Encyclopedia Virginia: Education http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Lee_Robert_Edward_1807-1870 Thu, 07 Dec 2017 10:43:33 EST Lee, Robert E. (1807–1870) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Robert_Edward_1807-1870 Robert E. Lee was a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865) who led the Army of Northern Virginia from June 1862 until its surrender at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. Descended from several of Virginia's First Families, Lee was a well-regarded officer of the United States Army before the war. His decision to fight for the Confederacy was emblematic of the wrenching choices faced by Americans as the nation divided. After an early defeat in western Virginia, he repulsed George B. McClellan's army from the Confederate capital during the Seven Days' Battles (1862) and won stunning victories at Manassas (1862), Fredericksburg (1862), and Chancellorsville (1863). The Maryland and Pennsylvania campaigns he led resulted in major contests at Antietam (1862) and Gettysburg (1863), respectively, with severe consequences for the Confederacy. Lee offered a spirited defense during the Overland Campaign (1864) against Ulysses S. Grant, but was ultimately outmaneuvered and forced into a prolonged siege at Petersburg (1864–1865). Lee's generalship was characterized by bold tactical maneuvers and inspirational leadership; however, critics have questioned his strategic judgment, his waste of lives in needless battles, and his unwillingness to fight in the Western Theater. In 1865, his beloved home at Arlington having been turned into a national cemetery, Lee became president of Washington College (now Washington and Lee University) in Lexington. There he promoted educational innovation and presented a constructive face to the devastated Southern public. Privately Lee remained bitter and worked to obstruct societal changes brought about by the war, including the enfranchisement of African Americans. By the end of his life he had become a potent symbol of regional pride and dignity in defeat, and has remained an icon of the Lost Cause. He died on October 12, 1870.
Thu, 07 Dec 2017 10:43:33 EST]]>
/University_of_Virginia_The_Architecture_of_the Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:49:05 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia, The Architecture of the]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_The_Architecture_of_the As Thomas Jefferson's last major contribution to American public life, the University of Virginia combined his deepest civic and personal passions: democracy, architecture, and the dissemination of knowledge. Springing from concepts developed in his early years as a politician and gentleman architect, Jefferson's design for the university, which he called the "Academical Village," was a large, complicated composition based in the rules and monuments of classical architecture. Tightly organized around a U-shaped, terraced lawn with a library at its head, Jefferson's university combined faculty and student housing, classrooms, dining halls, and utility spaces into a relatively self-sustaining complex. Understood even by its founder as a place that would have to adapt to changing needs and a growing population, the university was amended and reconsidered throughout the nineteenth century, until a massive fire in 1895 allowed for a substantial reorientation of Jefferson's initial vision by the New York architecture firm of McKim, Mead, and White. Over the course of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, however, attempts to alter and preserve the Academical Village have been far more cautious.
Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:49:05 EST]]>
/Crane_William_1790-1866 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 16:06:08 EST <![CDATA[Crane, William (1790–1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crane_William_1790-1866 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 16:06:08 EST]]> /Ogilvie_James_1773-1820 Thu, 31 Aug 2017 14:14:49 EST <![CDATA[Ogilvie, James (1773–1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ogilvie_James_1773-1820 James Ogilvie was a schoolteacher who became a celebrity orator, ultimately spending twelve years traveling throughout the United States, England, and Scotland advocating for oratory as a primary medium of communication. Born and educated in Scotland, he came to Virginia in 1793 to teach at the Fredericksburg Academy. There his avowed atheism and radical republicanism made him a controversial figure, but over fifteen years traveling throughout central Virginia he proved both an effective and successful teacher. After delivering two dozen lectures in the State Capitol from 1803 to 1804, Ogilvie abandoned teaching for oratory in 1808. He traveled up and down the East Coast selling tickets to a series of eloquent, educational lectures on "moral and philosophical subjects." He quickly became one of the most famous men in America, renowned for his speaking skills. In 1813 he announced a plan to create temporary schools of oratory, an effort that had some success in South Carolina but few other places. Then in 1816 he published a collection of essays and autobiography, Philosophical Essays, that was a critical failure and he left the United States for the British Isles. He died in 1820, likely by his own hand.
Thu, 31 Aug 2017 14:14:49 EST]]>
/Abbott_Charles_Cortez_1906-1986 Tue, 08 Aug 2017 16:20:45 EST <![CDATA[Abbott, Charles Cortez (1906–1986)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Abbott_Charles_Cortez_1906-1986 Charles Cortez Abbott taught business at Harvard University (1923–1954) before becoming the first dean of the business school at the University of Virginia. Born in Kansas, Abbott was raised in New England and educated at Yale and Harvard. He published several books on business and finance before moving to Virginia, where he served as dean of what became known as the Colgate Darden Graduate School of Business Administration from 1954 until 1972. Abbott built the program into the one of the outstanding business schools in the South. He retired to Connecticut and died in 1986.
Tue, 08 Aug 2017 16:20:45 EST]]>
/Slave_Literacy_and_Education_in_Virginia Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:59:20 EST <![CDATA[Slave Literacy and Education in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Literacy_and_Education_in_Virginia Many enslaved African Americans in Virginia learned to read and write, either on their own or at the behest of their masters. As many as 5 percent of slaves may have been literate by the start of the American Revolution (1775–1783), their educations often tied to religious instruction. Many slaveholders viewed Christian teaching as their duty, and converts to the Church of England were required to be literate enough to read a catechism. The Anglican bishop Edmund Gibson and the minister Dr. Thomas Bray both promoted slave education in America with the Associates of Dr. Bray founding a number of schools, including in Williamsburg and Fredericksburg. Virginia law never explicitly prohibited the education of slaves, but in the years after Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800), the General Assembly made it more difficult. Elite whites worried that slaves who could read and write could travel through white society more easily and be exposed to ideas of freedom, making them more inclined to rebel. The gathering of slaves for the purpose of education was prohibited, so individuals stole away to learn on their own, often at great personal risk. During the antebellum period, the percentage of literate slaves had doubled to 10 percent. The laws became even stricter after Nat Turner's Revolt in 1831—Turner was a literate preacher—but during and after the American Civil War (1861–1865) freedpeople quickly established their own schools. Literacy rates rose to 30 percent and then, by 1910, to as high as 70 percent.
Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:59:20 EST]]>
/Godwyn_Preface_and_Introduction_from_The_Negro_s_and_Indians_Advocate_by_Morgan_1680 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:18:01 EST <![CDATA[Godwyn, Preface and Introduction from The Negro's and Indians Advocate by Morgan (1680)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Godwyn_Preface_and_Introduction_from_The_Negro_s_and_Indians_Advocate_by_Morgan_1680 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:18:01 EST]]> /_Letter_from_Virginia_Slaves_to_Bishop_Edmund_Gibson_August_4_September_8_1723 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:53:23 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Virginia Slaves to Bishop Edmund Gibson (August 4, September 8, 1723)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Letter_from_Virginia_Slaves_to_Bishop_Edmund_Gibson_August_4_September_8_1723 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:53:23 EST]]> /Allan_William_1837-1889 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:07:19 EST <![CDATA[Allan, William (1837–1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allan_William_1837-1889 William Allan was an educator, writer, and Confederate army officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). A University of Virginia graduate, Allan served on the staff of Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and later with Jubal A. Early's Army of the Valley. After the war, at the invitation of Robert E. Lee, Allan taught mathematics at Washington College in Lexington. There he began to write about the Civil War, collaborating on a book with the mapmaker Jedediah Hotchkiss, contributing to the debates about the Battle of Gettysburg, and publishing a memoir. Allan became popular on the Lost Cause lecture circuit, and authored a history of the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1862 and the first volume of a history of the Army of Northern Virginia. In 1873, Allan became the first principal of McDonogh Institute, a private school for poor boys near Baltimore, Maryland. He died there in 1889.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:07:19 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Rev_Jonathan_Boucher_to_Rev_John_Waring_March_9_1767 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:31:13 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. Jonathan Boucher to Rev. John Waring (March 9, 1767)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_Jonathan_Boucher_to_Rev_John_Waring_March_9_1767 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:31:13 EST]]> /Associates_of_Dr_Bray Mon, 20 Feb 2017 17:26:26 EST <![CDATA[Associates of Dr. Bray]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Associates_of_Dr_Bray The Associates of Dr. Bray was a philanthropic group founded in 1724 by the English clergyman Thomas Bray to educate enslaved African Americans in the British North American colonies. Educated at Oxford, Bray founded two groups—the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (1699) and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (1701)—charged with spreading literacy and Christianity throughout England and America. A friend's bequest led to the establishment of the Associates of Dr. Bray, dedicated to the religious education of enslaved African Americans in particular. After briefly merging with a group intent on founding a convict colony in Georgia, the Associates concentrated on their primary function. Missions to Georgia and South Carolina failed, but in 1757 Benjamin Franklin suggested that a school be established in Philadelphia. When that succeeded, Franklin recommended that Bray schools be opened in New York; Newport, Rhode Island; and Williamsburg, Virginia. The Williamsburg school operated from 1760 to 1774; it employed a single teacher and was overseen by a number of people, including successive presidents of the College of William and Mary. A similar school opened in Fredericksburg in 1765 and closed five years later due to low enrollment and hostility from local slaveholders. By the second year of the American Revolution (1775–1783), all the Bray schools had closed.
Mon, 20 Feb 2017 17:26:26 EST]]>
/Freedmen_s_Education_in_Virginia_1861-1870 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 13:51:40 EST <![CDATA[Freedmen's Education in Virginia, 1861–1870]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Freedmen_s_Education_in_Virginia_1861-1870 Virginia's freed slaves sought education for themselves and their children at the earliest opportunity. Shortly after the American Civil War (1861–1865) began in Virginia, African Americans established and taught in schools for Virginia's freed people. An African American Virginian created the first black secondary school in the state. More than one-third of the teachers at Virginia's first black schools between 1861 and the end of Reconstruction were African American, and black teachers taught far longer in freedmen's schools in Virginia than white teachers, northern or southern. Not only were African Americans the first to teach in primary schools for Virginia's freed people, they also founded and staffed the first secondary school in the state for free blacks. Northern aid societies like the American Missionary Association sent teachers, books, and other educational support to Virginia's early black schools, and the federal government provided building material for schools and transportation for northern teachers through the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, popularly known as the Freedmen's Bureau. Many historians have portrayed freedmen's education as a northern white benevolent effort, a white gift to the black South. Although many northern teachers braved remarkably aggressive circumstances in their service, evidence suggests that black education in Virginia, as elsewhere in the South, was a product of the freed people's own initiative and determination, temporarily supported by northern benevolence and federal aid.
Mon, 06 Feb 2017 13:51:40 EST]]>
/Duncan_Pauline_Adelaide_Haislip_1888-1973 Fri, 03 Feb 2017 14:31:01 EST <![CDATA[Duncan, Pauline Haislip (1888–1973)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Duncan_Pauline_Adelaide_Haislip_1888-1973 Pauline Haislip Duncan served as one of Virginia's first female law enforcement officers. She was a charter member of the Organized Women Voters of Arlington County, which was among a number of local civic and political groups she joined after women received the right to vote. The organization pushed for a woman deputy in 1923, recommending Smith. She recorded her first criminal arrest the following year and served until 1943, surviving an attempt to remove her in 1927. Smith mostly worked on cases involving women and children, though she at times chased thieves and helped stop fights. She also aided the local Parent-Teacher Association and the Girl Scouts, helping earn her the nickname Aunt Polly. The Organized Women Voters of Arlington County honored her as its Woman of the Year in 1965.
Fri, 03 Feb 2017 14:31:01 EST]]>
/Carter_Willis_M_1852-1902 Thu, 02 Feb 2017 16:18:36 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Willis M. (1852–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Willis_M_1852-1902 Willis M. Carter was an educator and editor who, by the end of the nineteenth century, had become one of Virginia's best-known African Americans. Born into slavery in Albemarle County, he worked as a laborer and a waiter after the American Civil War (1861–1865). In 1874 he moved to Washington, D.C., and received a teaching degree in 1881. Carter then moved to Staunton, where he spent the rest of his life. He served as principal of the West End School there for fifteen years and as president of the August County Teachers' Association. Following the Danville Riot in November 1883 he led a group of African Americans that considered leaving Virginia. He also served as editor and president of the black newspaper the Southern Tribune, published in Staunton. (He changed the paper's name to the Staunton Tribune in 1893.) In 1901 he participated in protests against the new constitutional convention called to disfranchise African Americans. He died in Staunton in 1902.
Thu, 02 Feb 2017 16:18:36 EST]]>
/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 Tue, 24 Jan 2017 11:11:52 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, St. George (1752–1827)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 St. George Tucker was a lawyer, teacher, poet, essayist, inventor, and judge. One of the most influential jurists and legal scholars in the early years of the United States, he sat on three courts in Virginia: the General Court (1789–1804), the Court of Appeals (1804–1811), and the U.S. District Court for the District of Virginia (and later the Eastern District of Virginia) (1813–1825). He also served as rector (1789–1790) and professor of law (1790–1804) at the College of William and Mary. His five-volume edition of Sir William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, published in 1803, was the first major treatise on American law. Born in Bermuda, Tucker studied law as an apprentice to George Wythe in Williamsburg, gaining admission to the bar in 1774. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he smuggled needed supplies into Virginia and fought under Nathanael Greene at the Battle of Guilford Court House (1781) and under George Washington at the siege of Yorktown (1781). After the war he practiced in the county courts before being elevated to a judgeship. At William and Mary, he advocated the study of law as an academic discipline, and in 1796 he published A Dissertation on Slavery, his plan to gradually abolish slavery in Virginia. The General Assembly ignored it. Tucker married twice and had five surviving children, including the jurist and congressman Henry St. George Tucker and the writer and states' rights advocate Nathaniel Beverley Tucker. He died in Nelson County in 1827.
Tue, 24 Jan 2017 11:11:52 EST]]>
/Franklin_A_Q_1852-1924 Tue, 20 Dec 2016 16:21:37 EST <![CDATA[Franklin, A. Q. (1852–1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Franklin_A_Q_1852-1924 A. Q. Franklin, educator and member of the House of Delegates (1889–1890). Born in Richmond to a former slave who had freed himself and possibly a white mother who taught him to read and write, Franklin worked as a laborer and then, Charles City County, a schoolteacher. He served as the county's commissioner of revenue for many years and helped establish Bull Field Academy, a school for African Americans. In 1889 Franklin won election to the House of Delegates as a Republican, one of only three African Americans elected in 1889. They were the last black candidates to win election to the General Assembly until 1967. In 1908 he began raising funds for an African American high school (later Charles City County High School), which prompted the closure of Bull Field Academy in 1911. According to at least one historian, Franklin's efforts produced an unusually high number of college-educated African Americans from Charles City County. He died in 1924.
Tue, 20 Dec 2016 16:21:37 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Books Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:09:35 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and Books]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Books "I cannot live without books," Thomas Jefferson declared in a letter to John Adams on June 10, 1815. To the man who had authored the Declaration of Independence and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom and founded the University of Virginia, books and reading were "a necessary of life." Jefferson relied on his books as his chief source of inspiration and practical knowledge, and believed that education was the means to an enlightened and informed citizenry that would help preserve democracy. Jefferson owned between 9,000 and 10,000 books in his lifetime—some were inherited from his father, Peter Jefferson, and his mentor, George Wythe; others were acquired in Williamsburg; Washington, D.C.; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; New York City; or Europe. Their subjects included history, philosophy, law, architecture, science and literature. In 1815, Jefferson sold his 6,500-volume library to Congress to replace the one that was destroyed when the British burned the U.S. Capitol on August 24, 1814. He then replenished his personal supply of books by building a smaller collection that reflected his retirement interests. The year before he died, he drew up a catalog of books for the library at the University of Virginia. The list, composed of 6,860 volumes with an estimated total cost of more than $24,000, was the culmination of his lifetime of reading.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:09:35 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786), founder of the University of Virginia (1819), governor of Virginia (1779–1781), and third president of the United States (1801–1809). Born at Shadwell, his parents' estate in Albemarle County, he attended the College of William and Mary and studied the law under the tutelage of George Wythe. In 1769, Jefferson began construction of Monticello, his home in Albemarle County, and for the rest of his life pursued an interest in architecture, which included design of Poplar Forest and the State Capitol. Jefferson also indulged a passion for science, serving as president of the American Philosophical Society (1797–1814) and publishing Notes on the State of Virginia (1795). After representing Albemarle County in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), Jefferson was a delegate to Virginia's five Revolutionary Conventions and served in the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776) and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He earned a reputation during the American Revolution (1775–1783) as a forceful advocate of revolutionary principles, articulated in A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774), the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking Up Arms (1775), and, most famously, the Declaration of Independence, approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. His two terms as governor were marked by British invasion and Jefferson's controversial flight to Poplar Forest. From 1784 to 1789, he served as a diplomat in France and there may have begun a sexual relationship with his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Jefferson served as secretary of state in the administration of George Washington (1790–1793) and as vice president under John Adams (1797–1801) before being elected president by the U.S. House of Representatives after a tie vote in the Electoral College. As president Jefferson arranged for the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the subsequent Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806). With James Madison, Jefferson helped found the Republican Party and advocated for states' rights and a small federal government, although as president he sometimes pushed the limits of his executive authority. In his retirement he founded the University of Virginia, which was chartered in 1819 and opened for classes in the spring of 1825. Jefferson died at Monticello on July 4, 1826, fifty years after the Declaration of Independence was approved. He is buried at Monticello.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST]]>
/Dure_Leon_S_1907-1993 Thu, 06 Oct 2016 12:41:59 EST <![CDATA[Dure, Leon S. (1907–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dure_Leon_S_1907-1993 Leon S. Dure created the concept of freedom of choice of association, a philosophy embraced by segregationists after Massive Resistance—the state policies designed to oppose the desegregation of public schools—faded in 1959. Born in Macon, Georgia, Dure served as managing editor of the Macon Telegraph, White House correspondent for the Washington Post, managing editor of the Richmond Times-Dispatch, and executive news editor of the Twin City Sentinel in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. He retired in 1949 and returned to Virginia, where he lived on a farm in Albemarle County. During the desegregation crisis that followed the U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Dure publicized freedom of choice of association as a way to avoid the large-scale integration of public schools. Students could choose which school to attend, with white students receiving state-tuition grants to attend segregated private schools. While not entirely new, the idea was particularly palatable to suburban white voters. Dure's strategy persisted until the 1960s, when it received two key legal defeats in Griffin v. State Board of Education (1964) and Green v. County School Board of New Kent County (1968). Dure died in Florida in 1993.
Thu, 06 Oct 2016 12:41:59 EST]]>
/Rosenwald_Schools Tue, 13 Sep 2016 13:47:27 EST <![CDATA[Rosenwald Schools]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rosenwald_Schools Rosenwald schools were educational facilities built with the assistance of the Rosenwald rural school building program, an initiative to narrow racial schooling gaps in the South by constructing better, more-accessible schools for African Americans. They are called Rosenwald schools because they were partially funded by grants from the Rosenwald Fund, a foundation established by Julius Rosenwald, an Illinois businessman and philanthropist. Between 1912 and 1932, the program helped produce 5,357 new educational facilities for African Americans across fifteen southern states, providing almost 700,000 African American children in rural, isolated communities with state-of-the-art facilities at a time when little to no public money was put toward black education. In Virginia, the initiative helped fund 382 schools and support buildings in seventy-nine counties. Most of these buildings remained in operation until Virginia was forced to comply with the United States Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), which outlawed racial segregation in public schools. In 2002, the National Trust for Historic Preservation placed all surviving Rosenwald schools on its list of America's most endangered historic sites.
Tue, 13 Sep 2016 13:47:27 EST]]>
/Everett_John_R_1918-1992 Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:04:34 EST <![CDATA[Everett, John R. (1918–1992)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Everett_John_R_1918-1992 John R. Everett presided over Hollins College (later Hollins University) from 1950 until 1960. Reportedly the nation's youngest college president when he assumed the office, he established a new curriculum and oversaw the near doubling of Hollins's student body and faculty. Everett also instituted a study abroad program. He left Virginia to become the first chancellor of the Municipal College System of the City of New York and later spent nearly two decades as president of the New School for Social Research (later the New School) in New York City. He died in 1992. A scholarship was established in his name at Hollins following his retirement.
Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:04:34 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_14_1765 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (September 14, 1765)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_14_1765 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_October_31_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:14 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (October 31, 1768)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_October_31_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:14 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_February_1_1772 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:50:27 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (February 1, 1772)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_February_1_1772 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:50:27 EST]]> /Letter_from_Rev_James_Marye_Jr_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_25_1764 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:49:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. James Marye Jr. to Rev. John Waring (September 25, 1764)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_James_Marye_Jr_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_25_1764 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:49:44 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_November_17_1774 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:48:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert Carter Nicholas to Rev. John Waring (November 17, 1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_November_17_1774 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:48:35 EST]]> /Letter_from_Rev_John_Waring_to_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_April_20_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:47:17 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. John Waring to Robert Carter Nicholas (April 20, 1768)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_John_Waring_to_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_April_20_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:47:17 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_Yates_and_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_30_1762 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:42:18 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William Yates and Robert Carter Nicholas to Rev. John Waring (September 30, 1762)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_Yates_and_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_30_1762 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:42:18 EST]]> /Bryan_Albert_V_1899-1984 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:57:36 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, Albert V. (1899–1984)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_Albert_V_1899-1984 Albert V. Bryan was a federal district court and circuit court of appeals judge during a crucial period in the fight over public school desegregation. After serving as the commonwealth's attorney in Alexandria from 1928 until 1947, he was appointed a federal judge of the Eastern District of Virginia. Although he supported segregation Bryan stuck closely to legal precedents established by the U.S. Supreme Court. He ruled in favor of continued school segregation in 1952. After Brown v. Board of Education reversed his ruling in 1954, however, Bryan began following the new precedent, though in a manner that slowed implementation. His subsequent decisions on Massive Resistance delayed, but did not stop, desegregation of Virginia schools. In 1961 he was appointed to the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals. Adhering again to Supreme Court precedent, in 1969 Bryan struck down state tuition grants to students attending segregated private schools. He retired from the federal bench in 1971 and died in 1984.
Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:57:36 EST]]>
/Anderson_Peyton_E_ca_1857-1950 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:24:09 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, Peyton E. (ca. 1857–1950)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_Peyton_E_ca_1857-1950 Peyton E. Anderson was a minister and the first African American superintendent of Prince Edward County's rural black schools. Born enslaved near Farmville, after the American Civil War (1861–1865) he committed himself to getting an education and studied ministry at Richmond Theological Institute. He became the superintendent of schools for African Americans in Prince Edward County, where he oversaw the construction of twenty-three rural schoolhouses and developed a curriculum centered on industrial education. For twenty-five years he was also principal of the Virso School, in Prince Edward County. One county superintendent described him as the most versatile schoolteacher he had ever seen. During his career in education, Anderson served as pastor of New Bethel and Shiloh churches, and at his death in 1950 was pastor of Mount Zion Baptist Church.
Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:24:09 EST]]>
/Public_School_System_in_Virginia_Establishment_of_the Tue, 26 Jul 2016 13:50:18 EST <![CDATA[Public School System in Virginia, Establishment of the]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Public_School_System_in_Virginia_Establishment_of_the The first statewide system of free public schools in Virginia was established in 1870 after the ratification of a new constitution and was one of the most important and enduring accomplishments of Reconstruction. Prior to the American Civil War (1861–1865), education had been reserved mostly for elite white families; no southern states had public school systems and in Virginia the education of free and enslaved African Americans had been discouraged and, in some forms, made illegal. After the abolition of slavery, the federal Freedmen's Bureau established the first statewide system of schools, but only for African Americans; other, biracial systems were set up, but only in Petersburg, Richmond, and Norfolk. The new constitution created a new statewide system that, in spite of protests by African American members of the General Assembly, segregated black and white students. The first state superintendent, William Henry Ruffner, set about building the system's infrastructure—creating more than 2,800 schools and hiring about 3,000 teachers by August 1871—and building political support for its funding. In debates over how to pay off Virginia's large antebellum debt some politicians advocated reducing funding for public schools, although the system became more stable when the biracial Readjuster Party took over government in 1881, appointed R. R. Farr superintendent, and increased appropriations. By the turn of the century, public schools had attained broad social and political support.
Tue, 26 Jul 2016 13:50:18 EST]]>
/Blair_James_ca_1655-1743 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:10:35 EST <![CDATA[Blair, James (ca. 1655–1743)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_James_ca_1655-1743 James Blair was an Anglican minister, a notoriously combative member of the governor's Council (1694–1695; 1696–1697; 1701–1743) who worked successfully to have three governors removed, and, with Francis Nicholson, the cofounder of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg. Born and educated in Edinburgh, Scotland, Blair came to Virginia in 1685 as rector of Henrico Parish. He married, acquired land, and in 1689 became commissary, or the Anglican bishop's representative in America. Blair's clerical convocations in 1690, 1705, and 1719 were notoriously rancorous in part due to his tendency to sympathize more with the laity than his fellow clerics; however, the 1690 meeting proved especially significant for Blair's "Seven Propositions," which led to the founding of the College of William and Mary. As president for life, Blair secured funding and overcame powerful opposition from men like Virginia governor Sir Edmund Andros. In the meantime, Blair consolidated his own power by becoming rector of James City Parish in Williamsburg, and in 1698 he successfully fought to have Andros removed. Over the years, Blair did the same to two more governors while continually expanding his college. By the 1720s he had rebuilt the school after a fire; housed an Indian school, chapel, library, and president's house; drafted the first college statutes; hired the first full-time faculty; and transferred the original charter to the president and masters. Blair died in Williamsburg in 1743.
Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:10:35 EST]]>
/Mahone_William_1826-1895 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:02:29 EST <![CDATA[Mahone, William (1826–1895)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mahone_William_1826-1895 William Mahone was a Confederate general, Virginia senator (1863–1865), railroad tycoon, U.S. senator (1881–1887), and leader of the short-lived Readjuster Party. Known by his nickname, "Little Billy," Mahone was, in the words of a contemporary, "short in stature, spare almost to emaciation, with [a] long beard, and keen, restless eyes." He attended the Virginia Military Institute on scholarship, worked as a railroad engineer, and eventually became president of the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he distinguished himself at the Battle of the Crater (1864), leading a successful counterattack that also involved the massacre of surrendered black troops. After the war, Mahone founded the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio Railroad, which, before it failed, served his business interests in Norfolk and Southside Virginia. In 1881, he was elected to the United States Senate as a member of the Readjuster Party, an unlikely coalition of poor whites and African Americans interested in repudiating a portion of the massive state debt and, in so doing, restoring social services such as free public education. One of the most successful biracial political coalitions in the New South, the Readjusters held power until 1886, when Mahone lost his Senate seat. A gubernatorial bid in 1889 failed, and Mahone died in Washington, D.C., in 1895.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:02:29 EST]]>
/Davis_Henry_Jackson_1882-1947 Fri, 08 Jul 2016 15:25:38 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Jackson (1882–1947)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Henry_Jackson_1882-1947 Jackson Davis was an educator, educational advisor, and foundation director who served as an important intermediary between African American schools in the South and philanthropic foundations in the North. Throughout his career, he specialized in education in the South, interracial issues, and educational development in the Belgian Congo and Liberia. As a field agent for the General Education Board, Davis worked on behalf of better relations and understanding between whites and African Americans and pioneered the development and promotion of regional centers of education in the South. Davis's relatively moderate position on race relations, however, did not extend to desegregation of public schools.
Fri, 08 Jul 2016 15:25:38 EST]]>
/Ruffner_William_H_1824-1908 Fri, 29 Apr 2016 15:56:36 EST <![CDATA[Ruffner, William Henry (1824–1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ruffner_William_H_1824-1908 William Henry Ruffner was the designer and first superintendent of Virginia's public school system and later served as principal of the State Female Normal School (later Longwood University). Born in Lexington and a graduate of Washington College (later Washington and Lee University), he spent the years before the American Civil War (1861–1865) as a Presbyterian minister and farmer in Rockingham County. Ruffner owned slaves, and he advocated the gradual emancipation and colonization of the state's African Americans. He raised funds for the American Colonization Society. After the Constitution of 1869 mandated the creation of public schools, the General Assembly elected Ruffner the state's first superintendent of public instruction. During his twelve-year tenure Ruffner gave Virginia's public school system a lasting foundation and as he defended the system from vigorous opposition and the shortfalls generated by the state's crippling debt. In 1884 he became principal of the new State Female Normal School, where he served for three years. Ruffner spent his later years teaching geology, writing about the history of Washington and Lee University, and advocating the school system he helped create. He died at his daughter's home in Asheville, North Carolina, in 1908.
Fri, 29 Apr 2016 15:56:36 EST]]>
/Farr_R_R_1845-1892 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:27:43 EST <![CDATA[Farr, R. R. (1845–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farr_R_R_1845-1892 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:27:43 EST]]> /Clark_Adèle_1882-1983 Thu, 10 Mar 2016 11:31:57 EST <![CDATA[Clark, Adèle (1882–1983)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clark_Adèle_1882-1983 Adèle Clark was a founding member of the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia, the chair of the Virginia League of Women Voters (1921–1925, 1929–1944), the social director of women at the College of William and Mary (1926), a New Deal–era field worker, and an accomplished artist and arts advocate. A native of Alabama, Clark attended schools in Richmond and later studied art in New York. She taught art in Richmond and established a training studio, while also working as a political activist. In 1909, she helped to found the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia and when women won the right to vote in 1920, she worked to educate women voters and to influence Congress and the General Assembly on issues of special interest to women. During the Great Depression, she served as the state director of the Federal Art Project (1936–1942). In her later years, Clark spoke for the desegregation of public schools and against the poll tax. She opposed the proposed Equal Rights Amendment in 1973. Clark died in Richmond in 1983.
Thu, 10 Mar 2016 11:31:57 EST]]>
/Blackwell_James_Heyward_ca_1864-1931 Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:37:03 EST <![CDATA[Blackwell, James H. (ca. 1864–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blackwell_James_Heyward_ca_1864-1931 James H. Blackwell served as a principal of and helped develop the high school curriculum for Manchester's first African American school. Blackwell was raised in the city (later annexed by Richmond) and worked under the tutelage of Anthony Binga, a prominent pastor. He was one of three teachers selected when Binga was named principal of the school, and Blackwell ultimately succeeded his mentor. After Richmond absorbed Manchester in 1910, city rules stipulated that no African American could serve as principal. Blackwell also helped create two financial service companies, though they met with limited success. He died in 1931. In 1951 the school where he taught was named for him, and in turn the institution gave its name to the Richmond neighborhood of Blackwell.
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:37:03 EST]]>
/Bonnycastle_Charles_1796-1840 Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:33:31 EST <![CDATA[Bonnycastle, Charles (1796–1840)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bonnycastle_Charles_1796-1840 Charles Bonnycastle was a professor of natural philosophy and mathematics at the University of Virginia from 1825 until his death in 1840. Born in England, Bonnycastle was the son of a mathematics professor at the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. Bonnycastle himself attended the academy and contributed to his father's noted textbook. In 1824 he accepted an offer to join the faculty at the newly established University of Virginia, teaching natural philosophy and later mathematics and engineering. Bonnycastle proved an effective teacher, using updated pedagogy designed to engage beginning students and, in 1834, publishing his own textbook, Inductive Geometry. He died in 1840.
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:33:31 EST]]>
/Emmet_John_Patten_1796-1842 Thu, 04 Feb 2016 16:14:00 EST <![CDATA[Emmet, John Patten (1796–1842)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Emmet_John_Patten_1796-1842 John Patten Emmet was a chemistry professor at the University of Virginia from 1825 until his death in 1842. Born in Ireland, he was the nephew of the Irish nationalist Robert Emmet. He came to the United States with his family in 1805 and attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. After studying medicine and developing an interest in chemistry, Emmet accepted a faculty position at the University of Virginia as chair of the School of Natural History. He appeared to thrive in Charlottesville, even in the midst of student unrest that forced a pair of colleagues to resign, and purchased land on which he built a house, Morea, of his own design. There he planted gardens and experimented with silkworm cultivation. Emmet's health had always been frail, however, dating back to childhood bouts with smallpox, measles, and whooping cough. In 1842, ill health forced him to take a leave of absence from which he never returned. He died that year at the New York home of one of his brothers.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 16:14:00 EST]]>
/Cabell_J_L_1813-1889 Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:27:10 EST <![CDATA[Cabell, J. L. (1813–1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cabell_J_L_1813-1889 J. L. Cabell was a medical educator and public health advocate. Likely born in Nelson County, he attended the University of Virginia and received his medical degree from the University of Maryland in Baltimore. In 1837, he became a professor of anatomy and surgery at the University of Virginia, teaching for more than fifty years, until 1889. In 1859, Cabell published a treatise arguing that all people, even those of supposedly inferior races, descended from a single creation. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Cabell served as the surgeon in charge of the Confederate military hospitals in Charlottesville and Danville. After the war, he helped to found the Medical Society of Virginia and served as its president from 1876 to 1877. He was the first president of the Virginia State Board of Health, and in 1879 became president of the new National Board of Health. Cabell died in 1889.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:27:10 EST]]>
/Munford_Mary-Cooke_Branch_1865-1938 Fri, 29 Jan 2016 10:41:20 EST <![CDATA[Munford, Mary-Cooke Branch (1865–1938)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Munford_Mary-Cooke_Branch_1865-1938 Mary-Cooke Branch Munford was an advocate of woman suffrage, interracial cooperation, education, health, and labor reforms. Armed with a pedigree that connected her to some of the wealthiest families of Virginia, she threw herself into such "unfeminine" pursuits as education reform and civil rights. She helped to found the Richmond Education Association, was the first woman to serve on the city's school board, was a member of the University of Virginia's board of visitors, and was the first woman to serve on the College of William and Mary's board of visitors. Munford also served on the board of the National Urban League, was a founding member of the Virginia Inter-Racial League, and became a trustee at the historically black Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee.
Fri, 29 Jan 2016 10:41:20 EST]]>
/Dillard_James_Hardy_1856-1940 Wed, 20 Jan 2016 09:54:09 EST <![CDATA[Dillard, J. H. (1856–1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dillard_James_Hardy_1856-1940 J. H. Dillard was an educator and reformer who, early in the twentieth century, became the best-known and most-active white proponents of improved educational opportunities for African Americans in the South. Born either in Southampton County or Nansemond County, he studied law before becoming a teacher. In 1894, he became a dean at Tulane University, in New Orleans. In 1908, he was elected president of the board of the Anna T. Jeanes Foundation, established to help the education of African Americans in the South by paying teacher salaries and investing in buildings and equipment. He returned to Virginia in 1913, working for the Jeanes Fund and as the president of the John F. Slater Fund, which had a similar mission, until he resigned both positions in 1931. By this time, the South had 305 so-called Jeanes teachers in fourteen states, with Virginia claiming more teachers than any other state. Dillard engaged in other work on behalf of interracial cooperation, establishing the University Commission on Southern Race Questions in 1912. In 1930, two historically black universities in New Orleans combined to form Dillard University, named in his honor. Dillard died at his home in Charlottesville in 1940.
Wed, 20 Jan 2016 09:54:09 EST]]>
/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:59:11 EST <![CDATA[Daniels, Edward D. (1828–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Edward D. Daniels was an agricultural reformer, newspaper editor, and an active member of the Republican Party. The Massachusetts-born Daniels worked as a geologist in Wisconsin, helped mount expeditions to establish abolitionist colonies in Kansas, served in the U.S. Army, and was involved in manufacturing in the Midwest before settling in Virginia in 1868, at his doctor's recommendation. That same year he bought Gunston Hall, the onetime home of George Mason, and tried to transform the plantation into a cooperative community of independent farmers and artisans. He hired African American laborers, instructed them in scientific farming techniques, and paid them relatively high wages. The venture was not profitable, however, and he sold the property in 1891, retaining a small piece of land for himself. Daniels extended his ambitions for reform into politics: he edited and published the Richmond Evening State Journal in support of the Republican Party, twice ran for office (and was twice defeated), and supported the nascent Readjusters. Daniels's financial troubles often thwarted his reform efforts, but a primary school for black children that he helped found survived into the 1920s. He died at his farm near Gunston Hall in 1916 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:59:11 EST]]>
/Corbin_Percy_Casino_1888-1952 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:52:19 EST <![CDATA[Corbin, Percy C. (1888–1952)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Corbin_Percy_Casino_1888-1952 Percy C. Corbin was a civil rights activist. A lawsuit he filed on behalf of his son, Corbin et al. v. County School Board of Pulaski County, Virginia, et al. (1950), led to one of only six successful lawsuits supported by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in its legal campaign to equalize school facilities before Brown v. Board of Education (1954). A Texas native and physician, Corbin established his practice in the town of Pulaski, where he helped combat an influenza outbreak in 1918 and attracted both black and white clients. Corbin fought to equalize school facilities and was active in the local black community. He died in 1952.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:52:19 EST]]>
/Black_Aline_Elizabeth_1906-1974 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:30:56 EST <![CDATA[Black, Aline E. (1906–1974)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Aline_Elizabeth_1906-1974 Aline E. Black was a teacher known primarily as a principal in a civil rights court case. A graduate of what became Virginia State University, Black began teaching science in Norfolk city schools in 1924. As an African American, she received a substantially smaller salary than a comparably qualified white teacher. In 1939 she agreed to be the plaintiff in a lawsuit filed in Norfolk to challenge this double standard. The school board fired Black in retaliation for her suit, but another plaintiff continued the case and in 1940 the United States Supreme Court upheld a lower court's ruling that teacher salaries were protected by the Fourteenth Amendment. Black was rehired by the school board in 1941. She continued to teach in Norfolk until her retirement in 1973; she died a year later.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:30:56 EST]]>
/Virginia_Military_Institute_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:25:22 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Military Institute during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Military_Institute_During_the_Civil_War The Virginia Military Institute (VMI) is a state-funded military academy founded in 1839. Located in the Shenandoah Valley town of Lexington, it was only the second governmental military academy in the United States, after the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York (founded in 1802), and represented increased educational opportunity for non-elite southern men. Future Confederate generals Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and John McCausland were VMI instructors during John Brown's raid on the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry in 1859, and they led cadets to his execution in Charles Town, where they helped to provide security. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), approximately 1,800 VMI graduates served (including 19 in the U.S. Army), with about 250 of them killed in action. Cadets famously were called to fight in the Battle of New Market, contributing to the Confederate victory on May 15, 1864. In June, Union general David Hunter ordered the school burned, and the cadets relocated to Richmond, where they helped to defend the Confederate capital.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:25:22 EST]]>
/Stuart_Flora_Cooke_1836-1923 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:25:10 EST <![CDATA[Stuart, Flora Cooke (1836–1923)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Stuart_Flora_Cooke_1836-1923 Flora Cooke Stuart was the wife of Confederate general J. E. B. Stuart and the daughter of Union general Philip St. George Cooke. She met Stuart, a dashing subordinate of her father, while living in the Kansas Territory in the 1850s, and after marrying, the two settled in Virginia. Secession, however, split their family, with Cooke, a respected cavalryman, remaining in the United States Army and Stuart eventually becoming chief of cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia. "He will regret it but once & that will be continually," Stuart said of his father-in-law's decision; he even renamed his and Flora's months'-old son, Philip St. George Cooke Stuart, after himself, James Ewell Brown Stuart Jr. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Flora Stuart spent as much time as possible in camp with her husband, and chafed at the generous attention he received from admiring women in Virginia and across the South. When Stuart died after being wounded at the Battle of Yellow Tavern (1864), she donned mourning garb and wore it for the remaining fifty-nine years of her life. During that time, she served as headmistress of a women's school in Staunton that was subsequently named for her. She later moved to Norfolk, where she died in 1923.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:25:10 EST]]>
/Bowler_John_Andrew_1862-1935 Mon, 14 Sep 2015 09:51:57 EST <![CDATA[Bowler, J. Andrew (1862–1935)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowler_John_Andrew_1862-1935 J. Andrew Bowler helped organize the first school for African Americans on Richmond's Church Hill and then served on its faculty for more than fifty years. The son of an enslaved woman, Bowler demonstrated unusual intelligence in his childhood and after the war worked to pay for his education at what later became Virginia Union University. After a brief sojourn in New York, he returned to Richmond and helped establish George Mason Elementary School. He spent years as its highest ranking African American faculty member. Bowler, a religious man, was ordained a minister in 1901 and served as pastor of Mount Olivet Baptist Church. Thirteen years after his death, Richmond's school board opened J. Andrew Bowler School.
Mon, 14 Sep 2015 09:51:57 EST]]>
/Davis_D_Webster_1862-1913 Mon, 27 Jul 2015 15:02:28 EST <![CDATA[Davis, D. Webster (1862–1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_D_Webster_1862-1913 D. Webster Davis was a teacher, poet, and lecturer in Richmond and Manchester. Born into slavery, Davis became a teacher in 1879, working in Richmond public schools for thirty-three years. In 1896 he was ordained a pastor. He also worked as an editor in the 1890s, but his literary ambitions centered mostly on poetry. His first collection was published in 1895 and a second two years later. Literary scholars have criticized his work for perpetuating racial stereotypes, but some argue that, read in context, the works illustrate the complicated position of the first generation of free, educated African Americans. Davis also became a popular lecturer, incorporating his poems into speeches. His notoriety augmented his position within Richmond and Manchester's African American communities, where he held a series of leadership positions. Schools in Richmond and Staunton, as well as Virginia State University, named buildings in honor of Davis, and several Richmond city schools closed on the day of his funeral in 1913.
Mon, 27 Jul 2015 15:02:28 EST]]>
/Massey_John_E_1819-1901 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:52:08 EST <![CDATA[Massey, John E. (1819–1901)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Massey_John_E_1819-1901 John E. Massey served as the lieutenant governor of Virginia (1886–1890), a member of the General Assembly (1873­–1879), and an influential member of two Virginia political parties. Born in Spotsylvania County, he served as a Baptist minister before the American Civil War (1861–1865), earning him the nickname Parson Massey. He won election to the General Assembly in 1873 as a Conservative, but joined the new Readjuster Party in 1879. After he lost his seat in the Senate, the Readjusters appointed Massey auditor of public accounts in 1879. He broke with Readjuster leader William Mahone in 1882 and the next year Massey helped revive the Democratic Party. As part of a Democratic sweep in 1885, Massey won election as lieutenant governor, supporting the disfranchisement of African Americans. In 1889 the assembly voted him to the first of two terms as state superintendent of public instruction. During his tenure, he promoted summer teacher training institutes but endorsed a proposal that would limit already meager appropriations for African American schools. He selected the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University) as the site for a state-supported summer normal institutes for teacher education. He remained active in the Baptist Church throughout his life, supported the temperance movement, and died on April 24, 1901, in Charlottesville, after having been elected to the upcoming constitutional convention.
Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:52:08 EST]]>
/Union_Occupation_of_Charlottesville_1865 Mon, 13 Apr 2015 09:19:46 EST <![CDATA[Union Occupation of Charlottesville (1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Union_Occupation_of_Charlottesville_1865 Union cavalry under the command of Philip H. Sheridan occupied Charlottesville and the University of Virginia from March 3 to March 6, 1865, a month before the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). During the previous summer and autumn, Union forces had battled and largely defeated Jubal A. Early's Confederate Army of the Valley. In February 1865, Sheridan's men rode south from Winchester with orders to destroy railroads and possibly take Lynchburg. They arrived in Charlottesville on March 3, and there were met by a delegation of town and university officials, who asked for protection. Union troopers burned a nearby woolen mills but, apart from widespread foraging and some looting, left the town and college intact. In the meantime, many of the area's African Americans, including at least one enslaved directly by the University of Virginia, used the Union occupation to escape their enslavement. Sheridan left Charlottesville on March 6. In the war's aftermath, institutions that were not destroyed, such as the University of Virginia, became especially important in the South, and the school's enrollment and prestige rose steadily. In 2001, a state historical highway marker commemorating the occupation was rewritten to avoid the term "surrender"; it later was reported missing.
Mon, 13 Apr 2015 09:19:46 EST]]>
/Addison_Lucy_1861-1937 Tue, 10 Feb 2015 10:16:50 EST <![CDATA[Addison, Lucy (1861–1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Addison_Lucy_1861-1937 Lucy Addison was a teacher and elementary school principal in Roanoke who was largely responsible for bringing high school–level education to the city's African Americans. Born enslaved in Fauquier County, she earned a teaching diploma in Philadelphia. Addison taught briefly in Loudoun County before moving to Roanoke in 1887. She served briefly as an interim principal at the city's First Ward Colored School before resuming her regular teaching duties. In 1918 she became principal of the Harrison School. Although the school offered classes only up to grade eight, Addison campaigned for a secondary-school curriculum, steadily adding advanced classes. The State Board of Education accredited Harrison as a high school in 1924. Addison retired from the position after the 1926–1927 school year, and the city named the school after her in 1928. It was Roanoke's first public building named after one of its own citizens. Addison, who never married, died in 1937 in Washington, D.C.
Tue, 10 Feb 2015 10:16:50 EST]]>
/Farmer_James_1920-1999 Thu, 05 Feb 2015 13:22:11 EST <![CDATA[Farmer, James (1920–1999)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farmer_James_1920-1999 James Farmer was a civil rights leader who pioneered sit-in demonstrations during the 1940s and led the Freedom Riders of 1961. After graduating from Wiley College, in Texas, Farmer moved to Chicago to serve as race relations secretary for the pacifist group Fellowship of Reconciliation. Dedicated to fighting Jim Crow laws, in 1942 Farmer helped form what became the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). The organization selected Farmer as its national director in 1961, bringing him to prominence. The violent reaction by southern whites to the Freedom Riders was the first in a series of confrontations and arrests for his work on behalf of African American civil rights. Farmer left CORE in 1966 and later served briefly in the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Farmer moved to Spotsylvania County about 1980 and became a professor at Mary Washington College in 1985. That year his book, Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement, was published. Farmer received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1998.
Thu, 05 Feb 2015 13:22:11 EST]]>
/Russell_James_Solomon_1857-1935 Thu, 29 Jan 2015 17:33:54 EST <![CDATA[Russell, James Solomon (1857–1935)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Russell_James_Solomon_1857-1935 James Solomon Russell founded Saint Paul Normal and Industrial School (later Saint Paul's College). Born enslaved, after the American Civil War (1861–1865) Russell sought an education and attended Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University) when family finances allowed it. He established himself as a teacher and became attracted to the Episcopal Church. Russell entered divinity school, serving in a series of religious positions while attending what became the Bishop Payne Divinity School, in Petersburg. The church ordained him a deacon in 1882 and a priest in 1887. He began his ministry in 1882 in the Brunswick County town of Lawrenceville. In 1888 he founded Saint Paul Normal and Industrial School, in response to the local community's intense desire for educational opportunities. Russell fended off the school's early struggles by aggressively fund-raising, and Saint Paul's expanded in both its size and curriculum. He retired as its principal 1929 and was succeeded by his son James Alvin Russell. He died in Lawrenceville in 1935.
Thu, 29 Jan 2015 17:33:54 EST]]>
/Dew_Thomas_R_1802-1846 Tue, 27 Jan 2015 16:41:45 EST <![CDATA[Dew, Thomas R. (1802–1846)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dew_Thomas_R_1802-1846 Thomas R. Dew spent a decade as president of the College of William and Mary (1836–1846), but is also known for his works supporting slavery and opposing protective tariffs. While a professor of political law at William and Mary, Dew achieved national prominence when he attacked the tariff of 1828. He backed free trade, believing export taxes hindered southern planters at the expense of northern manufacturers. He favored state banks over a national bank, fearing that the latter would provide the government with too much power over the economy. His commentary on Virginia's debate to end slavery in 1831–1832 showed him an ardent supporter of the institution, even opposing gradual emancipation because it would deprive the state of its wealth. Dew also argued that denying suffrage to women was appropriate because devotion to family hindered their capacity to understand politics. William and Mary's board named him its president in 1836. During his administration the college became an important wellspring of southern thought as sectional tension heightened. Dew died of bronchitis in 1846.
Tue, 27 Jan 2015 16:41:45 EST]]>
/Manly_Ralza_M_1822-1897 Tue, 27 Jan 2015 16:38:59 EST <![CDATA[Manly, Ralza M. (1822–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Manly_Ralza_M_1822-1897 Ralza M. Manly served as Virginia's superintendent of education under the Freedmen's Bureau and later helped establish and run the Richmond Colored Normal School. Born in Vermont, Manly was a minister and educator who began teaching African Americans when he became chaplain of the 1st United States Colored Cavalry at Fort Monroe during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After the war he oversaw the rapid expansion of black education civilian government returned to Virginia. He spearheaded the creation of what became the highly regarded Richmond Colored Normal School and served as its principal twice. In 1885 he left the state for Wellesley College in Massachusetts, where he joined his second wife on the faculty. He eventually moved to San Diego, California, and died there in 1897.
Tue, 27 Jan 2015 16:38:59 EST]]>
/Adair_Cornelia_Storrs_1884-1962 Thu, 15 Jan 2015 09:39:05 EST <![CDATA[Adair, Cornelia Storrs (1884–1962)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Adair_Cornelia_Storrs_1884-1962 Cornelia Storrs Adair served as president of the National Education Association (NEA), a teachers' union, from 1927 to 1928, the first classroom teacher to be elected to that position. A native of West Virginia, she attended school in Richmond and began her teaching career there in 1904. She taught at various elementary schools, received a degree from the College of William and Mary (1923) and served as principal of Richmond's Franklin Elementary School from 1931 until her retirement in 1954. In 1934, Adair became the first woman awarded William and Mary's Alumni Medallion. Adair attributed her passion for education to her aunt of the same name, one of the pioneer public school teachers in Richmond. Always active in union work, Adair was a longtime member of the Virginia Education Association and the Teachers' Co-operative Association. In addition to presiding over the NEA, she served as president of the National League of Teachers Associations (1919) and the National League of Classroom Teachers (1927). A traditionalist in the classroom, Adair supported universal education, arts education, and education for the physically disabled. Adair died in Charlottesville in 1962. The next year William and Mary opened the Cornelia Storrs Adair Gymnasium (later Adair Hall).
Thu, 15 Jan 2015 09:39:05 EST]]>
/University_of_Virginia_Faculty_Minutes_March_1_1865 Mon, 22 Dec 2014 10:16:53 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Faculty Minutes (March 1, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Faculty_Minutes_March_1_1865 Mon, 22 Dec 2014 10:16:53 EST]]> /Union_Occupation_of_the_University_of_Virginia_an_excerpt_from Sat, 20 Dec 2014 16:13:34 EST <![CDATA[Union Occupation of the University of Virginia; an excerpt from History of the University of Virginia, 1819–1919 by Philip Alexander Bruce (1920–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Union_Occupation_of_the_University_of_Virginia_an_excerpt_from Sat, 20 Dec 2014 16:13:34 EST]]> /University_of_Virginia_Faculty_Minutes_March_6_1865 Sat, 20 Dec 2014 15:08:29 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Faculty Minutes (March 6, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Faculty_Minutes_March_6_1865 Sat, 20 Dec 2014 15:08:29 EST]]> /Diary_of_John_B_Minor_February_28-March_7_1865 Sat, 20 Dec 2014 14:38:21 EST <![CDATA[Diary of John B. Minor (February 28–March 7, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Diary_of_John_B_Minor_February_28-March_7_1865 Sat, 20 Dec 2014 14:38:21 EST]]> /Dawson_Thomas_1715-1760 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:16:21 EST <![CDATA[Dawson, Thomas (1715–1760)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dawson_Thomas_1715-1760 Thomas Dawson was an Anglican priest, rector of Bruton Parish (1743–1759), commissary of the bishop of London (1752–1759), member of the governor's Council (1753–1760), and president of the College of William and Mary (1755–1760). Born in England, Dawson traveled to Virginia in 1735 and attended the College of William and Mary, where he studied and worked. He was ordained as a deacon and priest of the Church of England by the bishop of Carlisle in 1740 and served as rector of the Bruton Parish Church. He was named commissary of the bishop of London on September 21, 1752, and was appointed to the governor's Council in 1753. In 1755 Dawson became president of the College of William and Mary. His popularity among Virginia clergymen declined in the 1750s when he neglected to formally protest the Two Penny Acts; his tenure as president of William and Mary was tainted by a power struggle between the faculty, composed of clergymen, and the board of visitors, composed of laypeople. However, Dawson remained an advocate for the education of children and African Americans throughout his life. At the end of his life, Dawson became dependent on alcohol, and in 1760 the board of visitors accused him of habitual drunkenness, infrequent attendance at college prayers, and gambling. Dawson died shortly thereafter, on November 29, 1760.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:16:21 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Joseph_Coolidge_April_12_1825 Tue, 16 Sep 2014 13:27:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Joseph Coolidge (April 12, 1825)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Joseph_Coolidge_April_12_1825 Tue, 16 Sep 2014 13:27:44 EST]]> /Valentine_Lila_Meade_1865-1921 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 12:45:16 EST <![CDATA[Valentine, Lila Meade (1865–1921)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Valentine_Lila_Meade_1865-1921 Lila Meade Valentine was a suffragist, education reformer, and public-health advocate. During her abbreviated life, she played a vital role in creating and running organizations that improved the health-care and public school systems of her native city of Richmond. Valentine also became an ardent supporter of woman suffrage early in the 1900s, cofounding the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia and serving as an active member of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. A talented organizer and an eloquent speaker, Valentine led efforts on behalf of suffrage that came to fruition in 1920, when the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified, giving women the right to vote.
Mon, 15 Sep 2014 12:45:16 EST]]>
/Bowser_Rosa_L_Dixon_1855-1931 Wed, 03 Sep 2014 14:06:55 EST <![CDATA[Bowser, Rosa L. Dixon (1855–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowser_Rosa_L_Dixon_1855-1931 Rosa L. Dixon Bowser, educator and civic leader, played a key role in implementing reforms that affected Virginia's African Americans. Bowser was most likely born enslaved. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), she moved to Richmond with her family and enrolled in public school, where she showed remarkable intelligence. She went on to become a teacher in Richmond's public schools. Her efforts on behalf of educators helped create Virginia's first professional African American teacher's association, and she later served as its president. Throughout her teaching career Bowser, like her contemporaries Janie Porter Barrett and Maggie Lena Walker, worked for societal improvement. She played a major role in African American reform organizations, industrial schools for black children, groups supporting universal woman suffrage, and associations publicly opposed to lynching and racial segregation. The first branch of the Richmond public library to be opened for African Americans was named for Bowser in 1925. She died of complications from diabetes in 1931 at her home in Richmond.
Wed, 03 Sep 2014 14:06:55 EST]]>
/Binga_Anthony_Jr_1843-1919 Sun, 10 Aug 2014 08:44:02 EST <![CDATA[Binga, Anthony, Jr. (1843–1919)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Binga_Anthony_Jr_1843-1919 Anthony Binga Jr. was a Baptist minister and educator. Born in Canada, where his parents had fled to escape slavery, Binga became a preacher and principal in Ohio before settling in Richmond in 1872. He served as the minister of Manchester's First Baptist Church and became the first African American teacher in Manchester, during that period an independent city across the James River from Richmond. He served in the school system for sixteen years, overseeing secondary education for Manchester's black students at what expanded to include six schools. His church grew as the city developed, and he quickly became a leading light in the African American Baptist organizations. He was the first chairman of the Foreign Mission Board of the Baptist Foreign Mission Convention, the antecedent to the National Baptist Convention.
Sun, 10 Aug 2014 08:44:02 EST]]>
/Armstrong_Samuel_Chapman_1839-1893 Sun, 10 Aug 2014 07:10:13 EST <![CDATA[Armstrong, Samuel Chapman (1839–1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Armstrong_Samuel_Chapman_1839-1893 Samuel Chapman Armstrong was the founder of Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University). Armstrong's father served as the kingdom of Hawaii's minister of education and emphasized student labor as a key part of schooling. The younger Armstrong enlisted in the Union army during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and commanded regiments in the United States Colored Troops. After the war he worked with the Freedmen's Bureau and began planning a school to train black teachers. Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute opened in 1868 and emphasized labor alongside academics. The institution produced African American educators across the South, most notably Booker T. Washington. In 1878 Hampton's mission expanded with the admission of Native American students. The growth intensified Armstrong dependence on benefactors and in turn left it further exposed to the rising racism among American whites. In his later years academics at Hampton were publicly de-emphasized in favor of its trade-school programs. Armstrong died of a stroke in 1893.
Sun, 10 Aug 2014 07:10:13 EST]]>
/Cooper_Esther_Georgia_Irving_1881-1970 Fri, 08 Aug 2014 16:14:34 EST <![CDATA[Cooper, Esther Georgia Irving (1881–1970)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooper_Esther_Georgia_Irving_1881-1970 Fri, 08 Aug 2014 16:14:34 EST]]> /Agnew_Ella_Graham_1871-1958 Sat, 02 Aug 2014 11:59:13 EST <![CDATA[Agnew, Ella G. (1871–1958)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Agnew_Ella_Graham_1871-1958 Ella G. Agnew was a prominent educator and social worker who advanced employment opportunities for women early in the 1900s long before there was a woman's liberation movement. She served as the first president of the Virginia Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs and worked in the national office of the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA). During the Great Depression, Agnew directed women's relief activities in Virginia.
Sat, 02 Aug 2014 11:59:13 EST]]>
/Alderman_Edwin_Anderson_1861-1931 Sat, 02 Aug 2014 11:07:51 EST <![CDATA[Alderman, Edwin Anderson (1861–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Alderman_Edwin_Anderson_1861-1931 Edwin Anderson Alderman was a noted educator, progressive reformer, and president of the University of North Carolina, Tulane University, and the University of Virginia, where he served as the school's first president from 1904 until his death in 1931. He brought to the University of Virginia a zeal for progressive reform, having campaigned in North Carolina and Louisiana for increased spending on public education and the creation of teacher-training schools, especially for women. In Charlottesville, Alderman established the Curry Memorial School of Education in 1905 and reorganized the university to emphasize efficiency and promote professional and technical instruction. The number of faculty doubled by 1907 and the university became more integrated with the educational life of the rest of the state. Alderman supported creating a coordinate college for women at the university, and even though the General Assembly opposed the idea, the university began admitting women to its graduate and professional programs in 1918. Alderman was a prolific fund-raiser, a well-known orator, and a close advisor to U.S. president Woodrow Wilson. In 1938, the Alderman Library at the University of Virginia was dedicated in Alderman's honor.
Sat, 02 Aug 2014 11:07:51 EST]]>
/Fay_Lydia_Mary_ca_1804-1878 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 15:09:23 EST <![CDATA[Fay, Lydia Mary (ca. 1804–1878)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fay_Lydia_Mary_ca_1804-1878 Lydia Mary Fay was an educator who supervised an Episcopal mission school in Shanghai almost continuously from 1851 until her death in 1878. Between 1839 and 1850, when she volunteered to go to China, Fay worked as a governess and educator in Virginia and New York. Her mission work was inspired by Bishop William Meade and Rector Charles Backus Dana of Alexandria's Christ Episcopal Church, which she attended while living in Fairfax County. Fay became so proficient in Chinese that she supervised the translation of texts into English and taught composition courses in both languages. The year after Fay's death, the school merged with another Episcopal boarding school in Shanghai to form Saint John's College.
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 15:09:23 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Martha_Patsy_Jefferson_November_28_1783 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 13:36:36 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Martha "Patsy" Jefferson (November 28, 1783)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Martha_Patsy_Jefferson_November_28_1783 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 13:36:36 EST]]> /Letter_from_Martha_Jefferson_Randolph_to_Thomas_Jefferson_February_8_1799 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 13:18:37 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Martha Jefferson Randolph to Thomas Jefferson (February 8, 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Martha_Jefferson_Randolph_to_Thomas_Jefferson_February_8_1799 Wed, 16 Jul 2014 13:18:37 EST]]> /Conrad_Thomas_Nelson_1837-1905 Fri, 13 Jun 2014 13:04:49 EST <![CDATA[Conrad, Thomas Nelson (1837–1905)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Conrad_Thomas_Nelson_1837-1905 Thomas Nelson Conrad was a Confederate spy during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and president of Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College (later Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University). Conrad was the head of the Georgetown Institute, a boys' school in the District of Columbia at the start of the Civil War. An open Confederate sympathizer, he worked as a spy throughout the war, even while serving as chaplain of the 3rd Virginia Cavalry. After the war, Conrad became principal of a boys' school in Blacksburg, and when it was absorbed into the new agricultural college, attempted to become president. He finally succeeded when the Readjusters took power in 1882, and under his leadership, the school introduced literary and scientific studies, increased spending on the library, and reorganized its military program to resemble the curriculum of the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington. After the Readjusters lost power, Conrad was dismissed as president in 1886. He taught in Maryland, worked for the U.S. Census Bureau in Washington, D.C., and published two memoirs of his war experiences before retiring to a farm in Prince William County. He died in 1905 in Washington.
Fri, 13 Jun 2014 13:04:49 EST]]>
/Address_on_the_Difficulties_of_the_Colored_Youth_In_Obtaining_an_Education_in_the_Virginias_1875 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 17:27:04 EST <![CDATA[Address on the Difficulties of the Colored Youth, In Obtaining an Education in the Virginias (1875)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Address_on_the_Difficulties_of_the_Colored_Youth_In_Obtaining_an_Education_in_the_Virginias_1875 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 17:27:04 EST]]> /Cromwell_John_Wesley_1846-1927 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 17:23:35 EST <![CDATA[Cromwell, John Wesley (1846–1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cromwell_John_Wesley_1846-1927 John Wesley Cromwell was an educator, lawyer, and journalist. Born enslaved in Portsmouth, he became free after his mother, who was manumitted in 1849, purchased and freed his father and siblings. The family settled in Philadelphia, where Cromwell attended the Institute for Colored Youth, a Quaker school. He taught at several schools between 1865 and 1871, some of which were located in Portsmouth and Norfolk County. Cromwell acquired his law degree at Howard University and likely was the first African American attorney to argue before the Interstate Commerce Commission. He also published and edited the People's Advocate, a weekly newspaper, from 1876 to 1884; established a series of intellectual associations, such as the Negro American Society and the Bethel Literary and Historical Association; and helped found the American Negro Academy. He resumed his career in education in 1899. Cromwell was a strong advocate for industrial and agricultural education, but later came to believe that African American leaders should also seek political solutions to racial problems. He died at his Washington, D.C., residence in 1927.
Wed, 04 Jun 2014 17:23:35 EST]]>
/Desegregation_in_Public_Schools Fri, 30 May 2014 14:52:24 EST <![CDATA[Desegregation in Public Schools]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Desegregation_in_Public_Schools The desegregation of the public schools in Virginia began on February 2, 1959, and continued through early in the 1970s when the state government's attempts to resist desegregation ended. During this period, African Americans in Virginia pushed for desegregation primarily by filing lawsuits in federal courts throughout Virginia. This litigation was aimed at achieving court rulings forcing the state of Virginia and its local school districts to comply with the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 decision Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, mandating the desegregation of public schools. State and local officials, however, generally resisted efforts to bring about desegregation and utilized their political power to avoid and then minimize public school desegregation. Virginia's Indians, meanwhile, went without the benefit of any state-funded public education until 1963, almost a decade after Brown.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:52:24 EST]]>
/Huskanaw Fri, 30 May 2014 13:54:50 EST <![CDATA[Huskanaw]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Huskanaw The huskanaw was a rite of passage by which Virginia Indian boys became men. While such rituals were common among American Indian societies, the huskanaw was conducted by, among others, the Algonquian-speaking Powhatan Indians of Tsenacomoco, an alliance of twenty-eight to thirty-two petty tribes and chiefdoms centered around the James, Mattaponi, and Pamunkey rivers. Aligning it with various other religious rituals, they referred to the huskanaw as a sacrifice and told the Jamestown colonists that if they did not perform it their powerful god Okee would be angered and disrupt their hunting or cause natural disasters. Although the English colonists at first took this ceremony to be a literal sacrifice of boys, they quickly learned that the term was metaphorical. The word huskanaw refers to the youth of the initiates and to the fact that they were to be transformed into men.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:54:50 EST]]>
/Education_Early_Virginia_Indian Fri, 30 May 2014 13:35:10 EST <![CDATA[Education, Early Virginia Indian]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Education_Early_Virginia_Indian Early Virginia Indians educated their children for the purpose of preparing them to be adults. Boys and girls were expected to absorb the community's values, including stoicism in the face of hardship, and master the skills necessary to survive and thrive. For men that included hunting and warfare and for women collecting plants, building houses, and making household furnishings. English colonists had little to say about how Indian girls were reared, either out of lack of interest or because such knowledge was considered to be none of their business. Powhatan boys were trained in hunting and warfare by their fathers and older male relatives in order to win personal names, learn marksmanship, and earn the right to join the hunt. Between the ages of ten and fifteen, they engaged in the several-months-long huskanaw ritual, in which they were ritually—but not actually—killed and then given a drug which turned them briefly violent and ritually erased their memories of boyhood. The English colonists saw this sort of training for boys as frivolous; they believed that boys, instead of girls, should plant and farm. Although education practices among the Virginia Indians changed in the years after contact with the English, what remained was an ingrained reluctance to send their children outside the family for instruction.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:35:10 EST]]>
/Eggleston_Joseph_Dupuy_Jr_1867-1953 Wed, 28 May 2014 12:49:38 EST <![CDATA[Eggleston, Joseph Dupuy, Jr. (1867–1953)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Eggleston_Joseph_Dupuy_Jr_1867-1953 Joseph D. Eggleston was a pioneering educator who served as Virginia's first elected superintendant of public schools and made significant advances in Virginia education. He successfully increased funding for both public secondary schools and public universities (Virginia high schools grew under his tenure from 75 to 448), increased teachers' salaries, and lengthened school terms. Eggleston also served as the seventh president of Virginia Polytechnic Institute (Virginia Tech), where his most ambitious fiscal projects were stalled by U.S. involvement in World War I (1914–1918) and a more wary state legislature. In 1919 he was named president of his alma mater, Hampden-Sydney College, where he remained for twenty years, helping the institution to liberalize its curriculum and to weather the effects of the Great Depression.
Wed, 28 May 2014 12:49:38 EST]]>
/Faulkner_William_1897-1962 Tue, 27 May 2014 09:56:45 EST <![CDATA[Faulkner, William (1897–1962)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Faulkner_William_1897-1962 William Faulkner was a Mississippi-born novelist, poet, and screenwriter, winner of the 1949 Nobel Prize in literature, and twice a winner of the Pulitzer Prize in fiction (1955, 1963). Considered one of the most important American writers of the twentieth century, he used primarily southern settings in his work—many of his most famous novels, including The Sound and the Fury (1929) and As I Lay Dying (1930), were set in fictional Yoknapatawpha County, Mississippi—and examined complex social, psychological, and racial issues. A modernist, he often composed his tragic, even Gothic stories in a dense, stream-of-consciousness style that attempted to emulate the ebb and flow of his characters' thoughts. His characters, meanwhile, ranged from the descendants of slaves to the richest of New South aristocrats, from the illiterate and mentally ill to the Harvard educated. During the last years of his life, Faulkner was a writer-in-residence and a professor at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville.
Tue, 27 May 2014 09:56:45 EST]]>
/Fishwick_Marshall_W_1923-2006 Tue, 27 May 2014 09:45:11 EST <![CDATA[Fishwick, Marshall W. (1923–2006)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fishwick_Marshall_W_1923-2006 Marshall Fishwick was a multidisciplinary scholar, professor, writer, and editor who started the academic movement known as popular culture studies and established the journal International Popular Culture. In 1970 he cofounded the Popular Culture Association with Ray B. Browne and Russel B. Nye, and the three worked to shape a new academic discipline that blurred the traditional distinctions between high and low culture, focusing on mass culture mediums like television and the Internet and cultural archetypes like comic book heroes. In an academic career of more than fifty years, Fishwick wrote or edited more than forty books, including works on popular culture, Virginia history, and American studies. Fishwick was a popular professor—the novelist Tom Wolfe called him "the most magnetic teacher I have ever known"—who taught at Washington and Lee University in Lexington and later at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, where he retired in 2003.
Tue, 27 May 2014 09:45:11 EST]]>
/Woodson_Carter_G_1875-1950 Tue, 27 May 2014 04:53:27 EST <![CDATA[Woodson, Carter G. (1875–1950)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Woodson_Carter_G_1875-1950 Carter G. Woodson was a historian and founder of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, the Journal of Negro History, and "Negro History Week." Now known as the "Father of Black History" because of his efforts to promote African American history, Woodson wrote pioneering social histories chronicling the lives of black people at a time when mainstream white scholars denied that African Americans were worthy of historical study. Much of his work was based on public records, letters, speeches, folklore, and autobiographies, materials that were previously ignored. Woodson also used an interdisciplinary approach that combined anthropology, sociology, and history. From 1915 until 1947, he published four monographs, five textbooks, five edited collections of documents, five sociological studies, and thirteen articles. He pioneered in interpretations of slavery and Africa, which were adopted by mainstream historical scholars late in the 1950s. Among the works for which he is best known is The Mis-Education of the Negro (1933), which is still in print seventy-five years later.
Tue, 27 May 2014 04:53:27 EST]]>
/Bryan_Corbin_Braxton_1852-1922 Thu, 22 May 2014 16:37:12 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, C. Braxton (1852–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_Corbin_Braxton_1852-1922 C. Braxton Bryan was an Episcopal minister and a proponent of African American education. Between 1893 and 1905, while serving as minister of Saint John's Church in Hampton, he developed an interest in the students at Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, which was founded to educate African Americans and Native Americans. At Hampton, Bryan also helped establish Saint Cyprian's Church, the city's first African American Episcopal congregation. Early in 1905 he moved to Petersburg and was elected dean and principal of the Bishop Payne Divinity School, the oldest theological seminary for the education of African American Episcopal clergymen in the South. Bryan, who believed that whites were a superior race, felt that Christian beliefs helped improve the lives of black Virginians and saw the promotion of African American education and spirituality as his responsibility.
Thu, 22 May 2014 16:37:12 EST]]>
/Green_Charles_C_et_al_v_County_School_Board_of_New_Kent_County_Virginia Thu, 22 May 2014 16:34:01 EST <![CDATA[Green, Charles C. et al. v. County School Board of New Kent County, Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Green_Charles_C_et_al_v_County_School_Board_of_New_Kent_County_Virginia Charles C. Green et al. v. County School Board of New Kent County, Virginia, was a 1968 United States Supreme Court decision that ordered school districts to abolish dual systems of education for black and white students, placing on them an "affirmative duty" to integrate their schools genuinely. The pressure for such a ruling had mounted in the years since the Court's landmark decisions in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) and Brown II (1955), which had declared separate schools to be "inherently unequal" but did not define the process by which schools would be desegregated. Virginia officials had responded to Brown with the Massive Resistance movement, in some cases shutting down public schools rather than integrating them. Incremental desegregation occurred when federal courts forced those schools to reopen in 1959, although schools in Prince Edward County did not reopen until 1964. But in New Kent County, school board officials instituted bureaucratic delays while also placing the burden of desegregation on black families through a "freedom of choice" plan. Not until the Supreme Court struck down most "freedom of choice" plans in Green did Virginia school districts implement full desegregation.
Thu, 22 May 2014 16:34:01 EST]]>
/Jackson_Luther_Porter_1892-1950 Sun, 23 Mar 2014 12:34:24 EST <![CDATA[Jackson, Luther Porter (1892–1950)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jackson_Luther_Porter_1892-1950 Luther Porter Jackson was an African American historian and one of Virginia's most important civil rights activists of the 1930s and 1940s. He was a professor of history at Virginia State College in Petersburg for nearly thirty years and authored Free Negro Labor and Property Holding in Virginia, 1830–1860 (1942), research that challenged stereotypes of antebellum blacks. Jackson was perhaps most important, however, as a political and social activist. He helped found the Petersburg League of Negro Voters in 1935, wrote a weekly newspaper column titled "Rights and Duties in a Democracy," and worked to challenge segregation in Richmond's public transit system.
Sun, 23 Mar 2014 12:34:24 EST]]>
/Magill_Mary_Tucker_1830-1899 Sat, 08 Mar 2014 16:36:38 EST <![CDATA[Magill, Mary Tucker (1830–1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Magill_Mary_Tucker_1830-1899 Mary Tucker Magill was a Virginia educator and author whose work portrays the generation of Virginians who endured the hardships of defeat following the American Civil War (1861–1865) and looked ahead to the next century by embracing innovative ideas on health and well-being. Magill wrote two conservative textbooks on Virginia history and a forward-thinking manual of exercises for women. She was also a novelist and short-story writer whose fiction, like her historicism, depicted an idealized version of plantation life in the Old South.
Sat, 08 Mar 2014 16:36:38 EST]]>
/Montague_Andrew_Jackson_1862-1937 Sun, 02 Mar 2014 13:22:31 EST <![CDATA[Montague, Andrew Jackson (1862–1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Montague_Andrew_Jackson_1862-1937 Andrew Jackson Montague served as attorney general of Virginia (1898–1902), as governor of Virginia (1902–1906), and as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1913–1937). Elected governor during the turbulent Progressive reform era of the early twentieth century, Montague advocated for a direct primary system and for the improvement of Virginia's public schools and roads. Despite his powerful oratory skills and popularity, Montague lacked the political will to lobby vigorously for his agenda and was held back further by opposition from Thomas Staples Martin, architect of the state Democratic Party machine, and by an economically and socially conservative political climate. In 1905 he challenged Martin for his U.S. Senate seat, but lost the primary election. Montague served as the dean of Richmond College Law School and practiced law in Richmond before being elected in 1912 to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served a lackluster twenty-four-year tenure.
Sun, 02 Mar 2014 13:22:31 EST]]>
/Moton_Robert_Russa_1867-1940 Sat, 01 Mar 2014 05:52:01 EST <![CDATA[Moton, Robert Russa (1867–1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Moton_Robert_Russa_1867-1940 Robert Russa Moton was one of the most prominent black educators in the United States in the first decades of the twentieth century. After graduating from the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton Institute and now Hampton University) in Hampton, Virginia, in 1890, he served as the school's commandant of cadets from 1891 until 1915. He was a close friend of Booker T. Washington, the founding principal of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, and the two shared a conservative vision of race relations. They argued, sometimes controversially, that African Americans should not openly defy segregation, but instead cooperate with whites and better themselves through education. After Washington's death in 1915, Moton became the second principal of Tuskegee, where he made significant contributions to the quality of education, especially in teacher training. He served on various national boards and, during World War I (1914–1918), went to Europe on behalf of U.S. president Woodrow Wilson to investigate the conditions of black soldiers. Moton Field at Tuskegee was named for him, as was Robert Russa Moton High School in Farmville, Virginia, the site of a student walkout in 1951.
Sat, 01 Mar 2014 05:52:01 EST]]>
/Muse_Benjamin_1898-1986 Fri, 28 Feb 2014 15:54:51 EST <![CDATA[Muse, Benjamin (1898–1986)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Muse_Benjamin_1898-1986 Benjamin Muse, a journalist based in Manassas, Virginia, emerged as one of the state's most prominent white liberals during the period of the Massive Resistance movement, which opposed the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 decision outlawing segregation in public schools, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Through a weekly column in the Washington Post, Muse criticized what he perceived to be the undemocratic practices of the Byrd Organization, the Virginia political machine led by U.S. senator and former governor Harry F. Byrd Sr., a Democrat. Muse also charged that Massive Resistance represented a desperate gamble by rural leaders to preserve the state's one-party system. Throughout the five-year crisis, Muse insisted that Virginia must comply with the Supreme Court's ruling, and he championed the efforts of white moderates and liberals from the cities and suburbs who opposed the state's plan, which amounted to abandoning public education rather than accepting any degree of racial integration. In 1959, after federal and state courts invalidated Virginia's school-closing scheme, Muse became the director of the Southern Leadership Project in order to spread the message of compliance with Brown to other states across the region.
Fri, 28 Feb 2014 15:54:51 EST]]>
/Tucker_George_1775-1861 Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, George (1775–1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_George_1775-1861 George Tucker was a lawyer, philosopher, economist, historian, novelist, politician, and teacher. Born in Bermuda and cousin to the famed jurist St. George Tucker, Tucker served in the House of Delegates (1815–1816) representing Pittsylvania County and won election to three terms in the United States House of Representatives (1819–1825) before, at the invitation of Thomas Jefferson, joining the faculty of the newly opened University of Virginia in Charlottesville. Tucker owned slaves but opposed slavery as a moral evil. During debate over the Missouri Compromise (1820), he argued that emancipation was impractical and that slavery would eventually die out. By the end of his life, his opposition to abolitionists had turned him into an apologist for the "peculiar institution." He was the author of a novel of the U.S. South that dramatized the evils of slavery, The Valley of Shenandoah (1824); two science fiction novels, including A Voyage to the Moon (1827); a biography of Jefferson (1837); a four-volume history of the United States (1856–1857); and numerous essays on aesthetics, metaphysics, causality, morality, economics, slavery, and the nature of progress. Tucker was married three times, including to relatives of William Byrd II and George Washington. He died in 1861 from injuries he sustained after being hit by a falling cotton bale.
Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST]]>
/Crawford_Robert_Baxter_1895-1973 Fri, 24 Jan 2014 17:09:14 EST <![CDATA[Crawford, Robert B. (1895–1973)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crawford_Robert_Baxter_1895-1973 Robert B. Crawford was president of the Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties, a grassroots political organization dedicated to preserving racial segregation in Virginia's public schools. Crawford, a veteran of World War I (1914–1918) and a former member of the Prince Edward County school board, helped organize the Defenders after the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) mandated the desegregation of public schools. The group helped propel Massive Resistance until 1959, after which its political clout declined rapidly. Crawford resigned as the Defenders' president in 1963, but supported the organization until it dissolved in 1967. He died in 1973.
Fri, 24 Jan 2014 17:09:14 EST]]>
/Moton_School_Strike_and_Prince_Edward_County_School_Closings Tue, 21 Jan 2014 10:28:18 EST <![CDATA[Moton School Strike and Prince Edward County School Closings]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Moton_School_Strike_and_Prince_Edward_County_School_Closings On April 23, 1951, students at Robert Russa Moton High School in the town of Farmville, in Prince Edward County, walked out of school to protest the conditions of their education, which they claimed were vastly inferior to those enjoyed by white students at nearby Farmville High School. The strike, led by student Barbara Johns, is considered by many historians to signal the start of the desegregation movement in America and resulted in a court case that was later bundled with other, similar cases into Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court decided Brown by mandating public-school desegregation, and Virginia state leaders responded with an official policy of Massive Resistance. When, on January 19, 1959, both a federal and a state court simultaneously ruled the state's actions unconstitutional, the Prince Edward County Board of Supervisors closed its public schools rather than integrate them. They stayed shuttered for five years. Another U.S. Supreme Court decision—Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward—finally forced the county's schools to reopen in 1964.
Tue, 21 Jan 2014 10:28:18 EST]]>
/Sandy_Thomas_Oldham_1857-1919 Sat, 04 Jan 2014 16:41:15 EST <![CDATA[Sandy, T. O. (1857–1919)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sandy_Thomas_Oldham_1857-1919 T. O. Sandy was Virginia's earliest agricultural extension agent. A farmer, scientist, and teacher, he opened the state's first extension office in Burkeville in 1907, serving the residents in surrounding counties with practical agricultural advice. In 1914, Virginia Polytechnic Institute (now Virginia Tech) in Blacksburg assumed the administration of the statewide program. Sandy, who had briefly attended Virginia Tech, coordinated Virginia's extension efforts until his retirement in 1917. During Sandy's tenure as extension agent, farming practices and attitudes toward scientific agriculture in Virginia significantly improved.
Sat, 04 Jan 2014 16:41:15 EST]]>
/Tyler_Lyon_Gardiner_1853-1935 Thu, 26 Dec 2013 13:49:45 EST <![CDATA[Tyler, Lyon Gardiner (1853–1935)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tyler_Lyon_Gardiner_1853-1935 Lyon Gardiner Tyler, son of U.S. president John Tyler (1841–1845), was a historian and genealogist well known for his defense of southern causes. His presidency of the College of William and Mary ranks as a watershed in the school's history. Born in Charles City County and educated at the University of Virginia, Tyler practiced law in Richmond and served as principal of a private school in Memphis, Tennessee, before procuring funds for the reopening of the Civil War–damaged College of William and Mary and assuming its leadership. During his presidency, he opened the college to women, established it as a state-funded institution, and founded the William and Mary Quarterly, now a highly respected history journal. During his lifetime, he published a number of works documenting his family's history, supporting his father's administration, and promoting new interpretations of Virginia history during the Federal period, which highlighted the importance of the Tidewater region.
Thu, 26 Dec 2013 13:49:45 EST]]>
/Washington_Booker_T_1856-1915 Mon, 23 Dec 2013 14:46:05 EST <![CDATA[Washington, Booker T. (1856–1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_Booker_T_1856-1915 Booker T. Washington was an author, educator, orator, philanthropist, and, from 1895 until his death in 1915, the United States' most famous African American. The tiny school he founded in Tuskegee, Alabama, in 1881 is now Tuskegee University, an institution that currently enrolls more than 3,000 students. The most famous of the several books he authored, coauthored, or edited during his lifetime, Up from Slavery (1901), has become a classic of American autobiography, drawing comparisons not only to earlier slave narratives but also to such texts as The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin.In the eyes of many of his contemporaries, Washington was an exemplary American citizen, "a public man second to no other American in importance," as the novelist William Dean Howells called him in 1901. When Washington became the first African American to receive an honorary degree from Harvard University in 1896, a Boston newspaper ranked him among "our national benefactors." When he became the first to dine at the White House in 1901, he did so at the invitation of U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, who would later call Washington "one of the most useful citizens of our land." Even his foremost critic, the African American writer and intellectual W.E.B. Du Bois, acknowledged Washington's status as both a racial and national leader, referring to him in 1903 as "the one recognized spokesman of his ten million fellows, and one of the most notable figures in a nation of seventy millions." Yet Washington also continues to inspire ambivalent and sometimes hostile reactions for having been an "accommodationist": one who, in order to gain a measure of economic success for African Americans in the former slave states, accepted segregation and refused to speak out loudly in favor of other forms of advancement, namely the pursuit of full legal, political, and social equality.
Mon, 23 Dec 2013 14:46:05 EST]]>
/Defenders_of_State_Sovereignty_and_Individual_Liberties Wed, 23 Oct 2013 16:21:50 EST <![CDATA[Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Defenders_of_State_Sovereignty_and_Individual_Liberties The Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties, a grassroots political organization created in Petersburg in October 1954, was dedicated to preserving strict racial segregation in Virginia's public schools. A group of prominent Southside leaders formed the group following Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, the U.S. Supreme Court decision, handed down on May 17, 1954, that mandated the desegregation of public schools. Opening chapters across the state and employing a variety of tactics, the Defenders rigorously confronted the Brown mandate, influencing the state commission that bestowed its blessing on the policy of Massive Resistance and even the temporary closing of public schools in Warren County, Norfolk, and Charlottesville. When Massive Resistance was declared unconstitutional, the Defenders organized a Bill of Rights Crusade and protested in Richmond, but the group's support and influence was on the wane. It dissolved in 1967.
Wed, 23 Oct 2013 16:21:50 EST]]>
/Dyer_Carrie_Victoria_1839-1921 Sat, 19 Oct 2013 12:18:15 EST <![CDATA[Dyer, Carrie Victoria (1839–1921)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dyer_Carrie_Victoria_1839-1921 Carrie Victoria Dyer was a key founder of Hartshorn Memorial College, an African American Baptist women's college in Richmond that later merged with Virginia Union University. Dyer, who spent her early years in Michigan and Vermont, initially taught black students in Providence, Rhode Island, and Nashville. She and Hartshorn co-founder Lyman Beecher Tefft believed female students were better served by single-sex education, which led to the establishment of the new institution. The college opened in 1883 with Dyer as principal and second in command to Tefft, who served as its president. Dyer also acted as an instructor and spent twenty-nine years as the treasurer of the Rachel Hartshorn Education and Missionary Society. She took over Hartshorn's day-to-day operations for the 1905–1906 term while Tefft was ill. Dyer became dean in 1912 and served for two academic years before she gave up the position to teach one final session. In 1926 money bequeathed by Dyer's estate to the Woman's National Baptist Convention Auxiliary of the National Baptist Convention, U.S.A., was used to establish the Carrie V. Dyer Memorial Hospital in Monrovia, Liberia.
Sat, 19 Oct 2013 12:18:15 EST]]>
/Corey_Charles_Henry_1834-1899 Thu, 17 Oct 2013 14:57:45 EST <![CDATA[Corey, Charles Henry (1834–1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Corey_Charles_Henry_1834-1899 Charles Henry Corey served as president of what became Virginia Union University. Born in New Brunswick, Canada, he entered the United States late in the 1850s to pursue a divinity degree. He preached to Union troops during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and later became active in the American Baptist Home Mission Society, which ministered to freedpeople. In 1868 he took over a fledgling theological school for African Americans in Richmond. The school became the Richmond Institute in 1876, and a decade later it was renamed Richmond Theological Seminary. In 1896 the seminary and the nearby Hartshorn Memorial College, a women's institution, pursued plans to incorporate as Virginia Union University. By May 1897 Wayland Seminary, in Washington, D.C., joined the institution. The merger was formalized in 1900 with the school's reincorporation as Virginia Union University; however, Corey did not live to see the event. His poor health had forced him to resin the presidency in 1898, and he died the following year.
Thu, 17 Oct 2013 14:57:45 EST]]>
/Dean_Jennie_Serepta_1848-1913 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:50:25 EST <![CDATA[Dean, Jennie Serepta (1848–1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dean_Jennie_Serepta_1848-1913 Jennie Serepta Dean founded the Manassas Industrial School for Colored Youth. A former slave, Dean attended schools in Fairfax County and Washington, D.C., and in 1878 began to establish a series of Sunday schools. She was a skilled fund-raiser, securing money from African American and white donors in Virginia and in northern cities to support her plan to open a school that would teach skilled trades to young African Americans. The Manassas Industrial School for Colored Youth opened in 1894 after nearly six years of fundraising. Dean served on the school's board of directors and executive committee. She died in 1913.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:50:25 EST]]>
/Curry_Jabez_Lamar_Monroe_1825-1903 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:10:56 EST <![CDATA[Curry, J. L. M. (1825–1903)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Curry_Jabez_Lamar_Monroe_1825-1903 J. L. M. Curry was one of the most important educational reformers in the second half of the nineteenth century. He was born in Georgia, but moved to Alabama at age thirteen. Curry served as a member of the Alabama House of Representatives, the U.S. House of Representatives, and the First Confederate Congress. He was also an officer in the Confederate army. He joined the faculty of Richmond College (later the University of Richmond) in 1868 and taught there until 1881. Once he left the school, Curry became an advocate for education in the South. He worked with the Peabody Education Fund and the John F. Slater Fund for the Education of Freedmen to promote industrial education for the region's African Americans, and worked with state governments in the South to bolster their public education systems. Curry served as president of the Baptist General Association of Virginia, as president of the National Baptist Sunday School Convention, as president of the Foreign Mission Board, and served as American minister to Spain. Although a native of Georgia and important citizen of Alabama, Curry's connection to Virginia was strong and he was buried in Richmond's Hollywood Cemetery. The University of Virginia's school of education is named for Curry.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:10:56 EST]]>
/Chalmers_Anna_Maria_Mead_1809-1891 Wed, 21 Aug 2013 13:16:26 EST <![CDATA[Chalmers, Anna Maria Mead (1809–1891)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chalmers_Anna_Maria_Mead_1809-1891 Anna Maria Mead Chalmers was a writer and educator. She authored numerous children's books in the 1830s, later wrote short works of fiction and devotion, and contributed to the Boston Home Journal, the New York Churchman, the New York Tribune, and the Southern Literary Messenger. In 1841, she opened a Richmond boarding and day school for girls, called Mrs. Mead's School, and served as principal for twelve years. The rigorous curriculum was comparable to the best available education for boys in Virginia. Chalmers was married three times, and she outlived all three husbands and three out of four of her children. She settled in Halifax County with her third husband in 1856, and there she raised money and taught at Sunday schools for freedpeople that she established. In addition, in 1877 she formed the Southern Churchman Cot fund to support beds for poor children at Retreat for the Sick, a Richmond hospital. She died in Albemarle County in 1891.
Wed, 21 Aug 2013 13:16:26 EST]]>
/Breckinridge_Cary_1839-1918 Fri, 19 Jul 2013 15:21:49 EST <![CDATA[Breckinridge, Cary (1839–1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Breckinridge_Cary_1839-1918 Cary Breckinridge was a Confederate cavalry officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865), who suffered five wounds, including at the Second Battle of Manassas (1862), reportedly had five horses shot from under him, and was captured and briefly imprisoned in the Old Capitol Prison in Washington, D.C. Following the war, Breckinridge farmed, possibly worked in banking, and served in the House of Delegates (1869–1871). Physically imposing and from a prominent family, Breckinridge remained active in Conservative Party and Democratic Party politics and served as the superintendent of public schools for Botetourt County from 1886 until 1917. He died in 1918 at his home in Fincastle.
Fri, 19 Jul 2013 15:21:49 EST]]>
/_NAACP_Carries_Teacher_Salary_Fight_into_VA_1938 Fri, 14 Jun 2013 11:55:05 EST <![CDATA["NAACP Carries Teacher Salary Fight into VA." (1938)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_NAACP_Carries_Teacher_Salary_Fight_into_VA_1938 Fri, 14 Jun 2013 11:55:05 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Peter_Carr_September_7_1814 Wed, 10 Apr 2013 10:05:39 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Peter Carr (September 7, 1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Peter_Carr_September_7_1814 Wed, 10 Apr 2013 10:05:39 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Cooper_October_7_1814 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:58:53 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Thomas Cooper (October 7, 1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Cooper_October_7_1814 Thu, 06 Dec 2012 13:58:53 EST]]> /Progressive_Movement Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:01:21 EST <![CDATA[Progressive Movement]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Progressive_Movement The Progressive movement in Virginia was a series of efforts by early-twentieth-century residents to correct what they perceived as problems or deficiencies in government, business, and society. Their work was part of a national reform movement that existed from late in the 1890s until the United States entered World War I in 1917. Progressive reform in Virginia had many parallels with its national counterpart, but like the rest of the movement's southern manifestation, it also varied from it in important ways. Nationally, Progressives sought to expand democracy, aid victims of industrialization, bring order and efficiency to government and business, and impose morality. State reformers, by contrast, showed little interest in social uplift or racial justice, or in increasing democracy or furthering workers' rights. Instead, they focused on adjusting government and society in ways that both safeguarded the existing social and racial hierarchy and provided order, stability, and economic progress. In Virginia, the movement's participants were predominately urban white professionals, businessmen, educators, church leaders, and politicians; or their wives and daughters. Although the state's reformers had a variety of aims, they worked primarily on restructuring the electorate; improving public education; modifying cities in ways that made them more healthful, efficient, and orderly; upgrading roads; and enacting prohibition of alcohol. They achieved these and other reforms by successfully lobbying government officials for new laws, oversight agencies, and funding measures. While Virginia's Progressives more often than not worked together on their various causes, like reformers elsewhere in the nation, they also occasionally disagreed about the practicality of specific solutions. Those being reformed—typically poor white and African American residents—opposed many of the movement's efforts but lacked the political power to block them.
Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:01:21 EST]]>
/Massive_Resistance Wed, 29 Jun 2011 11:09:35 EST <![CDATA[Massive Resistance]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Massive_Resistance Massive Resistance was a policy adopted in 1956 by Virginia's state government to block the desegregation of public schools mandated by the U.S. Supreme Court in its 1954 ruling in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Advocated by U.S. senator Harry F. Byrd Sr., a conservative Democrat and former governor who coined the term, Massive Resistance reflected the racial views and fears of Byrd's power base in Southside Virginia as well as the senator's reflexive disdain for federal government intrusion into state affairs. When schools were shut down in Front Royal in Warren County , Charlottesville , and Norfolk to prevent desegregation, the courts stepped in and overturned the policy. In the end, Massive Resistance added more bitterness to race relations already strained by the resentments engendered by the caste system and delayed large-scale desegregation of Virginia's public schools for more than a decade. Meanwhile, Virginia's defiance served as an example for the states of the Lower South, and the legal vestiges of Massive Resistance lasted until early in the 1970s.
Wed, 29 Jun 2011 11:09:35 EST]]>
/Desegregation_in_Higher_Education Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:14:13 EST <![CDATA[Desegregation in Higher Education]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Desegregation_in_Higher_Education The desegregation of higher education in Virginia was the result of a long legal and social process that began after the American Civil War (1861–1865) and did not end before the 1970s. When the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" public accommodations for blacks and whites were constitutional in the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the court established a sturdy legal basis for segregation. This ruling encouraged the Jim Crow era of legalized discrimination against blacks in the south. But the terminology of "separate but equal" eventually also created an opening for African Americans to demand educational opportunities and facilities equal to those available to whites. Educational opportunities for blacks were vastly inferior to whites, and segregation in higher education was entrenched in Virginia through World War II (1941–1945). But during the 1950s and 1960s, the first black students entered various graduate programs at the University of Virginia and the College of William and Mary, then undergraduate engineering programs at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and the University of Virginia, and finally general undergraduate programs at all historically white colleges and universities. In 1935 Alice Jackson failed to win admission to a graduate program at the University of Virginia, but Gregory Swanson, with the help of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and a ruling from a federal court, gained admission to the university's law school in 1950. Admittance into programs did not mean an immediate end to unfair and unequal treatment on campus, but by 1972 black students were able to enroll in Virginia in any curriculum and also live and eat in campus facilities.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:14:13 EST]]>
/Cooperative_Education_Association Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:03:39 EST <![CDATA[Cooperative Education Association]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooperative_Education_Association The Cooperative Education Association was organized in 1904 to advocate for public education reform in Virginia. The group was part of the larger, national Progressive movement, which generally pushed for workers' rights, women's rights, and more efficient government. The cooperative saw itself representing all citizens of Virginia, "whether living in the city or the country, whether white or black," and was an outgrowth of the Richmond Education Association, founded in 1900 by Lila Meade Valentine and dedicated to education reform. The idea behind the cooperative was to extend the group's successes in Richmond to the rest of the state.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:03:39 EST]]>