de_Rojas_July_9_1564 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 12:48:49 EST <![CDATA[The Story of Guillaume Rouffi; an excerpt from Relación e información de los Franceses by Hernando de Manrique de Rojas (July 9, 1564)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Story_of_Guillaume_Rouffi_an_excerpt_from_Relacion_e_informacion_de_los_Franceses_by_Hernando_de_Manrique_de_Rojas_July_9_1564 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 12:48:49 EST]]> /A_true_and_sincere_declaration_of_the_purpose_and_ends_of_the_plantation_begun_in_Virginia_by_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_1609 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 12:40:41 EST <![CDATA[A true and sincere declaration of the purpose and ends of the plantation begun in Virginia by the Virginia Company of London (1609)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_true_and_sincere_declaration_of_the_purpose_and_ends_of_the_plantation_begun_in_Virginia_by_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_1609 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 12:40:41 EST]]> /The_Story_of_Marguerite_de_La_Roque_an_excerpt_from_The_Heptameron_of_Margaret_Queen_of_Navarre_by_Marguerite_de_Navarre_1558 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:47:49 EST <![CDATA[The Story of Marguerite de La Roque; an excerpt from The Heptameron of Margaret, Queen of Navarre by Marguerite de Navarre (1558)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Story_of_Marguerite_de_La_Roque_an_excerpt_from_The_Heptameron_of_Margaret_Queen_of_Navarre_by_Marguerite_de_Navarre_1558 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:47:49 EST]]> /_The_natives_are_white_men_an_excerpt_from_De_Orbe_Novo_by_Peter_Martyr_d_Anghiera_1530 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:40:57 EST <![CDATA["The natives are white men"; an excerpt from De Orbe Novo by Peter Martyr d'Anghiera (1530)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_natives_are_white_men_an_excerpt_from_De_Orbe_Novo_by_Peter_Martyr_d_Anghiera_1530 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:40:57 EST]]> /Letter_from_the_Council_of_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_to_the_Mayor_and_Aldermen_of_the_City_of_Norwich_December_4_1617 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:37:40 EST <![CDATA[Letter from the Council of the Virginia Company of London to the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Norwich (December 4, 1617)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_the_Council_of_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_to_the_Mayor_and_Aldermen_of_the_City_of_Norwich_December_4_1617 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 11:37:40 EST]]> /The_Black_Legend_an_excerpt_from_A_Brief_Account_of_the_Destruction_of_the_Indies_by_Bartolome_de_las_Casas_1552 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:53:22 EST <![CDATA[The Black Legend; an excerpt from A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies by Bartolomé de las Casas (1552)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Black_Legend_an_excerpt_from_A_Brief_Account_of_the_Destruction_of_the_Indies_by_Bartolome_de_las_Casas_1552 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:53:22 EST]]> /Petition_from_Alderman_Johnson_et_al_to_King_James_I_April_1623 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:43:47 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Alderman Johnson, et al., to King James I (April 1623)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Alderman_Johnson_et_al_to_King_James_I_April_1623 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:43:47 EST]]> /The_Story_of_Juan_Ortiz_an_excerpt_fromThe_Discovery_and_Conquest_of_Terra_Floridaby_a_Gentleman_of_Elvas_1557 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:33:27 EST <![CDATA[The Story of Juan Ortiz; an excerpt from The Discovery and Conquest of Terra Florida by a Gentleman of Elvas (1557)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Story_of_Juan_Ortiz_an_excerpt_fromThe_Discovery_and_Conquest_of_Terra_Floridaby_a_Gentleman_of_Elvas_1557 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:33:27 EST]]> /Inter_caetera_by_Pope_Alexander_VI_May_4_1493 Wed, 20 Mar 2013 14:56:28 EST <![CDATA[Inter caetera by Pope Alexander VI (May 4, 1493)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Inter_caetera_by_Pope_Alexander_VI_May_4_1493 Wed, 20 Mar 2013 14:56:28 EST]]> /_Instructions_to_George_Yeardley_by_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_November_18_1618 Wed, 20 Mar 2013 09:02:40 EST <![CDATA["Instructions to George Yeardley" by the Virginia Company of London (November 18, 1618)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Instructions_to_George_Yeardley_by_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_November_18_1618 Wed, 20 Mar 2013 09:02:40 EST]]> /El_Requerimiento_by_Juan_Lopez_de_Palacios_Rubios_1513 Mon, 18 Mar 2013 14:37:54 EST <![CDATA[El Requerimiento by Juan López de Palacios Rubios (1513)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/El_Requerimiento_by_Juan_Lopez_de_Palacios_Rubios_1513 Mon, 18 Mar 2013 14:37:54 EST]]> /Letter_from_Juan_Rogel_to_Francis_Borgia_1572 Tue, 12 Mar 2013 12:00:05 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Juan Rogel to Francis Borgia (August 28, 1572)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Juan_Rogel_to_Francis_Borgia_1572 Tue, 12 Mar 2013 12:00:05 EST]]> /Review_of_To_Have_and_to_Hold_April_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:46:45 EST <![CDATA[Review of To Have and to Hold (April 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Review_of_To_Have_and_to_Hold_April_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:46:45 EST]]> /_Mary_Johnston_in_Her_Home_by_Annie_Kendrick_Walker_March_24_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:42:16 EST <![CDATA["Mary Johnston in Her Home" by Annie Kendrick Walker (March 24, 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mary_Johnston_in_Her_Home_by_Annie_Kendrick_Walker_March_24_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:42:16 EST]]> /_A_Book_Very_Like_To_Have_and_to_Hold_by_L_F_A_Maulsby_June_9_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:36:49 EST <![CDATA["A Book Very Like 'To Have and to Hold'" by L. F. A. Maulsby (June 9, 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Book_Very_Like_To_Have_and_to_Hold_by_L_F_A_Maulsby_June_9_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:36:49 EST]]> /_Miss_Johnston_s_Virginia_by_Thomas_Dixon_Jr_November_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:33:12 EST <![CDATA["Miss Johnston's Virginia" by Thomas Dixon Jr. (November 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Miss_Johnston_s_Virginia_by_Thomas_Dixon_Jr_November_1900 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 13:33:12 EST]]> /The_Case_of_Wahanganoche_an_excerpt_from_the_Journals_of_the_House_of_Burgesses_of_Virginia_1662 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:22:24 EST <![CDATA[The Case of Wahanganoche; an excerpt from the Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Case_of_Wahanganoche_an_excerpt_from_the_Journals_of_the_House_of_Burgesses_of_Virginia_1662 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:22:24 EST]]> /_An_act_concerning_the_building_of_a_ffort_October_1665 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:18:16 EST <![CDATA["An act concerning the building of a ffort" (October 1665)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_concerning_the_building_of_a_ffort_October_1665 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:18:16 EST]]> /_An_act_concerning_Indians_October_1665 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:16:12 EST <![CDATA["An act concerning Indians" (October 1665)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_concerning_Indians_October_1665 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:16:12 EST]]> /_An_act_concerning_the_Northerne_Indians_September_1663 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:12:56 EST <![CDATA["An act concerning the Northerne Indians" (September 1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_concerning_the_Northerne_Indians_September_1663 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 09:12:56 EST]]> /Chapter_33_In_Which_My_Friend_Becomes_My_Foe_an_excerpt_from_To_Have_and_to_Hold_by_Mary_Johnston_1900 Wed, 13 Feb 2013 11:52:33 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 33: "In Which My Friend Becomes My Foe"; an excerpt from To Have and to Hold by Mary Johnston (1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_33_In_Which_My_Friend_Becomes_My_Foe_an_excerpt_from_To_Have_and_to_Hold_by_Mary_Johnston_1900 Wed, 13 Feb 2013 11:52:33 EST]]> /Tobacco_in_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 29 Jan 2013 14:14:00 EST <![CDATA[Tobacco in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tobacco_in_Colonial_Virginia Tobacco was colonial Virginia's most successful cash crop. The tobacco that the first English settlers encountered in Virginia—the Virginia Indians' Nicotiana rustica—tasted dark and bitter to the English palate; it was John Rolfe who in 1612 obtained Spanish seeds, or Nicotiana tabacum, from the Orinoco River valley—seeds that, when planted in the relatively rich bottomland of the James River, produced a milder, yet still dark leaf that soon became the European standard. Over the next 160 years, tobacco production spread from the Tidewater area to the Blue Ridge Mountains, especially dominating the agriculture of the Chesapeake region. Beginning in 1619 the General Assembly put in place requirements for the inspection of tobacco and mandated the creation of port towns and warehouses. This system assisted in the development of major settlements at Norfolk, Alexandria, and Richmond. Tobacco formed the basis of the colony's economy: it was used to purchase the indentured servants and slaves to cultivate it, to pay local taxes and tithes, and to buy manufactured goods from England. Promissory notes payable in tobacco were even used as currency, with the cost of almost every commodity, from servants to wives, given in pounds of tobacco. Large planters usually shipped their tobacco directly to England, where consignment agents sold it in exchange for a cut of the profits, while smaller planters worked with local agents who bought their tobacco and supplied them with manufactured goods. In the mid-seventeenth century, overproduction and shipping disruptions related to a series of British wars caused the price of tobacco to fluctuate wildly. Prices stabilized again in the 1740s and 1750s, but the financial standings of small and large planters alike deteriorated throughout the 1760s and into the 1770s. By the advent of the American Revolution (1775–1783), some planters had switched to growing food crops, particularly wheat; many more began to farm these crops to support the war effort. In the first year of fighting, tobacco production in Virginia dropped to less than 25 percent of its annual prewar output.
Tue, 29 Jan 2013 14:14:00 EST]]>
/Runaway_Slaves_and_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:53:29 EST <![CDATA[Runaway Slaves and Servants in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Runaway_Slaves_and_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Runaway slaves and indentured servants were a persistent problem for landowners in colonial Virginia. They fled from abusive masters, to take a break from work, or in search of family members from whom they had been separated. Some servants were lured away by neighbors attempting to steal labor. Early court cases reveal that whites and blacks sometimes ran off together but that punishments for the latter could be much harsher. As early as 1643, the General Assembly passed laws that established penalties for runaway slaves and servants, regulated their movement, identified multiple offenders (by branding them or cutting their hair), and provided rewards for their capture. In October 1669, the burgesses admitted that these laws "have hitherto in greate parte proved ineffectuall," as slaves and servants continued to brave wide rivers, often dangerous Indians, and the storm-tossed Chesapeake Bay. They fled mostly into Maryland but sometimes as far north as New Netherland and New England. In 1705 a sweeping new law allowed planters to discipline slaves to death or, in some cases, to kill runaways without penalty. Robert "King" Carter sought and received permission to dismember his runaways. Beginning in 1736, landowners advertised in the Virginia Gazette for their runaways; they describe more than 3,500 fugitives from 1736 until 1783. These advertisements affirmed a lingering desire for freedom on the part of slaves.
Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:53:29 EST]]>
/Slave_Ships_and_the_Middle_Passage Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:48:55 EST <![CDATA[Slave Ships and the Middle Passage]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Ships_and_the_Middle_Passage The slave ship was the means by which nearly 12.5 million enslaved Africans were transported from Africa to the Americas between 1500 and 1866. Leaving from its home port in Europe, a typical ship made its first passage to the west coast of Africa, trading goods for a full cargo of slaves—people who had been captured in war, convicted of petty crimes, or simply kidnapped. On the second, or "middle," passage, the captain sailed his cargo across the Atlantic Ocean to one or more ports in the New World, where he sold his slaves and purchased or loaded goods such as sugar, rum, and molasses. On the final passage, he returned home. The Portuguese dominated the early slave trade, but at its height, in the eighteenth century, British and American merchants helped bring millions of Africans to the Americas, a very small percentage of whom ended up in Virginia. About 15 percent of all Africans who made the voyage died, most from the accumulation of brutal treatment and inadequate care from the time of their enslavement in the interior of Africa. Others suffocated in the tightly packed holds, while some committed suicide, refused to eat, or revolted. Crew members, meanwhile, died at even higher rates, also mostly from disease. The victims of violence meted out by their officers, sailors in turn dispensed their own brand of terror to the Africans. For Africans who survived, the Middle Passage began with the separation from family and community and ended with a lifetime of enslavement.
Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:48:55 EST]]>
/Gloucester_County_Conspiracy_1663 Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:12:53 EST <![CDATA[Gloucester County Conspiracy (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gloucester_County_Conspiracy_1663 The Gloucester County Conspiracy, also known as the Servants' Plot or Birkenhead's Rebellion, was a plan by indentured servants to rise up against authorities in Gloucester County in 1663. Nine men—John Gunter, William Bell, Richard Darbishire, John Hayte, Thomas Jones, William Ball, William Poultney, William Bendell, and Thomas Collins—met in the woods and planned an operation whereby they would collect arms and ammunition and, with perhaps as many as thirty recruits, later march on the governor's mansion at Green Spring. There they would demand that Sir William Berkeley release them from their indentures. A servant named Birkenhead betrayed them, however, and a number were arrested and four hanged. After rewarding Birkenhead with his freedom and 5,000 pounds of tobacco, the General Assembly declared that the day of their planned insurrection be celebrated annually.
Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:12:53 EST]]>
/Treaty_Ending_the_Third_Anglo-Powhatan_War_1646 Fri, 25 Jan 2013 16:14:58 EST <![CDATA[Treaty Ending the Third Anglo-Powhatan War (1646)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Treaty_Ending_the_Third_Anglo-Powhatan_War_1646 Fri, 25 Jan 2013 16:14:58 EST]]> /Articles_of_Peace_1677 Fri, 25 Jan 2013 15:08:35 EST <![CDATA[Articles of Peace (1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Articles_of_Peace_1677 Fri, 25 Jan 2013 15:08:35 EST]]> /General_Court_Responds_to_Runaway_Servants_and_Slaves_1640 Mon, 14 Jan 2013 16:21:46 EST <![CDATA[General Court Responds to Runaway Servants and Slaves (1640)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/General_Court_Responds_to_Runaway_Servants_and_Slaves_1640 Mon, 14 Jan 2013 16:21:46 EST]]> /_A_Report_of_a_Comittee_from_an_Assembly_Concerning_the_freedome_of_Elizabeth_Key_1656 Fri, 11 Jan 2013 09:34:02 EST <![CDATA["A Report of a Comittee from an Assembly Concerning the freedome of Elizabeth Key" (1656)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Report_of_a_Comittee_from_an_Assembly_Concerning_the_freedome_of_Elizabeth_Key_1656 Fri, 11 Jan 2013 09:34:02 EST]]> /Thomas_Harriot_on_the_Diseases_that_Ravaged_Indian_Towns_an_excerpt_from_A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_1588 Thu, 10 Jan 2013 10:56:23 EST <![CDATA[Diseases that Ravaged Indian Towns; an excerpt from A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia by Thomas Hariot (1588)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Harriot_on_the_Diseases_that_Ravaged_Indian_Towns_an_excerpt_from_A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_1588 Thu, 10 Jan 2013 10:56:23 EST]]> /Thomas_Harriot_on_the_Indians_of_Ossomocomuck_an_excerpt_from_A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_1588 Thu, 10 Jan 2013 09:34:21 EST <![CDATA[The Indians of Ossomocomuck; an excerpt from A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia by Thomas Hariot (1588)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Harriot_on_the_Indians_of_Ossomocomuck_an_excerpt_from_A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_1588 Thu, 10 Jan 2013 09:34:21 EST]]> /Meeting_Granganimeo_an_excerpt_from_The_first_voyage_made_to_the_coasts_of_America_by_Arthur_Barlowe_1589 Wed, 09 Jan 2013 16:08:43 EST <![CDATA[Meeting Granganimeo; an excerpt from "The first voyage made to the coasts of America" by Arthur Barlowe (1589)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meeting_Granganimeo_an_excerpt_from_The_first_voyage_made_to_the_coasts_of_America_by_Arthur_Barlowe_1589 Wed, 09 Jan 2013 16:08:43 EST]]> /_Will_you_kill_me_an_excerpt_from_Prisoners_of_Hope_by_Mary_Johnston_1898 Tue, 08 Jan 2013 10:12:36 EST <![CDATA["Will you kill me?"; an excerpt from Prisoners of Hope by Mary Johnston (1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Will_you_kill_me_an_excerpt_from_Prisoners_of_Hope_by_Mary_Johnston_1898 Tue, 08 Jan 2013 10:12:36 EST]]> /_A_people_free_as_the_eagle_an_excerpt_from_Prisoners_of_Hope_by_Mary_Johnston_1898 Tue, 08 Jan 2013 09:39:23 EST <![CDATA["A people free as the eagle"; an excerpt from Prisoners of Hope by Mary Johnston (1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_people_free_as_the_eagle_an_excerpt_from_Prisoners_of_Hope_by_Mary_Johnston_1898 Tue, 08 Jan 2013 09:39:23 EST]]> /_They_hunt_you_down_an_excerpt_from_Prisoners_of_Hope_by_Mary_Johnston_1898 Tue, 08 Jan 2013 09:06:56 EST <![CDATA["They hunt you down"; an excerpt from Prisoners of Hope by Mary Johnston (1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_They_hunt_you_down_an_excerpt_from_Prisoners_of_Hope_by_Mary_Johnston_1898 Tue, 08 Jan 2013 09:06:56 EST]]> /Roanoke_Colonists_Appeal_to_John_White_an_excerpt_from_The_voyage_of_Edward_Stafford_and_John_White_by_John_White_1589 Tue, 18 Dec 2012 12:20:52 EST <![CDATA[Roanoke Colonists' Appeal to John White; an excerpt from "The voyage of Edward Stafford and John White" by John White (1589)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Roanoke_Colonists_Appeal_to_John_White_an_excerpt_from_The_voyage_of_Edward_Stafford_and_John_White_by_John_White_1589 Tue, 18 Dec 2012 12:20:52 EST]]> /John_White_s_Change_of_Plans_an_excerpt_from_The_voyage_of_Edward_Stafford_and_John_White_by_John_White_1589 Tue, 18 Dec 2012 12:08:39 EST <![CDATA[John White's Change of Plans; an excerpt from "The voyage of Edward Stafford and John White" by John White (1589)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_White_s_Change_of_Plans_an_excerpt_from_The_voyage_of_Edward_Stafford_and_John_White_by_John_White_1589 Tue, 18 Dec 2012 12:08:39 EST]]> /_A_true_Description_of_the_People_of_their_Collour_Constitution_and_Disposition_their_Apparrell_an_excerpt_fromThe_Historie_of_Travaile_into_Virginia_Britannia_by_William_Strachey_1849 Thu, 13 Dec 2012 12:02:05 EST <![CDATA["A true description of the people, of their cullour, attire, ornaments, constitutions, dispositions, etc."; an excerpt from The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia by William Strachey (1612, pub. 1849)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_true_Description_of_the_People_of_their_Collour_Constitution_and_Disposition_their_Apparrell_an_excerpt_fromThe_Historie_of_Travaile_into_Virginia_Britannia_by_William_Strachey_1849 Thu, 13 Dec 2012 12:02:05 EST]]> /_A_Dictionarie_of_the_Indian_Language_an_excerpt_from_Historie_and_Travaile_into_Virginia_Britannia_by_William_Strachey_1612 Thu, 13 Dec 2012 11:58:10 EST <![CDATA["A Dictionarie of the Indian Language"; an excerpt from The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia by William Strachey (1612, pub. 1849)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Dictionarie_of_the_Indian_Language_an_excerpt_from_Historie_and_Travaile_into_Virginia_Britannia_by_William_Strachey_1612 Thu, 13 Dec 2012 11:58:10 EST]]> /Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Observations_gathered_out_of_a_Discourse_of_the_Plantation_of_the_Southerne_Colonie_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy_1625 Thu, 13 Dec 2012 10:22:27 EST <![CDATA[Arriving in Virginia; an excerpt from "Observations gathered out of a Discourse of the Plantation of the Southerne Colonie in Virginia" by George Percy (1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Observations_gathered_out_of_a_Discourse_of_the_Plantation_of_the_Southerne_Colonie_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy_1625 Thu, 13 Dec 2012 10:22:27 EST]]> /The_Dying_Time_an_excerpt_from_Observations_gathered_out_of_a_Discourse_of_the_Plantation_of_the_Southerne_Colonie_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 16:00:52 EST <![CDATA[The Dying Time; an excerpt from "Observations gathered out of a Discourse of the Plantation of the Southerne Colonie in Virginia" by George Percy (1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Dying_Time_an_excerpt_from_Observations_gathered_out_of_a_Discourse_of_the_Plantation_of_the_Southerne_Colonie_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 16:00:52 EST]]> /Quitting_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 12:54:40 EST <![CDATA[Quitting Virginia; an excerpt from A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates Knight by William Strachey (1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Quitting_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 12:54:40 EST]]> /_Misery_and_misgovernment_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 11:54:49 EST <![CDATA["Misery and misgovernment"; an excerpt from A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates Knight by William Strachey (1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Misery_and_misgovernment_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 11:54:49 EST]]> /The_Deliverance_and_the_Patience_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 11:34:10 EST <![CDATA[TheDeliverance and the Patience; an excerpt from A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates Knight by William Strachey (1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Deliverance_and_the_Patience_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 11:34:10 EST]]> /Life_and_Death_on_Bermuda_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 11:13:54 EST <![CDATA[Life and Death on Bermuda; an excerpt from A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates Knight by William Strachey (1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Life_and_Death_on_Bermuda_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 11:13:54 EST]]> /Conspiracies_on_Bermuda_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 10:56:19 EST <![CDATA[Conspiracies on Bermuda; an excerpt from A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates Knight by William Strachey (1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Conspiracies_on_Bermuda_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 10:56:19 EST]]> /_The_dangerous_and_dreaded_Iland_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 10:42:51 EST <![CDATA["The dangerous and dreaded Iland"; an excerpt from A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates Knight by William Strachey (1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_dangerous_and_dreaded_Iland_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 10:42:51 EST]]> /_Fury_Added_to_Fury_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 09:59:45 EST <![CDATA["Fury Added to Fury"; an excerpt from A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates Knight by William Strachey (1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Fury_Added_to_Fury_an_excerpt_from_A_true_reportory_of_the_wracke_and_redemption_of_Sir_Thomas_Gates_Knight_by_William_Strachey_1625 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 09:59:45 EST]]> /_I_would_fain_die_a_dry_death_an_excerpt_from_The_Tempest_by_William_Shakespeare_ca_1610-1611 Fri, 07 Dec 2012 11:20:20 EST <![CDATA["I would fain die a dry death"; an excerpt from The Tempest by William Shakespeare (ca. 1610–1611)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_I_would_fain_die_a_dry_death_an_excerpt_from_The_Tempest_by_William_Shakespeare_ca_1610-1611 Fri, 07 Dec 2012 11:20:20 EST]]> /Sea_Venture Thu, 06 Dec 2012 01:40:51 EST <![CDATA[Sea Venture]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sea_Venture The Sea Venture was the flagship of a convoy sent from England in June 1609 to re-supply and revive the failing colony at Jamestown. On July 24, just off the coast of the uninhabited island chain of Bermuda, the fleet sailed into a hurricane. The storm separated the flagship from the other vessels and left it gravely damaged. The 150 passengers and crew members, including Christopher Newport, the ship's captain, and the colony's intended new leaders, escaped death at sea but found themselves marooned on Bermuda. Before the ship sank, crewmen salvaged many of their supplies and even the rigging. For ten months the castaways remained on Bermuda, while their countrymen in Virginia and England assumed them dead. During that time, they built two small boats, which they named the Patience and the Deliverance, and sailed to Virginia, arriving on May 24, 1610. Word of their odyssey fascinated English men and women, who saw in the story providential design: surely, many concluded, God had saved the Sea Venture voyagers. The tale also attracted London's leading playwright: the Sea Venture contributed to the inspiration behind William Shakespeare's last major play, The Tempest. Most importantly for the still-floundering Virginia colony, the amazing story encouraged the English to stick with their American enterprise and even expand their colonial presence in North America.
Thu, 06 Dec 2012 01:40:51 EST]]>
/Gentry_in_Colonial_Virginia Thu, 06 Dec 2012 01:33:44 EST <![CDATA[Gentry in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gentry_in_Colonial_Virginia The gentry were a small class of men who dominated the economic, social, and political life of Virginia through much of the mid- to late eighteenth century. Of landed but not noble lineage, the gentry established themselves in Virginia as tobacco planters relying heavily on the labor first of indentured servants and then enslaved Africans. As the richest men in Virginia, they dominated colonial government, sitting on the governor's Council and in the House of Burgesses and running Anglican vestries. They constructed large homes, especially in the Tidewater, that dominated the landscape and symbolized their great power. Another symbol of the gentry's prestige was the inordinate amount of time the planters spent on leisure activities such as gambling and dancing. Over time, however, the gentry's power began to decline. Already overwhelmed by debt, they had trouble negotiating changes that came with a diversifying economy, religious dissent, and the social shifts that accompanied the American Revolution (1775–1783) and its emphasis on the rights of the common man. Many of the nongentry, drafted into the Continental Army, resented the planters' ability to avoid the fighting. Nevertheless, the gentry weathered these storms and remained in power well into the nineteenth century.
Thu, 06 Dec 2012 01:33:44 EST]]>
/Will_of_Richard_Hakluyt_the_younger_August_20_1612 Fri, 02 Nov 2012 09:46:46 EST <![CDATA[Will of Richard Hakluyt (the younger) (August 20, 1612)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Will_of_Richard_Hakluyt_the_younger_August_20_1612 Fri, 02 Nov 2012 09:46:46 EST]]> /Will_of_Richard_Hakluyt_the_elder_September_13_1587 Fri, 02 Nov 2012 09:22:20 EST <![CDATA[Will of Richard Hakluyt (the elder) (September 13, 1587)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Will_of_Richard_Hakluyt_the_elder_September_13_1587 Fri, 02 Nov 2012 09:22:20 EST]]> /John_Smith_and_Pocahontas_in_England_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Thu, 01 Nov 2012 15:15:54 EST <![CDATA[John Smith and Pocahontas in England; an excerpt from The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_Smith_and_Pocahontas_in_England_an_excerpt_from_The_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Thu, 01 Nov 2012 15:15:54 EST]]> /John_Smith_s_Letter_to_Queen_Anne_an_excerpt_fromThe_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Thu, 01 Nov 2012 14:37:18 EST <![CDATA[John Smith's Letter to Queen Anne; an excerpt fromThe Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by John Smith (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_Smith_s_Letter_to_Queen_Anne_an_excerpt_fromThe_Generall_Historie_of_Virginia_New-England_and_the_Summer_Isles_by_John_Smith_1624 Thu, 01 Nov 2012 14:37:18 EST]]> /Surrender_to_Parliament_Treaty_of_Jamestown Tue, 18 Sep 2012 11:46:52 EST <![CDATA[Surrender to Parliament (Treaty of Jamestown)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Surrender_to_Parliament_Treaty_of_Jamestown On March 12, 1652, Virginia governor Sir William Berkeley and the governor's Council agreed to a negotiated surrender to the forces sent out by the Commonwealth government of England under the authority of the English Parliament. By capitulating, Virginia relinquished its status as a royal colony and ceased its formal support of the Stuart royal family. The surrender came after the colony endured an embargo and a blockade, both ordered by the Commonwealth government of England. The colonial government negotiated relatively favorable terms for its surrender, although Berkeley was forced to step down as governor. Virginia would return to royal colony status in 1660 with the Restoration.
Tue, 18 Sep 2012 11:46:52 EST]]>
/Pistole_Fee_Dispute_The Mon, 17 Sep 2012 16:43:25 EST <![CDATA[Pistole Fee Dispute, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pistole_Fee_Dispute_The The pistole fee dispute of 1753–1754 was a political battle between the House of Burgesses and Virginia lieutenant governor Robert Dinwiddie over Dinwiddie's decision to charge a fee of one pistole (approximately 18 shillings) for each land patent to which he attached the colony's seal. Though royal policy gave colonial governors the right to establish officers' fees with the consent of the governor's Council, the practice was not enforced in Virginia, where fees were usually determined by the General Assembly. The controversy over the pistole fee was so heated that Dinwiddie and the House of Burgesses sent representatives to London to argue their cases before the Privy Council. The Privy Council upheld the fee and Dinwiddie's right to establish it, but imposed certain restrictions on the fee to conciliate the House of Burgesses—a compromise that was accepted by the opposing parties but did not address the constitutional issue of whether colonial legislatures had the right to defeat local taxes proposed by the British government. The questions that were raised by opponents of the fee (including Richard Bland and Landon Carter) regarding British authority and the rights of Virginians would resurface in 1765 with the passage of the Stamp Act.
Mon, 17 Sep 2012 16:43:25 EST]]>
/Elections_in_Colonial_Virginia Fri, 31 Aug 2012 14:40:18 EST <![CDATA[Elections in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Elections_in_Colonial_Virginia Elections were an integral part of the colonial political system and used primarily to choose members of the House of Burgesses, the lower house of the General Assembly in Virginia, and less frequently to select members of the vestry in each Anglican parish. Building on customs and practices brought from England in the seventeenth century, Virginians developed their own unique electoral system, which allowed counties, towns, and colleges to be represented; defined who got to vote through an evolving franchise law; and governed the behavior of candidates and voters before and during elections. While wealthy planters won nearly all of these political contests, the electorate, which was composed of small-landowning and tenant farmers, responded to a variety of personal, neighborhood, parish, county, provincial, and imperial factors in deciding which members of the gentry to elect. In most places, incumbents easily won reelection, but in some constituencies at certain points in time, one set of elites challenged another, heated campaigning went on for months, members of the most prominent families suffered defeat, and outcomes were so close and contentious that they could only be resolved by the House of Burgesses in the capital at Williamsburg.
Fri, 31 Aug 2012 14:40:18 EST]]>
/County_Formation_during_the_Colonial_Period Thu, 30 Aug 2012 16:47:25 EST <![CDATA[County Formation during the Colonial Period]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/County_Formation_during_the_Colonial_Period While it has traditionally been held that Virginia's first counties were not formed until 1634, when the "country [was] divided into 8 shires," subsequent research has shown that progress toward county formation had begun at least by 1622. An act passed early in that year provided for lower courts to be held in the various settlements throughout the colony to help relieve the governor and Council "from [their] vast Burthen of Business, and to render Justice the more cheap and accessible." Although a large-scale attack on the English colonists by a group of Powhatan Indians in March 1622 halted progress for a while, an emergency system of military commanders set up a quasi-military structure over the local populations that included monthly courts. By 1634, when the eight original shires, or counties, were enumerated, five localities were already named for five of the shires and were sending burgesses to the General Assembly at Jamestown. In 1642, the assembly passed a law to call the monthly courts "countie courts," thus concluding a twenty-year progression toward county government in Virginia. At the close of the colonial period, Virginia was home to a total of sixty-one counties, its population growth having moved north, south, and west from the original eastern settlements around Jamestown.
Thu, 30 Aug 2012 16:47:25 EST]]>
/ZA Wed, 15 Aug 2012 15:09:05 EST <![CDATA[Zúñiga Chart]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/ZA The Zúñiga chart, a manuscript map of the Chesapeake Bay and Tidewater Virginia, is a copy of a map that was probably originally drawn by Captain John Smith, one of the Jamestown colonists. Named for Don Pedro de Zúñiga, a Spanish ambassador to England, who sent it to King Philip III of Spain in September 1608, the chart is significant for its insight into the locations of Indian villages, the location of Jamestown and the architecture of James Fort, and the concerns and priorities of the English colonists.
Wed, 15 Aug 2012 15:09:05 EST]]>
/The_General_Assembly_Convenes_1619 Wed, 08 Aug 2012 12:47:35 EST <![CDATA[The General Assembly Convenes (1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_General_Assembly_Convenes_1619 In this excerpt from the Journals of the House of Burgesses, the assembly's's first meeting on July 30, 1619, is described, with Governor Sir George Yeardley, the governor's Council, and the burgesses meeting in unicameral session in the church at Jamestown. After the Reverend Richard Bucke said a prayer to open the session, the assembly ruled on two of its new members' standing. Some spelling has been updated and contractions expanded.
Wed, 08 Aug 2012 12:47:35 EST]]>
/John_Nickson_Runs_Away_1687 Fri, 03 Aug 2012 09:31:03 EST <![CDATA[John Nickson Runs Away (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_Nickson_Runs_Away_1687 Fri, 03 Aug 2012 09:31:03 EST]]> /_Act_directing_the_trial_of_Slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_Negros_Mulattos_and_Indians_bond_or_free_1723 Wed, 01 Aug 2012 12:54:19 EST <![CDATA["An Act directing the trial of Slaves, committing capital crimes; and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them; and for the better government of Negros, Mulattos, and Indians, bond or free" ]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Act_directing_the_trial_of_Slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_Negros_Mulattos_and_Indians_bond_or_free_1723 In "An Act directing the trial of Slaves, committing capital crimes; and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them; and for the better government of Negros, Mulattos, and Indians, bond or free," passed by the General Assembly in the session of May 1723, Virginia's colonial government establishes laws with regards to the punishment of slaves and the overall government of slaves, free blacks, and Indians.
Wed, 01 Aug 2012 12:54:19 EST]]>
/Advertisement_for_the_Founding_of_Richmond_1737 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 12:46:26 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement for the Founding of Richmond (1737)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_for_the_Founding_of_Richmond_1737 In this advertisement, published on page 4 of William Parks's Virginia Gazette on April 22, 1737, William Byrd announces the founding of Richmond. Some spelling has been modernized.
Tue, 31 Jul 2012 12:46:26 EST]]>
/Testimony_about_the_York_County_Conspiracy_1661 Fri, 20 Jul 2012 09:05:31 EST <![CDATA[Testimony about the York County Conspiracy (1661)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_about_the_York_County_Conspiracy_1661 In these depositions, taken in January 1661, several indentured servants, captured in an attempt to rebel in York County, explain what their plan was and how it should have been executed. The servants' overseer, John Parkes, also testified. Some spelling has been updated and contractions expanded.
Fri, 20 Jul 2012 09:05:31 EST]]>
/The_Starving_Time_and_Rescue_an_excerpt_from_A_Breife_Declaration_of_the_Plantation_of_Virginia_1624 Fri, 20 Jul 2012 08:53:26 EST <![CDATA[The Starving Time and Rescue; an excerpt from "A Breife Declaration of the Plantation of Virginia" (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Starving_Time_and_Rescue_an_excerpt_from_A_Breife_Declaration_of_the_Plantation_of_Virginia_1624 In this excerpt from "A Breife Declaration of the Plantation of Virginia duringe the firft Twelve Yeares, when Sir Thomas Smith was Governor of the Companie, & downe to this prefent tyme" (1624), a group of so-called Ancient Planters describe life at Jamestown from the Starving Time, during the winter of 1609–1610, to the colony's near-abandonment by Governor Sir Thomas Gates, to its rescue by the arrival of a new governor, Thomas West, baron De La Warr. The Ancient Planters were settlers who came to Virginia before Sir Thomas Dale's departure in 1616, remained for a period of three years, and received the first land grants. Commissioned by the General Assembly in 1624, their report came amidst a Crown investigation of the Virginia Company of London and its treasurer, Sir Edwin Sandys. Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 20 Jul 2012 08:53:26 EST]]>
/Jacob_Rowe_Sanctioned_in_Debate_over_Two_Penny_Bill_1758 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 17:27:48 EST <![CDATA[Jacob Rowe Sanctioned in Debate over Two Penny Bill (1758)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jacob_Rowe_Sanctioned_in_Debate_over_Two_Penny_Bill_1758 Debate in the House of Burgesses over the proposed Two Penny Bill turned nasty in September 1758. In the following excerpts from the Journal of the House of Burgesses, the Reverend Jacob Rowe is sanctioned and then apologizes for comments he made in a private conversation that were overhead by burgess William Kennon. The Two Penny Act of 1758 was signed into law by Lieutenant Governor Francis Fauquier, on behalf of George II, on October 12, 1758. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Tue, 17 Jul 2012 17:27:48 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Robert_King_Carter_to_William_Cage_1724 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 16:56:56 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert "King" Carter to William Cage (1724)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_King_Carter_to_William_Cage_1724 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 16:56:56 EST]]> /_An_act_concerning_Servants_and_Slaves_1705 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 10:28:39 EST <![CDATA["An act concerning Servants and Slaves" (1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_concerning_Servants_and_Slaves_1705 In "An act concerning Servants and Slaves," passed by the General Assembly in the session of October 1705, Virginia's colonial government collects old and establishes new laws with regards to indentured servants and slaves.
Tue, 17 Jul 2012 10:28:39 EST]]>
/_An_Act_for_Exempting_their_Majestyes_Protestant_Subjects_dissenting_from_the_Church_of_England_from_the_Penalties_of_certaine_Lawes_1688 Mon, 16 Jul 2012 15:43:20 EST <![CDATA["An Act for Exempting their Majestyes Protestant Subjects dissenting from the Church of England from the Penalties of certaine Lawes" (1688)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_for_Exempting_their_Majestyes_Protestant_Subjects_dissenting_from_the_Church_of_England_from_the_Penalties_of_certaine_Lawes_1688 Mon, 16 Jul 2012 15:43:20 EST]]> /_20_and_odd_Negroes_an_excerpt_from_a_letter_from_John_Rolfe_to_Sir_Edwin_Sandys_1619_1620 Thu, 12 Jul 2012 14:19:22 EST <![CDATA["Twenty and odd Negroes"; an excerpt from a letter from John Rolfe to Sir Edwin Sandys (1619/1620)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_20_and_odd_Negroes_an_excerpt_from_a_letter_from_John_Rolfe_to_Sir_Edwin_Sandys_1619_1620 In this excerpt from a letter to Sir Edwin Sandys, treasurer of the Virginia Company of London, the Jamestown colonist John Rolfe describes events in the Virginia colony. These include the first meeting of the General Assembly, a murder trial, and a controversy involving the Indian-language interpreter Captain Henry Spelman. He also notes the arrival of "20. and odd Negroes," the first Africans in Virginia. In greater detail he recounts a visit to Jamestown by a Patawomeck elder Iopassus (Japazaws), who in 1613 had been responsible for delivering Rolfe's since-deceased wife Pocahontas into the hands of Captain Samuel Argall. Now Iopassus appeared to be engaging in diplomacy independent of Powhatan, Opechancanough, and the Indians of Tsenacomoco. The letter is dated "January 1619/1620," the two years reflecting both the Old (Julian) Calendar and the New (Gregorian) Calendar. Some spelling has been updated and contractions expanded.
Thu, 12 Jul 2012 14:19:22 EST]]>
/Letter_of_Don_Diego_de_Molina_to_Don_Alonzo_de_Velasco_1613 Thu, 12 Jul 2012 13:40:34 EST <![CDATA[Letter of Don Diego de Molina to Don Alonzo de Velasco (1613)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_of_Don_Diego_de_Molina_to_Don_Alonzo_de_Velasco_1613 Thu, 12 Jul 2012 13:40:34 EST]]> /_An_act_enabling_freemen_to_vote_for_burgesses_and_preventing_false_returnes_of_burgesses_1676 Fri, 08 Jun 2012 15:46:44 EST <![CDATA["An act enabling freemen to vote for burgesses and preventing false returnes of burgesses" (1676)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_enabling_freemen_to_vote_for_burgesses_and_preventing_false_returnes_of_burgesses_1676 The following law, "An act enabling freemen to vote for burgesses and preventing false returnes of burgesses," passed by the General Assembly in its June 1676 session, during the tumult of Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), defines the franchise as consisting of all freemen.
Fri, 08 Jun 2012 15:46:44 EST]]>
/Lee_s_Resolution_1776 Fri, 08 Jun 2012 15:20:24 EST <![CDATA[Lee's Resolution (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_s_Resolution_1776 Richard Henry Lee, a Virginia delegate to the Second Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, offered the following resolution on June 7, 1776. He was acting on instructions from the Virginia Convention, meeting in Williamsburg. Lee's resolution was seconded by John Adams, of Massachusetts, and approved by the Congress on July 2.
Fri, 08 Jun 2012 15:20:24 EST]]>
/_The_Lie_ca_1590s Fri, 08 Jun 2012 13:49:29 EST <![CDATA["The Lie" (ca. 1590s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Lie_ca_1590s "The Lie," by Sir Walter Raleigh, was likely composed in the 1590s, after falling out with his beloved Queen Elizabeth. Raleigh secretly married one of Elizabeth's Maids-of-Honor on November 19, 1591, so angering the queen that she had him confined in the Tower of London.
Fri, 08 Jun 2012 13:49:29 EST]]>
/_The_Conclusion_by_Sir_Walter_Raleigh_1618 Fri, 08 Jun 2012 13:40:35 EST <![CDATA["The Conclusion" by Sir Walter Raleigh (1618)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Conclusion_by_Sir_Walter_Raleigh_1618 This poem by Sir Walter Raleigh, "The Conclusion," is thought to be a revision of an earlier verse by him. The changes, believed to have been made shortly before his execution on October 29, 1618, are reflected in a version discovered tucked inside his Bible.
Fri, 08 Jun 2012 13:40:35 EST]]>
/_A_Vision_Upon_this_Concept_of_the_Faery_Queene_by_Sir_Walter_Raleigh_1590 Fri, 08 Jun 2012 13:36:58 EST <![CDATA["A Vision Upon this Concept of the Faery Queene" by Sir Walter Raleigh (1590)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Vision_Upon_this_Concept_of_the_Faery_Queene_by_Sir_Walter_Raleigh_1590 This sonnet, "A Vision Upon this Concept of the Faery Queene," was written by Sir Walter Raleigh and published as a commendatory verse at the beginning of Edmund Spenser's epic The Faerie Queen (1590). Raleigh and Spenser met in Ireland, and Spenser modeled after Raleigh his character Timias, a squire who woos the "heavenly born" Belphoebe, modeled after Queen Elizabeth. Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 08 Jun 2012 13:36:58 EST]]>
/_To_goe_likewise_abroad_an_excerpt_from_Virginea_Britannia_A_Sermon_Preached_At_White_Chappel_In_The_presence_of_many_the_Adventurers_and_Planters_for_Virginia_by_Reverend_William_Symonds_1609 Mon, 04 Jun 2012 15:40:55 EST <![CDATA["To goe likewise abroad"; an excerpt from Virginea Britannia. A Sermon Preached At White Chappel, In The presence of many the Adventurers, and Planters for Virginia by Reverend William Symonds (1609)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_To_goe_likewise_abroad_an_excerpt_from_Virginea_Britannia_A_Sermon_Preached_At_White_Chappel_In_The_presence_of_many_the_Adventurers_and_Planters_for_Virginia_by_Reverend_William_Symonds_1609 On April 25, 1609, the Reverend William Symonds preached a sermon at London's White Chapel in defense of the Virginia Company of London's efforts to sustain its colony at Jamestown. In this excerpt, Symonds focuses on the call of Abraham in Genesis 12, comparing it to England's call to settle America. He then responds at length to those who object that England had no right to invade "the territories of other princes, by force of sword." Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Mon, 04 Jun 2012 15:40:55 EST]]>
/The_Relation_of_the_Right_Honourable_the_Lord_D-La-Warre_Lord_Governour_and_Captaine_Generall_of_the_Colonie_planted_in_Virginea_1611 Mon, 04 Jun 2012 14:28:03 EST <![CDATA[Relation of the Right Honourable the Lord D-La-Warre, Lord Governour and Captaine Generall of the Colonie, planted in Virginea, The (1611)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Relation_of_the_Right_Honourable_the_Lord_D-La-Warre_Lord_Governour_and_Captaine_Generall_of_the_Colonie_planted_in_Virginea_1611 On June 25, 1611, Thomas West, twelfth baron De La Warr, governor of the Virginia colony, addressed this letter to his superiors at the Virginia Company of London. He had left Virginia with plans to recuperate from illness in the Bermuda islands, but a storm forced his fleet of ships west, first to the Azores and then to England. Back home, he felt obliged to explain his presence and the dismal state of the colony. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Mon, 04 Jun 2012 14:28:03 EST]]>
/Law_Regulating_Indentured_Servants_1643 Mon, 04 Jun 2012 11:09:32 EST <![CDATA[Law Regulating Indentured Servants (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Law_Regulating_Indentured_Servants_1643 Mon, 04 Jun 2012 11:09:32 EST]]> /Letter_from_John_Rolfe_to_Sir_Thomas_Dale_1614 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 15:37:17 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Rolfe to Sir Thomas Dale (1614)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Rolfe_to_Sir_Thomas_Dale_1614 In his letter to Virginia deputy governor Sir Thomas Dale, Jamestown colonist John Rolfe asks permission to marry Pocahontas, the daughter of Powhatan, the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco. The letter was first published in Ralph Hamor's A True Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia, and the Success of the Affaires There till the 18 of June 1614 (1615).
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 15:37:17 EST]]>
/Sir_Walter_Raleigh_s_Patent_to_Settle_Virginia_1584 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 15:27:38 EST <![CDATA[Sir Walter Raleigh's Patent to Settle Virginia (1584)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sir_Walter_Raleigh_s_Patent_to_Settle_Virginia_1584 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 15:27:38 EST]]> /Commendatory_Verse_by_Walter_Raleigh_1576 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:50:29 EST <![CDATA[Commendatory Verse by Walter Raleigh (1576)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Commendatory_Verse_by_Walter_Raleigh_1576 This poem by Sir Walter Raleigh was his first to be published. It was included as a commendatory verse at the beginning of the satire The Steele Glas (1576) by the influential English poet, soldier, and critic George Gascoigne. Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:50:29 EST]]>
/Contract_to_Teach_Indentured_Servant_a_Trade_1680 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:44:25 EST <![CDATA[Contract to Teach Indentured Servant a Trade (1680)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Contract_to_Teach_Indentured_Servant_a_Trade_1680 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:44:25 EST]]> /Contract_to_Provide_Indentured_Servant_1654 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:41:50 EST <![CDATA[Contract to Provide Indentured Servant (1654)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Contract_to_Provide_Indentured_Servant_1654 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:41:50 EST]]> /Contract_for_Servant_without_an_Indenture_1665 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:38:58 EST <![CDATA[Contract for Servant without an Indenture (1665)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Contract_for_Servant_without_an_Indenture_1665 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:38:58 EST]]> /The_Mistreatment_of_Servant_Charetie_Dallen_1649 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:36:25 EST <![CDATA[The Mistreatment of Servant Charetie Dallen (1649)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Mistreatment_of_Servant_Charetie_Dallen_1649 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:36:25 EST]]> /An_Attack_on_the_Mistress_Elizabeth_Bowen_1679 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:26:01 EST <![CDATA[An Attack on the Mistress Elizabeth Bowen (1679)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Attack_on_the_Mistress_Elizabeth_Bowen_1679 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:26:01 EST]]> /Requesting_to_Hire_an_Indian_Servant_1711 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:21:48 EST <![CDATA[Requesting to Hire an Indian Servant (1711)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Requesting_to_Hire_an_Indian_Servant_1711 In the following petition to Virginia governor Alexander Spotswood, Richard Little Page (sometimes Littlepage) of New Kent County requests permission to hire two Pamunkey Indians to work for him as servants. He does so according to the provisions of a law, "Concerning Indians," passed by the General Assembly in its March 1662 (New Style) session. Spotswood then replies, granting Little Page's request. Some contractions have been expanded.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:21:48 EST]]>
/Irish_Servants_1654 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:09:49 EST <![CDATA[Irish Servants (1655)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Irish_Servants_1654 This law, passed by the General Assembly in its March 1655 (New Style) session, establishes the terms of service specifically for immigrants from Ireland who arrive in Virginia without indentures. During the March 1658 session, the assembly revised the law so "that at the end of the act these words are added, 'and all aliens to be included in this act.'" The law was repealed five years later, with special mention made of this final clause. Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:09:49 EST]]>
/_Against_Runnaway_Servants_1657-1658 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:00:50 EST <![CDATA["Against Runnaway Servants" (1658)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Against_Runnaway_Servants_1657-1658 In this law, "Against Runnaway Servants," passed in its March 1658 (New Style) session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants who ran away, while also making provisions for servants who believed they were being mistreated to seek justice in the courts. Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 14:00:50 EST]]>
/_An_Act_for_repealing_an_Act_for_Irish_Servants_1659 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:54:29 EST <![CDATA["An Act for repealing an Act for Irish Servants" (1660)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_for_repealing_an_Act_for_Irish_Servants_1659 This law, "An Act for repealing an Act for Irish Servants," passed by the General Assembly in its March 1660 (New Style) session, repeals an earlier act that established the terms of service specifically for immigrants from Ireland who arrived in Virginia without indentures.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:54:29 EST]]>
/_Cruelty_of_masters_prohibited_1661-1662 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:49:18 EST <![CDATA["Cruelty of masters prohibited" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Cruelty_of_masters_prohibited_1661-1662 In this law, "Cruelty of masters prohibited," passed in its March 1662 (New Style) session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants not being treated properly by their masters.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:49:18 EST]]>
/_Masters_of_Ships_to_provide_fower_months_provisions_1661-1662 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:45:59 EST <![CDATA["Masters of Ships to provide fower months provisions" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Masters_of_Ships_to_provide_fower_months_provisions_1661-1662 In this law, "Masters of Ships to provide fower months provisions," passed in its March 1662 (New Style) session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants not being treated properly during their passage from England to Virginia.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:45:59 EST]]>
/_An_act_lymiting_masters_dealing_with_their_servants_1676-1677 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:42:12 EST <![CDATA["An act lymiting masters dealing with their servants" (1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_lymiting_masters_dealing_with_their_servants_1676-1677 In this law, "An act lymiting masters dealing with their servants," passed in its February 1677 (New Style) session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants not being treated properly by their masters.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:42:12 EST]]>
/_Concerning_Indians_1661 Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:38:35 EST <![CDATA["Concerning Indians" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Concerning_Indians_1661 In the following act, "Concerning Indians," passed in its March 1662 (New Style) session, the General Assembly attempts to regulate various interactions colonists have with the neighboring Virginia Indians.
Fri, 01 Jun 2012 13:38:35 EST]]>
/The_humble_Petition_of_Jane_Dickenson_Widdowe_1624 Fri, 25 May 2012 14:22:25 EST <![CDATA[The humble Petition of Jane Dickenson Widdowe (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_humble_Petition_of_Jane_Dickenson_Widdowe_1624 In this petition to Virginia governor Sir Francis Wyatt and members of the governor's Council, dated March 30, 1624, Jane Dickenson pleads for her release from indentured servitude. Having been taken prisoner by Pamunkey Indians following Opechancanough's attack in 1622, she was ransomed by Dr. John Pott, to whom she then owed service for both herself and her husband, who was killed in the attack. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Fri, 25 May 2012 14:22:25 EST]]>
/A_Servant_Demands_his_Freedom_Dues_1624 Fri, 25 May 2012 14:05:51 EST <![CDATA[A Servant Demands his Freedom Dues (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Servant_Demands_his_Freedom_Dues_1624 On January 24, 1624, members of the General Court heard testimony in the case of an indentured servant called William Mutch who argued with his master over so-called freedom dues, or the payment servants customarily received upon completion of their contracts. In this case, Mutch contended that he was owed corn. Dr. John Pott, who provided the testimony, was a member of the General Court and later served as governor of the colony. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Fri, 25 May 2012 14:05:51 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_punishment_of_ffornication_and_seaverall_other_sins_and_offences_1696 Thu, 24 May 2012 11:31:39 EST <![CDATA["An act for punishment of ffornication and seaverall other sins and offences" (1696)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_punishment_of_ffornication_and_seaverall_other_sins_and_offences_1696 In this law, "An act for punishment of ffornication and seaverall other sins and offences," passed in its September 1696 session, the General Assembly addressed the perennial problems of swearing, drunkenness, and extramarital sex. The act is a revision of one passed in the April 1691 session.
Thu, 24 May 2012 11:31:39 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_the_more_effectuall_suppressing_the_severall_sins_and_offences_of_swaring_cursing_profaineing_Gods_holy_name_Sabbath_abuseing_drunkenness_ffornication_and_adultery_1691 Thu, 24 May 2012 11:22:03 EST <![CDATA["An act for the more effectuall suppressing the severall sins and offences of swaring, cursing, profaineing Gods holy name, Sabbath abuseing, drunkenness, ffornication, and adultery" (1691)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_the_more_effectuall_suppressing_the_severall_sins_and_offences_of_swaring_cursing_profaineing_Gods_holy_name_Sabbath_abuseing_drunkenness_ffornication_and_adultery_1691 In this law, "An act for the more effectuall suppressing the severall sins and offences of swaring, cursing, profaineing Gods holy name, Sabbath abuseing, drunkenness, ffornication, and adultery," passed in its April 1691 session, the General Assembly addressed the perennial problems of swearing, drunkenness, and extramarital sex. The act would be revised in the 1696 session.
Thu, 24 May 2012 11:22:03 EST]]>
/Declaration_of_Independence_1776 Mon, 21 May 2012 11:39:26 EST <![CDATA[Declaration of Independence (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Declaration_of_Independence_1776 On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, adopted the Declaration of Independence, written primarily by Virginia delegate Thomas Jefferson in committee with John Adams, of Massachusetts, Benjamin Franklin, of Pennsylvania, Robert R. Livingston, of New York, and Roger Sherman, of Connecticut. The Declaration followed a resolution, made by Virginia's Richard Henry Lee on June 7, that the Congress declare independence. The resolution was adopted on July 2, and the Declaration of Independence listed the Congress's grievances with George III. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 21 May 2012 11:39:26 EST]]>
/Letter_from_John_Pory_to_Sir_Dudley_Carleton_1619 Fri, 18 May 2012 16:51:13 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Pory to Sir Dudley Carleton (1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Pory_to_Sir_Dudley_Carleton_1619 In this letter to the English aristocrat Sir Dudley Carleton, John Pory describes events in the Virginia colony, including the arrival of two ships containing the colony's first Africans and the introduction of a saleable grade of tobacco. Some spelling has been updated.
Fri, 18 May 2012 16:51:13 EST]]>
/_How_unworthy_a_choice_an_excerpt_from_the_preface_to_The_History_of_the_World_by_Sir_Walter_Raleigh_1614 Fri, 18 May 2012 09:08:31 EST <![CDATA["How unworthy a choice"; an excerpt from the preface to The History of the World by Sir Walter Raleigh (1614)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_How_unworthy_a_choice_an_excerpt_from_the_preface_to_The_History_of_the_World_by_Sir_Walter_Raleigh_1614 In this excerpt from the preface to The History of the World, Sir Walter Raleigh explains his inspiration for the book. Published in 1614, The History of the World was intended, in part, as a teaching tool for King James I's son Henry. Raleigh tutored the young man even while being confined in the Tower of London, and James, who found the book "too saucy in the censuring of princes," later revoked the publishing rights. When Henry died unexpectedly in 1612, Raleigh declined to complete the ambitious project.
Fri, 18 May 2012 09:08:31 EST]]>
/_An_Act_for_amending_the_Staple_of_Tobacco_and_for_preventing_Frauds_in_his_Majesty_s_Customs_1730 Thu, 17 May 2012 14:17:16 EST <![CDATA["An Act for amending the Staple of Tobacco; and for preventing Frauds in his Majesty's Customs" (1730)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_for_amending_the_Staple_of_Tobacco_and_for_preventing_Frauds_in_his_Majesty_s_Customs_1730 The following law, "An Act for amending the Staple of Tobacco; and for preventing Frauds in his Majesty's Customs," passed by the General Assembly in its May 1730 session, at the urging of Virginia lieutenant governor Sir William Gooch, outlined a controversial plan for the inspection of tobacco before it went to market. It was popularly known as the Tobacco Inspection Act.
Thu, 17 May 2012 14:17:16 EST]]>
/Parishes_and_Tithes_1643 Thu, 17 May 2012 13:26:28 EST <![CDATA[Parishes and Tithes (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Parishes_and_Tithes_1643 In its March 1643 session, the General Assembly repealed all former laws and passes a series of new laws that helped to clarify the intentions of its previous legislation. In this first act, the assembly explains the powers and obligations of the parish vestry and dictates taxes to be paid and the people—including enslaved African women—considered tithable, or eligible to be taxed. Some spelling has been modernized.
Thu, 17 May 2012 13:26:28 EST]]>
/_Of_Servants_and_Slaves_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 Tue, 15 May 2012 15:54:18 EST <![CDATA["Of Servants and Slaves in Virginia"; an excerpt from The History of Virginia by Robert Beverley (1722)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Of_Servants_and_Slaves_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 This excerpt from The History of Virginia by Robert Beverley Jr. encompasses all of Book Four, Chapter 10, in which the author describes the institutions of slavery and indentured servitude in Virginia. He defends the institutions from naysayers, paying special attention to the legal rights of servants. (He does not mention any such rights for slaves.) Beverley's History and Present State of Virginia was first published in 1705, but written earlier, before the institution of Virginia's slave code. This excerpt comes from Beverley's second, revised edition, published in 1722.
Tue, 15 May 2012 15:54:18 EST]]>
/Defining_the_Franchise_1646 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:53:27 EST <![CDATA[Defining the Franchise (1646)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Defining_the_Franchise_1646 The following law, passed by the General Assembly in its October 1646 session, requires all freemen to vote in elections of burgesses or face a fine. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:53:27 EST]]>
/Defining_the_Franchise_1655 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:50:11 EST <![CDATA[Defining the Franchise (1655)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Defining_the_Franchise_1655 The following law, passed by the General Assembly in its March 1655 session, articulates election procedures and defines the franchise. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:50:11 EST]]>
/_Election_of_burgesses_by_whome_1670 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:45:54 EST <![CDATA["Election of burgesses by whome" (1670)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Election_of_burgesses_by_whome_1670 The following law, "Election of burgesses by whome," passed by the General Assembly in its October 1670 session, defines the franchise as consisting of all property-holding "ffreeholders and housekeepers."
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:45:54 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_keeping_holy_the_13th_of_September_1663 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:41:44 EST <![CDATA["An act for keeping holy the 13th of September" (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_keeping_holy_the_13th_of_September_1663 In "An act for keeping holy the 13th of September," the General Assembly declares an annual holiday after a foiled attempt by servants in Gloucester County to rebel.
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:41:44 EST]]>
/Defining_the_Franchise_1656 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:39:28 EST <![CDATA[Defining the Franchise (1656)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Defining_the_Franchise_1656 The following law, passed by the General Assembly in its March 1656 session, revises a previous, more restrictive law to define the franchise as consisting of all freemen. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:39:28 EST]]>
/_An_Act_to_declare_who_shall_have_a_right_to_vote_in_the_Election_of_Burgesses_to_serve_in_the_General_Assembly_for_Counties_and_for_preventing_fraudulent_Conveiances_in_order_to_multiply_Votes_at_such_Elections_1736 Mon, 14 May 2012 11:46:49 EST <![CDATA["An Act to declare who shall have a right to vote in the Election of Burgesses to serve in the General Assembly, for Counties; and for preventing fraudulent Conveiances, in order to multiply Votes at such Elections" (1736)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_to_declare_who_shall_have_a_right_to_vote_in_the_Election_of_Burgesses_to_serve_in_the_General_Assembly_for_Counties_and_for_preventing_fraudulent_Conveiances_in_order_to_multiply_Votes_at_such_Elections_1736 The following law, "An Act to declare who shall have a right to vote in the Election of Burgesses to serve in the General Assembly, for Counties; and for preventing fraudulent Conveiances, in order to multiply Votes at such Elections," passed by the General Assembly in its August 1736 session, articulated the land-ownership requirements for voting. It also repealed a voting oath from a previous act and replaced it with another.
Mon, 14 May 2012 11:46:49 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_prevention_of_undue_election_of_Burgeses_1699 Mon, 14 May 2012 11:05:14 EST <![CDATA["An act for prevention of undue election of Burgeses" (1699)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_prevention_of_undue_election_of_Burgeses_1699 The following law, "An act for prevention of undue election of Burgeses" passed by the General Assembly in its April 1699 session, sets out the rules governing elections.
Mon, 14 May 2012 11:05:14 EST]]>
/_Concerning_secret_Marriages_1657-1658 Mon, 14 May 2012 10:55:50 EST <![CDATA["Concerning secret Marriages" (1658)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Concerning_secret_Marriages_1657-1658 In this law, "Concerning secret Marriages," passed in its 1658 session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants having children and marrying. For masters, this resulted in a loss of the women servants' labor, for which the law attempted to provide compensation. The act revises one passed during the 1643 session. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 10:55:50 EST]]>
/_By_the_King_A_Proclamation_For_Suppressing_Rebellion_and_Sedition_1775 Mon, 14 May 2012 10:27:20 EST <![CDATA["By the King, A Proclamation, For Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition" (1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_By_the_King_A_Proclamation_For_Suppressing_Rebellion_and_Sedition_1775 In this response to the so-called Olive Branch Petition, sent to the king by the Second Continental Congress on July 8, 1775, George III rejects the idea of reconciliation and declares the colonies to be in open rebellion. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 10:27:20 EST]]>
/_Their_devilish_plot_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 Mon, 14 May 2012 10:21:34 EST <![CDATA["Their devilish plot"; an excerpt from The History of Virginia by Robert Beverley (1722)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Their_devilish_plot_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 In this excerpt from The History of Virginia (1722)—an expansion of The History and Present State of Virginia (1705)—Robert Beverley Jr. describes the Gloucester County Conspiracy (1663), also known as the Servants' Plot and Birkenhead's Rebellion, in which a group of indentured servants planned a revolt in Gloucester County.
Mon, 14 May 2012 10:21:34 EST]]>
/A_True_Relation_of_the_state_of_Virginia_Lefte_by_Sir_Thomas_Dale_Knight_in_May_Last_1616_1617 Mon, 14 May 2012 10:09:30 EST <![CDATA[A True Relation of the state of Virginia Lefte by Sir Thomas Dale Knight in May Last 1616 (1617)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_True_Relation_of_the_state_of_Virginia_Lefte_by_Sir_Thomas_Dale_Knight_in_May_Last_1616_1617 John Rolfe wrote A True Relation of the state of Virginia Lefte by Sir Thomas Dale Knight in May Last 1616 while in England with his wife, Pocahontas, and their infant son, Thomas. They were there to promote the interests of the Virginia Company of London, whose investors were discouraged by the colony's prospects; this manuscript, first published in 1617, appears to have had the same purpose. The current transcription comes from the June 1839 edition of the Southern Literary Messenger, the editors of which claimed to have "carefully transcribed" a version archived in the British Museum. The two are not identical, however.
Mon, 14 May 2012 10:09:30 EST]]>
/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Voyages_from_Holland_to_America_A_D_1632_to_1644_1853 Mon, 14 May 2012 09:55:38 EST <![CDATA[Arriving in Virginia; an excerpt from Voyages from Holland to America, A.D. 1632 to 1644 by David Peterson DeVries (1853)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Voyages_from_Holland_to_America_A_D_1632_to_1644_1853 In this excerpt from Voyages from Holland to America, A.D. 1632 to 1644, an English translation of which was published in 1853, the Dutchman David Peterson DeVries tells of arriving at Kecoughtan in Virginia in March 1633. He describes the people he encounters and the climate and wildlife in the Tidewater region, including at Jamestown.
Mon, 14 May 2012 09:55:38 EST]]>
/_The_order_about_Jayle_birds_1670 Mon, 14 May 2012 09:22:36 EST <![CDATA["The order about Jayle birds" (1670)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_order_about_Jayle_birds_1670 On April 20, 1670, Virginia governor Sir William Berkeley and the governor's Council issued the following order, glossed in the record as "The order about Jayle birds," prohibiting the importation of certain English convicts as servants. The concern in part stems from the Gloucester County Conspiracy of 1663, in which a group of servants that included convicts allegedly plotted an insurrection. Some spelling has been updated and contractions expanded.
Mon, 14 May 2012 09:22:36 EST]]>
/A_Memoriall_Concerning_the_Mal-administrations_of_His_Excelly_Francis_Nicholson_Esqr_Her_Ma_ties_Lieut_and_Governour_Generall_of_Virginia_1703 Mon, 14 May 2012 09:13:59 EST <![CDATA[A Memoriall Concerning the Mal-administrations of His Excellency Francis Nicholson, Esqr., Her Ma'ties Lieut. and Governour Generall of Virginia (1703)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Memoriall_Concerning_the_Mal-administrations_of_His_Excelly_Francis_Nicholson_Esqr_Her_Ma_ties_Lieut_and_Governour_Generall_of_Virginia_1703 In May 1703, six members of the governor's Council— John Lightfoot, Matthew Page, Benjamin Harrison, Robert "King" Carter, James Blair, and Philip Ludwell—sent to the Crown the following list of grievances against Virginia governor Francis Nicholson. In April 1705 the Crown dismissed Nicholson, replacing him with Colonel Edward Nott. Some contractions have been expanded.
Mon, 14 May 2012 09:13:59 EST]]>
/Testimony_about_the_Gloucester_County_Conspiracy_1663 Mon, 14 May 2012 08:24:49 EST <![CDATA[Testimony about the Gloucester County Conspiracy (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_about_the_Gloucester_County_Conspiracy_1663 In these depositions, several indentured servants, captured in an attempt to rebel in Gloucester County, explain what their plan was and how it should have been executed. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 08:24:49 EST]]>
/English_Civil_Wars_and_Virginia_The Fri, 04 May 2012 13:36:15 EST <![CDATA[English Civil Wars and Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/English_Civil_Wars_and_Virginia_The The English Civil Wars (1642–1648) were a pair of civil wars fought in England that set King Charles I and his supporters against supporters of the English parliament, which opposed his policies. These wars and the resulting changes to English and colonial government affected Virginia in a number of ways. As a royal colony, Virginia was expected to support the king in wartime; while Virginia governor Sir William Berkeley enforced Charles I's views on religious conformity to the Church of England, he took a more relaxed approach to colonial commerce, declaring neutrality in order to maintain a robust trade. In 1648, Parliamentarian forces under the command of Oliver Cromwell prevailed. In 1649, Charles I was executed and a republican government called the Commonwealth, ruled by Parliament, replaced the monarchy. The Commonwealth pursued economic and imperial policies that linked its colonies more closely to England. Virginia initially resisted this regime, proclaiming Charles II king, but was forced to surrender to Parliament on March 12, 1652. In May 1660, Charles II was restored to the throne, and Virginians pointed toward their initial resistance to the Commonwealth as evidence of the colony's loyalty, cultivating an enduring image of Virginia as a royalist stronghold.
Fri, 04 May 2012 13:36:15 EST]]>
/The_General_Assembly_Adjourns_1776 Tue, 01 May 2012 10:55:46 EST <![CDATA[The General Assembly Adjourns (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_General_Assembly_Adjourns_1776 In this excerpt from the Journals of the House of Burgesses, the House of Burgesses is seen to dissolve as a lawmaking body and as the lower house of Virginia's General Assembly during the American Revolution (1775–1783). In the original manuscript, the House secretary wrote "Finis" in dramatically large letters. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Tue, 01 May 2012 10:55:46 EST]]>
/Instructions_from_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_to_the_First_Settlers_1606 Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:24:30 EST <![CDATA[Instructions from the Virginia Company of London to the First Settlers (1606)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Instructions_from_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_to_the_First_Settlers_1606 In these instructions, dated November 1606, the Virginia Company of London informs the men who would settle what became Jamestown of its priorities once they land. In particular, the company suggests how to look for a Northwest Passage, how to search for gold, and how to treat the Virginia Indians, whom it calls "naturals." Captain Christopher Newport and Bartholomew Gosnold are mentioned by name. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:24:30 EST]]>
/Prisoners_of_Hope_1898 Fri, 20 Apr 2012 11:43:21 EST <![CDATA[Prisoners of Hope (1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Prisoners_of_Hope_1898 Prisoners of Hope (1898) is the first novel by the Virginia-born writer Mary Johnston. An action-adventure story and romance set in Gloucester County in 1663, the novel is based in part on the Gloucester County Conspiracy, a planned rebellion by indentured servants who intended to march to the home of Governor Sir William Berkeley and demand their freedom. The hero of Prisoners of Hope is Godfrey Landless, a convict laborer in Virginia who once fought for Oliver Cromwell. Landless takes charge in planning a servant rebellion, only to fall in love with his master's daughter, Patricia. When his plans are revealed, Landless is imprisoned, but eventually wins Patricia's love by saving her from a fictional band of Virginia Indians. Johnston portrays colonial Virginia much as Lost Cause writers and novelists painted the antebellum South: as an idyllic place where an enslaved African American might be viewed as "simply a good-humored, docile, happy-go-lucky, harmless animal." Critics from London to New York praised the novel when it was released, and Johnston went on to become a best-selling author; however, few scholars study her today.
Fri, 20 Apr 2012 11:43:21 EST]]>
/Slave_Ship_The_1924 Fri, 20 Apr 2012 10:58:17 EST <![CDATA[Slave Ship, The (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Ship_The_1924 The Slave Ship (1924) is the eighteenth novel by the Virginia-born writer Mary Johnston. Set in Scotland, Virginia, Africa, and Jamaica, the novel follows twelve years in the life of David Scott, who is captured at the Battle of Culloden in 1746 and then transported to Virginia as a convict laborer. After a daring escape, Scott finds refuge on the slave ship Janet. There he works his way up from clerk to captain, making numerous voyages to the Slave Coast of West Africa and participating in the infamous Middle Passage, during which millions of enslaved Africans were transported to the Americas. Johnston's novel reflects her own extensive research on the Atlantic slave trade and, at times, an impressive attention to detail. Nevertheless, Johnston consistently understates the horrors of the Middle Passage and especially of the captains and crews who violently oversaw their human cargoes. Reviews of The Slave Ship upon its release were generally positive. The New York Times, for instance, praised its evocative descriptions while worrying that Johnston's theme—that master and servant are both slaves—distracted from the brutal reality of African enslavement.
Fri, 20 Apr 2012 10:58:17 EST]]>
/_An_act_declaring_all_the_acts_orders_and_proceedings_of_a_grand_assembly_held_att_James_Citty_in_the_month_of_June_1676_voyd_null_and_repealed_1677 Fri, 06 Apr 2012 13:48:38 EST <![CDATA["An act declaring all the acts, orders and proceedings of a grand assembly held att James Citty, in the month of June, 1676, voyd, null and repealed" (1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_declaring_all_the_acts_orders_and_proceedings_of_a_grand_assembly_held_att_James_Citty_in_the_month_of_June_1676_voyd_null_and_repealed_1677 The following law, "An act declaring all the acts, orders and proceedings of a grand assembly held att James Citty, in the month of June, 1676, voyd, null and repealed," passed by the General Assembly in its February 1677 session, voids all laws passed during the previous session, which had been held during the tumult of Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677).
Fri, 06 Apr 2012 13:48:38 EST]]>
/_An_act_to_repeale_a_former_law_makeing_Indians_and_others_ffree_1682 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 16:28:16 EST <![CDATA["An act to repeale a former law makeing Indians and others ffree" (1682)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_to_repeale_a_former_law_makeing_Indians_and_others_ffree_1682 In "An act to repeale a former law makeing Indians and others ffree," passed by the General Assembly in the session of November 1682, Virginia's colonial government attempts to clarify the definitions of indentured servants and slaves.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 16:28:16 EST]]>
/_Concerning_Hireing_of_Servants_1657-1658 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 15:34:10 EST <![CDATA["Concerning Hireing of Servants" (1658)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Concerning_Hireing_of_Servants_1657-1658 In this law, "Concerning Hireing of Servants," passed in its session of March 1657/58 (Old Style), the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants who ran away and hired themselves out to new, presumably more lenient, masters. The act revises one passed in the March 1642/43 session. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 15:34:10 EST]]>
/_English_running_away_with_negroes_1660-1661 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 15:28:33 EST <![CDATA["English running away with negroes" (1661)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_English_running_away_with_negroes_1660-1661 In this act, "English running away with negroes," passed by the General Assembly in the session of March 1660/61 (Old Style), colonial Virginia's government responds to the problem of runaway indentured servants and slaves.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 15:28:33 EST]]>
/_Negro_women_not_exempted_from_tax_1668 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:57:53 EST <![CDATA["Negro women not exempted from tax" (1668)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Negro_women_not_exempted_from_tax_1668 In the act "Negro women not exempted from tax," passed by the General Assembly in the session of September 1668, colonial Virginia's government attempted to better define the conditions by which free and enslaved African Americans were taxed.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:57:53 EST]]>
/Law_Regulating_Marriage_of_Indentured_Servants_1642-1643 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:55:12 EST <![CDATA[Law Regulating Marriage of Indentured Servants (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Law_Regulating_Marriage_of_Indentured_Servants_1642-1643 In this law, passed in the session of March 2, 1642/43 (Old Style), the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants having children and marrying. For masters, this resulted in a loss of the women servants' labor, for which the law attempted to provide compensation. The law was revised during the 1657/58 session.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:55:12 EST]]>
/Bacon_s_Death_and_Bacons_Epitaph_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Bacon_s_and_Ingram_s_Rebellion_1676_by_John_Cotton_1677 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:09:40 EST <![CDATA[Bacon's Death and "Bacons Epitaph"; an excerpt from "The History of Bacon's and Ingram's Rebellion, 1676" by John Cotton (1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bacon_s_Death_and_Bacons_Epitaph_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Bacon_s_and_Ingram_s_Rebellion_1676_by_John_Cotton_1677 In this excerpt of "The History of Bacon's and Ingram's Rebellion, 1676," the likely author, John Cotton, describes the death of Nathaniel Bacon, whose rebellion against Governor Sir William Berkeley came to an end soon after. Cotton's writing style is witty, bombastic, and full of literary allusions, and here he includes two poems the first of which, "Bacon's Epitaph," has been lauded as the first notable poem composed in America. It is not known whether Cotton wrote either or both of the poems. Cotton's narrative was likely written soon after the rebellion but not published until 1814.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:09:40 EST]]>
/Burgesses_for_the_Assembly_of_1619 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 13:49:01 EST <![CDATA[Burgesses for the Assembly of 1619]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burgesses_for_the_Assembly_of_1619 In this list are the twenty-two burgesses who gathered in Jamestown on July 30, 1619, for the first meeting of the unicameral General Assembly. The two representatives from Martin's Brandon, a plantation owned by Captain John Martin, were denied their seats when it was called to the attention of Governor Sir George Yeardley that a clause in Martin's land patent exempted him from England's uniform laws and from any laws passed by the General Assembly.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 13:49:01 EST]]>
/General_Court_Hears_Case_on_Witchcraft_1626 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 13:10:20 EST <![CDATA[General Court Hears Case on Witchcraft (1626)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/General_Court_Hears_Case_on_Witchcraft_1626 The following is a transcript of the proceedings of the General Court, meeting in Jamestown on September 11, 1626. The court heard evidence against Joan Wright of Surry County, who was accused by her neighbors of practicing witchcraft. She was acquitted in, perhaps, the earliest allegation of witchcraft on record against an English settler in North America. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 13:10:20 EST]]>
/_Women_servants_whose_common_imployment_is_working_in_the_ground_to_be_accompted_tythable_1662 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:49:25 EST <![CDATA["Women servants whose common imployment is working in the ground to be accompted tythable" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Women_servants_whose_common_imployment_is_working_in_the_ground_to_be_accompted_tythable_1662 In the act "Women servants whose common imployment is working in the ground to be accompted tythable," passed by the General Assembly in the session of December 1662, Virginia's colonial government attempted to better define the conditions by which free and enslaved African Americans were taxed.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:49:25 EST]]>
/_This_starveing_Tyme_an_excerpt_from_A_Trewe_Relacyon_of_the_procedeings_and_ocurrentes_of_Momente_which_have_hapned_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:44:44 EST <![CDATA["This starveing Tyme"; an excerpt from "A Trewe Relacyon of the procedeings and ocurrentes of Momente which have hapned in Virginia" by George Percy]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_This_starveing_Tyme_an_excerpt_from_A_Trewe_Relacyon_of_the_procedeings_and_ocurrentes_of_Momente_which_have_hapned_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:44:44 EST]]> /Letter_from_the_Council_in_Virginia_to_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_1607 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:40:01 EST <![CDATA[Letter from the Council in Virginia to the Virginia Company of London (1607)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_the_Council_in_Virginia_to_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_1607 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:40:01 EST]]> /_An_act_declaring_that_baptisme_of_slaves_doth_not_exempt_them_from_bondage_1667 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:22:27 EST <![CDATA["An act declaring that baptisme of slaves doth not exempt them from bondage" (1667)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_declaring_that_baptisme_of_slaves_doth_not_exempt_them_from_bondage_1667 In "An act declaring that baptisme of slaves doth not exempt them from bondage," passed by the General Assembly in the session of September 1667, Virginia's colonial government attempted to better define the conditions by which people were enslaved or free.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:22:27 EST]]>
/_Women_servants_gott_with_child_by_their_masters_after_their_time_expired_to_be_sold_by_the_Churchwardens_for_two_yeares_for_the_good_of_the_parish_1662 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:18:39 EST <![CDATA["Women servants gott with child by their masters after their time expired to be sold by the Churchwardens for two yeares for the good of the parish" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Women_servants_gott_with_child_by_their_masters_after_their_time_expired_to_be_sold_by_the_Churchwardens_for_two_yeares_for_the_good_of_the_parish_1662 In this law, "Women servants gott with child by their masters after their time expired to be sold by the Churchwardens for two yeares for the good of the parish," passed in its December 1662 session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants having children by their masters.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:18:39 EST]]>
/_The_maner_of_their_language_an_excerpt_from_Map_of_Virginia_With_a_Description_of_the_Countrey_the_Commodities_People_Government_and_Religion_by_John_Smith_1612 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:15:25 EST <![CDATA["The maner of their language"; an excerpt from "Map of Virginia. With a Description of the Countrey, the Commodities, People, Government and Religion" by John Smith (1612)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_maner_of_their_language_an_excerpt_from_Map_of_Virginia_With_a_Description_of_the_Countrey_the_Commodities_People_Government_and_Religion_by_John_Smith_1612 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:15:25 EST]]> /Westmoreland_Slave_Plot_1687 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 09:11:38 EST <![CDATA[Westmoreland Slave Plot (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Westmoreland_Slave_Plot_1687 The Westmoreland slave plot of 1687 involved an alleged conspiracy uncovered by Nicholas Spencer, who claimed that the participants intended to kill whites and destroy property in the county and throughout Virginia. Preceded by the Gloucester County Conspiracy (1663) and Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), the Westmoreland plot was the first conspiracy in British North America not involving white supporters or participants. As such, it heightened planters' fear of their slaves, already expressed in a 1680 act that sought to prohibit slaves' ability to carry weapons, meet in public, or travel without permission. After Spencer's revelation, Virginia governor Francis Howard, baron Howard of Effingham, convened what perhaps was British America's first oyer and terminer court, a criminal panel subsequently used to try slave rebels. Effingham also issued a proclamation reiterating the language of the 1680 act, something his successor felt compelled to do again, in 1690. After another attempted rebellion in Westmoreland in 1688, the General Assembly, in 1691, passed legislation allowing colonists to kill any slave who resisted, ran away, or refused to surrender when so ordered. This and other laws suggest that in the time since the Servants' Plot, Virginians began to see the danger of servile revolt as coming primarily from enslaved African Americans.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 09:11:38 EST]]>
/_Of_ther_Tounes_amp_buildinges_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:36:29 EST <![CDATA["Of ther Tounes & buildinges"; an excerpt from "Relation of Virginia, 1609" by Henry Spelman (1613)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Of_ther_Tounes_amp_buildinges_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:36:29 EST]]> /_Of_ther_servis_to_ther_gods_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:36:02 EST <![CDATA["Of ther servis to ther gods"; an excerpt from "Relation of Virginia, 1609" by Henry Spelman (1613)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Of_ther_servis_to_ther_gods_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:36:02 EST]]> /_Ther_maner_of_visitinge_the_sicke_with_the_fation_of_ther_buriall_if_they_dye_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:35:31 EST <![CDATA["Ther maner of visitinge the sicke with the fation of ther buriall if they dye"; an excerpt from "Relation of Virginia, 1609" by Henry Spelman (1613)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Ther_maner_of_visitinge_the_sicke_with_the_fation_of_ther_buriall_if_they_dye_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:35:31 EST]]> /_Now_the_name_ther_children_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:34:51 EST <![CDATA["How the name ther children"; an excerpt from "Relation of Virginia, 1609" by Henry Spelman (1613)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Now_the_name_ther_children_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:34:51 EST]]> /Justice_and_Execution_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:34:17 EST <![CDATA[Justice and Execution; an excerpt from "Relation of Virginia, 1609" by Henry Spelman (1613)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Justice_and_Execution_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:34:17 EST]]> /_Ther_maner_of_mariing_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:33:32 EST <![CDATA["Ther maner of mariing"; an excerpt from "Relation of Virginia, 1609" by Henry Spelman (1613)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Ther_maner_of_mariing_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:33:32 EST]]> /_He_sould_me_to_him_for_a_towne_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:32:49 EST <![CDATA["He sould me to him for a towne"; an excerpt from "Relation of Virginia, 1609" by Henry Spelman (1613)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_He_sould_me_to_him_for_a_towne_an_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Virginia_1609_1613 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:32:49 EST]]> /_An_act_for_preventing_Negroes_Insurrections_1680 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:04:11 EST <![CDATA["An act for preventing Negroes Insurrections" (1680)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_preventing_Negroes_Insurrections_1680 On June 8, 1680, the General Assembly passed "An act for preventing Negroes Insurrections" in response to planters' concerns about rebellious slaves.
Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:04:11 EST]]>
/_Against_ffornication_1661-1662 Thu, 29 Mar 2012 16:38:05 EST <![CDATA["Against ffornication" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Against_ffornication_1661-1662 In this law, "Against ffornication," passed in its March 1662 session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants having sex that produced pregnancies that, in turn, cost masters money and labor.
Thu, 29 Mar 2012 16:38:05 EST]]>
/Phillip_Mongom_Accused_of_Stealing_Hogs_1659-1660 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 15:25:02 EST <![CDATA[Phillip Mongom Accused of Stealing Hogs (1660)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Phillip_Mongom_Accused_of_Stealing_Hogs_1659-1660 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 15:25:02 EST]]> /_Mr_Strachie_s_Harke_by_William_Strachey Wed, 28 Mar 2012 13:36:00 EST <![CDATA["Mr Strachie's Harke" by William Strachey]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mr_Strachie_s_Harke_by_William_Strachey Wed, 28 Mar 2012 13:36:00 EST]]> /Virginia_Resolves_on_the_Stamp_Act_1765 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 13:27:33 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Resolves on the Stamp Act (1765)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Resolves_on_the_Stamp_Act_1765 Patrick Henry wrote the following five resolutions against the Stamp Act and introduced them to the House of Burgesses on May 29, 1765. The House passed them after a heated debate, but rescinded the fifth resolution the following day. This iteration of the Virginia Stamp Act resolves comes from a handwritten document that was found inside a small envelope that Henry included with his last will and testament.
Wed, 28 Mar 2012 13:27:33 EST]]>
/_In_wishing_him_well_he_killed_him_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Juan_Rogel_ca_1611 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:56:15 EST <![CDATA["In wishing him well, he killed him"; excerpt from Relation of Juan Rogel (ca. 1611)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_In_wishing_him_well_he_killed_him_excerpt_from_Relation_of_Juan_Rogel_ca_1611 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:56:15 EST]]> /The_Deaths_of_Elizabeth_Abbott_and_Elias_Hinton_1624 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:18:53 EST <![CDATA[The Deaths of Elizabeth Abbott and Elias Hinton (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Deaths_of_Elizabeth_Abbott_and_Elias_Hinton_1624 In these depositions, delivered to the General Court on October 10, 1624, various indentured servants, masters, and other witnesses testify about the deaths of two servants—Elizabeth Abbott and Elias Hinton—at the hand of their master and mistress, John and Alice Proctor. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:18:53 EST]]>
/Edmund_Jenings_Removed_from_Governor_s_Council_1726 Fri, 09 Mar 2012 13:42:07 EST <![CDATA[Edmund Jenings Removed from Governor's Council (1726)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edmund_Jenings_Removed_from_Governor_s_Council_1726 In its meeting on June 25, 1726, the governor's Council, in consultation with Lieutenant Governor Hugh Drysdale, removed Edmund Jenings from his position on the Council. Jenings had long been absent from meetings, and his health, both physical and mental, was deteriorating. Drysdale, too, was ill, and Jenings, as senior member of the Council, was in line to serve as president, or acting governor, when Drysdale died. With Jenings's removal, his rival Robert "King" Carter served that role when Drysdale died on June 22, 1726.
Fri, 09 Mar 2012 13:42:07 EST]]>
/Proclamation_from_Governor_Nicholson_1690 Fri, 02 Mar 2012 16:38:21 EST <![CDATA[Proclamation from Governor Nicholson (1690)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Proclamation_from_Governor_Nicholson_1690 Fri, 02 Mar 2012 16:38:21 EST]]> /_An_Acte_against_Conjuration_Witchcrafte_and_dealing_with_evill_and_wicked_Spirits_1604 Fri, 24 Feb 2012 11:03:26 EST <![CDATA["An Acte against Conjuration Witchcrafte and dealing with evill and wicked Spirits" (1604)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Acte_against_Conjuration_Witchcrafte_and_dealing_with_evill_and_wicked_Spirits_1604 In this act, "An Acte against Conjuration Witchcrafte and dealing with evill and wicked Spirits," passed by Parliament in the session that began on March 19, 1603, and ended July 7, 1604, the English government, not for the first time, outlawed witchcraft. It was the this law, however, that authorities used to prosecute accused witches in Virginia. Some contractions have been expanded. The last witchcraft trial in the mainland colonies took place in 1730, and Parliament repealed the law in 1736. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Fri, 24 Feb 2012 11:03:26 EST]]>
/_Against_Runawayes_1669 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:59:51 EST <![CDATA["Against Runawayes" (1669)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Against_Runawayes_1669 In this act, "Against Runawayes," passed by the General Assembly in the session of October 1669, Virginia's colonial government responds to the problem of runaway indentured servants and slaves.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:59:51 EST]]>
/Denying_Free_Blacks_the_Right_to_Vote_1724_1735 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:56:21 EST <![CDATA[Denying Free Blacks the Right to Vote (1724, 1735)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Denying_Free_Blacks_the_Right_to_Vote_1724_1735 In this exchange of letters, the Board of Trade questions the appropriateness of a 1723 law in Virginia denying free blacks the right to vote. The Board's legal counsel, Richard West, raised his question in 1724, but the Board's secretary, Alured Popple, did not ask for an explanation until 1735, when he wrote to Virginia lieutenant governor William Gooch.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:56:21 EST]]>
/The_Huskanaw_Ritual_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:54:30 EST <![CDATA[The Huskanaw Ritual; an excerpt from The History of Virginia by Robert Beverley (1722)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Huskanaw_Ritual_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 In this excerpt from The History of Virginia (1722)—an expansion of History and Present State of Virginia (1705)—Robert Beverley describes the male-initiation rite known as the huskanaw among the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Tsenacomoco and Tidewater Virginia.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:54:30 EST]]>
/The_Case_of_Grace_Sherwood_1706 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:52:25 EST <![CDATA[The Case of Grace Sherwood (1706)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Case_of_Grace_Sherwood_1706 The following is a transcript of the proceedings of the Princess Anne County Court as it hears the case, in 1706, of Grace Sherwood on the charge of witchcraft. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded. The case is heard first in the county court, then in the General Court, and finally is removed back to the county court. There is the suggestion that it was once more heard by the General Court, but the courts records for that period are missing. Whatever the case, Sherwood is known to have survived her legal ordeal. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:52:25 EST]]>
/Governor_Effingham_Reveals_a_Planned_Slave_Insurrection_1687 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:11:45 EST <![CDATA[Governor Effingham Reveals a Planned Slave Insurrection (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Governor_Effingham_Reveals_a_Planned_Slave_Insurrection_1687 In the official record of the governor's Council for October 24, 1687, Virginia governor Francis Howard, baron Howard of Effingham, announces that Nicholas Spencer, the colony's secretary and a resident of Westmoreland County, had uncovered a conspiracy among the slaves there. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:11:45 EST]]>
/_Elegy_by_Robert_Bolling_1775 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 14:59:34 EST <![CDATA["Elegy" by Robert Bolling (1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Elegy_by_Robert_Bolling_1775 On May 20, 1775, the Virginia Gazette published "Elegy," a long poem by Robert Bolling, on the deaths of Virginia militiamen at the Battle of Point Pleasant (October 10, 1774) during Dunmore's War (1773–1774). Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 14:59:34 EST]]>
/The_Gregorian_Calendar Tue, 14 Feb 2012 14:46:12 EST <![CDATA[The Gregorian Calendar]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Gregorian_Calendar The Gregorian calendar was instituted by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 and quickly adopted by much of Catholic, but not Protestant, Europe. The reform altered the Julian, or Old Style, system of leap years and, by removing ten days from October 1582, adjusted the timing of the Easter observance so that it better coincided with the spring season. Many of the countries that adopted the Gregorian calendar already recognized January 1 as the beginning of the new year. Until it adopted the reformed calendar in 1752, however, England dated its new year at March 25, or the observance of Lady Day (the Feast of the Annunciation). As a result, many English correspondents and publications, including some in Virginia, marked those dates between January 1 and March 25, during the years 1582–1752, with two years: Old Style and New Style.
Tue, 14 Feb 2012 14:46:12 EST]]>
/York_County_Conspiracy_1661 Thu, 09 Feb 2012 16:13:01 EST <![CDATA[York County Conspiracy (1661)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/York_County_Conspiracy_1661 The York County Conspiracy was a plan by indentured servants to rise up against authorities in York County in 1661. Led by Isaac Friend and William Clutton, the servants were angered by the lack of meat in their diet, but their conspiracy apparently was revealed before they could act. The county court warned Friend about his behavior and encouraged his overseer to watch him more carefully. Clutton was ordered arrested for delivering "seditious words & speeches," but the result of the county's legal action is not known.
Thu, 09 Feb 2012 16:13:01 EST]]>
/Backcountry_Frontier_of_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 31 Jan 2012 16:34:45 EST <![CDATA[Backcountry Frontier of Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Backcountry_Frontier_of_Colonial_Virginia The backcountry frontier of colonial Virginia reached westward from the Blue Ridge Mountains to the farthest extent of Virginia settlement in the eighteenth century. By royal charter, the extreme western boundaries of Virginia at this time extended to the Pacific Ocean, but the terms "backcountry" or "back settlements" specifically refer to new settlements in the eastern Appalachian Mountains—most notably in the Shenandoah Valley—that began taking shape in the 1720s. This term was commonly used in the colonial era, when "frontier" referred more specifically to national boundaries. In the 1720s and 1730s, British and colonial authorities encouraged settlement of the backcountry, particularly by non-English Protestant immigrants whose small-farm, non-slave communities might create a buffer against Indian attacks and French expansion while deterring runaway slaves seeking to establish independent colonies in the Appalachians. Due to its social, economic, political, and cultural distinctiveness, the backcountry frontier as a region played a significant role in the eighteenth-century history of Virginia and in the writings of historians about the influence of Virginia's colonial period on the later history of the state and the nation. By the end of the eighteenth century, the backcountry had become a successful model for the development of mixed-farm, market-town settlements on new frontiers as Americans overspread the trans-Appalachian west.
Tue, 31 Jan 2012 16:34:45 EST]]>
/_An_Act_to_enable_the_inhabitants_of_this_Colony_to_discharge_their_public_dues_officers_fees_and_other_tobacco_debts_in_money_for_the_ensuing_year_1758 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:45:41 EST <![CDATA["An Act to enable the inhabitants of this Colony to discharge their public dues, officers fees, and other tobacco debts, in money, for the ensuing year" (1758)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_to_enable_the_inhabitants_of_this_Colony_to_discharge_their_public_dues_officers_fees_and_other_tobacco_debts_in_money_for_the_ensuing_year_1758 In "An Act to enable the inhabitants of this Colony to discharge their public dues, officers fees, and other tobacco debts, in money, for the ensuing year," better known as the Two Penny Act, the General Assembly responded to a second failure of the colony's tobacco crops by again allowing vestries and county courts to collect taxes and pay salaries in money calculated at the usual market price for tobacco rather than in tobacco at windfall rates. Lieutenant Governor Francis Fauquier signed the act into law, on behalf of George II, on October 12, 1758.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:45:41 EST]]>
/The_Two_Penny_Act_1755 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:44:20 EST <![CDATA["An act to enable the inhabitants of this colony to discharge their Tobacco debts in money, for this present year" (1755)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Two_Penny_Act_1755 In "An act to enable the inhabitants of this colony to discharge their Tobacco debts in money, for this present year," better known as the Two Penny Act, the General Assembly responded to the failure of the colony's tobacco crops by allowing vestries and county courts to collect taxes and pay salaries in money calculated at the usual market price for tobacco rather than in tobacco at windfall rates. Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie signed the act into law, on behalf of George II, on November 8, 1755.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:44:20 EST]]>
/_Man_Servants_getting_any_bastard_child_to_make_satisfaction_to_the_parish_after_their_service_ended_1662 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:30:04 EST <![CDATA["Man Servants getting any bastard child to make satisfaction to the parish after their service ended" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Man_Servants_getting_any_bastard_child_to_make_satisfaction_to_the_parish_after_their_service_ended_1662 In this law, "Man Servants getting any bastard child to make satisfaction to the parish after their service ended," passed in its December 1662 session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of male indentured servants having children while under contract.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:30:04 EST]]>
/_Negro_womens_children_to_serve_according_to_the_condition_of_the_mother_1662 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:12:43 EST <![CDATA["Negro womens children to serve according to the condition of the mother" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Negro_womens_children_to_serve_according_to_the_condition_of_the_mother_1662 In the act "Negro womens children to serve according to the condition of the mother," passed by the General Assembly in the session of December 1662, Virginia's colonial government attempted to better define the conditions by which people were enslaved or free.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:12:43 EST]]>
/_An_act_prohibiting_servants_to_goe_abroad_without_a_lycense_1663 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:10:53 EST <![CDATA["An act prohibiting servants to goe abroad without a lycence" (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_prohibiting_servants_to_goe_abroad_without_a_lycense_1663 In "An act prohibiting servants to goe abroad without a lycense," passed by the General Assembly in the session of September 1663, Virginia's colonial government responds to the problem of runaway indentured servants and slaves.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:10:53 EST]]>
/Punishment_for_the_Enslaved_Man_Sam_1688 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 13:47:59 EST <![CDATA[Punishment for the Enslaved Man Sam (1688)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Punishment_for_the_Enslaved_Man_Sam_1688 On April 26, 1688, the General Court found Sam, the slave of Richard Metcalfe of Westmoreland County, guilty in James City County of promoting a slave rebellion. His conviction came just six months or so after a suspected plot was discovered in Westmoreland County. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 13:47:59 EST]]>
/Lawes_Divine_Morall_and_Martiall Fri, 20 Jan 2012 15:39:22 EST <![CDATA[Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lawes_Divine_Morall_and_Martiall Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall, the rules and regulations issued in Jamestown beginning in 1610 and 1611, are the earliest extant English-language body of laws in the western hemisphere. It was not a legal code in the modern sense. No legislation created it, and no court enforced it. The laws were orders that the governor, appointed by the Virginia Company of London that settled and managed the colony between 1607 and 1624, issued to regulate the conduct of its members, employees, and servants. The laws recognized none of the principles of the English common law and did not provide for jury trials, even though the royal charters of the company specified that residents of the colony were entitled to all the rights of Englishmen.
Fri, 20 Jan 2012 15:39:22 EST]]>
/Printing_in_Colonial_Virginia Fri, 20 Jan 2012 13:14:59 EST <![CDATA[Printing in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Printing_in_Colonial_Virginia Printing came to Virginia relatively late in its colonial development. For more than a century after its founding, the colony's governors deemed printing a destabilizing influence to the standing order and actively opposed introducing printing into their dominion. Often that resistance came at the order of their superiors in London. Thus when William Parks was finally authorized to produce imprints for the government in 1728, his commission was limited. He could produce little more than what the government required. Still, the availability of the few allowed imprints, such as his Virginia Gazette and Virginia Almanack, created a growing market for imprints produced in Williamsburg. That growth wrought a conflict for Virginia's solitary press between the demands of that new market and the needs of the government. After 1750, Parks's successors—William Hunter and Joseph Royle—faced these diverging interests with increasing difficulty. Hunter was able to maintain the governor's control of the press only by replacing his office staff, while Royle was facing the imminent arrival of a competitor when he died in 1766. Royle's passing marked the end of the colonial printing monopoly. Multiple press offices would become the norm in Virginia, just as resistance to imperial authority sparked a revolution.
Fri, 20 Jan 2012 13:14:59 EST]]>
/Baptists_in_Colonial_Virginia Fri, 20 Jan 2012 13:11:55 EST <![CDATA[Baptists in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Baptists_in_Colonial_Virginia Baptists during most of the colonial period in Virginia operated on the fringes of the religious mainstream and attracted a mere handful of adherents. Their numbers began to increase modestly in the 1750s, and then more rapidly thereafter, so that by 1790 the state could be described as one of the most "Baptist" places in the country. (At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Baptists collectively comprised the largest religious group in Virginia.) This upsurge, which was bookended by an expansion of Presbyterian and Methodist practices as well, was part of a dramatic transformation in Virginia's religious landscape. The Church of England had enjoyed exclusive legal privileges in the colony from its founding. Dissenters from Anglicanism initially were few, and they operated under significant legal restrictions defined by the 1689 Act for Toleration (which entered Virginia law in 1699). The rise of the Baptists ultimately became entwined with both secular and religious challenges to Anglican monopoly that culminated in disestablishment and the passage of Virginia's 1786 Act for Establishing Religious Freedom, which allowed a gradual evangelical turn in the state at large. Because Virginia was the origin point for many colonial and American migrants moving westward, the expansion of Baptist churches there can be understood as important to rooting the faith in the country at large.
Fri, 20 Jan 2012 13:11:55 EST]]>
/Governor_s_Council_The Thu, 19 Jan 2012 09:50:28 EST <![CDATA[Governor's Council, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Governor_s_Council_The The governor's Council, also known as the Council of State or simply the Council, consisted of about a dozen of colonial Virginia's wealthiest and most prominent men. Beginning in the 1630s the Crown appointed Council members, although from 1652 to 1660 the General Assembly elected the members. Crown appointments were lifetime appointments. From 1625, when Virginia became a royal colony, until the outbreak of the American Revolution (1775–1783), the Council members advised the royal governor or his deputy, the lieutenant governor, on all executive matters. The Council and the governor together constituted the highest court in the colony, known initially as the Quarter Court and later as the General Court. The Council members also served as members of the General Assembly; from the first meeting of the assembly in 1619 until 1643 the governor, Council members, and burgesses all met in unicameral session. After 1643 the Council members met separately as the upper House of the General Assembly. The Virginia Constitution of 1776 effectively abolished the governor's Council and distributed its executive, judicial, and legislative functions to three separate bodies of men.
Thu, 19 Jan 2012 09:50:28 EST]]>
/Salutary_Neglect Wed, 18 Jan 2012 17:07:41 EST <![CDATA[Salutary Neglect]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Salutary_Neglect Wed, 18 Jan 2012 17:07:41 EST]]> /Fry-Jefferson_Map_of_Virginia Wed, 18 Jan 2012 11:31:16 EST <![CDATA[Fry-Jefferson Map of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fry-Jefferson_Map_of_Virginia The Fry-Jefferson map, first published in 1753, was the definitive map of Virginia in the eighteenth century. Created by two of the colony's most accomplished surveyors, Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson, A Map of the Inhabited Part of Virginia containing the whole Province of Maryland, with Part of Pensilvania, New Jersey and North Carolina included their completed border survey for the western bounds of the Northern Neck and a portion of the Virginia–North Carolina dividing line. For the first time the entire Virginia river system was properly delineated, and the northeast-southwest orientation of the Appalachian Mountains was fully displayed. Published in eight known editions, or states, the map was widely copied, and served as an important resource for mapmakers like Lewis Evans and John Mitchell, whose Map of the British and French Dominions in North America (1755) was used to determine the boundaries of the United States as established in the Treaty of Paris (1783). John Henry also relied heavily on the Fry-Jefferson map as he plotted county boundaries in his New and Accurate Map of Virginia (1770), and Thomas Jefferson, Peter Jefferson's son, used his father's map to compile A Map of the country between Albemarle Sounds, and Lake Erie, which accompanied his Notes on the State of Virginia (written 1781).
Wed, 18 Jan 2012 11:31:16 EST]]>
/A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Hariot_1588 Wed, 18 Jan 2012 11:30:02 EST <![CDATA[A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia (1588)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_briefe_and_true_report_of_the_new_found_land_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Hariot_1588 A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia, by Thomas Hariot, was the first book about North America to be produced by an Englishman who had actually visited the continent. First published in 1588 and reprinted first by Richard Hakluyt (the younger) and then by Theodor de Bry, Hariot's report documented his trip to Roanoke Island off the Outer Banks of present-day North Carolina from 1585 to 1586. With its descriptions of the region's flora and fauna, along with the Native Americans who lived there, A briefe and true report came to be one of the most important texts produced in relation to the beginnings of English settlement in the Americas. The de Bry editions included engravings of images by John White, who had accompanied Hariot and the 600 other colonists. Together, Hariot's text and White's images played a crucial role in encouraging English investors to continue their colonial endeavors in the New World, and thus led directly to the beginnings of English settlement in Virginia.
Wed, 18 Jan 2012 11:30:02 EST]]>
/_Letter_to_the_Inhabitants_of_Maryland_Virginia_North_and_South_Carolina_1740 Wed, 18 Jan 2012 09:17:45 EST <![CDATA["Letter to the Inhabitants of Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina" (1740)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Letter_to_the_Inhabitants_of_Maryland_Virginia_North_and_South_Carolina_1740 "Letter to the Inhabitants of Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina" by the Anglican priest George Whitefield was published in 1740 by Benjamin Franklin in Three Letters from the Reverend Mr. G. Whitefield. An important leader of the First Great Awakening, Whitefield used the occasion to address slave owners in the American South, including Virginia. He chastised them for mistreating their enslaved African Americans and for not attempting to convert them to Christianity. Rather than encourage slaves to run away, Whitefield argued, Christian views would make them better slaves. In the end, Whitefield himself owned a plantation and slaves in South Carolina, but his message of salvation for slaves became typical of white southern evangelicals.
Wed, 18 Jan 2012 09:17:45 EST]]>
/_Upon_Sejanus_by_William_Strachey_1604 Mon, 14 Nov 2011 16:20:38 EST <![CDATA["Upon Sejanus" by William Strachey (1604)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Upon_Sejanus_by_William_Strachey_1604 Mon, 14 Nov 2011 16:20:38 EST]]> /Revenge_upon_the_Indians_an_excerpt_from_A_Trewe_Relacyon_of_the_procedeings_and_ocurrentes_of_Momente_which_have_hapned_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy Mon, 14 Nov 2011 16:16:05 EST <![CDATA[Revenge upon the Indians; an excerpt from "A Trewe Relacyon of the procedeings and ocurrentes of Momente which have hapned in Virginia" by George Percy]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Revenge_upon_the_Indians_an_excerpt_from_A_Trewe_Relacyon_of_the_procedeings_and_ocurrentes_of_Momente_which_have_hapned_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy Mon, 14 Nov 2011 16:16:05 EST]]> /The_First_Anglo-Powhatan_War_Begins_an_excerpt_from_A_Trewe_Relacyon_of_the_procedeings_and_ocurrentes_of_Momente_which_have_hapned_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy Mon, 07 Nov 2011 14:23:11 EST <![CDATA[The First Anglo-Powhatan War Begins; an excerpt from "A Trewe Relacyon of the procedeings and ocurrentes of Momente which have hapned in Virginia" by George Percy]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_First_Anglo-Powhatan_War_Begins_an_excerpt_from_A_Trewe_Relacyon_of_the_procedeings_and_ocurrentes_of_Momente_which_have_hapned_in_Virginia_by_George_Percy Mon, 07 Nov 2011 14:23:11 EST]]>