Encyclopedia Virginia: Twentieth Century History (1901–2000) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Byrd_Organization Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:24:01 EST Byrd Organization http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Organization The Byrd Organization was a state political machine headed by Harry F. Byrd (1887–1966), a Democratic state senator, governor, and United States senator who, for more than forty years, used his power and influence to dominate the political life of Virginia. Inheriting an already tight party organization that for decades had emphasized small government and a limited franchise, Byrd prioritized fiscal conservatism—a policy he pithily dubbed "pay as you go"—and, on those grounds, opposed many of fellow Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal programs. Byrd and his organization are perhaps best known, however, for their fierce opposition to a 1954 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that mandated the desegregation of public schools. The resulting Massive Resistance movement led to the shutdown of schools in Charlottesville, Front Royal, and Norfolk before the federal and state courts overturned state antidesegregation policies. It also effectively ended the organization's decades-long hold on power in the state.
Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:24:01 EST]]>
/Tuck_William_M_1896-1983 Thu, 16 Nov 2017 17:10:10 EST <![CDATA[Tuck, William M. (1896–1983)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tuck_William_M_1896-1983 William M. Tuck was a member of the House of Delegates (1924–1932), the Senate of Virginia (1932–1942), and the U.S. House of Representatives (1953–1969). He also served as lieutenant governor (1942–1946) and governor (1946–1950). Born in Halifax County and educated in the law, Tuck was raised around tobacco and politics and was renowned for his girth and flamboyant personality. Harry F. Byrd Sr., a U.S. senator and head of the conservative Democratic Byrd Organization, did not initially warm to Tuck, who bucked him early on with regard to New Deal politics. But the two eventually became close allies. As governor, Tuck fought organized labor, threatening to draft union members into the state militia if they went on strike and helping usher a right-to-work law through the General Assembly. He also fought civil rights, opposing the agenda of President Harry S. Truman and later efforts to enforce public-school desegregation. Tuck retired from politics in 1969 and died in South Boston in 1983.
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 17:10:10 EST]]>
/Anatomical_Theatre Mon, 13 Nov 2017 15:55:16 EST <![CDATA[Anatomical Theatre]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anatomical_Theatre The Anatomical Theatre was designed by Thomas Jefferson and erected on the grounds of the University of Virginia in 1825–1826. It was used for anatomy instruction and the storage of cadavers. Jefferson had long prioritized medical education in his plans for the university, but when Robley Dunglison, the first professor of anatomy, arrived in 1825, he found that his pavilion's teaching space was inconvenient for the dissection of cadavers. Inspired by Renaissance architecture and the work of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Jefferson designed a square, three-story building that housed a skylit, octagonal surgical theater on the top floor. The Anatomical Theatre opened for classes in 1827 and was the subject of periodic construction and renovations in subsequent decades. In 1837, a one-story brick Anatomical Laboratory was built behind it and used only for dissections. Enslaved labor helped construct and later clean the theater, with university records referencing a man known as Anatomical Lewis, who served as custodian from 1839 to 1857. In order to acquire cadavers for dissection, professors such as John Staige Davis, who taught from 1847 until his death in 1885, relied on grave robbers who stole mostly African American corpses. The building fell into disuse after the opening of the University of Virginia Hospital in 1901 and briefly served as home to the School of Rural Economics. It was razed in 1939 to improve views of the new Alderman Library. It is the only Jefferson-designed building at the university to have been torn down.
Mon, 13 Nov 2017 15:55:16 EST]]>
/Ashe_Arthur_1943-1993 Thu, 09 Nov 2017 10:46:41 EST <![CDATA[Ashe, Arthur (1943–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ashe_Arthur_1943-1993 Arthur Ashe was a professional tennis player, broadcaster, author, and activist. Known for his on-court grace and low-key demeanor, he was the first black men's tennis champion at the U.S. Open and Wimbledon, the first African American to play for and captain the U.S. Davis Cup team, and the first black man inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame. Yet it was and remains Ashe's legacy outside of professional tennis for which he is most noted. He was the first and only African American to have a statue of his likeness erected on Richmond's historic Monument Avenue and one of the most prominent athletes of any race to die from AIDS.
Thu, 09 Nov 2017 10:46:41 EST]]>
/Virginia_Tech_Shootings Tue, 07 Nov 2017 08:21:04 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Tech Shootings]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Tech_Shootings Tue, 07 Nov 2017 08:21:04 EST]]> /Shooting_Victims_of_the_Virginia_Tech_Mass_2007 Mon, 06 Nov 2017 16:12:15 EST <![CDATA[Shooting, Victims of the Virginia Tech Mass (2007)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Shooting_Victims_of_the_Virginia_Tech_Mass_2007 Mon, 06 Nov 2017 16:12:15 EST]]> /Boothe_Gardner_Lloyd_1872-1964 Wed, 30 Aug 2017 14:37:10 EST <![CDATA[Boothe, Gardner L. (1872–1964)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boothe_Gardner_Lloyd_1872-1964 Gardner L. Boothe was a Democratic Party leader in Alexandria for more than fifty years. Born in that city in 1872, he studied law at the University of Virginia in 1893 and opened a law practice. Boothe became Alexandria's city attorney in 1897 and five years later was elected a member of the Democratic Party's State Central Committee. That same year he was selected chairman of the Eighth District Committee, a position he held until 1952. Boothe aligned himself with the state's conservative establishment, backing stalwarts Harry F. Byrd Sr. and Howard W. Smith, including in their opposition to civil rights legislation. A member of the state's old guard, he presided over Alexandria's First National Bank for forty-six years and took an active role in local business, civic, and religious affairs. He died in Alexandria in 1964.
Wed, 30 Aug 2017 14:37:10 EST]]>
/Byrd_Harry_Flood_Sr_1887-1966 Wed, 30 Aug 2017 14:21:49 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, Harry F. (1887–1966)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Harry_Flood_Sr_1887-1966 Harry F. Byrd served as a Virginia state senator (1915–1925), governor (1926–1930), and United States senator (1933–1965), was the father of a U.S. senator, and for forty years led the Democratic political machine known as the Byrd Organization. By virtue of both his service and power, he was one of the most prominent Virginians of the twentieth century. But much of that power was wielded in mostly vain opposition to the New Deal's big-government programs and the civil rights legislation of the 1960s. As governor he instituted a popular downsizing of state government that increased efficiency, but the end of his career was marked by his now-infamous "massive resistance" to federally mandated school desegregation.
Wed, 30 Aug 2017 14:21:49 EST]]>
/John_Mitchell_Jr_1863-1929 Tue, 29 Aug 2017 09:22:20 EST <![CDATA[Mitchell, John Jr. (1863–1929)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_Mitchell_Jr_1863-1929 John Mitchell Jr. was a prominent newspaper editor, politician, banker, and civil rights activist. Born enslaved near Richmond, Mitchell attended the Richmond Colored Normal School and taught for a year before he and other black teachers were fired by a new Democratic school board. He then went into journalism, in 1884 becoming editor of the Richmond Planet, an African American weekly newspaper. Mitchell used the Planet to promote civil rights, racial justice, and racial pride. As an editor and an activist, he became a key figure in the antilynching movement and played an instrumental role in organizing the Richmond streetcar boycott of 1904. Mitchell's bold protest against racial injustice, which at times included calls to take up arms in self-defense, earned him his reputation as "the Fighting Editor." In addition to his work on the Richmond Planet, Mitchell served on the Richmond city council from 1888 to 1896 before founding the Mechanics Savings Bank in 1901. His work at the bank brought him more into the political and social mainstream but after its collapse in 1922 led him to be convicted on charges of fraud and theft. The conviction was later overturned but left him destitute. When the state Republican Party excluded most black delegates from its convention, Mitchell unsuccessfully ran for governor on a "Lily Black" ticket. He remained editor of the Richmond Planet until his death in 1929.
Tue, 29 Aug 2017 09:22:20 EST]]>
/Trinkle_E_Lee_1876-1939 Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:35:44 EST <![CDATA[Trinkle, E. Lee (1876–1939)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Trinkle_E_Lee_1876-1939 E. Lee Trinkle served in the Senate of Virginia (1916–1922) and as governor of Virginia (1922–1926). Born in Wytheville and educated at Hampden-Sydney College and the University of Virginia, Trinkle practiced law in his hometown before beginning his political career. He served first in the Senate of Virginia as a Democrat and moderate Progressive who supported prohibition and woman suffrage. Although Trinkle ran a failed campaign for Congress and boasted only a modest legislative record, circumstances conspired to make him a compromise choice for governor in 1922. His term was notable for his struggle with up-and-coming Harry F. Byrd over control of the state Democratic Party. The primary issue was funding for the state highway system. Trinkle preferred bonds and Byrd preferred what became his signature "pay-as-you-go" method. Voters overwhelmingly defeated a $50 million bond issue in 1923, essentially curtailing Trinkle's aspirations for higher political office. Trinkle signed the Racial Integrity Act in 1924, supported the New Deal under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and served as chairman of the state Board of Education from 1930 until his death, in Richmond, in 1939.
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:35:44 EST]]>
/Abbott_Charles_Cortez_1906-1986 Tue, 08 Aug 2017 16:20:45 EST <![CDATA[Abbott, Charles Cortez (1906–1986)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Abbott_Charles_Cortez_1906-1986 Charles Cortez Abbott taught business at Harvard University (1923–1954) before becoming the first dean of the business school at the University of Virginia. Born in Kansas, Abbott was raised in New England and educated at Yale and Harvard. He published several books on business and finance before moving to Virginia, where he served as dean of what became known as the Colgate Darden Graduate School of Business Administration from 1954 until 1972. Abbott built the program into the one of the outstanding business schools in the South. He retired to Connecticut and died in 1986.
Tue, 08 Aug 2017 16:20:45 EST]]>
/Maggie_Lena_Walker_1864-1934 Thu, 13 Jul 2017 09:16:46 EST <![CDATA[Walker, Maggie Lena (1864–1934)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Maggie_Lena_Walker_1864-1934 Maggie Lena Walker was an African American entrepreneur and civic leader who broke traditional gender and discriminatory laws by becoming the first woman—white or black—to establish and become president of a bank in the United States—the Saint Luke Penny Savings Bank in Richmond. As of 2010, when it was known as Consolidated Bank and Trust Company, it was the oldest continually African American–operated bank in the United States. In her role as grand secretary of the Independent Order of Saint Luke, Walker also was indispensable in organizing a variety of enterprises that advanced the African American community while expanding the public role of women. Although as an African American woman in the post–Civil War South she faced social, economic, and political barriers in her life and business ventures, Walker, by encouraging investment and collective action, achieved tangible improvements for African Americans.
Thu, 13 Jul 2017 09:16:46 EST]]>
/Farmville_Protests_of_1963 Fri, 16 Jun 2017 11:45:10 EST <![CDATA[Farmville Protests of 1963]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farmville_Protests_of_1963 The Farmville civil rights demonstrations began late in July 1963, when the Reverend L. Francis Griffin organized a direct-action campaign to, as he told reporters, "protest closed schools, delay in the courts, and segregation in its totality." Public schools in Prince Edward County and its county seat, Farmville, had been closed since June 1959, when county officials refused to levy taxes to operate schools rather than follow federal court orders to desegregate. The state government had abandoned its policy of Massive Resistance, but Prince Edward County remained steadfast and became the only place in the nation without public education. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Allen v. County School Board of Prince Edward County and later Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County had petitioned the federal judiciary to open the schools, but the case moved glacially through the courts. African Americans in Prince Edward County faced a variety of additional obstacles, such as discriminatory hiring practices and de facto and de jure segregation. The two-month direct action campaign Griffin launched that summer included picketing along Main Street, sit-ins, kneel-ins, try-ins, and economic boycotts. The protests ended in September 1963, after the formation of the Prince Edward Free School Association, a nonprofit organization that established and maintained an integrated school system in Prince Edward County until 1964, when the U.S. Supreme Court ordered the county to reopen its public schools. The Farmville protests did not end the county's racial discrimination, but they helped set the community on a path to change.
Fri, 16 Jun 2017 11:45:10 EST]]>
/Henderson_Helen_Timmons_1877-1925 Wed, 14 Jun 2017 16:18:52 EST <![CDATA[Henderson, Helen Timmons (1877–1925)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Henderson_Helen_Timmons_1877-1925 Helen Timmons Henderson, from the town of Council in Buchanan County, served in the Virginia House of Delegates (1924–1925), one of the first two women elected to that body (the other was Norfolk's Sarah Lee Fain). She died before having the opportunity to run for a second term.
Wed, 14 Jun 2017 16:18:52 EST]]>
/Highway_Bond_Referendum_1923 Mon, 08 May 2017 14:22:56 EST <![CDATA[Highway Bond Referendum, 1923]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Highway_Bond_Referendum_1923 The 1923 Highway Bond Referendum was defeated by voters after a long and bruising battle in the General Assembly where state senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. emerged as a real political force. At issue was how to pay for much-needed road improvement. While bonds were popular at first, Byrd had managed to muster a fierce and stubborn opposition, arguing that a gas tax, instead of bonds, would allow the state to adopt a "pay-as-you-go" policy that was more fiscally responsible. Byrd's behind-the-scenes machinations foreshadowed the political powerhouse he was about to become—as Virginia's governor, as a U.S. senator, and as head of the Byrd Organization, a statewide Democratic Party machine.
Mon, 08 May 2017 14:22:56 EST]]>
/_Henry_Martin_by_David_Marvel_Reynolds_Culbreth_The_University_of_Virginia_Memories_of_Her_Student-Life_and_Professors_1908 Fri, 05 May 2017 10:32:47 EST <![CDATA["Henry Martin" by David M. R. Culbreth, The University of Virginia: Memories of Her Student-Life and Professors (1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Henry_Martin_by_David_Marvel_Reynolds_Culbreth_The_University_of_Virginia_Memories_of_Her_Student-Life_and_Professors_1908 Fri, 05 May 2017 10:32:47 EST]]> /_Funeral_of_Henry_Martin_Daily_Progress_October_9_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:45:39 EST <![CDATA["Funeral of Henry Martin," Charlottesville Daily Progress (October 9, 1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Funeral_of_Henry_Martin_Daily_Progress_October_9_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:45:39 EST]]> /_Henry_Martin_1826-1915_by_John_S_Patton_Alumni_Bulletin_January_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:28:25 EST <![CDATA["Henry Martin, 1826–1915" by John S. Patton, Alumni Bulletin (October 1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Henry_Martin_1826-1915_by_John_S_Patton_Alumni_Bulletin_January_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:28:25 EST]]> /_Uncle_Henry_Bell-Ringer_A_Dramatic_Monologue_Cork_and_Curls_1914 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:18:15 EST <![CDATA["Uncle Henry: Bell-Ringer, A Dramatic Monologue," Corks and Curls (1914)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Uncle_Henry_Bell-Ringer_A_Dramatic_Monologue_Cork_and_Curls_1914 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:18:15 EST]]> /Adams_Andrew_1905-1985 Wed, 29 Mar 2017 13:34:27 EST <![CDATA[Adams, Andrew (1905–1985)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Adams_Andrew_1905-1985 Wed, 29 Mar 2017 13:34:27 EST]]> /Barrett_Kate_Waller_1858-1925 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:53:53 EST <![CDATA[Barrett, Kate Waller (1857–1925)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barrett_Kate_Waller_1858-1925 Kate Waller Barrett was a prominent physician, social reformer, humanitarian, and leader of the National Florence Crittenton Mission, a progressive organization established in 1883 to assist unmarried women and teenage girls who either had children or were trying to leave prostitution.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:53:53 EST]]>
/Bailey_Odessa_Pittard_1906-1994 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:27:24 EST <![CDATA[Bailey, Odessa Pittard (1906–1994)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bailey_Odessa_Pittard_1906-1994 Odessa Pittard Bailey was a civic leader in western Virginia. In 1944, after her appointment to the Roanoke Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court, she became the first woman in Virginia's history to hold a judicial post higher than justice of the peace or county trial justice. She helped found the Virginia Council of Juvenile Court Judges and served as its president from 1947 to 1948. After leaving the bench in 1948, she was appointed to several state commissions dealing with crime and social work. Bailey participated in Democratic Party politics, and as president of the Virginia Federation of Women's Clubs she lobbied for increased state funding to help disadvantaged children and the mentally ill. After her husband's death in 1957, Bailey ran a travel agency in Roanoke. She later moved to California, where she died in 1994.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:27:24 EST]]>
/Harrison_Burton_Mrs_1843-1920 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 15:59:00 EST <![CDATA[Harrison, Burton, Mrs., (1843–1920)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harrison_Burton_Mrs_1843-1920 Mrs. Burton Harrison, also known as Constance Cary Harrison, was a prolific American novelist late in the nineteenth century who came from a prominent Virginia family. As a young woman, she witnessed the destruction of the American Civil War (1861–1865) and nursed the Confederate wounded in Manassas and Richmond. After the war, Harrison toured Europe, eventually married, and settled down in New York City. She was active in elite New York society and produced a large body of work, much of it popular serialized fiction and sentimental romance, in which she recorded the social mores of her time. The author of more than fifty works, including short stories, articles and essays, children's books, and short plays, she is best known for her 1911 autobiography, Recollections Grave and Gay.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 15:59:00 EST]]>
/New_Deal_in_Virginia Wed, 04 Jan 2017 09:01:37 EST <![CDATA[New Deal in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/New_Deal_in_Virginia In March 1933, the newly inaugurated president of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, a Democrat, addressed the problems created by the Great Depression by announcing a vast array of federal programs that came to be known as the New Deal. During the first 100 days of his administration, a Democratic Congress created the "alphabet agencies" (so called because of their well-known abbreviations) to deal with unemployment, economic stagnation, low farm prices, and home and farm foreclosures.
Wed, 04 Jan 2017 09:01:37 EST]]>
/Franklin_A_Q_1852-1924 Tue, 20 Dec 2016 16:21:37 EST <![CDATA[Franklin, A. Q. (1852–1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Franklin_A_Q_1852-1924 A. Q. Franklin, educator and member of the House of Delegates (1889–1890). Born in Richmond to a former slave who had freed himself and possibly a white mother who taught him to read and write, Franklin worked as a laborer and then, Charles City County, a schoolteacher. He served as the county's commissioner of revenue for many years and helped establish Bull Field Academy, a school for African Americans. In 1889 Franklin won election to the House of Delegates as a Republican, one of only three African Americans elected in 1889. They were the last black candidates to win election to the General Assembly until 1967. In 1908 he began raising funds for an African American high school (later Charles City County High School), which prompted the closure of Bull Field Academy in 1911. According to at least one historian, Franklin's efforts produced an unusually high number of college-educated African Americans from Charles City County. He died in 1924.
Tue, 20 Dec 2016 16:21:37 EST]]>
/Godwin_Mills_E_1914-1999 Mon, 19 Dec 2016 09:29:16 EST <![CDATA[Godwin, Mills E. (1914–1999)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Godwin_Mills_E_1914-1999 Mills E. Godwin was the only governor of Virginia elected by the voters to two terms, serving as a Democrat from 1966 to 1970 and as a Republican from 1974 to 1978. After playing a major legislative role in Virginia's resistance to desegregation of the public schools in the 1950s, Godwin adopted more moderate positions as lieutenant governor from 1962 to 1966 and as candidate for governor in 1965. During his first term he was responsible for enactment of a sales tax and approval of the first significant statewide bond issue in the twentieth century. Godwin devoted the additional revenue to public education, mental health, and highways. The creation of the Virginia Community College System was one of Godwin's major accomplishments. He also appointed a commission to revise the Constitution of 1902. Constitutionally ineligible to succeed himself, Godwin left office in 1970. Disillusioned by the growing influence of liberals in the Virginia Democratic Party, Godwin sought the governorship again as a Republican in 1973. He narrowly defeated Lieutenant Governor Henry E. Howell. Godwin's second term coincided with an economic recession, energy shortages, and an environmental catastrophe. In a time of retrenchment his major initiatives were improvements to state prisons and a second bond issue approved in 1977.
Mon, 19 Dec 2016 09:29:16 EST]]>
/Danville_Civil_Rights_Demonstrations_of_1963 Wed, 07 Dec 2016 09:56:15 EST <![CDATA[Danville Civil Rights Demonstrations of 1963]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Danville_Civil_Rights_Demonstrations_of_1963 The Danville civil rights demonstrations began peacefully late in May 1963 when local civil rights leaders organized demonstrations, sit-ins, and marches to protest segregation in all spheres, but especially in municipal government, employment, and public facilities. As protests accelerated, however, white authorities responded early in June with tough legal stratagems and violence, attacking demonstrators with clubs and fire hoses. Martin Luther King Jr.'s Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) all sent state and national leaders to Danville to assist the African American protesters, but to little avail. The legal resistance displayed by authorities—injunctions, ordinances, and court procedures condemned by the U.S. Justice Department—proved so effective and unyielding that protests were stymied, resulting in few immediate gains for African Americans.
Wed, 07 Dec 2016 09:56:15 EST]]>
/Lynching_in_Virginia Mon, 07 Nov 2016 10:09:49 EST <![CDATA[Lynching in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lynching_in_Virginia Lynching involves the extralegal punishment of perceived wrongdoing by a mob. Lynching became pervasive in the American South late in the nineteenth century and, at its height, from 1880 to 1930, killed at least eighty-six men in Virginia, all but fifteen of them African Americans. Many historians believe the term can be traced to Charles Lynch, a Bedford County militia colonel during the American Revolution (1775–1783) who punished captured Loyalists outside the law. Although a regular feature of the Revolution, mob violence spiked during the 1830s in response to immigration and tensions over slavery. In the South, meanwhile, slavery had long encouraged violence against African Americans, implicating even non-slaveholding whites who were often called upon to search for escaped slaves. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), these two traditions—mob violence and violence against African Americans—joined to create an epidemic of lynchings that killed probably as many as 4,000 people from 1880 until the mid-twentieth century; the large majority of those victims were African Americans living in the South. White Virginians, who lynched the fewest number of people of any southern state, justified the practice by demonizing African Americans and arguing that the courts provided insufficient protection against their supposed criminal tendencies. Blacks and whites understood lynching as a means of enforcing white supremacy. Vocal black critics, such as the editor John Mitchell Jr., encouraged armed defense but were ignored by white lawmakers. In the 1920s, after a rash of mob violence, Virginia passed the South's first antilynching law, although no white person was ever convicted under the legislation.
Mon, 07 Nov 2016 10:09:49 EST]]>
/Ku_Klux_Klan_in_Virginia Fri, 04 Nov 2016 16:34:31 EST <![CDATA[Ku Klux Klan in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ku_Klux_Klan_in_Virginia The Ku Klux Klan (KKK), also known as the Klan or the Invisible Empire, is a right-wing extremist organization that has emerged at three distinct periods of U.S. history: from 1865 to the 1870s, from 1915 to 1944, and from the 1950s to the present. In the name of white supremacy and the protection of "one-hundred percent Americanism," these Klan movements have targeted—through political rhetoric and violent actions—African Americans, immigrants, Catholics, Jews, and organized labor, as well as prostitution and the alcohol industry. While antipathy from political elites ensured that the Klan never gained the foothold in Virginia that it had in other states, it was most prominent in the Commonwealth during the 1920s and resurged during the 1950s and 1960s to target civil rights activists. During Reconstruction (1865–1877), the Klan was active in Virginia only for a period of several months before the newspapers that had once supported it condemned its use of violence. After the events of World War I (1914–1918) encouraged a heightened fear of "anti-American elements," the Klan was more efficiently mobilized and enjoyed a longer reign in Virginia, but was undone by legal restrictions on its violent activities, which included kidnappings, floggings, and at least one lynching. The Klan was reborn in the late 1950s to defend white supremacy against the threats of desegregation, but mounting pressure from civil rights groups led the white political establishment to commit to stamping out masked rallies and cross-burnings and making Virginia an inhospitable environment for Klan activity. The white political and social elite consistently decried the Klan, not because they were opposed to white supremacy but because they viewed the Klan's methods as crass and unsophisticated. Klan klaverns still exist in the Commonwealth, but there has been little public notice or concern of them since the late 1960s.
Fri, 04 Nov 2016 16:34:31 EST]]>
/_quot_The_Lynching_of_Negroes_quot_chapter_4_of_The_Negro_The_Southerner_apos_s_Problem_by_Thomas_Nelson_Page_1904 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:13:47 EST <![CDATA["The Lynching of Negroes"; chapter 4 of The Negro: The Southerner's Problem by Thomas Nelson Page (1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Lynching_of_Negroes_quot_chapter_4_of_The_Negro_The_Southerner_apos_s_Problem_by_Thomas_Nelson_Page_1904 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:13:47 EST]]> /Boothe_Armistead_L_1907-1990 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 16:52:55 EST <![CDATA[Boothe, Armistead L. (1907–1990)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boothe_Armistead_L_1907-1990 Armistead L. Boothe was a Democratic politician who challenged the party's powerful, conservative political machine run by Senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. Boothe entered the General Assembly in 1948 as an independent thinker within what was known as the Byrd Organization. He sabotaged an attempt to keep Harry S. Truman off the ballot for the 1948 presidential election and the next year predicted that public school segregation would soon be ruled illegal. In 1950 he proposed integrating common carriers, and after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) that segregation in public schools was indeed unconstitutional, he issued his own plan for limited public school desegregation despite his personal opposition to integration. Boothe opposed Byrd's plan of Massive Resistance, or a refusal to desegregate, as a threat to strong public schools. Despite being an influential member of the House of Delegates and the Senate of Virginia for more than a decade, Boothe remained an opposition figure within his own party. He lost Democratic primaries for lieutenant governor in 1961 and for the U.S. Senate in 1966.
Wed, 12 Oct 2016 16:52:55 EST]]>
/Dure_Leon_S_1907-1993 Thu, 06 Oct 2016 12:41:59 EST <![CDATA[Dure, Leon S. (1907–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dure_Leon_S_1907-1993 Leon S. Dure created the concept of freedom of choice of association, a philosophy embraced by segregationists after Massive Resistance—the state policies designed to oppose the desegregation of public schools—faded in 1959. Born in Macon, Georgia, Dure served as managing editor of the Macon Telegraph, White House correspondent for the Washington Post, managing editor of the Richmond Times-Dispatch, and executive news editor of the Twin City Sentinel in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. He retired in 1949 and returned to Virginia, where he lived on a farm in Albemarle County. During the desegregation crisis that followed the U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Dure publicized freedom of choice of association as a way to avoid the large-scale integration of public schools. Students could choose which school to attend, with white students receiving state-tuition grants to attend segregated private schools. While not entirely new, the idea was particularly palatable to suburban white voters. Dure's strategy persisted until the 1960s, when it received two key legal defeats in Griffin v. State Board of Education (1964) and Green v. County School Board of New Kent County (1968). Dure died in Florida in 1993.
Thu, 06 Oct 2016 12:41:59 EST]]>
/Custalow_George_F_Thunder_Cloud_1865-1949 Fri, 30 Sep 2016 14:24:42 EST <![CDATA[Custalow, George F. "Thunder Cloud" (1865–1949)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custalow_George_F_Thunder_Cloud_1865-1949 George F. "Thunder Cloud" Custalow was the chief of the Mattaponi tribe from 1914 until his death in 1949. Born in King William County in 1865, Custalow instituted educational and religious reform in his community and helped forge Mattaponi tribal identity. (Prior to his efforts, it was mistakenly believed that the Mattaponi were a branch of the Pamunkey, not a separate Powhatan tribe.) Under his leadership, a Mattaponi school opened on the reservation and tribal members founded the Mattaponi Indian Baptist Church. Custalow also campaigned with Pamunkey chief George Major Cook against legislation that restricted Virginia Indians' civil rights even further than the Virginia Act to Preserve Racial Integrity, which passed in 1924, already did. He died on the Mattaponi Indian Reservation on March 18, 1949.
Fri, 30 Sep 2016 14:24:42 EST]]>
/U_S_Senate_Resolution_39_June_13_2005 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:08:50 EST <![CDATA[U.S. Senate Resolution 39 (June 13, 2005)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/U_S_Senate_Resolution_39_June_13_2005 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:08:50 EST]]> /_quot_Judge_Lynch_and_His_Victims_quot_Richmond_Planet_January_18_1902 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:01:17 EST <![CDATA["Judge Lynch and His Victims," Richmond Planet (January 18, 1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Judge_Lynch_and_His_Victims_quot_Richmond_Planet_January_18_1902 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:01:17 EST]]> /The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_William_Styron_1967 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:03:45 EST <![CDATA[Confessions of Nat Turner, The (1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_William_Styron_1967 The Confessions of Nat Turner, a novel by William Styron, was published in 1967 and won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1968. The title character is based on the historical Nat Turner, a slave preacher and self-styled prophet who, in August 1831, led the only successful slave revolt in Virginia's history, which in just twelve hours left fifty-five white people in Southampton County dead. (A slave named Gabriel conspired to revolt in 1800, but his plans were discovered before he could carry them out.) The historical Nat Turner, in turn, is largely the product of "The Confessions of Nat Turner, as fully and voluntarily made to Thomas R. Gray," a pamphlet published shortly after Turner's trial and execution in November 1831. Although it played a crucial role in shaping perceptions of the event around the central figure of Turner, the pamphlet itself only reached a small portion of the reading public. The story awaited the Virginia-born Styron, who translated the historical record into a popular medium that commanded the full attention of the reading public and the national media. Despite its awards, however, that attention was not always positive. Published at the height of the Black Power movement and after a long summer of race riots in the United States, Styron's novel was labeled by some civil rights activists as racist, especially because of the author's depiction of Turner lusting after white women, one of whom he eventually kills.
Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:03:45 EST]]>
/Rosenwald_Schools Tue, 13 Sep 2016 13:47:27 EST <![CDATA[Rosenwald Schools]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rosenwald_Schools Rosenwald schools were educational facilities built with the assistance of the Rosenwald rural school building program, an initiative to narrow racial schooling gaps in the South by constructing better, more-accessible schools for African Americans. They are called Rosenwald schools because they were partially funded by grants from the Rosenwald Fund, a foundation established by Julius Rosenwald, an Illinois businessman and philanthropist. Between 1912 and 1932, the program helped produce 5,357 new educational facilities for African Americans across fifteen southern states, providing almost 700,000 African American children in rural, isolated communities with state-of-the-art facilities at a time when little to no public money was put toward black education. In Virginia, the initiative helped fund 382 schools and support buildings in seventy-nine counties. Most of these buildings remained in operation until Virginia was forced to comply with the United States Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), which outlawed racial segregation in public schools. In 2002, the National Trust for Historic Preservation placed all surviving Rosenwald schools on its list of America's most endangered historic sites.
Tue, 13 Sep 2016 13:47:27 EST]]>
/Confederate_Battle_Flag Wed, 07 Sep 2016 16:11:57 EST <![CDATA[Confederate Battle Flag]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Confederate_Battle_Flag The Confederate battle flag, initially authorized for units of the Confederate armed forces during the American Civil War (1861–1865), has become one of the most recognized, misunderstood, and controversial symbols in American history. Originally designed as a Confederate national flag by William Porcher Miles of South Carolina, it was rejected by the Confederate Congress but subsequently adopted by the Confederate army, which needed a banner that was easily distinguishable from the United States flag. The battle flag transformed into a national symbol as the Army of Northern Virginia, with which it was closely associated, also became an important symbol. It even was incorporated into the Confederacy's second and third national flags. Following the war, proponents of the Lost Cause used the battle flag to represent Southern valor and honor, although it also was implicitly connected to white supremacy. In the mid-twentieth century, the battle flag simultaneously became ubiquitous in American culture while, partly through the efforts of the Ku Klux Klan, becoming increasingly tied to racial violence and intimidation. African Americans conflated the battle flag to opposition to the civil rights movement, while neo-Confederates argued that its meaning had to do with states' rights and southern identity, not racial hatred. The political and social lines of dispute over the flag remain much the same at the beginning of the twenty-first century.
Wed, 07 Sep 2016 16:11:57 EST]]>
/Biggs_Walter_J_1886-1968 Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:07:58 EST <![CDATA[Biggs, Walter J. (1886–1968)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Biggs_Walter_J_1886-1968 Walter J. Biggs enjoyed success as a popular illustrator for most of his career, and then became an accomplished painter later in life. Growing up in Salem, he attended the New York School of Art (later Parsons The New School for Design) early in the 1900s. His romantic, impressionistic-style works soon began appearing on the covers of major magazines of the period, as well as in books. Biggs won praise for his renderings of the American South, particularly for sympathetic portrayals of African American life. He started working with watercolors in the 1940s, developing a national reputation with competition prizes and exhibitions in New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia. He returned to Salem permanently after retiring as an illustrator late in the 1950s. In 1963 he was inducted into the Society of Illustrators' Hall of Fame and died five years later in Roanoke. In 1986 Roanoke College, which owns a large collection of Biggs's paintings and sketchbooks, dedicated the Walter Biggs Studio in the Olin Hall Student Art Center.
Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:07:58 EST]]>
/Everett_John_R_1918-1992 Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:04:34 EST <![CDATA[Everett, John R. (1918–1992)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Everett_John_R_1918-1992 John R. Everett presided over Hollins College (later Hollins University) from 1950 until 1960. Reportedly the nation's youngest college president when he assumed the office, he established a new curriculum and oversaw the near doubling of Hollins's student body and faculty. Everett also instituted a study abroad program. He left Virginia to become the first chancellor of the Municipal College System of the City of New York and later spent nearly two decades as president of the New School for Social Research (later the New School) in New York City. He died in 1992. A scholarship was established in his name at Hollins following his retirement.
Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:04:34 EST]]>
/Republican_Party_of_Virginia Wed, 31 Aug 2016 17:53:47 EST <![CDATA[Republican Party of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Republican_Party_of_Virginia The Republican Party is one of two major political parties in Virginia. Although founded in 1854 in opposition to the spread of slavery, the party did not take hold in Virginia until after the American Civil War (1861–1865). Even then, for nearly a century the Republicans were an ineffectual, minority party with only pockets of regional strength. During this period, the conservative Democratic Party dominated politics in Virginia and the rest of the South. After World War II (1939–1945), economic growth, demographic trends, electoral reforms, and policy debates combined to spur a realignment that gradually brought the Virginia parties into line philosophically with their national counterparts. As the center-right party in a conservative-leaning state, the Virginia Republican Party became consistently competitive. Following the mid-1970s, Virginia politics settled into a pattern characterized by active competition between the two major party organizations and their candidates. Partisan fortunes ebbed and flowed, but neither party established durable majority support on a statewide basis. In the twenty-first century Republican candidates in Virginia routinely compete with their Democratic rivals for the support of nonaligned voters (generally called "independents") in addition to mobilizing fellow partisans.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 17:53:47 EST]]>
/Cootes_Frank_G_1879-1960 Wed, 24 Aug 2016 15:55:17 EST <![CDATA[Cootes, F. Graham (1879–1960)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cootes_Frank_G_1879-1960 F. Graham Cootes was a popular illustrator and portraitist during in the twentieth century. Born in Staunton and educated at the University of Virginia, he entered the New York School of Art (later Parsons The New School for Design) in 1902. Cootes opened a Manhattan studio by 1906 and gained success as an illustrator for best-selling books and high-profile magazines. Cootes also established himself as a respected portraitist of prominent figures in New York and Washington, D.C. He semi-retired during the 1920s only to reemerge the following decade after he and his wife lost much of their wealth in the stock market crash. During this second period he produced his most famous work, the official White House portrait of Woodrow Wilson. Cootes kept his connections with his native state, painting portraits of Charlottesville residents, hosting summer art school programs at the University of Virginia, and visiting the Old Dominion often.
Wed, 24 Aug 2016 15:55:17 EST]]>
/Bryan_Albert_V_1899-1984 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:57:36 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, Albert V. (1899–1984)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_Albert_V_1899-1984 Albert V. Bryan was a federal district court and circuit court of appeals judge during a crucial period in the fight over public school desegregation. After serving as the commonwealth's attorney in Alexandria from 1928 until 1947, he was appointed a federal judge of the Eastern District of Virginia. Although he supported segregation Bryan stuck closely to legal precedents established by the U.S. Supreme Court. He ruled in favor of continued school segregation in 1952. After Brown v. Board of Education reversed his ruling in 1954, however, Bryan began following the new precedent, though in a manner that slowed implementation. His subsequent decisions on Massive Resistance delayed, but did not stop, desegregation of Virginia schools. In 1961 he was appointed to the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals. Adhering again to Supreme Court precedent, in 1969 Bryan struck down state tuition grants to students attending segregated private schools. He retired from the federal bench in 1971 and died in 1984.
Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:57:36 EST]]>
/Anderson_Peyton_E_ca_1857-1950 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:24:09 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, Peyton E. (ca. 1857–1950)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_Peyton_E_ca_1857-1950 Peyton E. Anderson was a minister and the first African American superintendent of Prince Edward County's rural black schools. Born enslaved near Farmville, after the American Civil War (1861–1865) he committed himself to getting an education and studied ministry at Richmond Theological Institute. He became the superintendent of schools for African Americans in Prince Edward County, where he oversaw the construction of twenty-three rural schoolhouses and developed a curriculum centered on industrial education. For twenty-five years he was also principal of the Virso School, in Prince Edward County. One county superintendent described him as the most versatile schoolteacher he had ever seen. During his career in education, Anderson served as pastor of New Bethel and Shiloh churches, and at his death in 1950 was pastor of Mount Zion Baptist Church.
Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:24:09 EST]]>
/Christian_James_S_1918-1982 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:06:39 EST <![CDATA[Christian, James S. (1918–1982)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Christian_James_S_1918-1982 James S. Christian represented the city of Richmond in the House of Delegates from 1978 until his death in 1982. A veteran of World War II (1939–1945), he was the first African American from Richmond to report for flight training at the Tuskegee Army Air Base in Alabama. Christian also served in the Korean War (1950–1953). A postal worker for many years, he took accounting courses and opened a bookkeeping business in Richmond's Jackson Ward neighborhood in 1963. Nearly a decade later he joined the city's planning commission and was named its chair in 1976. The next year he won election to the House of Delegates, going on to serve three consecutive terms. A highly successful delegate, Christian was expected to become the House's second African American committee chair of the twentieth century. Instead, he died of bone cancer in 1982.
Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:06:39 EST]]>
/Lost_Cause_The Wed, 27 Jul 2016 09:17:55 EST <![CDATA[Lost Cause, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lost_Cause_The The Lost Cause is an interpretation of the American Civil War (1861–1865) that seeks to present the war, from the perspective of Confederates, in the best possible terms. Developed by white Southerners, many of them former Confederate generals, in a postwar climate of economic, racial, and social uncertainty, the Lost Cause created and romanticized the "Old South" and the Confederate war effort, often distorting history in the process. For this reason, many historians have labeled the Lost Cause a myth or a legend. It is certainly an important example of public memory, one in which nostalgia for the Confederate past is accompanied by a collective forgetting of the horrors of slavery. Providing a sense of relief to white Southerners who feared being dishonored by defeat, the Lost Cause was largely accepted in the years following the war by white Americans who found it to be a useful tool in reconciling North and South. The Lost Cause has lost much of its academic support but continues to be an important part of how the Civil War is commemorated in the South and remembered in American popular culture.
Wed, 27 Jul 2016 09:17:55 EST]]>
/Edwards_Thomas_J_Tommy_1922-1969 Tue, 26 Jul 2016 17:31:28 EST <![CDATA[Edwards, Tommy (1922–1969)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edwards_Thomas_J_Tommy_1922-1969 Tommy Edwards was a singer and songwriter best known for his 1958 chart-topping single "It's All in the Game." Edwards showed musical promise early, hosting a Richmond radio show in his teens. By 1943 he was writing songs in New York and scored a hit with "That Chick's Too Young to Fry." Edwards began a recording career that peaked in 1958 with "It's All in the Game." The runaway hit led to a series of charting singles over the next two years and appearances on national television shows. His career declined as his balladeer style fell out of favor with musical trends. His signature song remains a classic years after his death and has been included in many music compilations.
Tue, 26 Jul 2016 17:31:28 EST]]>
/Anderson_William_A_1842-1930 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:03:54 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, William A. (1842–1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_William_A_1842-1930 William A. Anderson, who came to be known as the "Lame Lion of the Confederacy," helped establish the Democratic Party's dominance in Virginia during and after the Reconstruction period. Wounded during the American Civil War (1861–1865), he was nominated to the House of Delegates in 1868 as a member of the Conservative Party, which sought to bring back the state's pre-war power structure. In 1883 Anderson was elected to the House of Delegates as a member of the Democratic Party (the successor of the Conservative Party). He helped cement Democratic control over Virginia by engineering the party's acceptance of the Readjusters' successful debt reduction policy and by co-sponsoring a law that gave control of elections to Democrats. In 1900 Anderson became head of the Virginia State Bar Association, and his presidential speech became the basis for the provisions in the Constitution of 1902 that disfranchised African American and poor white voters. (Anderson was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902.) He served as attorney general of Virginia from 1902 to 1910 and in the House of Delegates from 1918 to 1919. Anderson died at his home in Lynchburg in 1930.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:03:54 EST]]>
/Disfranchisement Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:55:25 EST <![CDATA[Disfranchisement]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Disfranchisement Disfranchisement (also called disenfranchisement) is the revocation of the right of suffrage. African American males voted in Virginia for the first time in October 1867, during Reconstruction (1865–1877), when the military governor of the state, John M. Schofield, ordered a referendum on whether to hold a convention to write a new state constitution and to elect delegates to serve in the convention. A majority of white Virginians disapproved of the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1870, which prohibited states from denying the vote to any man because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Ensuring that Virginia elections were set up to express the public opinion rather than suppress it was a task that took decades to complete. It was not until the abolition of the poll tax in the 1960s and adoption of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965 that black men and women registered and voted in appreciable numbers in Virginia outside a few urban precincts and that white men and women began to register and vote in significantly larger percentages than during the first half of the twentieth century.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:55:25 EST]]>
/Davis_Henry_Jackson_1882-1947 Fri, 08 Jul 2016 15:25:38 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Jackson (1882–1947)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Henry_Jackson_1882-1947 Jackson Davis was an educator, educational advisor, and foundation director who served as an important intermediary between African American schools in the South and philanthropic foundations in the North. Throughout his career, he specialized in education in the South, interracial issues, and educational development in the Belgian Congo and Liberia. As a field agent for the General Education Board, Davis worked on behalf of better relations and understanding between whites and African Americans and pioneered the development and promotion of regional centers of education in the South. Davis's relatively moderate position on race relations, however, did not extend to desegregation of public schools.
Fri, 08 Jul 2016 15:25:38 EST]]>
/Beazley_Roy_C_1902-1985 Fri, 01 Jul 2016 16:43:58 EST <![CDATA[Beazley, Roy C. (1902–1985)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beazley_Roy_C_1902-1985 Roy C. Beazley directed nursing education in various positions at the University of Virginia from 1946 until 1969, and was the first woman at the university to be named professor emerita. Born in Orange County and named for her uncle, Beazley began her career as a teacher but after suffering a serious illness she became interested in nursing. She attended the hospital nursing school at the University of Virginia and, with the exception of a degree earned at Columbia University in 1953, remained in Charlottesville for the rest of her career. She directed the evolution of the nursing education program into the School of Nursing and served as president of the Virginia State Board of Examiners of Nurses from 1959 to 1961. She retired from teaching in 1969 and died in 1985. Later that year she was posthumously awarded the University of Virginia's Distinguished Nursing Alumnae Award.
Fri, 01 Jul 2016 16:43:58 EST]]>
/Boyle_Sarah_Patton_1906-1994 Mon, 09 May 2016 12:46:07 EST <![CDATA[Boyle, Sarah-Patton (1906–1994)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boyle_Sarah_Patton_1906-1994 Sarah-Patton Boyle was one of Virginia's most prominent white civil rights activists during the 1950s and 1960s and author of the widely acclaimed autobiography The Desegregated Heart: A Virginian's Stand in Time of Transition (1962). Her desegregation efforts began in 1950 when she wrote to Gregory Swanson welcoming him as the University of Virginia's first black law student. Through her experience with Swanson, her views on desegregation evolved from being a proponent of gradual desegregation to a leading and often controversial white voice for immediate desegregation in public schools and in higher education. Her 1955 article for the Saturday Evening Post, titled "Southerners Will Like Integration," prompted a fierce backlash that included having a cross burned in her Charlottesville yard. Boyle did not moderate her views, however, and worked closely with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), earning praise from Martin Luther King Jr., Lillian Smith, and others, as well as numerous awards and a measure of national fame. The intensity of her political involvement triggered a deep depression, however, and she eventually became disillusioned with the civil rights movement, retiring from activism in 1967. In 1983, she authored a memoir that contemplated her experience dealing with age discrimination.
Mon, 09 May 2016 12:46:07 EST]]>
/Farmer_Frances_1909-1993 Mon, 02 May 2016 16:05:42 EST <![CDATA[Farmer, Frances (1909–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farmer_Frances_1909-1993 Frances Farmer was a law librarian and the first female law professor at the University of Virginia. Born in Charlotte County, Farmer studied history and then law before becoming a law librarian at the University of Richmond in 1938 and the University of Virginia in 1942. She took charge of cataloguing and then greatly expanding the School of Law's collection, helping to develop the school's alumni association as a fund-raising tool. In 1959, she served a one-year term as president of the American Association of Law Libraries. Four years later she was elected to the general faculty and, in 1969, made a full professor. During her tenure the law library grew from fewer than 40,000 to more than 300,000 volumes. Farmer retired in 1976 and died in 1993.
Mon, 02 May 2016 16:05:42 EST]]>
/Fitzgerald_H_R_1873-1931 Wed, 27 Apr 2016 12:29:40 EST <![CDATA[Fitzgerald, H. R. (1873–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fitzgerald_H_R_1873-1931 H. R. Fitzgerald served as president of the Dan River Mills from 1918 until his death in 1931. Born in Danville the son of T. B. Fitzgerald, one of the company's founders, Fitzgerald was deaf for most of his adult life. By 1908 he had become secretary-treasurer of Dan River Mills; a decade later he was president of one of the largest cotton mills in the United States. Taking over at a time when the company's profits were in decline, Fitzgerald instituted scientific management in sales, helped to found a trade association, the Cotton-Textile Institute, and introduced Industrial Democracy, a representative system for airing worker grievances and giving them a limited voice in mill operations. In 1930, Industrial Democracy ceased and about 4,000 mill workers went on strike. Fitzgerald refused offers of mediation from the state and federal governments, and after four months the strikers gave up. Just three and a half weeks later, however, in February 1931, Fitzgerald died of a heart attack, perhaps from the stress of the strike.
Wed, 27 Apr 2016 12:29:40 EST]]>
/Dobie_Armistead_M_1881-1962 Thu, 21 Apr 2016 15:50:31 EST <![CDATA[Dobie, Armistead M. (1881–1962)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dobie_Armistead_M_1881-1962 Armistead M. Dobie served as the second dean of the University of Virginia School of Law (1932–1939), a judge of the Western District of Virginia (1939), and a judge on the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals (1939–1956). Born in Norfolk, he was educated at the University of Virginia and briefly practiced law in Saint Louis, Missouri, before joining the faculty of his alma mater. During World War I (1914–1918), he served twice in France. After returning to the University of Virginia, he introduced the case method of instruction and authored the Handbook of Federal Jurisdiction and Procedure (1928). A talented speaker with a shrill voice, Dobie was a popular presence at the university, as a witty lecturer and a speaker at football pep rallies. His time on the federal bench was marked by a ruling in favor of true equality between black and white schools in Corbin et al. v. County School Board of Pulaski County, Virginia, et al. (1949). In 1952, he was one of three judges that upheld racial segregation in public education in Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County. A long battle with depression forced Dobie's retirement in 1956; he died in Charlottesville in 1962.
Thu, 21 Apr 2016 15:50:31 EST]]>
/Bruce_Philip_Alexander_1856-1933 Thu, 14 Apr 2016 16:26:30 EST <![CDATA[Bruce, Philip Alexander (1856–1933)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bruce_Philip_Alexander_1856-1933 Philip Alexander Bruce was a historian whose five-volume account of seventeenth-century Virginia history continues to be cited as an important work of scholarship. Born in Charlotte County into an accomplished family, Bruce studied law at the University of Virginia and at Harvard but found his calling in scholarship. He wrote briefly for the Richmond Times before joining the Virginia Historical Society and, in 1893, helping to found its quarterly journal, the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. Her served as the magazine's first editor from 1893 until 1898. Bruce's own work often focused on social and economic history, seeking the origins of the New South while often marginalizing African Americans. His five volumes on seventeenth-century Virginia, published between 1896 and 1910, included two on economic history, one on social life, and two on institutions such as the church, the courts, and the General Assembly. Bruce also served as the University of Virginia's centennial historian, writing a five-volume history of the school's founding and first hundred years. He died in 1933 at his home in Charlottesville.
Thu, 14 Apr 2016 16:26:30 EST]]>
/Archaeology_at_Mount_Vernon Fri, 01 Apr 2016 08:27:02 EST <![CDATA[Mount Vernon, Archaeology at]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Archaeology_at_Mount_Vernon Archaeology at Mount Vernon, the Fairfax County plantation home of George Washington, began in the 1930s and has continued over the subsequent decades. As part of research and renovation efforts undertaken by the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, excavations have sought to uncover evidence of daily life on the property during the eighteenth century. In 1987, the association, which has owned and operated the estate since 1860, hired a full-time archaeologist. Since then, archaeological digs at the Mansion House Farm have taken place at the main slave quarter, known as the House for Families, and the blacksmith shop (1987–1990), the fruit garden and nursery (1988–1991), the South Grove trash dump, or midden (1990–1993), the dung repository (1992–1994), and the Upper Garden (2005–2010). Extensive work has also been conducted at the distillery, located near the outlying gristmill (1999–2005). These investigations have turned up a rich array of artifacts and other kinds of evidence attesting to the lives of the Washington family and their enslaved laborers, including the size and nature of structures in which they lived and worked, the tools they manufactured and used, and the foods they ate.
Fri, 01 Apr 2016 08:27:02 EST]]>
/Fitzgerald_T_B_1840-1929 Thu, 31 Mar 2016 18:01:02 EST <![CDATA[Fitzgerald, T. B. (1840–1929)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fitzgerald_T_B_1840-1929 T. B. Fitzgerald helped to found and served as the longtime president of the Riverside Cotton Mills, in Danville. Born in Halifax County, he served briefly in the Confederate army during the American Civil War (1861–1865) before being discharged for illness. In 1882, he was a founder of the Riverside Cotton Mills, a company that provided contracts to a construction business Fitzgerald had established a decade earlier. Over the next several decades, the business and Danville both grew rapidly, and Fitzgerald invested in real estate and lumber and helped establish the Danville College for Young Ladies and the Danville Street Car Company. In 1895, he became president of the newly chartered Dan River Power and Manufacturing Company, which merged with the cotton mills in 1909, eventually becoming Dan River Mills. Fitzgerald, who remained on the company board for the rest of his life, died in his Danville home in 1929.
Thu, 31 Mar 2016 18:01:02 EST]]>
/Association_for_the_Preservation_of_Virginia_Antiquities Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:58:17 EST <![CDATA[Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Association_for_the_Preservation_of_Virginia_Antiquities Organized in 1889, the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities (APVA), currently known as APVA/Preservation Virginia, was the nation's first statewide historic preservation organization. Spearheaded by an elite mix of female antiquarians and their "gentlemen advisers," it became a sanctioned instrument of conservatives who strove to counter social and political changes after the American Civil War (1861–1865) by emphasizing southern history and tradition. The APVA enshrined old buildings, graveyards, and historical sites—many of which were forlorn, if not forgotten—and exhibited them as symbols of Virginia's identity. As the national preservation movement evolved, the APVA became less overtly political and now identifies itself as a professional organization dedicated to preserving and promoting the Commonwealth's heritage.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:58:17 EST]]>
/Flemings_L_R_d_1937 Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:26:19 EST <![CDATA[Flemings, L. R. (d. 1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Flemings_L_R_d_1937 L. R. Flemings was an African American justice of the peace in Lancaster County from about 1887 until 1937; records are not complete, but it is possible he served in office continuously during these years. Whatever the case, he likely was the longest-serving black public official in Virginia's history prior to the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Born free in that county sometime between 1857 and 1861, Flemings was a storekeeper when he first won election as justice of the peace. He served four-year terms in the majority-black county for at least thirty-two years despite widespread efforts in Virginia to disfranchise African American men, especially after passage of the Constitution of 1902. In 1912, Flemings was named registrar of vital statistics in Lancaster County, serving for more than a decade. He also served as a coroner, a member of the county grand jury, and a delegate to the Republican Party state convention in 1896. Flemings died in Lancaster County in 1937.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:26:19 EST]]>
/Clark_Adèle_1882-1983 Thu, 10 Mar 2016 11:31:57 EST <![CDATA[Clark, Adèle (1882–1983)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clark_Adèle_1882-1983 Adèle Clark was a founding member of the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia, the chair of the Virginia League of Women Voters (1921–1925, 1929–1944), the social director of women at the College of William and Mary (1926), a New Deal–era field worker, and an accomplished artist and arts advocate. A native of Alabama, Clark attended schools in Richmond and later studied art in New York. She taught art in Richmond and established a training studio, while also working as a political activist. In 1909, she helped to found the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia and when women won the right to vote in 1920, she worked to educate women voters and to influence Congress and the General Assembly on issues of special interest to women. During the Great Depression, she served as the state director of the Federal Art Project (1936–1942). In her later years, Clark spoke for the desegregation of public schools and against the poll tax. She opposed the proposed Equal Rights Amendment in 1973. Clark died in Richmond in 1983.
Thu, 10 Mar 2016 11:31:57 EST]]>
/Carter_Maybelle_1909-1978 Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:46:19 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Maybelle (1909–1978)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Maybelle_1909-1978 Maybelle Carter was a member of the Carter Family, a trio that helped to pioneer what became known as country music. Born in Scott County, in Southwest Virginia, she grew up playing music and learning traditional Appalachian songs and tunes. She also developed a distinctive style of guitar playing that combined rhythmic chords and thumb-plucked melody that was dubbed the "Carter lick." With her first cousin Sara Carter and Carter's husband, A. P. Carter, Maybelle Carter formed the Carter Family, recording for the first time at the Bristol Sessions of 1927. The group made nearly 300 records in a career that lasted until the early 1940s, and for several years they performed on ultrahigh-frequency border radio. These broadcasts could be heard across North America and helped make the group nationally famous. After the Carter Family disbanded in 1943, Maybelle Carter continued to perform with her three daughters, as Mother Maybelle and the Carter Sisters. She joined the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville, Tennessee, and later toured with Johnny Cash, her daughter June Carter's third husband. Later in life Carter continued to perform and appear on television and came to be known as the Mother of Country Music. She died in 1978.
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:46:19 EST]]>
/Carter_Sara_1898-1979 Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:42:29 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Sara (1898–1979)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Sara_1898-1979 Sara Carter was a member of the Carter Family, a trio that helped to pioneer what became known as country music. Born and raised in Southwest Virginia, Sara Dougherty sang and played the autoharp from an early age. In 1915, she married the salesman A. P. Carter, who sang bass and collected and arranged songs. With Maybelle Carter—Sara Carter's first cousin and the wife of A. P. Carter's brother—the couple formed the Carter Family, recording for the first time at the Bristol Sessions of 1927. The group made nearly 300 records in a career that lasted until the early 1940s, and for several years they performed on ultrahigh-frequency border radio. These broadcasts could be heard across North America and helped make the group nationally famous. With the Carter Family's success, Sara Carter's marriage became strained. In 1933 she and A. P. Carter separated; three years later they divorced but continued to perform together. In 1941, she remarried and the next year moved to California, leaving her three children in Virginia with A. P. Carter. Sara Carter spent the rest of her life in California, reuniting briefly with her former husband in the 1950s to perform with two of their children. In 1966 she recorded an album with Maybelle Carter. Sara Carter died in 1979 and was buried near her first husband in Virginia.
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:42:29 EST]]>
/Carter_A_P_1891-1960 Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:39:55 EST <![CDATA[Carter, A. P. (1891–1960)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_A_P_1891-1960 A. P. Carter was a song collector and member of the Carter Family, a trio that helped to pioneer what became known as country music. Born in Scott County, in Southwest Virginia, Carter worked as a carpenter and traveling salesman before marrying Sara Dougherty in 1915. Carter's true passion had always been music, and with his new wife, who sang and played the autoharp, he began to perform and audition to make recordings. With Maybelle Carter—Sara Carter's first cousin and the wife of A. P. Carter's brother—the couple formed the Carter Family, recording for the first time at the Bristol Sessions of 1927. The group made nearly 300 records in a career that lasted until the early 1940s, and for several years they performed on ultrahigh-frequency border radio. These broadcasts could be heard across North America and helped make the group nationally famous. Many of the songs the Carter Family performed had been collected and arranged by A. P. Carter, who often spent weeks at a time combing the Virginia countryside for material, absences that, along with the fame, took a toll on his marriage. He and Sara Carter divorced in 1936 but continued to record together until 1941. The next year she moved to California, leaving behind their three children. With the Carter Family dissolved, A. P. Carter returned to Scott County, where he opened a general store, reuniting briefly with his former wife in the 1950s to perform with two of their children. Carter died in 1960 and was buried near Sara Carter in Virginia.
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:39:55 EST]]>
/Barter_Theatre Thu, 25 Feb 2016 16:23:31 EST <![CDATA[Barter Theatre]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barter_Theatre The Barter Theatre, located in the Blue Ridge highlands of Abingdon, Virginia, was founded by Robert Porterfield in 1933 and designated the State Theater of Virginia in 1946. It is the longest-running professional Equity theater in the nation. (The Actors' Equity Association is a live-theater labor union.) Opening its doors in the midst of the Great Depression, Barter earned its name by allowing patrons to pay the admission price with produce, dairy products, or livestock. The shows were sometimes forced to compete with the noise that accompanied bartered livestock. On occasion, the theater also paid playwrights, such as Tennessee Williams and Thornton Wilder, Virginia hams for their works rather than standard royalties. George Bernard Shaw, a vegetarian, demanded to be paid in spinach. The theater expanded in 1961, opening a second stage across the street, and has earned a national reputation through touring companies and its association with many prominent and influential actors, including Gregory Peck, Ernest Borgnine, and Kevin Spacey. The Barter Theatre won a Tony Award in 1948 for Best Regional Theater.
Thu, 25 Feb 2016 16:23:31 EST]]>
/Cash_June_Carter_1929-2003 Thu, 18 Feb 2016 17:09:39 EST <![CDATA[Cash, June Carter (1929–2003)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cash_June_Carter_1929-2003 June Carter Cash was a country and folk singer and the wife of Johnny Cash. Born in southwestern Virginia, she was the daughter of Maybelle Carter, who with her first cousin Sara Carter and Carter's husband, A. P. Carter, performed with the pioneering country group the Carter Family. June Carter and her two sisters began singing with the group on the radio in 1939 and later as part of Mother Maybelle and the Carter Sisters. Carter often supplemented her music with large doses of humor, drawing on broad caricatures of her rural upbringing. Her satirical version of "Baby, It's Cold Outside," recorded in 1949 with the duo Homer and Jethro, reached No. 9 on the country chart. The next year Carter joined the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville, Tennessee, and late in 1961, along with her family, accompanied the country star Johnny Cash on tour. Although both were married, Cash and Carter soon became romantically linked and were married in 1968. They won two Grammy Awards for their performances together: for "Jackson" in 1968 and "If I Were a Carpenter" in 1970. Both suffered from drug addiction, and while their marriage and careers suffered at times, they remained together. In 2000, Carter Cash won a Grammy Award for her second solo album, Press On. She died in May 2003 and her husband followed in September of that year.
Thu, 18 Feb 2016 17:09:39 EST]]>
/Munford_Mary-Cooke_Branch_1865-1938 Fri, 29 Jan 2016 10:41:20 EST <![CDATA[Munford, Mary-Cooke Branch (1865–1938)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Munford_Mary-Cooke_Branch_1865-1938 Mary-Cooke Branch Munford was an advocate of woman suffrage, interracial cooperation, education, health, and labor reforms. Armed with a pedigree that connected her to some of the wealthiest families of Virginia, she threw herself into such "unfeminine" pursuits as education reform and civil rights. She helped to found the Richmond Education Association, was the first woman to serve on the city's school board, was a member of the University of Virginia's board of visitors, and was the first woman to serve on the College of William and Mary's board of visitors. Munford also served on the board of the National Urban League, was a founding member of the Virginia Inter-Racial League, and became a trustee at the historically black Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee.
Fri, 29 Jan 2016 10:41:20 EST]]>
/Dillard_James_Hardy_1856-1940 Wed, 20 Jan 2016 09:54:09 EST <![CDATA[Dillard, J. H. (1856–1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dillard_James_Hardy_1856-1940 J. H. Dillard was an educator and reformer who, early in the twentieth century, became the best-known and most-active white proponents of improved educational opportunities for African Americans in the South. Born either in Southampton County or Nansemond County, he studied law before becoming a teacher. In 1894, he became a dean at Tulane University, in New Orleans. In 1908, he was elected president of the board of the Anna T. Jeanes Foundation, established to help the education of African Americans in the South by paying teacher salaries and investing in buildings and equipment. He returned to Virginia in 1913, working for the Jeanes Fund and as the president of the John F. Slater Fund, which had a similar mission, until he resigned both positions in 1931. By this time, the South had 305 so-called Jeanes teachers in fourteen states, with Virginia claiming more teachers than any other state. Dillard engaged in other work on behalf of interracial cooperation, establishing the University Commission on Southern Race Questions in 1912. In 1930, two historically black universities in New Orleans combined to form Dillard University, named in his honor. Dillard died at his home in Charlottesville in 1940.
Wed, 20 Jan 2016 09:54:09 EST]]>
/Chenery_Christopher_T_1886-1973 Mon, 07 Dec 2015 14:32:35 EST <![CDATA[Chenery, Christopher T. (1886–1973)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chenery_Christopher_T_1886-1973 Christopher T. Chenery was a public utilities executive and horse breeder, whose thoroughbred Secretariat won the Triple Crown (the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, and the Belmont Stakes) in 1973. Born in Richmond, Chenery grew up riding horses before working as an engineer in the West and in Chicago. He founded and served as president of the Federal Water Service Corporation and when it was superseded by the board of the Southern Natural Gas Company, served as the company's chairman. He also formed and led the Offshore Company, which drilled for oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Chenery's passion, however, was thoroughbred horses. In 1955, he helped to found the Greater New York Association to promote racing and bought a family farm in Caroline County to breed horses. Between 1939 and 1972 his thoroughbreds won more than $8.5 million on the track, but his most famous was Secretariat. Horse of the Year in 1972 and 1973, Secretariat won the Triple Crown in the latter year, just after Chenery's death. In 1985, Chenery was inducted into the Virginia Sports Hall of Fame.
Mon, 07 Dec 2015 14:32:35 EST]]>
/Davis_Westmoreland_1859-1942 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:37:26 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Westmoreland (1859–1942)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Westmoreland_1859-1942 Westmoreland Davis was a lawyer and agriculturist who served as governor of Virginia from 1918 to 1922. Born abroad, his family moved to Richmond when he was still young and he attended the Virginia Military Institute and the University of Virginia before studying law in New York. He practiced there until 1903, when he purchased Morven Park, a large estate in Loudoun County. There he studied farming, lobbied on behalf of agricultural groups, and published the Southern Planter magazine from 1912 until his death. Despite lacking experience in electoral politics, Davis won election as governor in 1917, as a Democrat. He presided over the creation of a state highway system and negotiated a truce between union and non-union coal miners in southwestern Virginia. He identified with the Progressive movement and distrusted the Democratic machine run by Thomas Staples Martin, Claude A. Swanson, and, later, Harry F. Byrd Sr. He attempted to break the organization by running against Swanson for the U.S. Senate but lost, and later campaigned against the poll tax which was, in effect, campaigning against the power of the Byrd Organization. Davis died in 1942.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:37:26 EST]]>
/Indians_in_Virginia Mon, 23 Nov 2015 11:36:25 EST <![CDATA[Indians in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indians_in_Virginia Indians have lived in the area now known as Virginia for thousands of years. Their histories, ancestral connections, and traditions are intertwined with the 6,000 square miles of Tidewater land the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Virginia called Tsenacomoco. The early inhabitants of Virginia were hunter-gatherers who followed the migratory patterns of animals. Over time, and as the region warmed, they settled into towns along riverbanks and outlined their homelands, developing intimate, balanced relationships with the animals, plants, and geographic formations. They hunted, fished, and farmed, and developed complex social and religious systems and vast trade networks. By the early 1600s, Virginia Indians lived in three broad cultural groups based on the language families found in the area: Algonquian, Iroquoian, and Siouan. Scholars know most about the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Tsenacomoco, who eventually grouped together into a paramount chiefdom. Led by Powhatan, the polity ultimately included twenty-eight to thirty-two small chiefdoms and tribes, stretching from the James to the Potomac rivers and encompassing much of Virginia's coastal plain. In 1607, Englishmen arrived and changed Indian life forever. In the midst of a severe drought, the colonists' demands for food and their inability to fully understand Indian cultural practices led in part to three protracted and violent conflicts over four decades, ending in 1646 with the Algonquian-speaking Indians largely subject to English rule. The General Assembly set aside land for the former tribes of Tsenacomoco, although in subsequent years some Indians were forced to move and some groups became dispersed. In the years that followed, they contributed to the developing American culture while working to maintain their own traditions during difficult periods of disease, hunger, forced relocations, and restrictive colonial and later statewide policies that curtailed their rights to travel unmolested through lands now occupied by settlers, to visit their traditional hunting and fishing grounds, and to testify in court on their own behalf. At the beginning of the twentieth century, a cultural renaissance bloomed and some scholars began to study Indian history more closely. At the same time, the General Assembly did much to deny Indian identity, including passing in 1924 the Act to Preserve Racial Integrity, which criminalized interracial marriage and separated Virginians into two simplified racial categories: white and colored. These wrongs were addressed in part by the Supreme Court's decision in Loving v. Virginia (1967) and by state legislation in the late 1980s that allowed Virginia Indians to change the racial designation on their birth certificates without cost. Virginia Indians in the twenty-first century actively cultivate their own culture while educating others about their history.
Mon, 23 Nov 2015 11:36:25 EST]]>
/Darden_Colgate_W_1897-1981 Mon, 09 Nov 2015 15:53:48 EST <![CDATA[Darden, Colgate W. (1897–1981)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Darden_Colgate_W_1897-1981 Colgate W. Darden was a member of the House of Representatives (1933–1937, 1939–1941), governor of Virginia (1942–1946), and president of the University of Virginia (1947–1959). He also served in the House of Delegates (1930–1933), representing the city of Norfolk. Born in Southampton County, he studied at the University of Virginia and was injured in a plane crash during World War I (1914–1918). He completed his education after the war and was elected as a Democrat to the House of Delegates in 1929 and to Congress in 1934. Never an enthusiastic legislator, he ran for governor in 1941 as a member of the political machine run by Harry F. Byrd Sr. Darden mobilized the state for World War II (1939–1945) and helped guide through the General Assembly reforms of the correctional system and mental hospitals and an increase in funding for public schools. Considered a highly effective executive, Darden declined to run for the U.S. Senate and instead accepted the presidency of the University of Virginia. He worked to make it a more democratic institution, encouraging the enrollment of public-school students and broadening the university's reach to Southwest and Northern Virginia. During his presidency, but only under court order, graduate programs were racially integrated, and he broke with the Byrd Organization over its Massive Resistance to public-school desegregation. Darden retired in 1959 and died in 1981. The University of Virginia Darden School of Business was named in his honor.
Mon, 09 Nov 2015 15:53:48 EST]]>
/Daniel_John_Warwick_1842-1910 Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:36:45 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, John Warwick (1842–1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_John_Warwick_1842-1910 John Warwick Daniel served as a member of the House of Delegates (1869–1872), of the Senate of Virginia (1875–1881), of the House of Representatives (1885–1887), of the U.S. Senate (1887–1910), and of the Convention of 1901–1902. Daniel earned the nickname "The Lame Lion of Lynchburg" after the American Civil War (1861–1865), when he suffered an injury that required him to use a crutch for the rest of his life. A gifted writer and orator, Daniel memorialized the Confederate war effort and spoke out against Reconstruction. He began his political career as a Conservative, became a prominent Funder late in the 1870s, and then in the 1880s helped rebuild the Democratic Party. At the Convention of 1901–1902, called to revise the state constitution, Daniel chaired the important Committee on the Elective Franchise. At first advocating less-onerous suffrage restrictions, he ultimately pushed for a more aggressive path that disfranchised most African Americans in Virginia, along with large numbers of poorer white citizens. Daniel spent his last years as an elder statesman of the Democratic Party, and died in 1910.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:36:45 EST]]>
/Buck_v_Bell_1927 Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:31:32 EST <![CDATA[Buck v. Bell (1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Buck_v_Bell_1927 In Buck v. Bell, decided on May 2, 1927, the U.S. Supreme Court, by a vote of 8 to 1, affirmed the constitutionality of Virginia's law allowing state-enforced sterilization. After being raised by foster parents and allegedly raped by their nephew, the appellant, Carrie Buck, was deemed feebleminded and promiscuous. In 1924, Buck was committed to the Virginia State Colony for Epileptics and Feeble-Minded, near Lynchburg, and there ordered sterilized. The Virginia law allowing the procedure had been passed in 1924 and responded to fifty years of scholarly debate over whether certain social problems, including shiftlessness, poverty, and prostitution, were inherited and ultimately could be eliminated through selective sterilization. Looking to test the law's legality before engaging in widespread sterilization, the colony superintendent, Albert S. Priddy, made sure his order was appealed. The Amherst County Circuit Court and the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals both ruled in the colony's favor, and in 1927 the U.S. Supreme Court agreed. In an infamous opinion, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. noted that Carrie Buck, her mother, and her daughter were all suspected of being feebleminded, declaring, "Three generations of imbeciles are enough." The opinion was never overturned and led to a marked increase in sterilizations across the United States. At the Nuremberg Trials, Nazi defendants cited Buck v. Bell in their own defense. Virginia repealed the law in 1974 and in 2002 apologized to its victims.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:31:32 EST]]>
/Racial_Integrity_Laws_of_the_1920s Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:27:31 EST <![CDATA[Racial Integrity Laws (1924–1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Racial_Integrity_Laws_of_the_1920s Racial integrity laws were passed by the General Assembly to protect "whiteness" against what many Virginians perceived to be the negative effects of race-mixing. They included the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which prohibited interracial marriage and defined as white a person "who has no trace whatsoever of any blood other than Caucasian"; the Public Assemblages Act of 1926, which required all public meeting spaces to be strictly segregated; and a third act, passed in 1930, that defined as black a person who has even a trace of African American ancestry. This way of defining whiteness as a kind of purity in bloodline became known as the "one drop rule." These laws arrived at a time when a pseudo-science of white superiority called eugenics gained support by groups like the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, which argued that the mixing of whites, African Americans, and Virginia Indians could cause great societal harm, despite the fact that the races had been intermixed since European settlement. From his position as the state registrar of vital statistics, Walter A. Plecker micromanaged the racial classifications of Virginians, often worrying that blacks were attempting to pass as white. Virginia Indians were particularly incensed by the laws, and by Plecker in particular, because the state seemed intent on removing any legal recognition of Indian identity in favor of the broader category "colored." After one failed try, lawmakers largely achieved this goal in 1930, drawing negative reaction from the black press. The Racial Integrity Act remained on the books until 1967, when the U.S. Supreme Court, in Loving v. Virginia, found its prohibition of interracial marriage to be unconstitutional. In 2001, the General Assembly denounced the act, and eugenics, as racist.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:27:31 EST]]>
/DeJarnette_Joseph_Spencer_1866-1957 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 10:01:06 EST <![CDATA[DeJarnette, Joseph S. (1866–1957)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/DeJarnette_Joseph_Spencer_1866-1957 Joseph S. DeJarnette was a physician and eugenicist who performed hundreds of involuntary sterilizations at Western State Hospital in Staunton. DeJarnette's early career fit the reform ethos of the Progressive period and he modernized treatment of patients as superintendent of the hospital. He also began to advocate for forced sterilizations, which he believed would improve society. DeJarnette testified in the landmark case Buck v. Bell (1927), in which the U.S. Supreme Court upheld Virginia's sterilization statute. He took pride in the state's aggressive approach to sterilization, but felt the state was not acting fast enough and publicly admired Nazi Germany's more ambitious plan. DeJarnette defended sterilization and racial segregation until his death in 1957. In 2001 the General Assembly denounced and expressed regret over Virginia's eugenics program.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 10:01:06 EST]]>
/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:59:11 EST <![CDATA[Daniels, Edward D. (1828–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Edward D. Daniels was an agricultural reformer, newspaper editor, and an active member of the Republican Party. The Massachusetts-born Daniels worked as a geologist in Wisconsin, helped mount expeditions to establish abolitionist colonies in Kansas, served in the U.S. Army, and was involved in manufacturing in the Midwest before settling in Virginia in 1868, at his doctor's recommendation. That same year he bought Gunston Hall, the onetime home of George Mason, and tried to transform the plantation into a cooperative community of independent farmers and artisans. He hired African American laborers, instructed them in scientific farming techniques, and paid them relatively high wages. The venture was not profitable, however, and he sold the property in 1891, retaining a small piece of land for himself. Daniels extended his ambitions for reform into politics: he edited and published the Richmond Evening State Journal in support of the Republican Party, twice ran for office (and was twice defeated), and supported the nascent Readjusters. Daniels's financial troubles often thwarted his reform efforts, but a primary school for black children that he helped found survived into the 1920s. He died at his farm near Gunston Hall in 1916 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:59:11 EST]]>
/Daniel_Wilbur_Clarence_Dan_1914-1988 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:57:28 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Dan (1914–1988)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Wilbur_Clarence_Dan_1914-1988 Dan Daniel represented Danville in the House of Delegates (1960–1969) and served as representative from Virginia in the United States Congress (1969–1988). Prior to his election to public office, he served as the state and then national commander of the American Legion (1951; 1956), a platform he used to lobby for veterans' rights and benefits. A conservative whose views on integration aligned with those of United States senator Harry F. Byrd Sr., Daniel supported Massive Resistance and voted in favor of keeping the poll tax. During his nineteen years in Congress, he worked to strengthen national defense, supported United States president Richard M. Nixon during the Watergate scandal, and helped write the Omnibus Anti-Drug Act of 1985. On January 19, 1988, Daniel announced that he would not seek reelection to Congress due to his struggle with heart disease. He died four days later of an aortic dissection at the University of Virginia Medical Center in Charlottesville.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:57:28 EST]]>
/Corbin_Percy_Casino_1888-1952 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:52:19 EST <![CDATA[Corbin, Percy C. (1888–1952)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Corbin_Percy_Casino_1888-1952 Percy C. Corbin was a civil rights activist. A lawsuit he filed on behalf of his son, Corbin et al. v. County School Board of Pulaski County, Virginia, et al. (1950), led to one of only six successful lawsuits supported by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in its legal campaign to equalize school facilities before Brown v. Board of Education (1954). A Texas native and physician, Corbin established his practice in the town of Pulaski, where he helped combat an influenza outbreak in 1918 and attracted both black and white clients. Corbin fought to equalize school facilities and was active in the local black community. He died in 1952.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:52:19 EST]]>
/Copeland_Walter_Scott_1856-1928 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:50:49 EST <![CDATA[Copeland, Walter S. (1856–1928)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Copeland_Walter_Scott_1856-1928 Walter S. Copeland owned or co-owned important newspapers across Virginia including the Danville Register, Richmond Evening Leader, Roanoke Times, and Newport News Daily Press. Held in high esteem by his journalistic peers, he served four terms as president of the Virginia Press Association. Copeland supported Progressive reforms to improve welfare and education programs for poor whites, which he viewed as necessary for social order. He opposed the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s and supported what later became Hampton University. Yet Copeland became a strong backer of harsh segregation laws in his later years. He joined forces with John Powell, founder of the Anglo-Saxon Clubs, and supported the 1924 Virginia Act to Preserve Racial Integrity. Two years later Copeland and his newspapers crusaded for what became the Massenburg Bill, the strongest segregation law in the United States.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:50:49 EST]]>
/Carpenter_Miles_Burkholder_1889-1985 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:44:24 EST <![CDATA[Carpenter, Miles B. (1889–1985)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carpenter_Miles_Burkholder_1889-1985 Miles B. Carpenter was a prominent twentieth-century folk artist. In 1912 Carpenter purchased a factory in the Sussex County town of Waverly, which he turned into a lumber mill. He later added a sawmill and ice business to his enterprise. Carpenter began woodcarving in 1941 but had little time to spend on his work until he closed his lumber mill in the 1950s. The artist began sculpting animals and then people, utilizing both whittling and assemblage. By the 1970s Carpenter's work drew the attention of collectors, and he began exhibiting his works in one-man shows. His autobiography Cutting the Mustard was published in 1982.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:44:24 EST]]>
/Campbell_Preston_White_1874-1954 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:42:53 EST <![CDATA[Campbell, Preston W. (1874–1954)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Campbell_Preston_White_1874-1954 Preston W. Campbell was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902, commonwealth's attorney for Washington County (1911–1914), a judge of the Twenty-third Circuit (1914–1924), and a judge on the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals (1924–1946), serving as the court's chief justice from 1931 until his retirement. Born in Abingdon, Campbell studied law there and practiced in the town for fourteen years. At the Convention of 1901–1902, called in large part to disenfranchise Virginia's blacks and poor whites, he supported the depoliticizing of county school superintendents but spoke little during the proceedings. As a Supreme Court justice he penned 528 opinions, the most memorable of which was his solo dissent in Staples v. Gilmer (1945). Campbell argued that in calling a constitutional convention, the General Assembly could not place limits on what the delegates considered. Campbell retired from the bench in 1946 and died in 1954.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:42:53 EST]]>
/Cameron_William_Evelyn_1842-1927 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:41:05 EST <![CDATA[Cameron, William E. (1842–1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cameron_William_Evelyn_1842-1927 William E. Cameron was a veteran of the American Civil War (1861–1865), a journalist, a governor of Virginia (1882–1886), and a member of the Convention of 1901–1902. Cameron served in the Confederate army during the war, then worked as a journalist in Petersburg and Richmond, supporting the Conservative Party. Beginning in 1876, he was elected to three consecutive two-year terms as the mayor of Petersburg. Later in the 1870s he began to side with the Readjusters, a faction that sought to adjust the payment of Virginia's prewar debt. He won the governorship as a nominee of the Readjuster-Republican coalition in 1881. Cameron and the Readjusters issued a series of reforms, including repealing the poll tax, but his aggressive use of political patronage angered voters and his opponents. The revived Democratic Party, capitalizing on white supremacy and the electorate's unease over Cameron's tactics, took over the General Assembly in 1883. Cameron left politics after completing his term, but was elected in 1901 to a state constitutional convention. He played an influential role, advocating provisions that strengthened the governor's authority to discharge subordinate officials; defending legislative election of judges; and supporting reinstating the poll tax and other restrictions that disfranchised African American voters. Cameron returned to journalism in 1906, editing the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot until 1919. He died in Louisa County in 1927.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:41:05 EST]]>
/Butts_Evelyn_Thomas_1924-1993 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:38:31 EST <![CDATA[Butts, Evelyn Thomas (1924–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Butts_Evelyn_Thomas_1924-1993 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:38:31 EST]]> /Button_Robert_Young_1899-1977 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:32:31 EST <![CDATA[Button, Robert Y. (1899–1977)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Button_Robert_Young_1899-1977 Robert Y. Button was Virginia's attorney general from 1962 to 1970. The Culpeper native was among the many small-town attorneys who contributed to the success of Harry F. Byrd Sr.'s Democratic political machine. Button served for fifteen years in the Senate of Virginia, where he backed the Byrd Organization's policies of Massive Resistance and fiscal conservatism. During his two terms as attorney general his office defended Virginia's racial segregation laws, legislative reapportionment, voter registration procedures, and the poll tax. Most notably, his assistants lost in the landmark cases Griffin et al. v. County School Board of Prince Edward County et al. (1964), which invalidated the practice of closing county schools and funding private segregated academies, and Loving v. Virginia (1967), which invalidated Virginia's law against interracial marriages.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:32:31 EST]]>
/Burch_Thomas_Granville_1869-1951 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:24:44 EST <![CDATA[Burch, T. G. (1869–1951)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burch_Thomas_Granville_1869-1951 T. G. Burch was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1931–1946) and briefly served in the U.S. Senate (1946). As a congressman he represented an eight-county district in southern Virginia along the North Carolina border. Reapportionment added a ninth county beginning with the 74th Congress. A colleague of the conservative Democratic U.S. senator Harry F. Byrd, Burch was briefly considered by Byrd and his advisers as a gubernatorial candidate for the 1937 election; however, Burch's unorthodox plan for teacher pay upset the Byrd Organization, which removed him from the inner circle of Virginia politics.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:24:44 EST]]>
/Buck_Carrie_Elizabeth_1906-1983 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:23:07 EST <![CDATA[Buck, Carrie (1906–1983)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Buck_Carrie_Elizabeth_1906-1983 Carrie Buck was the first person involuntarily sterilized under Virginia's eugenics laws. In 1920 her mother was diagnosed as feebleminded—a diagnosis based less on a medical finding than on the doctors' perception of her sexual behavior—and committed to the Virginia State Colony for Epileptics and Feeble-Minded in Lynchburg. Buck moved in with a foster family and in 1923 became pregnant, claiming that the foster family's nephew raped her. The teenager was similarly deemed epileptic and feebleminded and placed at the colony after she gave birth in 1924. The colony's superintendent decided to use Buck as a test case for the state's new sterilization law. In Buck v. Bell (1927), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Virginia's law was constitutional and that Buck should be sterilized. Her sterilization was the first of approximately 8,300 performed under state law between 1927 and 1972. After her release from the colony Buck, in sharp contrast to her diagnosis, lived an active life until her death in 1983.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:23:07 EST]]>
/Brown_Thomas_Henry_1864-1952 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:20:21 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Thomas H. (1864–1952)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Thomas_Henry_1864-1952 Thomas H. Brown was a civic leader of African American communities in Petersburg and Hopewell. A child laborer, Brown worked his way up the social and financial ladder by joining civic associations and learning the undertaker's trade. In 1893, he organized the People's Memorial Cemetery Association to save Petersburg's African American cemetery from deteriorating conditions and a possible foreclosure. Brown opened a funeral home in Hopewell about 1916 and remained involved with the locality during its World War I boom years. He was a civic leader in Petersburg and across the state for the rest of his life, continuing his involvement with the cemetery. The burial ground fell into disrepair after his death in 1952 but was revived after Petersburg took possession of it in 1986. Four years later People's Memorial Cemetery formally opened as a city-owned historic site.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:20:21 EST]]>
/Bristow_Joseph_Allen_1838-1903 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:11:33 EST <![CDATA[Bristow, Joseph A. (1838–1903)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bristow_Joseph_Allen_1838-1903 Joseph A. Bristow was a Republican member of the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902. The Middlesex County Confederate veteran developed an interest in oyster harvesting and took out a patent for deepwater tongs with an associate. He joined the Republican Party and later supported the Readjusters who wished to reduce the antebellum state debt. Becoming one of Readjuster leader William Mahone's chief local organizers, Bristow remained the most important Republican in the county for more than thirty years. After unsuccessful attempts at being elected a presidential elector and a congressman, he won a seat to the state constitutional convention from the district of Essex and Middlesex counties. One of only a dozen Republicans in the convention and the only one from east of the mountains, he voted against the restrictive voter-registration provisions that the convention adopted and against the adoption of the constitution. Bristow's resolution that naturally occurring oyster beds be held as a public trust did evolve into a section of the new constitution.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:11:33 EST]]>
/Bragg_George_Freeman_1863-1940 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:02:48 EST <![CDATA[Bragg, George F. (1863–1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bragg_George_Freeman_1863-1940 George F. Bragg was born into slavery and later became a journalist and Episcopal minister. Dismissed from divinity school, he began his public career working for Readjuster leader William Mahone and establishing the weekly Petersburg Lancet. Bragg left politics in 1884 after divisiveness within the Readjuster Party. He returned to the seminary in 1885 and a few years later took over a struggling Norfolk congregation. Within five years he turned it into a self-supporting church. In 1888 he was ordained a priest at Saint Luke's Episcopal Church in Norfolk, making him only the twelfth black Episcopal priest in the United States. Bragg moved to Baltimore, Maryland, in 1891 where he revived another church, edited a monthly newspaper, the Church Advocate, and wrote books and pamphlets. He died in Baltimore in 1940.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:02:48 EST]]>
/Blair_Robert_William_1873-1924 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:46:24 EST <![CDATA[Blair, Robert W. (1873–1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_Robert_William_1873-1924 Robert W. Blair was one of the few Republicans who served in the Convention of 1901–1902, opposing the new constitution's strict restrictions on voting rights for African Americans and lower-income whites. Blair began his legal career working with his father, Francis S. Blair, a former attorney general of Virginia. He soon became the chairman of Wythe County's Republican Party. He ran for the locality's seat in the convention, winning by twenty-three votes. Blair and the eleven other members of his party had little influence as the new state government was formed by the overwhelming Democratic majority. The Republicans nominated Blair for lieutenant governor in 1901, but he withdrew his candidacy since he was too young to hold the position. About five years later his work took him out of state, and he settled in the Detroit area and drowned in the Detroit River in 1924.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:46:24 EST]]>
/Black_Aline_Elizabeth_1906-1974 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:30:56 EST <![CDATA[Black, Aline E. (1906–1974)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Aline_Elizabeth_1906-1974 Aline E. Black was a teacher known primarily as a principal in a civil rights court case. A graduate of what became Virginia State University, Black began teaching science in Norfolk city schools in 1924. As an African American, she received a substantially smaller salary than a comparably qualified white teacher. In 1939 she agreed to be the plaintiff in a lawsuit filed in Norfolk to challenge this double standard. The school board fired Black in retaliation for her suit, but another plaintiff continued the case and in 1940 the United States Supreme Court upheld a lower court's ruling that teacher salaries were protected by the Fourteenth Amendment. Black was rehired by the school board in 1941. She continued to teach in Norfolk until her retirement in 1973; she died a year later.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:30:56 EST]]>
/Bell_John_Hendren_1883-1934 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:29:12 EST <![CDATA[Bell, John H. (1883–1934)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bell_John_Hendren_1883-1934 John H. Bell was a prominent eugenicist and physician in Virginia. A member of the American Medical Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Virginia Academy of Science, and the Medical Society of Virginia, Bell advocated the forced sterilization of people believed to be incompetent. Appointed superintendent of the State Colony for Epileptics and Feeble-Minded, in Lynchburg, Bell became a principal in the lawsuit arranged by the former superintendent to test Virginia's 1924 legislation allowing for forced sterilization. Carrie Elizabeth Buck, a patient at the colony, had been selected for the test case. In its landmark ruling in Buck v. Bell, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of Virginia's law. Bell performed the operation on Buck himself. Bell continued to produce pamphlets defending eugenics until his death.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:29:12 EST]]>
/Banks_William_Lester_1911-1986 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:27:31 EST <![CDATA[Banks, W. Lester (1911–1986)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Banks_William_Lester_1911-1986 W. Lester Banks was a civil rights activist. Born in Lunenburg County, Banks served as a school principal in Halifax and Charles City counties before seeing action in the Pacific during World War II (1939–1945). Embarking on a long career to combat segregation in 1943, Banks became the first executive secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's Virginia State Conference in 1947. Working behind the scenes, Banks played a significant role in the desegregation of Virginia schools and other public facilities. He retired in 1976 and the following year moved to California, where he died in 1986.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:27:31 EST]]>
/Aiken_Archibald_Murphey_1888-1971 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:14:40 EST <![CDATA[Aiken, Archibald M. (1888–1971)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Aiken_Archibald_Murphey_1888-1971 Archibald M. Aiken was a lawyer and judge of the Danville Corporation Court who opposed desegregation. During the Danville civil rights protests of 1963 Aiken gained national notoriety after confronting the demonstrators and issuing an injunction to ban most forms of public protest in the city. He convened a special grand jury, which indicted three protest leaders for conspiring to incite "the colored population of the State to acts of violence and war against the white population." Controversial, stubborn, and outspoken, Aiken continued to fight against integration throughout the 1960s. He died of a heart attack in 1971.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:14:40 EST]]>
/Labor_in_Virginia_During_the_Twentieth_Century Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:46:12 EST <![CDATA[Labor in Virginia during the Twentieth Century]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Labor_in_Virginia_During_the_Twentieth_Century The history of labor in Virginia during the twentieth century reflects both the ever-changing nature of the workplace and the endurance of Virginians' long-held ideas about race, culture, and work. These powerful forces profoundly affected the choices and fortunes of workingmen and -women, black and white. They influenced hiring, wages, and seniority. They shaped the organization and evolution of companies and labor unions alike. And, like Virginia, they changed as the twenty-first century approached. One idea proved especially durable. It was the belief that the necessary maintenance of the social, political, and economic status quo depended on a combination of unorganized, low-wage labor and racial segregation, if not outright white supremacy. Employee and employer alike often embraced this antiunion, pro-apartheid approach to the age of industrialization and it shaped the development of the southern workforce. In Virginia, the vestiges of that ideology survived for most of the twentieth century.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:46:12 EST]]>
/Great_Migration_The Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:53:32 EST <![CDATA[Great Migration, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Great_Migration_The The Great Migration refers to the relocation of hundreds of thousands of African Americans from the rural areas of the South to urban areas in the North during the years between 1915 and 1930. Although many of those who left the rural South migrated to southern urban areas, most migrants moved to cities in the North. It was the largest movement northward and into cities that had occurred among African Americans to that point in history. The United States' entrance into World War I in 1917 played an important role in this movement, as the demand for additional labor grew in war-related industries at the same time that white workers were siphoned off to serve in the armed forces. Immigration also slowed dramatically, removing another source of labor for American industry. African American labor was one of the key alternative sources sought by these industries to enable them to respond to the growing demand for war-related goods. Industrial jobs that had not been previously available to African Americans now became accessible in greater quantity and variety. This flood of African American migrants dramatically changed the demography of many cities in both the North and South, as the percentage of African American residents exploded. Cities like New York; Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Chicago, Illinois, saw their African American populations grow by 50 percent or more during this period. This population surge placed great pressure on the municipal services and housing supply of these cities. It created growing tension between residents as they competed for places to live and for jobs, particularly after the war ended. As a consequence, the Great Migration pushed issues of race more to the forefront in the North. It also heightened these issues for the South as concern increased about the loss of workers in rural areas and the presence of growing African American populations in some of its cities. The movement added greater impact to a statement made by the African American intellectual W. E. B. Du Bois, who posited in 1903 that one of the critical issues of the twentieth century would be the question of the color line.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:53:32 EST]]>
/Pickett_LaSalle_Corbell_1843-1931 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:35:25 EST <![CDATA[Pickett, LaSalle Corbell (1843–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pickett_LaSalle_Corbell_1843-1931 LaSalle Corbell Pickett was a prolific author and lecturer, and the third wife of George E. Pickett, the Confederate general best known for his participation in the doomed frontal assault known as Pickett's Charge during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After her husband's death in 1875, she traveled the country to promote a highly romanticized version of his life and military career that was generally at odds with the historical record. George Pickett emerged from the war with a strained relationship with Robert E. Lee—whom he partly blamed for the destruction of his division at Gettysburg (1863)—and accused of war crimes. But in his wife's history, Pickett and His Men (1899), this not-always-competent soldier was transformed into the ideal Lost Cause hero, "gallant and graceful as a knight of chivalry riding to a tournament." This image largely stuck in the American consciousness, leaving historians to spend much of the next century attempting to separate Pickett from his myth.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:35:25 EST]]>
/Spencer_Anne_1882-1975 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:31:13 EST <![CDATA[Spencer, Anne (1882–1975)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Spencer_Anne_1882-1975 Anne Spencer was a poet, a civil rights activist, a teacher, a librarian, and a gardener. While fewer than thirty of her poems were published in her lifetime, she was an important figure of the black literary movement of the 1920s—the Harlem Renaissance—and only the second African American poet to be included in the Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry (1973). Noted for iambic verse preoccupied with biblical and mythological themes, Spencer found fans in such Harlem heavyweights as James Weldon Johnson, who commented on her "economy of phrase and compression of thought." In addition to her writing, Spencer helped to found the Lynchburg chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). She was also an avid gardener and hosted a salon at her Lynchburg garden, which attracted prominent figures of the Harlem Renaissance. Her former residence is now a museum that is open to the public.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:31:13 EST]]>
/Jamestown_Ter-Centennial_Exposition_of_1907 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:18:18 EST <![CDATA[Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition of 1907]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jamestown_Ter-Centennial_Exposition_of_1907 The Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition, marking the three hundredth anniversary of the founding of Jamestown and the Virginia colony by settlers from England, was held in Norfolk, Virginia, from April 26 to November 30, 1907. The event was one in a series of large fairs and expositions held across the United States, beginning with the 1893 World's Columbian Exhibition in Chicago, which commemorated the four hundredth anniversary of Christopher Columbus's landing in America. Such events were designed as international showcases for arts and technology and were often linked to important anniversaries in order to highlight the notion of historical "progress." More than its predecessors, the Jamestown exhibition emphasized athletics and military prowess, the latter drawing some protests. Among many dignitaries who visited the exposition were U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, the author Mark Twain, the educator Booker T. Washington, representatives from more than twenty nations abroad, and a number of foreign naval ships. Although the exhibition on African Americans was considered to be particularly successful, the event in general was a financial fiasco, plagued by poor management, overly ambitious plans, insufficient resources, and tight deadlines. The naval display, however, was impressive enough that in 1917 the exposition's site became home to Naval Air Station Hampton Roads (later Naval Station Norfolk).
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:18:18 EST]]>
/Benga_Ota_ca_1883-1916 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:14:22 EST <![CDATA[Benga, Ota (ca. 1883–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Benga_Ota_ca_1883-1916 Ota Benga was a Pygmy from the Congo who traveled to the United States several times as an adult before finally settling in Lynchburg, Virginia. After his wife and two children were killed and he was sold into slavery, Benga's freedom was purchased by the Presbyterian missionary Samuel P. Verner. The two became friends, and Benga is believed to be the first African Pygmy to reside permanently in the United States. After appearing at the Saint Louis World's Fair in 1904, Benga spent three weeks exhibited in a cage with apes at the Bronx Zoo in New York City, upsetting Benga and causing a public outcry. He spent three years in a Brooklyn, New York, orphanage before relocating to Lynchburg to attend the Virginia Theological Seminary and College. In Lynchburg, he befriended the seminary's president, his wife, and their kids, as well as the poet Anne Spencer. Benga's attempts at assimilation ultimately failed, however, and he committed suicide on March 20, 1916. He was nearly forgotten until 1992, when the publication of a definitive biography brought him international attention and renewed popularity. For many, Benga personifies the shameful exploitation of African people by European colonial powers, as well as the historical use of science and anthropology to support racism and ethnocentrism.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:14:22 EST]]>
/Grand_Fountain_of_the_United_Order_of_True_Reformers Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:10:06 EST <![CDATA[Grand Fountain of the United Order of True Reformers]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Grand_Fountain_of_the_United_Order_of_True_Reformers The Grand Fountain of the United Order of True Reformers was an African American fraternal organization that became the largest and most successful black business enterprise in the United States between 1881 and 1910. William Washington Browne founded and organized the Grand Fountain in Richmond in January 1881. A former slave, veteran of the Union army during the American Civil War (1861–1865), teacher, and Methodist minister, Browne created the Grand Fountain with a renewed purpose and energy out of the languishing Grand United Order of True Reformers, which began in the 1870s in Alabama and Kentucky. Where the original order taught temperance and provided members with sick and death benefits, Browne's vision expanded into an enterprise that cultivated a growing black middle class by offering services that included a savings bank, a real estate company, a retirement home, and a youth and children's division that taught discipline, thrift, and business skills. Although the Grand Fountain operated until 1934, it was never the same after 1910, when an embezzlement scandal and a number of large loan defaults caused the bank to close its doors. Despite the organization's downfall, the order left a powerful legacy because it provided employment and business opportunities to African Americans and helped to establish community leaders and business networks amidst a period of Jim Crow laws and strict racial segregation in Virginia.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:10:06 EST]]>
/Loving_v_Virginia_1967 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 14:22:25 EST <![CDATA[Loving v. Virginia (1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Loving_v_Virginia_1967 In Loving v. Virginia, decided on June 12, 1967, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously struck down Virginia's law prohibiting interracial marriages as a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. The appellants, Richard and Mildred Loving, of Caroline County, had married in Washington, D.C., in June 1958 and then returned to Virginia, where they were arrested. After pleading guilty, they were forced to leave the state. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed motions and appeals on their behalf beginning in 1963, and after the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals ruled against the Lovings in 1966, the U.S. Supreme Court heard their arguments. The case came after nearly 300 years of legislation in Virginia regulating interracial marriage and carefully defining which citizens could legally claim to be white. Two U.S. Supreme Court cases, Pace v. Alabama (1883) and Maynard v. Hill (1888), upheld the constitutionality of such laws. In 1924, the Act to Preserve Racial Integrity banned interracial marriage in Virginia while defining a white person as someone who had no discernible nonwhite ancestry. It was this law that the U.S. Supreme Court ruling said denied Virginians' "fundamental freedom" to marry. Loving v. Virginia is a landmark case, both in the history of race relations in the United States and in the ongoing political and cultural dispute over the proper definition of marriage.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 14:22:25 EST]]>
/When_Marriages_No_Void_for_Want_of_Authority_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:43:45 EST <![CDATA[When Marriages Not Void for Want of Authority (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/When_Marriages_No_Void_for_Want_of_Authority_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:43:45 EST]]> /Person_Performing_Ceremony_of_Marriage_Between_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:41:57 EST <![CDATA[Person Performing Ceremony of Marriage Between; How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Person_Performing_Ceremony_of_Marriage_Between_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:41:57 EST]]> /Celebrating_Marriage_without_License_or_etc_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:40:33 EST <![CDATA[Celebrating Marriage without License, or, etc.; How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Celebrating_Marriage_without_License_or_etc_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:40:33 EST]]> /Marriage_of_White_Person_with_Colored_Person_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:38:35 EST <![CDATA[Marriage of White Person with Colored Person, How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Marriage_of_White_Person_with_Colored_Person_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:38:35 EST]]> /Marriage_within_Prohibited_Degrees_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:36:42 EST <![CDATA[Marriage within Prohibited Degrees, How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Marriage_within_Prohibited_Degrees_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:36:42 EST]]> /Preservation_of_Racial_Integrity_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:24:27 EST <![CDATA[Preservation of Racial Integrity (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Preservation_of_Racial_Integrity_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:24:27 EST]]> /Surnames_by_Counties_and_Cities_of_Mixed_Negroid_Virginia_Families_Striving_to_Pass_as_Indian_or_White_by_Walter_A_Plecker_ca_1943 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:04:19 EST <![CDATA[Surnames, by Counties and Cities, of Mixed Negroid Virginia Families Striving to Pass as "Indian" or White by Walter A. Plecker (ca. 1943)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Surnames_by_Counties_and_Cities_of_Mixed_Negroid_Virginia_Families_Striving_to_Pass_as_Indian_or_White_by_Walter_A_Plecker_ca_1943 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:04:19 EST]]> /Letter_from_Walter_A_Plecker_to_Turner_McDowell_September_27_1937 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:01:10 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Walter A. Plecker to Turner McDowell (September 27, 1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Walter_A_Plecker_to_Turner_McDowell_September_27_1937 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:01:10 EST]]> /Letter_from_Walter_A_Plecker_to_Local_Registrars_et_al_December_1943 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:51:21 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Walter A. Plecker to Local Registrars, et al. (December 1943)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Walter_A_Plecker_to_Local_Registrars_et_al_December_1943 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:51:21 EST]]> /Woman_Suffrage_in_Virginia Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:03:36 EST <![CDATA[Woman Suffrage in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Woman_Suffrage_in_Virginia The woman suffrage movement, which sought voting rights for women, began in Virginia as early as 1870. In 1909, its most vocal supporters organized around the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia, which joined with national groups in an effort to change state and local laws and pass an amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The Nineteenth Amendment, which gave women the right to vote, was passed in Congress in 1919 and ratified by the states a year later. Virginia, however, delayed its ratification until 1952. By then, women had been voting and, slowly, winning elected office in the state for more than 30 years.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:03:36 EST]]>
/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1930 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 13:06:19 EST <![CDATA[Colored Persons and Indians Defined (1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1930 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 13:06:19 EST]]> /Separation_of_Races_1926 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 12:46:22 EST <![CDATA[Separation of Races (1926)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Separation_of_Races_1926 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 12:46:22 EST]]> /Atha_Sorrells_v_A_T_Shields_Clerk_Petition_for_Mandamus_November_14_1924 Tue, 22 Sep 2015 12:15:59 EST <![CDATA[Atha Sorrells v. A. T. Shields, Clerk, Petition for Mandamus (November 14, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Atha_Sorrells_v_A_T_Shields_Clerk_Petition_for_Mandamus_November_14_1924 Tue, 22 Sep 2015 12:15:59 EST]]> /Bowler_John_Andrew_1862-1935 Mon, 14 Sep 2015 09:51:57 EST <![CDATA[Bowler, J. Andrew (1862–1935)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowler_John_Andrew_1862-1935 J. Andrew Bowler helped organize the first school for African Americans on Richmond's Church Hill and then served on its faculty for more than fifty years. The son of an enslaved woman, Bowler demonstrated unusual intelligence in his childhood and after the war worked to pay for his education at what later became Virginia Union University. After a brief sojourn in New York, he returned to Richmond and helped establish George Mason Elementary School. He spent years as its highest ranking African American faculty member. Bowler, a religious man, was ordained a minister in 1901 and served as pastor of Mount Olivet Baptist Church. Thirteen years after his death, Richmond's school board opened J. Andrew Bowler School.
Mon, 14 Sep 2015 09:51:57 EST]]>
/Equal_Suffrage_League_of_Virginia_1909-1920 Thu, 03 Sep 2015 15:02:54 EST <![CDATA[Equal Suffrage League of Virginia (1909–1920)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Equal_Suffrage_League_of_Virginia_1909-1920 The Equal Suffrage League of Virginia was an organization of white women dedicated to securing for women the right to vote. Aligned with the national woman suffrage movement, the league worked for more than ten years lobbying the public and the General Assembly alike, until its efforts paid off when three-fourths of the United States state legislatures ratified the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920. The league failed, however, to persuade the Virginia General Assembly, which did not vote to ratify until 1952.
Thu, 03 Sep 2015 15:02:54 EST]]>
/An_Act_to_amend_and_re-enact_section_49_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_1887_1910 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:59:58 EST <![CDATA[An Act to amend and re-enact section 49 of the Code of Virginia, 1887 (1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_amend_and_re-enact_section_49_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_1887_1910 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:59:58 EST]]> /Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1924 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:43:07 EST <![CDATA[Colored Persons and Indians Defined (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1924 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:43:07 EST]]> /An_Act_to_provide_for_the_immediate_registration_of_all_births_and_deaths_1912 Wed, 26 Aug 2015 11:34:46 EST <![CDATA[An Act to provide for the immediate registration of all births and deaths (1912)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_provide_for_the_immediate_registration_of_all_births_and_deaths_1912 Wed, 26 Aug 2015 11:34:46 EST]]> /Vagrancy_Act_of_1866 Tue, 25 Aug 2015 15:14:14 EST <![CDATA[Vagrancy Act of 1866]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Vagrancy_Act_of_1866 The Vagrancy Act of 1866, passed by the General Assembly on January 15, 1866, forced into employment, for a term of up to three months, any person who appeared to be unemployed or homeless. If so-called vagrants ran away and were recaptured, they would be forced to work for no compensation while wearing balls and chains. More formally known as the Act Providing for the Punishment of Vagrants, the law came shortly after the American Civil War (1861–1865), when hundreds of thousands of African Americans, many of them just freed from slavery, wandered in search of work and displaced family members. As such, the act criminalized freedpeople attempting to rebuild their lives and perhaps was intended to contradict Governor Francis H. Pierpont's public statement discouraging punitive legislation. Shortly after its passage, the commanding general in Virginia, Alfred H. Terry, issued a proclamation declaring that the law would reinstitute "slavery in all but its name" and forbidding its enforcement. Proponents argued that the law applied to all people regardless of race, but the resulting controversy, along with other southern laws restricting African American rights, helped lead to military rule in the former Confederacy and congressional Reconstruction. It is unknown to what degree it was ever enforced, but the Vagrancy Act remained law in Virginia until 1904.
Tue, 25 Aug 2015 15:14:14 EST]]>
/Pamunkey_Tribe Mon, 24 Aug 2015 11:10:45 EST <![CDATA[Pamunkey Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pamunkey_Tribe The Pamunkey tribe is an Indian tribe that the Commonwealth of Virginia has recognized since the seventeenth century. In 1983, while granting recognition to several other tribes, Virginia again acknowledged the Pamunkey tribe's status. In 2015, the federal government officially recognized the tribe. The tribe has a reservation located on the Pamunkey River in King William County and is one of the nation's oldest, dating back to 1646. Of the reservation's 1,200 acres, 500 are wetlands. In 2012 about eighty Pamunkey tribal members lived on the reservation, with many more residing in nearby Richmond and Newport News, as well as throughout Virginia and the United States. Pamunkey people have served in every American war and major conflict, beginning with the Revolutionary War (1775–1783).
Mon, 24 Aug 2015 11:10:45 EST]]>
/Glass_Carter_1858-1946 Thu, 20 Aug 2015 08:46:03 EST <![CDATA[Glass, Carter (1858–1946)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Glass_Carter_1858-1946 Carter Glass, a Democrat, served in the Senate of Virginia (1899–1902), as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902, and in the U.S. House of Representatives (1902–1918) and the U.S. Senate (1920–1946). He also served as secretary of the treasury (1918–1920) in the administration of President Woodrow Wilson. Often referred to as the father of the Federal Reserve banking system, he authored the Glass-Steagall Act of 1932—co-sponsored by Representative Henry B. Steagall, of Alabama—and the Banking Act of 1933. Born in Lynchburg, Glass left school early to work as a newspaper reporter. By 1888, he owned the Lynchburg News and later bought another Lynchburg paper, edited by his father, and consolidated the two. Small in stature but always outspoken, Glass educated himself in finance after being appointed to the House Banking and Currency Committee, carefully reconciling many competing interests into a workable Federal Reserve bill. In the U.S. Senate, he set aside a distaste for machine politics in return for, among other things, support in a run for president; he twice sought but never won the nomination. During the Great Depression, he joined Senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. in opposing President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal. At the start of World War II (1939–1945), however, he supported the president's efforts to prepare the nation for possible entry into the war. Glass died in office in 1946.
Thu, 20 Aug 2015 08:46:03 EST]]>
/Secretariat_1970-1989 Mon, 13 Jul 2015 14:33:54 EST <![CDATA[Secretariat (1970–1989)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Secretariat_1970-1989 Secretariat was an American thoroughbred considered one of the greatest of all American racehorses. Best known for winning in 1973 horse racing's Triple Crown—the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, and the Belmont Stakes—Secretariat was the first horse to accomplish that feat in twenty-five years and one of only twelve horses ever to do so. Twenty years after his death, Secretariat still holds the Kentucky Derby track record.
Mon, 13 Jul 2015 14:33:54 EST]]>
/Edmundson_Isaac_ca_1840-1927 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:29:53 EST <![CDATA[Edmundson, Isaac (ca. 1840–1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edmundson_Isaac_ca_1840-1927 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:29:53 EST]]> /Davis_Marion_E_1862-1946 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:18:33 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Marion E. (1862–1946)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Marion_E_1862-1946 Marion E. Davis, an African Methodist Episcopal minister, led the Negro Organization Society (NOS) from 1930 until 1942. Born enslaved in Mississippi, Davis moved to Virginia in 1910 and took over Portsmouth's Emmanuel Church. After leading congregations in Richmond and Norfolk, he served as presiding elder over four separate districts. Davis became involved with the Negro Organization Society, a community-improvement organization in line with the non-confrontational style associated with Booker T. Washington, a few years after its 1910 start. During his tenure as president of the NOS, the organization funded voter registration programs and took full advantage of opportunities made possible by New Deal federal aid. Davis died in Portsmouth in 1946.
Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:18:33 EST]]>
/Eddy_C_Vernon_1877-1963 Thu, 28 May 2015 17:11:42 EST <![CDATA[Eddy, C. Vernon (1877–1963)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Eddy_C_Vernon_1877-1963 C. Vernon Eddy was the first librarian of Winchester's Handley Library, serving from 1913 until 1959. The Winchester native began his professional career when he ran a printing company with his brother while still in school. The enterprise grew into one of the state's largest publishers until it went bankrupt in 1904. He later moved to Philadelphia and eventually learned the library trade. In 1912 the board of trustees of the new library, built with funds provided by benefactor John Handley named him its librarian. Dealing with a limited budget, Eddy emphasized the acquisition of family papers while creating an accessible atmosphere for patrons. He also became known for cataloging the maps and papers of Jedediah Hotchkiss, a cartographer and topographer for Confederate generals Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and Robert E. Lee during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Eddy died of heart disease in 1963.
Thu, 28 May 2015 17:11:42 EST]]>
/Constitutional_Convention_Virginia_1901-1902 Wed, 20 May 2015 10:57:45 EST <![CDATA[Constitutional Convention, Virginia (1901–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Constitutional_Convention_Virginia_1901-1902 The Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902 produced the Virginia Constitution of 1902 and is an important example of post-Reconstruction efforts to restore white supremacy in the American South by disenfranchising large numbers of blacks and working-class whites. Remaining in effect until July 1, 1971, the constitution did much to shape Virginia politics in the twentieth century—a politics dominated by a conservative Democratic Party that fiercely resisted the New Deal, the New Frontier, the Great Society, the civil rights movement, and, with special fervor, federally mandated public school desegregation. Yet the significance of the 1901–1902 convention extends beyond Virginia in that it demonstrates the irony of how Progressive Era reforms nationwide often resulted in state legislation that was far from progressive.
Wed, 20 May 2015 10:57:45 EST]]>
/An_ACT_to_define_feeble-mindedness_1916 Wed, 20 May 2015 10:51:15 EST <![CDATA[An ACT to define feeble-mindedness (1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_to_define_feeble-mindedness_1916 Wed, 20 May 2015 10:51:15 EST]]> /Union_Occupation_of_Charlottesville_1865 Mon, 13 Apr 2015 09:19:46 EST <![CDATA[Union Occupation of Charlottesville (1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Union_Occupation_of_Charlottesville_1865 Union cavalry under the command of Philip H. Sheridan occupied Charlottesville and the University of Virginia from March 3 to March 6, 1865, a month before the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). During the previous summer and autumn, Union forces had battled and largely defeated Jubal A. Early's Confederate Army of the Valley. In February 1865, Sheridan's men rode south from Winchester with orders to destroy railroads and possibly take Lynchburg. They arrived in Charlottesville on March 3, and there were met by a delegation of town and university officials, who asked for protection. Union troopers burned a nearby woolen mills but, apart from widespread foraging and some looting, left the town and college intact. In the meantime, many of the area's African Americans, including at least one enslaved directly by the University of Virginia, used the Union occupation to escape their enslavement. Sheridan left Charlottesville on March 6. In the war's aftermath, institutions that were not destroyed, such as the University of Virginia, became especially important in the South, and the school's enrollment and prestige rose steadily. In 2001, a state historical highway marker commemorating the occupation was rewritten to avoid the term "surrender"; it later was reported missing.
Mon, 13 Apr 2015 09:19:46 EST]]>
/Puller_Lewis_Burwell_Chesty_1898-1970 Mon, 13 Apr 2015 09:16:20 EST <![CDATA[Puller, Lewis Burwell "Chesty" (1898–1971)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Puller_Lewis_Burwell_Chesty_1898-1970 Lewis Burwell "Chesty" Puller, whose barrel chest and blunt manner inspired his nickname, was a thirty-seven-year veteran of the United States Marine Corps who rose to the rank of lieutenant general. The most-decorated Marine in history, he earned five Navy Crosses, the U.S. Navy's second-highest decoration, for fighting in Nicaragua, at Guadalcanal and in New Guinea during World War II (1939–1945), and at the Chosin Reservoir during the Korean War (1950–1953).
Mon, 13 Apr 2015 09:16:20 EST]]>
/Addison_Lucy_1861-1937 Tue, 10 Feb 2015 10:16:50 EST <![CDATA[Addison, Lucy (1861–1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Addison_Lucy_1861-1937 Lucy Addison was a teacher and elementary school principal in Roanoke who was largely responsible for bringing high school–level education to the city's African Americans. Born enslaved in Fauquier County, she earned a teaching diploma in Philadelphia. Addison taught briefly in Loudoun County before moving to Roanoke in 1887. She served briefly as an interim principal at the city's First Ward Colored School before resuming her regular teaching duties. In 1918 she became principal of the Harrison School. Although the school offered classes only up to grade eight, Addison campaigned for a secondary-school curriculum, steadily adding advanced classes. The State Board of Education accredited Harrison as a high school in 1924. Addison retired from the position after the 1926–1927 school year, and the city named the school after her in 1928. It was Roanoke's first public building named after one of its own citizens. Addison, who never married, died in 1937 in Washington, D.C.
Tue, 10 Feb 2015 10:16:50 EST]]>
/Farmer_James_1920-1999 Thu, 05 Feb 2015 13:22:11 EST <![CDATA[Farmer, James (1920–1999)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farmer_James_1920-1999 James Farmer was a civil rights leader who pioneered sit-in demonstrations during the 1940s and led the Freedom Riders of 1961. After graduating from Wiley College, in Texas, Farmer moved to Chicago to serve as race relations secretary for the pacifist group Fellowship of Reconciliation. Dedicated to fighting Jim Crow laws, in 1942 Farmer helped form what became the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). The organization selected Farmer as its national director in 1961, bringing him to prominence. The violent reaction by southern whites to the Freedom Riders was the first in a series of confrontations and arrests for his work on behalf of African American civil rights. Farmer left CORE in 1966 and later served briefly in the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Farmer moved to Spotsylvania County about 1980 and became a professor at Mary Washington College in 1985. That year his book, Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement, was published. Farmer received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1998.
Thu, 05 Feb 2015 13:22:11 EST]]>
/Russell_James_Solomon_1857-1935 Thu, 29 Jan 2015 17:33:54 EST <![CDATA[Russell, James Solomon (1857–1935)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Russell_James_Solomon_1857-1935 James Solomon Russell founded Saint Paul Normal and Industrial School (later Saint Paul's College). Born enslaved, after the American Civil War (1861–1865) Russell sought an education and attended Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University) when family finances allowed it. He established himself as a teacher and became attracted to the Episcopal Church. Russell entered divinity school, serving in a series of religious positions while attending what became the Bishop Payne Divinity School, in Petersburg. The church ordained him a deacon in 1882 and a priest in 1887. He began his ministry in 1882 in the Brunswick County town of Lawrenceville. In 1888 he founded Saint Paul Normal and Industrial School, in response to the local community's intense desire for educational opportunities. Russell fended off the school's early struggles by aggressively fund-raising, and Saint Paul's expanded in both its size and curriculum. He retired as its principal 1929 and was succeeded by his son James Alvin Russell. He died in Lawrenceville in 1935.
Thu, 29 Jan 2015 17:33:54 EST]]>
/Echols_Edward_1849-1914 Mon, 26 Jan 2015 14:08:19 EST <![CDATA[Echols, Edward (1849–1914)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Echols_Edward_1849-1914 Edward Echols served a term as lieutenant governor (1892–1902) and represented the Staunton area in the General Assembly (1883–1897, 1906–1914). The son and nephew of members of the Convention of 1861, Echols entered the House of Delegates as the Democratic Party's nearly century-long hegemony over Virginia politics began. As lieutenant governor he presided over the Senate of Virginia when the General Assembly passed legislation calling for a referendum on a new state constitutional convention that ultimately slashed the voting rights of African Americans. Elected to the Senate of Virginia after his term, he helped forge a compromise that allowed the 1914 referendum that brought statewide Prohibition to the state.
Mon, 26 Jan 2015 14:08:19 EST]]>
/Bassette_Andrew_W_E_1857-1942 Fri, 23 Jan 2015 16:48:29 EST <![CDATA[Bassette, Andrew W. E. (1857–1942)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bassette_Andrew_W_E_1857-1942 Andrew W. E. Bassette was a teacher, lawyer, and businessman who rose from an impoverished upbringing to become a prosperous leader of Hampton's African American community. Born in Hampton, possibly enslaved, Bassette attended Hampton Institute and then taught school, supplementing his income with farm work. Finding time to study law, he passed the bar, and likely served as assistant commonwealth's attorney for Elizabeth City County. In 1889 he became one of a dozen founders of the People's Building and Loan Association of Hampton, writing the charter and serving as general counsel. Known as "Lawyer Bassette," he was one of Hampton's best-known African American figures, participating and sometimes presiding over the city's annual Emancipation Proclamation Day celebration. The city named a school for him. The father of an attorney, physician, and dentist, Bassette died at his home in 1942.
Fri, 23 Jan 2015 16:48:29 EST]]>
/Democratic_Party_of_Virginia Thu, 15 Jan 2015 16:53:10 EST <![CDATA[Democratic Party of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Democratic_Party_of_Virginia The Democratic Party, the dominant political party in Virginia from the 1880s to the 1960s, can trace its origins to the early years of the republic, when disputes over domestic and foreign policies gave birth to the Republican (Democratic-Republican) and Federalist parties. In the 1830s, while Andrew Jackson was president, the name "Democratic" began to gain currency among his supporters. Opposition to Jackson's policies resulted in the formation of a party known as the Whigs. Two-party competition continued in the Old Dominion until the eve of the American Civil War (1861–1865). During Reconstruction (1865–1877), Congress mandated the enfranchisement of black males. Former Democrats and Whigs established the Conservative Party. After Reconstruction, the Conservatives triumphed, but soon they lost power to an interracial coalition known as the Readjusters. In 1883 the Conservative Party changed its name to the Democratic Party. They regained control of the General Assembly that same year, and the governorship two years later. Their control solidified by the suffrage provisions of the Virginia Constitution of 1902, the Democrats were immune to challenge in statewide elections for decades—the only meaningful competition was in the Democratic primary. Early in the twentieth century, party leader Thomas S. Martin and later Harry F. Byrd Sr. developed political organizations based on the support of local officials across the state, but by the 1960s the Byrd Organization was in decline: changes in federal civil rights laws, federal court decisions, the arrival of many newcomers in the state, the rise of the modern Republican Party, and the passing of the old generation of Democratic leaders initiated a party realignment. In the 1970s Virginia's political parties were philosophically more in tune with their respective national parties. Since then, two-party competition has characterized Virginia politics. Virginia Democrats made history by electing an African American as governor in 1989 and giving the state's electoral vote to Barack Obama, the first African American to be the candidate of a major party for president, in 2008.
Thu, 15 Jan 2015 16:53:10 EST]]>
/Adair_Cornelia_Storrs_1884-1962 Thu, 15 Jan 2015 09:39:05 EST <![CDATA[Adair, Cornelia Storrs (1884–1962)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Adair_Cornelia_Storrs_1884-1962 Cornelia Storrs Adair served as president of the National Education Association (NEA), a teachers' union, from 1927 to 1928, the first classroom teacher to be elected to that position. A native of West Virginia, she attended school in Richmond and began her teaching career there in 1904. She taught at various elementary schools, received a degree from the College of William and Mary (1923) and served as principal of Richmond's Franklin Elementary School from 1931 until her retirement in 1954. In 1934, Adair became the first woman awarded William and Mary's Alumni Medallion. Adair attributed her passion for education to her aunt of the same name, one of the pioneer public school teachers in Richmond. Always active in union work, Adair was a longtime member of the Virginia Education Association and the Teachers' Co-operative Association. In addition to presiding over the NEA, she served as president of the National League of Teachers Associations (1919) and the National League of Classroom Teachers (1927). A traditionalist in the classroom, Adair supported universal education, arts education, and education for the physically disabled. Adair died in Charlottesville in 1962. The next year William and Mary opened the Cornelia Storrs Adair Gymnasium (later Adair Hall).
Thu, 15 Jan 2015 09:39:05 EST]]>
/Union_Occupation_of_the_University_of_Virginia_an_excerpt_from Sat, 20 Dec 2014 16:13:34 EST <![CDATA[Union Occupation of the University of Virginia; an excerpt from History of the University of Virginia, 1819–1919 by Philip Alexander Bruce (1920–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Union_Occupation_of_the_University_of_Virginia_an_excerpt_from Sat, 20 Dec 2014 16:13:34 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_The_First_New_York_Lincoln_Cavalry_by_William_H_Beach_1902 Sat, 20 Dec 2014 15:57:11 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from The First New York (Lincoln Cavalry) by William H. Beach (1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_The_First_New_York_Lincoln_Cavalry_by_William_H_Beach_1902 Sat, 20 Dec 2014 15:57:11 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_History_of_the_Sixth_New_York_Cavalry_by_Hillman_A_Hall_et_al_1908 Sat, 20 Dec 2014 15:26:49 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from History of the Sixth New York Cavalry by Hillman A. Hall, et al. (1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_History_of_the_Sixth_New_York_Cavalry_by_Hillman_A_Hall_et_al_1908 Sat, 20 Dec 2014 15:26:49 EST]]> /Buchanan_Archibald_C_1890-1979 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:29:43 EST <![CDATA[Buchanan, Archibald C. (1890–1979)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Buchanan_Archibald_C_1890-1979 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:29:43 EST]]> /Bryan_Joseph_III_1904-1993 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:27:56 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, Joseph III (1904–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_Joseph_III_1904-1993 Joseph Bryan was a journalist and writer who was born into the influential Bryan family of newspaper publishers and industrialists. He edited and wrote for many national publications, including the family-owned Richmond News Leader and Chicago Daily Journal, as well as Parade, Time, Fortune, Town and Country, Reader's Digest, the Saturday Evening Post, and the New Yorker. He wrote numerous articles on travel, humor, and celebrities, some of which evolved into books or reappeared as portions of his books. He served in all three branches of the U.S. military: first as a lieutenant in the field artillery of the army following his graduation from Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey, then in the navy during World War II (1939–1945) as a lieutenant commander assigned to naval air combat intelligence in the Pacific, and later as a lieutenant colonel in the air force. He also worked for the Central Intelligence Agency from the late 1940s until 1953. He lived in Washington, D.C., and at Brook Hill, an ancestral home in Henrico County.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:27:56 EST]]>
/Bryan_John_Stewart_1871-1944 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:26:26 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, John Stewart (1871–1944)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_John_Stewart_1871-1944 John Stewart Bryan was a Richmond newspaper publisher and president of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg. The son of a wealthy and influential newspaper publisher, Bryan went into the family business after briefly practicing law. In 1900, he began work as a reporter at the Richmond Dispatch, owned by his father, Joseph Bryan, and within a year was vice president of the holding company. Upon his father's death in 1908, he became president of the company and owner and publisher of the Richmond News Leader. There he hired as editor Douglas Southall Freeman, who went on to win two Pulitzer Prizes for his historical writing. In 1934, Bryan became president of the College of William and Mary and worked to broaden the school's curriculum and strengthening its reputation as a liberal arts college. Problems at one of the school's affiliates, in Norfolk, however, caused a suspension of the college's national accreditation in 1941. Citing poor health and the need for new leadership, Bryan resigned in 1942 and died in Richmond two years later.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:26:26 EST]]>
/Cline_Patsy_1932-1963 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:13:11 EST <![CDATA[Cline, Patsy (1932–1963)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cline_Patsy_1932-1963 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:13:11 EST]]> /Morgan_v_Virginia Mon, 20 Oct 2014 14:38:24 EST <![CDATA[Morgan v. Virginia (1946)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_v_Virginia In Morgan v. Virginia, decided on June 3, 1946, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down a Virginia law requiring racial segregation on commercial interstate buses as a violation of the commerce clause of the U.S. Constitution. The appellant, Irene Morgan, was riding a Greyhound bus from Hayes Store, in Gloucester County, to Baltimore, Maryland, in 1944 when she was arrested and convicted in Saluda for refusing to give up her seat to a white person. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) filed appeals on her behalf, and after the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals ruled against Morgan in 1945, the U.S. Supreme Court heard her arguments. The case came near the end of a string of decisions, dating back to 1878, in which various courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court, had found that the commerce clause did not support state laws that regulated commercial interstate passenger travel. Morgan v. Virginia was not a typical civil rights case in that it did not comment on a state's right to segregate whites from blacks. Still, Morgan's refusal to give up her seat foreshadowed Rosa Parks's more famous action a decade later and marked an early and important victory in the civil rights movement.
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 14:38:24 EST]]>
/Allen_Floyd_1856-1913 Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:32:45 EST <![CDATA[Allen, Floyd (1856–1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allen_Floyd_1856-1913 Floyd Allen was the central figure in one of the most sensational and bizarre incidents in Virginia criminal and legal history, the so-called Hillsville Massacre. In the great Carroll County shootout in Hillsville on March 14, 1912, a judge, a sheriff, a commonwealth's attorney, a juror, and a spectator were all killed by shots fired by Allen and others after Allen was convicted of assault. Allen and several members of his family immediately fled the courtroom but were later captured and convicted of murder. Allen and his youngest son, Claude Swanson Allen, were both executed for their crimes.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:32:45 EST]]>
/Almond_James_Lindsay_Jr_1898-1986 Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:20:25 EST <![CDATA[Almond, James Lindsay Jr. (1898–1986)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Almond_James_Lindsay_Jr_1898-1986 J. Lindsay Almond Jr. was a governor of Virginia (1958–1962) whose name became synonymous with Massive Resistance, the legislative effort used to prevent school desegregation in light of the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, Supreme Court of the United States ruling in 1954. A Democrat and member of the Byrd Organization, Almond is famous for closing public schools in Charlottesville, Norfolk, and Front Royal in 1958 rather than integrating them. When the state and federal courts declared his actions illegal, Almond submitted, thus effectively ending the era of Massive Resistance to desegregation in Virginia.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:20:25 EST]]>
/Walker_Wyatt_Tee_1929- Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:03:54 EST <![CDATA[Walker, Wyatt Tee (1929– )]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Walker_Wyatt_Tee_1929- Wyatt Tee Walker is a civil rights activist, author, and religious leader. After earning his master of divinity degree from Virginia Union University in 1953, Walker became the pastor of Gillfield Baptist Church in Petersburg. During the 1950s, he served as the president of the Petersburg branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), was the state director of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in Virginia, and founded the Petersburg Improvement Association. In 1960 he was appointed chief of staff to Martin Luther King Jr. and served as the first full-time executive director of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Walker was instrumental in the fund-raising campaigns of the SCLC early in the 1960s and he helped formulate and analyze various protest strategies. He left the SCLC in 1964 and went on to serve as the pastor of Canaan Baptist Church of Christ in Harlem, New York, for thirty-seven years. Following his retirement in 2004, he returned to Virginia.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:03:54 EST]]>
/Valentine_Lila_Meade_1865-1921 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 12:45:16 EST <![CDATA[Valentine, Lila Meade (1865–1921)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Valentine_Lila_Meade_1865-1921 Lila Meade Valentine was a suffragist, education reformer, and public-health advocate. During her abbreviated life, she played a vital role in creating and running organizations that improved the health-care and public school systems of her native city of Richmond. Valentine also became an ardent supporter of woman suffrage early in the 1900s, cofounding the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia and serving as an active member of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. A talented organizer and an eloquent speaker, Valentine led efforts on behalf of suffrage that came to fruition in 1920, when the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified, giving women the right to vote.
Mon, 15 Sep 2014 12:45:16 EST]]>
/Fain_Sarah_Lee_1888-1962 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 09:27:06 EST <![CDATA[Fain, Sarah Lee (1888–1962)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fain_Sarah_Lee_1888-1962 Sarah Lee Fain was one of the first two women elected to serve in the Virginia General Assembly following ratification in 1920 of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which gave American women the right to vote. When she took her seat as a delegate from Norfolk in January 1924, Fain and her legislative colleague Helen Timmons Henderson, of Buchanan County, became pioneers whose presence in the Virginia State Capitol signaled the start of women's full participation in the political life of the state. Virginia changed slowly, however, and six more decades would pass before women served in the state's legislature in appreciable numbers.
Mon, 15 Sep 2014 09:27:06 EST]]>
/Fenwick_Charles_R_1900-1969 Sun, 14 Sep 2014 12:23:24 EST <![CDATA[Fenwick, Charles R. (1900–1969)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fenwick_Charles_R_1900-1969 Charles R. Fenwick served as a Democratic member of the House of Delegates (1940–1945) and the Senate of Virginia (1948–1969) and played a key political role in the development of Northern Virginia after World War II (1939–1945). Fenwick entered politics in the 1930s as a member of the Byrd Organization and represented Arlington County for three terms in the House of Delegates. After an unsuccessful attempt to secure the Democratic nomination for lieutenant governor, Fenwick was elected to the Senate of Virginia in 1947. During the 1950s he opposed the statewide program of Massive Resistance to public-school desegregation, instead supporting local-option plans. He served as the University of Virginia's rector and helped to establish the branch of the university that in 1972 became George Mason University. Fenwick led efforts to regulate the region's public transportation, develop a regional subway system, and establish an authority to build airports in the state. Fenwick died in 1969, while still serving n the Senate. The main library at George Mason University and the Washington, D.C., Metro's Fourteenth Street bridge across the Potomac River are named in his honor.
Sun, 14 Sep 2014 12:23:24 EST]]>
/Duckworth_W_Fred_1899-1972 Sun, 14 Sep 2014 11:46:36 EST <![CDATA[Duckworth, W. Fred (1899–1972)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Duckworth_W_Fred_1899-1972 W. Fred Duckworth served as Norfolk's mayor from 1950 until 1962. While the dynamic and forceful Duckworth earned plaudits for his large urban-renewal projects, his brusque governing style and fight against desegregation attracted controversy. His successes included improvements to the transportation infrastructure, expansion of the city's port, and his key role in creating the MacArthur Memorial, in honor of General Douglas MacArthur. Duckworth received criticism, especially from Norfolk's large African American community, regarding the administration's hiring practices, city services, and development plans that bulldozed interracial neighborhoods. He also backed Massive Resistance, a statewide plan that opposed the desegregation of public schools, urging the city council in 1959 to cut off all funds for schools above the sixth grade. In 1972, nearly a decade after stepping down as mayor, an unknown assailant murdered Duckworth. His murder remains unsolved.
Sun, 14 Sep 2014 11:46:36 EST]]>
/Denny_Collins_1899-1964 Sun, 14 Sep 2014 11:29:23 EST <![CDATA[Denny, Collins (1899–1964)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Denny_Collins_1899-1964 Collins Denny, the son of the Methodist bishop Collins Denny, served as a key lawyer for Virginia's segregationists. Aligned with the dominant faction of the Democratic Party led by Harry F. Byrd Sr., Denny entered the state's conservative political establishment in the 1930s as an assistant attorney general of Virginia. In 1948 he co-wrote a resolution with Governor William M. Tuck that condemned President Harry S. Truman's civil rights policies and supported the so-called Dixiecrats in that year's presidential election. After the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), he helped create the staunchly segregationist Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties and became its legal counsel. Prince Edward County, which closed its public schools rather than desegregate, also hired Denny when it was challenged by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He represented the school boards of two other counties when their segregationist policies were challenged. He died in 1964 after several years of poor health.
Sun, 14 Sep 2014 11:29:23 EST]]>
/Bowser_Rosa_L_Dixon_1855-1931 Wed, 03 Sep 2014 14:06:55 EST <![CDATA[Bowser, Rosa L. Dixon (1855–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowser_Rosa_L_Dixon_1855-1931 Rosa L. Dixon Bowser, educator and civic leader, played a key role in implementing reforms that affected Virginia's African Americans. Bowser was most likely born enslaved. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), she moved to Richmond with her family and enrolled in public school, where she showed remarkable intelligence. She went on to become a teacher in Richmond's public schools. Her efforts on behalf of educators helped create Virginia's first professional African American teacher's association, and she later served as its president. Throughout her teaching career Bowser, like her contemporaries Janie Porter Barrett and Maggie Lena Walker, worked for societal improvement. She played a major role in African American reform organizations, industrial schools for black children, groups supporting universal woman suffrage, and associations publicly opposed to lynching and racial segregation. The first branch of the Richmond public library to be opened for African Americans was named for Bowser in 1925. She died of complications from diabetes in 1931 at her home in Richmond.
Wed, 03 Sep 2014 14:06:55 EST]]>
/Davis_Harry_B_1893-1987 Thu, 21 Aug 2014 07:59:11 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Harry B. (1893–1987)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Harry_B_1893-1987 Harry B. Davis was a longtime Democratic member of the House of Delegates, representing Princess Anne County and Virginia Beach. Beginning his state political career in the 1930s, he rose to become an influential figure in the General Assembly during the next two decades. Following the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 ruling, in Brown v. Board of Education, that mandatory racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional, Davis supported local option plans for desegregation and tuition grants for white students to attend private, segregated schools. While hardly an integrationist, Davis's key role in opposing Massive Resistance, the statewide plan to oppose school segregation, alienated him from the staunchly segregationist Byrd Organization and cost him his political career: in 1959, a candidate backed by the organization defeated Davis in the Democratic primary. Davis returned to Virginia Beach and died in Norfolk in 1987.
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 07:59:11 EST]]>
/Bouldin_Wood_1838-1911 Sun, 17 Aug 2014 10:58:46 EST <![CDATA[Bouldin, Wood (1838–1911)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bouldin_Wood_1838-1911 Wood Bouldin, a Democratic Party stalwart, played a key role in disfranchising African Americans and poorer whites during the Convention of 1901–1902. Born in Charlotte County, he became an attorney and served as a Confederate artillery officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Settling in Halifax County after the war, he became an attorney and Democratic Party leader. Halifax voters elected him to the convention called to write a new constitution for Virginia. Bouldin introduced a resolution that limited voting rights to literate property owners and jury duty to registered voters. He also gave a long speech that defending the right of the convention to put the constitution into effect without approval by the voters.
Sun, 17 Aug 2014 10:58:46 EST]]>
/Cook_George_Major_1860-1930 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 16:24:22 EST <![CDATA[Cook, George Major (1860–1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cook_George_Major_1860-1930 George Major Cook, also known as Wahunsacook or Wahansunacoke, served as chief of the Pamunkey Indians from 1902 until his death in 1930. Born on the Pamunkey Reservation in King William County in 1860, Cook had become one of the headmen of the tribe by 1888 and was elected chief in 1902. In 1917 he obtained rulings from the state attorney general that Virginia had no right to tax Indians living on the reservation or to draft members of the tribe for military service, thus reaffirming Pamunkey status as wards of the state. During the 1920s he opposed the Virginia Act to Preserve Racial Integrity, which effectively classified Virginians as either black or white. In speeches, newspaper articles, and visits to legislative committees and successive Virginia governors, Cook argued for the right of Virginia's Indians to maintain their distinct heritage and be correctly classified as Indians in official records. During the final year of his life, Cook led opposition to a proposal to exempt Indians on reservations from being classified as black because it did not protect those who lived off the reservations. He died at his home on the reservation on December 16, 1930.
Thu, 14 Aug 2014 16:24:22 EST]]>
/Charity_Ruth_LaCountess_Harvey_Wood_1924-1996 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 16:09:13 EST <![CDATA[Charity, Ruth LaCountess Harvey Wood (1924–1996)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Charity_Ruth_LaCountess_Harvey_Wood_1924-1996 Ruth LaCountess Harvey Wood Charity was a civil rights activist and defense attorney in Danville. Nonviolent demonstrations emerging from the Danville Movement in June 1963 resulted in a violent response from authorities and hundreds of arrests. Charity and a few local attorneys defended protesters through complicated state and federal appeals from 1964 until 1973. Danville's voters elected her to the city council in 1970, becoming the first African American woman to sit on the body. From 1972 to 1980, she was one of four Virginia members of the Democratic National Committee. Charity lost her law license in 1984 when she was convicted of embezzling from two clients' estates. In 1985 she moved to Alexandria and worked for the Fairfax Human Rights Commission. Charity died in Greenbelt, Maryland, in 1996.
Thu, 14 Aug 2014 16:09:13 EST]]>
/The_Civilian_Conservation_Corps Fri, 08 Aug 2014 16:45:41 EST <![CDATA[Civilian Conservation Corps]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Civilian_Conservation_Corps The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was the most popular of United States president Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal programs, even winning the endorsement of Virginia's conservative U.S. senator Harry Flood Byrd Sr. (While Byrd was a fellow Democrat, he advocated a small federal government that did not spend ahead of means or interfere in state affairs.) Designed to alleviate the widespread unemployment caused by the Great Depression, the CCC recruited unmarried, unemployed young men between the ages of eighteen and twenty-five to spend six months in camps doing conservation work, primarily in the nation's forests. They were paid $1 a day, most of which was sent to their parents in $25 monthly allotments. The War Department ran most of the camps on a military basis, providing supervision and discipline. Although some critics saw a fascist-like militarism in such circumstances, the CCC had the positive, although unintended consequence of preparing men for service in World War II (1939–1945). At its peak, the CCC employed half-a-million men in more than 2,500 camps, and 2.5 million men enlisted during its nine-year existence.
Fri, 08 Aug 2014 16:45:41 EST]]>
/Cooper_Esther_Georgia_Irving_1881-1970 Fri, 08 Aug 2014 16:14:34 EST <![CDATA[Cooper, Esther Georgia Irving (1881–1970)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooper_Esther_Georgia_Irving_1881-1970 Fri, 08 Aug 2014 16:14:34 EST]]> /Adams_Pauline_1874-1957 Thu, 07 Aug 2014 13:38:36 EST <![CDATA[Adams, Pauline (1874–1957)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Adams_Pauline_1874-1957 Pauline Adams was an Irish-born suffrage activist who took an extraordinarily active role in her community for a woman at that time. Born in 1874, Adams arrived in the United States during the 1890s. She married a physician in 1898 and they soon settled in Norfolk. There, she served as president of the Norfolk League, a National American Woman Suffrage Association affiliate. Her militant approach to securing suffrage alienated many other women in the area. Although she supported the United States' entry into World War I (1914–1917) and sold War Bonds, she was arrested and jailed at the Occoquan Workhouse after waving suffrage banners in front of President Woodrow Wilson during a selective service parade. After the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, Adams became a lawyer and remained active in politics. She died in 1957.
Thu, 07 Aug 2014 13:38:36 EST]]>
/Downes_Elizabeth_James_Morris_1886-1968 Wed, 06 Aug 2014 17:13:35 EST <![CDATA[Downes, Elizabeth James Morris (1886–1968)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Downes_Elizabeth_James_Morris_1886-1968 Elizabeth James Morris Downes was a leader among Virginia's Baptist women for much of the twentieth century. Downes rose to prominence in 1910 when she became superintendent for the Eastern Shore's chapters of the Women's Missionary Union (WMU), a position she held until she became president of the the state organization in 1931. Though her presidency of the WMU of Virginia took place during the Great Depression, the association continued to fund missions and created the Interracial Department to improve African American education. Her term as president ended in 1934. Downes then became state chair of the Margaret Fund, which provided scholarship aid to children of Baptist missionaries, from 1935 until her retirement in 1950.
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 17:13:35 EST]]>
/Agnew_Ella_Graham_1871-1958 Sat, 02 Aug 2014 11:59:13 EST <![CDATA[Agnew, Ella G. (1871–1958)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Agnew_Ella_Graham_1871-1958 Ella G. Agnew was a prominent educator and social worker who advanced employment opportunities for women early in the 1900s long before there was a woman's liberation movement. She served as the first president of the Virginia Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs and worked in the national office of the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA). During the Great Depression, Agnew directed women's relief activities in Virginia.
Sat, 02 Aug 2014 11:59:13 EST]]>
/Alderman_Edwin_Anderson_1861-1931 Sat, 02 Aug 2014 11:07:51 EST <![CDATA[Alderman, Edwin Anderson (1861–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Alderman_Edwin_Anderson_1861-1931 Edwin Anderson Alderman was a noted educator, progressive reformer, and president of the University of North Carolina, Tulane University, and the University of Virginia, where he served as the school's first president from 1904 until his death in 1931. He brought to the University of Virginia a zeal for progressive reform, having campaigned in North Carolina and Louisiana for increased spending on public education and the creation of teacher-training schools, especially for women. In Charlottesville, Alderman established the Curry Memorial School of Education in 1905 and reorganized the university to emphasize efficiency and promote professional and technical instruction. The number of faculty doubled by 1907 and the university became more integrated with the educational life of the rest of the state. Alderman supported creating a coordinate college for women at the university, and even though the General Assembly opposed the idea, the university began admitting women to its graduate and professional programs in 1918. Alderman was a prolific fund-raiser, a well-known orator, and a close advisor to U.S. president Woodrow Wilson. In 1938, the Alderman Library at the University of Virginia was dedicated in Alderman's honor.
Sat, 02 Aug 2014 11:07:51 EST]]>
/Dalton_John_N_1931-1986 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 13:22:41 EST <![CDATA[Dalton, John N. (1931–1986)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dalton_John_N_1931-1986 John N. Dalton, a successful lawyer, businessman, and farmer, was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates (1966–1972) and the Senate of Virginia (1972–1973), and served as lieutenant governor (1974–1978) and as governor (1978–1982). He was the first Republican lieutenant governor of the twentieth century. His term as governor came during a period of dramatic realignment in which the Republican Party, long overshadowed by the Democratic Byrd Organization, became competitive in state elections for the first time in nearly a century. In fact, Dalton's rapid climb from state legislator to governor paralleled Virginia's transition from a one-party, Democratic state, typical of the "Solid South," to a competitive, two-party system. The third in a trio of Republican governors of Virginia during the 1970s, Dalton stressed economic development, conservative fiscal management, and Republican party-building.
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 13:22:41 EST]]>
/Battle_John_Stewart_1890-1972 Sat, 19 Jul 2014 10:18:39 EST <![CDATA[Battle, John Stewart (1890–1972)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Battle_John_Stewart_1890-1972 John Stewart Battle was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates (1930–1934) and the Senate of Virginia (1934–1950), and served as governor of Virginia (1950–1954). A loyal Democrat in line with the Byrd Organization, the state machine run by U.S. senator Harry F. Byrd Sr., Battle overcame a spirited challenge by three fellow Democrats to win the 1949 gubernatorial primary. His greatest achievement as governor was a massive school construction program to accommodate the first wave of the baby boom. Battle gained national recognition when he addressed the 1952 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois, in an effort to prevent the Virginia delegation from losing its vote due to a disagreement over a loyalty oath. Although the U.S. Supreme Court did not announce its 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas—which mandated the desegregation of public schools—until after Battle left office, civil rights issues were emerging during his term. In a somewhat ironic end to his public service, Battle, a segregationist, was appointed by U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower to the U.S. Civil Rights Commission in 1957.
Sat, 19 Jul 2014 10:18:39 EST]]>
/Poll_Tax Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:08:18 EST <![CDATA[Poll Tax]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Poll_Tax A poll tax is a tax levied as a prerequisite for voting. After Reconstruction (1865–1877)—the twelve-year period of rebuilding that followed the American Civil War (1861–1865)—many southern states passed poll taxes in an effort to keep African Americans from voting. As a result, many African Americans (and other impoverished citizens) who could not afford to pay the poll tax were disfranchised and deprived of their rights as citizens. In 1870 the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was adopted, stipulating that an individual's right to vote could not be denied by any state on the basis of race or color. Southern state legislators, however, soon looked for other ways to keep the vote from African Americans, which inevitably, and perhaps by design, blocked some white Americans. In response, many state legislatures drew up grandfather clauses to ensure that non–African American constituents were included in the voting process. The U.S. Supreme Court declared grandfather clauses unconstitutional in 1915 and again in 1939, but poll taxes had greater longevity and remained in effect into the era of the civil rights movement. The Twenty-fourth Amendment, ratified in 1964, outlawed the use of this tax (or any other tax) as a pre-condition in voting in federal elections, and the 1966 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections extended this ruling, stating that the imposition of a poll tax in state elections violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:08:18 EST]]>
/Monacan_Indian_Nation Tue, 01 Jul 2014 13:40:09 EST <![CDATA[Monacan Indian Nation]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Monacan_Indian_Nation The Monacan Indian Nation is a state-recognized Indian tribe whose tribal area is located near Bear Mountain in Amherst County. The original territory of the Siouan-speaking tribe and its allies comprised more than half of present-day Virginia, including almost all of the Piedmont region and parts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Early in the twenty-first century about 1,600 Monacans belonged to the tribe, one of the oldest groups of indigenous people still existing in its ancestral homeland, and the only group in the state whose culture descends from Eastern Siouan speakers.
Tue, 01 Jul 2014 13:40:09 EST]]>
/Byrd_Harry_Flood_Jr_1914- Sun, 22 Jun 2014 10:47:25 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, Harry Flood Jr. (1914–2013)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Harry_Flood_Jr_1914- Harry F. Byrd Jr. represented Virginia in the United States Senate from 1965 to 1983 after serving seventeen years in the Senate of Virginia. A member of one of Virginia's most powerful political families, Byrd took over the Senate seat from his father in 1965. Byrd, however, was also something of a dissident, quitting the Democratic Party in 1970 to run as an Independent. In addition to his career in politics, Byrd followed his father into journalism as well, serving as editor and publisher of the Winchester Star from 1935 to 1981 and as publisher of the Harrisonburg Daily News-Record from 1939 to 2001. He died in 2013.
Sun, 22 Jun 2014 10:47:25 EST]]>
/Byrd_Richard_E_1888-1957 Sun, 22 Jun 2014 10:17:24 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, Richard E. (1888–1957)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Richard_E_1888-1957 Richard E. Byrd was a naval aviator and explorer of both the Arctic and Antarctica who became famous in 1926 as the first man credited with flying to the North Pole. During World War I (1914–1918), he conducted antisubmarine patrols in the North Atlantic and became a pioneer in navigating long distances, both on water and in the air. Byrd's desire to test navigational equipment in extreme climates took him to Greenland in 1925, and from there he pushed north using a sun compass and shortwave aerial radio transmissions. His roundtrip, aerial expedition to the North Pole, funded by wealthy American industrialists, was completed in about sixteen hours on May 9, 1926, and earned Byrd international fame. His pioneering feat has long been questioned, at times persuasively, by skeptical scientists who claimed that he could not have made the trip in such a short amount of time. Later in his career, Byrd established the United States presence in Antarctica and flew to the South Pole.
Sun, 22 Jun 2014 10:17:24 EST]]>
/Cannon_James_1864-1944 Sun, 15 Jun 2014 09:25:52 EST <![CDATA[Cannon, James (1864–1944)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cannon_James_1864-1944 James Cannon Jr. was an educator, a bishop of the southern Methodist Church, a leader of Prohibitionists in Virginia and the nation, and a political activist of such skill and combativeness that he became one of the most famous, and deeply controversial, American figures of the early twentieth century. Best known as a relentless advocate of Prohibition, Cannon drove the Virginia Anti-Saloon League's campaign for statewide Prohibition, adopted in 1914. He then served as the national Anti-Saloon League's principal Democratic lobbyist through the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1919 and the subsequent enforcement of national Prohibition during the 1920s. Cannon was a partisan Democrat, yet in 1928 he led a rebellion of southern Democrats against the presidential campaign of Alfred E. Smith, a wet, Catholic representative of the urban wing of the Democratic Party. Also an innovator and divisive figure within his church, Cannon, who became a bishop in 1918, directed worldwide missionary efforts and unsuccessfully pushed for the unification of the northern and southern branches of American Methodism. Charges of embezzlement, stock-market gambling, and adultery, fanned by Cannon's numerous enemies, dogged the bishop from 1929 until 1934 and diminished his influence thereafter.
Sun, 15 Jun 2014 09:25:52 EST]]>
/Carson_William_Edward_1870-1942 Sun, 15 Jun 2014 08:08:48 EST <![CDATA[Carson, William Edward (1870–1942)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carson_William_Edward_1870-1942 William E. Carson, chairman of the Commission on Conservation and Development, was a Virginia businessman whose friendship with Harry F. Byrd elevated him to political prominence in Virginia in the 1920s. Disagreements with the more-powerful Byrd over commission matters and his own political ambitions, however, led to a falling out. Though Byrd declined to renew Carson's commission appointment in 1934, Carson remained chairman of the Democratic committee in the Seventh District until 1940.
Sun, 15 Jun 2014 08:08:48 EST]]>
/Chambers_Joseph_Lenoir_Jr_1891-1970 Sun, 15 Jun 2014 06:49:46 EST <![CDATA[Chambers, Lenoir (1891–1970)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chambers_Joseph_Lenoir_Jr_1891-1970 Lenoir Chambers, newspaper editor and author, is best known for his opposition to the South's Massive Resistance to racial integration of the public schools, a position he maintained from early in 1954 to 1959. During his life and his career, he sought to educate readers about perceived injustices toward African Americans and workers throughout the South, and urged fairer treatment of them. When Virginia's political leaders closed the state's public schools in 1958 to avoid federally mandated school integration, Chambers wrote a series of articles in the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot that opposed the closings. His essays earned him a Pulitzer Prize for Distinguished Editorial Writing in 1960.
Sun, 15 Jun 2014 06:49:46 EST]]>
/Cochran_Herbert_Green_1885-1969 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 13:31:30 EST <![CDATA[Cochran, Herbert G. (1885–1969)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cochran_Herbert_Green_1885-1969 Herbert G. Cochran served as judge of the Norfolk Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court (1925–1954) and helped establish the modern juvenile court system in Virginia. He held the controversial belief that the welfare of defendant juveniles was paramount and that incarceration contributed to recidivism. During his three decades on the bench he emphasized individual treatment of defendants and pioneered the use of family counseling and probation. Cochran, along with Richmond's James Hoge Ricks and Roanoke's Odessa Pittard Bailey, turned the focus of the courts to rehabilitating young offenders. His activism helped reform juvenile justice systems across the country, serving on national boards and helping craft Massachusetts's laws.
Thu, 05 Jun 2014 13:31:30 EST]]>
/Smith_Howard_Worth_1883-1976 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 13:28:44 EST <![CDATA[Smith, Howard Worth (1883–1976)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_Howard_Worth_1883-1976 Howard W. Smith, a Virginia Democratic congressman, was one of America's most powerful politicians from the New Deal to the Great Society. A master obstructionist who chaired the House Rules Committee, he used his power to fight the liberal agendas of presidential administrations from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Lyndon B. Johnson. He was particularly concerned about the influence of Communists and wrote the Alien Registration Act of 1940, legislation that eventually paved the way for government targeting of radicals during the Cold War. He also saw Communism at the heart of the civil rights movement and attempted to kill the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by introducing an amendment to include women under its provisions. Ironically, this helped the measure pass and stands as an important part of Smith's legacy.
Thu, 05 Jun 2014 13:28:44 EST]]>
/Cromwell_John_Wesley_1846-1927 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 17:23:35 EST <![CDATA[Cromwell, John Wesley (1846–1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cromwell_John_Wesley_1846-1927 John Wesley Cromwell was an educator, lawyer, and journalist. Born enslaved in Portsmouth, he became free after his mother, who was manumitted in 1849, purchased and freed his father and siblings. The family settled in Philadelphia, where Cromwell attended the Institute for Colored Youth, a Quaker school. He taught at several schools between 1865 and 1871, some of which were located in Portsmouth and Norfolk County. Cromwell acquired his law degree at Howard University and likely was the first African American attorney to argue before the Interstate Commerce Commission. He also published and edited the People's Advocate, a weekly newspaper, from 1876 to 1884; established a series of intellectual associations, such as the Negro American Society and the Bethel Literary and Historical Association; and helped found the American Negro Academy. He resumed his career in education in 1899. Cromwell was a strong advocate for industrial and agricultural education, but later came to believe that African American leaders should also seek political solutions to racial problems. He died at his Washington, D.C., residence in 1927.
Wed, 04 Jun 2014 17:23:35 EST]]>
/The_Ethics_of_Eugenics_Excerpts_from_John_Hendren_Bell_sEugenical_Sterilization_1929 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 10:45:59 EST <![CDATA[The Ethics of Eugenics; an excerpt from Eugenical Sterilization (1929)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Ethics_of_Eugenics_Excerpts_from_John_Hendren_Bell_sEugenical_Sterilization_1929 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 10:45:59 EST]]> /Justifying_Eugenics_Excerpts_from_John_Hendren_Bell_sThe_Biological_Relationship_of_Eugenics_to_the_Development_of_the_Human_Race_1930 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 10:41:10 EST <![CDATA[Justifying Eugenics; an excerpt from The Biological Relationship of Eugenics to the Development of the Human Race by John H. Bell (1929)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Justifying_Eugenics_Excerpts_from_John_Hendren_Bell_sThe_Biological_Relationship_of_Eugenics_to_the_Development_of_the_Human_Race_1930 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 10:41:10 EST]]> /Report_on_Sterilization_an_Excerpt_from_John_Hendren_Bell_sEugenic_Control_and_its_Relationship_to_the_Science_of_Life_and_Reproduction_1931 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 10:15:27 EST <![CDATA[Report on Sterilization; an excerpt from John H. Bell's Eugenic Control and its Relationship to the Science of Life and Reproduction (1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Report_on_Sterilization_an_Excerpt_from_John_Hendren_Bell_sEugenic_Control_and_its_Relationship_to_the_Science_of_Life_and_Reproduction_1931 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 10:15:27 EST]]> /Morgan_v_Virginia_June_3_1946 Tue, 03 Jun 2014 17:05:50 EST <![CDATA[Morgan v. Virginia (June 3, 1946)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_v_Virginia_June_3_1946 Tue, 03 Jun 2014 17:05:50 EST]]> /Plecker_Walter_Ashby_1861-1947 Fri, 30 May 2014 15:23:29 EST <![CDATA[Plecker, Walter Ashby (1861–1947)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Plecker_Walter_Ashby_1861-1947 Walter Ashby Plecker was a physician and the first Virginia state registrar of vital statistics, a position he served in from 1912 to 1946. He was a staunch promoter of eugenics, a discredited movement aimed at scientifically proving white racial superiority and thereby justifying the marginalizing of non-white people. Employing Virginia's Act to Preserve Racial Integrity (1924), Plecker effectively separated Virginia citizens into two simplified racial categories: white and colored. The law, which remained in effect until 1967, when it was overturned by the United States Supreme Court in the case of Loving v. Virginia , required that a racial description of every person be recorded at birth, while criminalizing marriages between whites and non-whites. Plecker's policies used deceptive scientific evidence to deem blacks a lesser class of human beings, but they also targeted poor whites and anyone he or other eugenicists considered "feebleminded." Asserting that Virginia Indians were, in fact, "mixed-blooded negroes," Plecker also pressured state agencies into reclassifying Indians as "colored." The policy's legacy was effectively to erase "Indian" as an identity and has made it difficult for Virginia Indians to gain state and federal recognition.
Fri, 30 May 2014 15:23:29 EST]]>
/Desegregation_in_Public_Schools Fri, 30 May 2014 14:52:24 EST <![CDATA[Desegregation in Public Schools]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Desegregation_in_Public_Schools The desegregation of the public schools in Virginia began on February 2, 1959, and continued through early in the 1970s when the state government's attempts to resist desegregation ended. During this period, African Americans in Virginia pushed for desegregation primarily by filing lawsuits in federal courts throughout Virginia. This litigation was aimed at achieving court rulings forcing the state of Virginia and its local school districts to comply with the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 decision Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, mandating the desegregation of public schools. State and local officials, however, generally resisted efforts to bring about desegregation and utilized their political power to avoid and then minimize public school desegregation. Virginia's Indians, meanwhile, went without the benefit of any state-funded public education until 1963, almost a decade after Brown.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:52:24 EST]]>
/Chickahominy_Tribe Fri, 30 May 2014 11:53:14 EST <![CDATA[Chickahominy Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chickahominy_Tribe The Chickahominy tribe is a state-recognized Indian tribe located on 110 acres in Charles City County, midway between Richmond and Williamsburg. Early in the twenty-first century its population numbered about 875 people living within a five-mile radius of the tribal center, with several hundred more residing in other parts of the United States.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:53:14 EST]]>
/Rappahannock_Tribe Fri, 30 May 2014 11:47:55 EST <![CDATA[Rappahannock Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rappahannock_Tribe The Rappahannock tribe is a state-recognized Indian tribe whose tribal area is located in Indian Neck in King and Queen County. In the late twentieth century, the tribe owned 140.5 acres of land and the Rappahannock Cultural Center and had about 500 members on its tribal roll.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:47:55 EST]]>
/Nansemond_Tribe Fri, 30 May 2014 11:44:08 EST <![CDATA[Nansemond Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Nansemond_Tribe The Nansemond tribe is a state-recognized Indian tribe whose members live mostly in the cities of Chesapeake and Suffolk. In 2009 about 200 Nansemond tribal members were registered in Virginia.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:44:08 EST]]>
/Upper_Mattaponi_Tribe Fri, 30 May 2014 11:42:41 EST <![CDATA[Upper Mattaponi Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Upper_Mattaponi_Tribe The Upper Mattaponi tribe is a state-recognized Indian tribe whose tribal grounds consist of thirty-two acres in King William County, near the upper reaches of the Mattaponi River. In 2009, the tribe consisted of 575 members, many of whom live in Virginia.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:42:41 EST]]>
/Mattaponi_Tribe Fri, 30 May 2014 11:41:10 EST <![CDATA[Mattaponi Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mattaponi_Tribe The Mattaponi tribe is a state-recognized Indian tribe located on a 150-acre reservation that stretches along the borders of the Mattaponi River at West Point in King William County. Early in the twenty-first century the tribe included about 450 people, 75 of whom lived on the reservation.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:41:10 EST]]>
/Eastern_Chickahominy_Tribe Fri, 30 May 2014 11:39:07 EST <![CDATA[Eastern Chickahominy Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Eastern_Chickahominy_Tribe The Chickahominy Tribe Eastern Division is a state-recognized Indian tribe located about twenty-five miles east of Richmond in New Kent County. Early in the twenty-first century its population numbered about 132 people, with 67 of those living in Virginia and the rest residing in other parts of the United States.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:39:07 EST]]>
/Eggleston_Joseph_Dupuy_Jr_1867-1953 Wed, 28 May 2014 12:49:38 EST <![CDATA[Eggleston, Joseph Dupuy, Jr. (1867–1953)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Eggleston_Joseph_Dupuy_Jr_1867-1953 Joseph D. Eggleston was a pioneering educator who served as Virginia's first elected superintendant of public schools and made significant advances in Virginia education. He successfully increased funding for both public secondary schools and public universities (Virginia high schools grew under his tenure from 75 to 448), increased teachers' salaries, and lengthened school terms. Eggleston also served as the seventh president of Virginia Polytechnic Institute (Virginia Tech), where his most ambitious fiscal projects were stalled by U.S. involvement in World War I (1914–1918) and a more wary state legislature. In 1919 he was named president of his alma mater, Hampden-Sydney College, where he remained for twenty years, helping the institution to liberalize its curriculum and to weather the effects of the Great Depression.
Wed, 28 May 2014 12:49:38 EST]]>
/Falwell_Jerry_1933-2007 Tue, 27 May 2014 10:32:37 EST <![CDATA[Falwell, Jerry (1933–2007)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Falwell_Jerry_1933-2007 Jerry Falwell was a fundamentalist Christian pastor and the founder of the Thomas Road Baptist Church and Liberty University in Lynchburg, Virginia. Best known for his key role in mobilizing the Christian Right into a formidable power in United States politics, Falwell founded the Moral Majority in 1979, a national political organization that emphasized a commitment to a "pro-family" agenda. The Moral Majority achieved prominence very quickly when in 1980 there was a significant surge in evangelical conservative support for the Republican Party nominee for U.S. president, Ronald Reagan, and for Republican, or GOP (Grand Old Party) candidates for the U.S. Congress. Many observers credited Falwell with having played the leading role in energizing these voters to support Reagan and the GOP. After Reagan's landslide win and the Republican successes in the congressional races as well, Falwell and the Moral Majority became prominent, though controversial, fixtures on the U.S. political scene.
Tue, 27 May 2014 10:32:37 EST]]>
/Freeman_Douglas_Southall_1886-1953 Tue, 27 May 2014 07:17:31 EST <![CDATA[Freeman, Douglas Southall (1886–1953)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Freeman_Douglas_Southall_1886-1953 Douglas Southall Freeman was a biographer, a newspaper editor, a nationally renowned military analyst, and a pioneering radio broadcaster. He won the Pulitzer Prize twice: the first, in 1935, for his four-volume biography of the Confederate general Robert E. Lee; and the second, posthumously in 1958, for his six-volume biography of George Washington, with a seventh volume written by John Alexander Carroll and Mary Wells Ashworth after Freeman's death in 1953. The son of a Confederate veteran, Freeman is best known as a historian of the American Civil War (1861–1865) and, in particular, of the high command of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. His description of Lee, Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, and their compatriots as "men of principles unimpeachable, of valour indescribable" for some has suggested that his work was influenced by the Lost Cause view of the war that was in part founded by his former neighbor, Jubal A. Early. In reality, Freeman's admiration for the Confederates never influenced his historical conclusions.
Tue, 27 May 2014 07:17:31 EST]]>
/Woodson_Carter_G_1875-1950 Tue, 27 May 2014 04:53:27 EST <![CDATA[Woodson, Carter G. (1875–1950)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Woodson_Carter_G_1875-1950 Carter G. Woodson was a historian and founder of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, the Journal of Negro History, and "Negro History Week." Now known as the "Father of Black History" because of his efforts to promote African American history, Woodson wrote pioneering social histories chronicling the lives of black people at a time when mainstream white scholars denied that African Americans were worthy of historical study. Much of his work was based on public records, letters, speeches, folklore, and autobiographies, materials that were previously ignored. Woodson also used an interdisciplinary approach that combined anthropology, sociology, and history. From 1915 until 1947, he published four monographs, five textbooks, five edited collections of documents, five sociological studies, and thirteen articles. He pioneered in interpretations of slavery and Africa, which were adopted by mainstream historical scholars late in the 1950s. Among the works for which he is best known is The Mis-Education of the Negro (1933), which is still in print seventy-five years later.
Tue, 27 May 2014 04:53:27 EST]]>
/Gibson_Irene_Langhorne_1873-1956 Sun, 25 May 2014 10:23:37 EST <![CDATA[Gibson, Irene Langhorne (1873–1956)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gibson_Irene_Langhorne_1873-1956 Irene Langhorne Gibson, a native of Danville, Virginia, chaired the Child Planning and Adoption Committee of New York's State Charities Association for twenty-five years. She founded the New York branch of the Southern Women's Educational Alliance, was a member of the Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children, and helped found and was a director of the Protestant Big Sisters, on whose board she served for many years. Though she was a politically active and influential spokeswoman throughout her life, she may best be known as the incarnation of the Progressive Era's model "New Woman"—the "Gibson Girl," a social and fashion template created and popularized by her famous illustrator husband, Charles Dana Gibson.
Sun, 25 May 2014 10:23:37 EST]]>
/Bryan_Corbin_Braxton_1852-1922 Thu, 22 May 2014 16:37:12 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, C. Braxton (1852–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_Corbin_Braxton_1852-1922 C. Braxton Bryan was an Episcopal minister and a proponent of African American education. Between 1893 and 1905, while serving as minister of Saint John's Church in Hampton, he developed an interest in the students at Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, which was founded to educate African Americans and Native Americans. At Hampton, Bryan also helped establish Saint Cyprian's Church, the city's first African American Episcopal congregation. Early in 1905 he moved to Petersburg and was elected dean and principal of the Bishop Payne Divinity School, the oldest theological seminary for the education of African American Episcopal clergymen in the South. Bryan, who believed that whites were a superior race, felt that Christian beliefs helped improve the lives of black Virginians and saw the promotion of African American education and spirituality as his responsibility.
Thu, 22 May 2014 16:37:12 EST]]>
/Green_Charles_C_et_al_v_County_School_Board_of_New_Kent_County_Virginia Thu, 22 May 2014 16:34:01 EST <![CDATA[Green, Charles C. et al. v. County School Board of New Kent County, Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Green_Charles_C_et_al_v_County_School_Board_of_New_Kent_County_Virginia Charles C. Green et al. v. County School Board of New Kent County, Virginia, was a 1968 United States Supreme Court decision that ordered school districts to abolish dual systems of education for black and white students, placing on them an "affirmative duty" to integrate their schools genuinely. The pressure for such a ruling had mounted in the years since the Court's landmark decisions in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) and Brown II (1955), which had declared separate schools to be "inherently unequal" but did not define the process by which schools would be desegregated. Virginia officials had responded to Brown with the Massive Resistance movement, in some cases shutting down public schools rather than integrating them. Incremental desegregation occurred when federal courts forced those schools to reopen in 1959, although schools in Prince Edward County did not reopen until 1964. But in New Kent County, school board officials instituted bureaucratic delays while also placing the burden of desegregation on black families through a "freedom of choice" plan. Not until the Supreme Court struck down most "freedom of choice" plans in Green did Virginia school districts implement full desegregation.
Thu, 22 May 2014 16:34:01 EST]]>
/Kepone Fri, 16 May 2014 11:19:19 EST <![CDATA[Kepone (Chlordecone)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Kepone Kepone, also known as chlordecone, is a toxic, nonbiodegradable insecticide that a chemical plant in Hopewell, Virginia dumped into the James River from 1966 until 1975. The chemical's negative effect on the environment was documented and eventually publicized, leading authorities to shut down the Allied Chemical Corporation plant that produced Kepone and to order fishing bans and advisories. The environmental and medical scandal was one of the first of its kind to play out nationally, and while it eventually led to the destruction of the Virginia fishing industry, it also led to improved environmental awareness.
Fri, 16 May 2014 11:19:19 EST]]>
/Braxton_A_Caperton_1862-1914 Thu, 15 May 2014 14:58:15 EST <![CDATA[Braxton, A. Caperton (1862–1914)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Braxton_A_Caperton_1862-1914 A. Caperton Braxton was a lawyer, president of the Virginia State Bar Association, and a member of the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902, representing Staunton and Augusta County. Braxton supported the convention's aggressive and largely successful efforts at rolling back the reforms of Reconstruction (1865–1877) and eliminating the African American franchise in Virginia, as well as the votes of poor and uneducated whites. As the chair of the convention's Committee on Corporations, he drafted Article XII of the Constitution of 1902, creating the State Corporation Commission, a progressive reform designed to regulate corporations in the public interest. A conservative Democrat, Braxton was named as a possible U.S. vice presidential candidate in 1904, but never ran for public office in Virginia. He died of Bright's disease in Staunton in 1914.
Thu, 15 May 2014 14:58:15 EST]]>
/_Miss_Mary_Johnston_A_Suffrage_Worker_June_11_1911 Mon, 12 May 2014 09:23:32 EST <![CDATA["Miss Mary Johnston: A Suffrage Worker" (June 11, 1911)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Miss_Mary_Johnston_A_Suffrage_Worker_June_11_1911 Mon, 12 May 2014 09:23:32 EST]]> /Wilson_Woodrow_1856-1924 Fri, 02 May 2014 14:34:48 EST <![CDATA[Wilson, Woodrow (1856–1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wilson_Woodrow_1856-1924 Woodrow Wilson was president of Princeton University (1902–1910), governor of New Jersey (1911–1913), twenty-eighth president of the United States (1913–1921), and creator of the League of Nations. Although he was sometimes caricatured as a northern academic, Wilson was born in Staunton, Virginia, and considered himself to be southern. As such, he was the first southerner elected president since Zachary Taylor in 1848, and brought to the office a progressive zeal for reform, both economic and social, as well as the typical mindset of the southern white political class, which considered African Americans second-class citizens, that contributed to his decision strictly to segregate the federal workforce. He is perhaps best known for leading the United States into the World War I (1914–1918), despite an election vow to do otherwise, and for helping to negotiate the resulting Treaty of Versailles. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919.
Fri, 02 May 2014 14:34:48 EST]]>
/Peery_George_Campbell_1873-1952 Thu, 01 May 2014 17:24:04 EST <![CDATA[Peery, George Campbell (1873–1952)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Peery_George_Campbell_1873-1952 George Campbell Peery, a Democratic ally of Harry F. Byrd Sr., served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1923–1929) and as governor of Virginia (1934–1938). Peery made his first mark on Virginia's political map and brought a great victory to the Democratic Party when he wrested control of Southwest Virginia's "Fighting Ninth" Congressional District from two decades of Republican occupation. As Byrd's handpicked choice to replace outgoing governor John Garland Pollard, Peery instituted a number of reforms and policies of lasting impact. A Byrd Organization disciple, Peery valued economic thrift and small government, but was not afraid to support more progressive policies when they were politically and economically advantageous. He advocated, for instance, increased funding for public education and recommended that the state adopt an unemployment insurance plan. Peery also created the Department of Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control to regulate alcohol sales and consumption in a post-prohibition Virginia.
Thu, 01 May 2014 17:24:04 EST]]>
/Hancock_Gordon_Blaine_1884-1970 Thu, 01 May 2014 10:12:50 EST <![CDATA[Hancock, Gordon Blaine (1884–1970)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hancock_Gordon_Blaine_1884-1970 Gordon Blaine Hancock was a professor at Virginia Union University, pastor of Moore Street Baptist church in Richmond , and a leading spokesman for African American equality in the generation before the civil rights movement. Hancock co-founded the Richmond chapter of the Urban League and wrote newspaper columns for the Associated Negro Press, advising his mostly black audience on how to get by in tough times while still taking principled stands against segregation. His work with the Virginia Interracial Commission and the Southern Regional Council also suggested his willingness to be both outspoken and pragmatic in the midst of the fight against segregation—a fight, he wrote, that must be won "if the Negro is to survive."
Thu, 01 May 2014 10:12:50 EST]]>
/Morgan_v_Commonwealth_June_6_1945 Wed, 30 Apr 2014 14:30:32 EST <![CDATA[Morgan v. Commonwealth (June 6, 1945)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_v_Commonwealth_June_6_1945 Wed, 30 Apr 2014 14:30:32 EST]]> /Spong_William_Belser_Jr_1920-1997 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 17:34:25 EST <![CDATA[Spong, William Belser Jr. (1920–1997)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Spong_William_Belser_Jr_1920-1997 William Belser Spong Jr. was a Virginia lawyer and politician who served in the House of Delegates (1954–1955), the Senate of Virginia (1956–1966), and the United States Senate (1966–1973). He was born in Portsmouth on September 29, 1920, to William Belser Spong and Emily Nichols Spong. He attended public schools in Portsmouth and attended Hampden-Sydney College before receiving a law degree from the University of Virginia in 1947. Spong served in the 93rd Bomber Group of the Eighth Air Force during World War II (1939–1945). He was admitted to the Virginia Bar in 1947 and practiced law in Portsmouth. At the same time he lectured in law and government at the College of William and Mary.
Fri, 25 Apr 2014 17:34:25 EST]]>
/Chapter_161A_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:53:22 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 161A of the Code of Virginia § 4097z–dd (1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_161A_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:53:22 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Mallory_to_A_S_Priddy_November_5_1917 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:42:09 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Mallory to A. S. Priddy (November 5, 1917)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Mallory_to_A_S_Priddy_November_5_1917 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:42:09 EST]]> /Chapter_46B_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:37:48 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 46B of the Code of Virginia § 1095h–m (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_46B_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:37:48 EST]]> /Notice_of_Appeal_October_3_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:51:24 EST <![CDATA[Notice of Appeal (October 3, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Notice_of_Appeal_October_3_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:51:24 EST]]> /Petition_to_Commit_Carrie_Buck_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:48:29 EST <![CDATA[Petition to Commit Carrie Buck (January 23, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_to_Commit_Carrie_Buck_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:48:29 EST]]> /Chapter_357_of_Acts_and_Joint_Resolutions_Amending_the_Constitution_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_Virginia_1910 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:04:21 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 357 of Acts and Joint Resolutions (Amending the Constitution) of the General Assembly of the State of Virginia (1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_357_of_Acts_and_Joint_Resolutions_Amending_the_Constitution_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_Virginia_1910 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:04:21 EST]]> /Carrie_Buck_Committed_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:19:50 EST <![CDATA[Carrie Buck Committed (January 23, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carrie_Buck_Committed_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:19:50 EST]]> /Petition_to_Sterilize_Carrie_Buck_September_10_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:15:28 EST <![CDATA[Petition to Sterilize Carrie Buck (September 10, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_to_Sterilize_Carrie_Buck_September_10_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:15:28 EST]]> /Carrie_Buck_Adjudged_Feeble-minded_or_Epileptic_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:11:58 EST <![CDATA[Carrie Buck Adjudged "Feeble-minded or Epileptic" (January 23, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carrie_Buck_Adjudged_Feeble-minded_or_Epileptic_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:11:58 EST]]> /Judgment_Against_Carrie_Buck_April_13_1925 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:08:44 EST <![CDATA[Judgment Against Carrie Buck (April 13, 1925)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judgment_Against_Carrie_Buck_April_13_1925 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:08:44 EST]]> /Loving_v_Commonwealth_March_7_1966 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:46:56 EST <![CDATA[Loving v. Commonwealth (March 7, 1966)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Loving_v_Commonwealth_March_7_1966 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:46:56 EST]]> /Excerpts_from_a_Transcript_of_Oral_Arguments_in_Loving_v_Virginia_April_10_1967 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:31:45 EST <![CDATA[Excerpts from a Transcript of Oral Arguments in Loving v. Virginia (April 10, 1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpts_from_a_Transcript_of_Oral_Arguments_in_Loving_v_Virginia_April_10_1967 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:31:45 EST]]> /Opinion_of_Judge_Leon_M_Bazile_January_22_1965 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:00:46 EST <![CDATA[Opinion of Judge Leon M. Bazile (January 22, 1965)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Opinion_of_Judge_Leon_M_Bazile_January_22_1965 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:00:46 EST]]> /Judgment_Against_Richard_and_Mildred_Loving_January_6_1959 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:52:14 EST <![CDATA[Judgment Against Richard and Mildred Loving (January 6, 1959)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judgment_Against_Richard_and_Mildred_Loving_January_6_1959 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:52:14 EST]]> /Naim_v_Naim_June_13_1955 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:51:16 EST <![CDATA[Naim v. Naim (June 13, 1955)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Naim_v_Naim_June_13_1955 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:51:16 EST]]> /_Mrs_Stonewall_Jackson_Denounces_The_Long_Roll_by_Mary_Anna_Jackson_October_29_1911 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 08:42:08 EST <![CDATA["Mrs. 'Stonewall' Jackson Denounces 'The Long Roll'" by Mary Anna Jackson (October 29, 1911)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mrs_Stonewall_Jackson_Denounces_The_Long_Roll_by_Mary_Anna_Jackson_October_29_1911 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 08:42:08 EST]]> /_A_Feminist_Novel_Miss_Johnston_s_Hagar_a_Tale_and_a_Theory_by_Helen_Bullis_November_2_1913 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 08:37:39 EST <![CDATA["A Feminist Novel: Miss Johnston's 'Hagar' a Tale and a Theory" by Helen Bullis (November 2, 1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Feminist_Novel_Miss_Johnston_s_Hagar_a_Tale_and_a_Theory_by_Helen_Bullis_November_2_1913 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 08:37:39 EST]]> /Dinwiddie_Emily_Wayland_1879-1949 Wed, 02 Apr 2014 17:01:14 EST <![CDATA[Dinwiddie, Emily Wayland (1879–1949)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dinwiddie_Emily_Wayland_1879-1949 Emily Wayland Dinwiddie was a social worker and reformer. Born in Virginia, she helped to professionalize and systematize social work. She drew on her experience as a tenement inspector in New York, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh to write handbooks, manuals, and forms. In her reports Dinwiddie placed an emphasis on maintaining high standards of public health and sanitation in city tenements. In 1918 she joined the American Red Cross in France, and continued to work for the organization until 1922. Five years later Dinwiddie became director of the Children's Bureau at the Virginia State Board of Public Welfare. She also took a leave of absence to write Virginia State Hospitals for Mental Patients (1934), a comprehensive report of the state's public mental hospitals. Dinwiddie moved to Kansas in 1934 to work for the Emergency Relief Administration. She retired from public service in 1938 and died in Virginia in 1949.
Wed, 02 Apr 2014 17:01:14 EST]]>
/Hill_Oliver_W_1907-2007 Tue, 25 Mar 2014 10:18:41 EST <![CDATA[Hill, Oliver W. (1907–2007)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hill_Oliver_W_1907-2007 Oliver W. Hill was an African American attorney and civil rights activist. As the lead attorney for the Virginia State Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Hill and his colleagues filed more legal challenges to segregation than any other lawyers in the South and successfully undermined segregation and discrimination in all walks of southern life. Born in Richmond, Hill earned his law degree in 1933 at Howard University, where he met Thurgood Marshall, a future NAACP lawyer and U.S. Supreme Court associate justice. In coordination with Marshall, then special counsel for the NAACP, Hill argued on behalf of black teachers in Norfolk who received less pay than white teachers for equal work. After winning a federal appeals court ruling in 1940, Hill became an NAACP attorney in Virginia. He was one of the leading lawyers in Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward, one of five suits that were consolidated into the Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954). In the landmark decision, the Supreme Court declared segregation in public education unconstitutional. Hill believed political activism went hand in hand with the legal assault on segregation, and ran repeatedly for political office as a way to encourage African Americans to register and vote. In 1948, Hill became the first African American elected to the Richmond city council since 1894. He retired from the law in 1998 and died at his home in Richmond in 2007.
Tue, 25 Mar 2014 10:18:41 EST]]>
/Holton_A_Linwood_1923- Mon, 24 Mar 2014 11:37:55 EST <![CDATA[Holton, A. Linwood (1923– )]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Holton_A_Linwood_1923- A. Linwood Holton was a governor of Virginia (1970–1974) and the first Republican to hold the office since Reconstruction (1865–1877). Hailing from Big Stone Gap in southwest Virginia, Holton was among the "Mountain and Valley" Republicans who began to gain statewide support in the 1950s in opposition to the Byrd Organization and in support of public school desegregation. Holton won a narrow race for governor in 1969 with a coalition that included a substantial number of African American and white working-class voters. As governor, he declared an end to Massive Resistance, the state's anti–desegregation policy, announcing, "The era of defiance is behind us." In 1970, he was photographed escorting his daughter Tayloe into a nearly all-black high school in Richmond. In addition, Holton reorganized the executive branch, worked to clean Virginia's polluted waters, and helped create a unified Ports Authority in Hampton Roads. He was not able to overcome increasing factionalism among state Republicans, however, and the party lost a series of statewide elections in the 1970s. A bold and decisive progressive on matters of race relations, he did much to break the Democrats' one-party dominance of Virginia's political life. He was less successful at imprinting his own moderate conservative philosophy on the Virginia Republican Party.
Mon, 24 Mar 2014 11:37:55 EST]]>
/Jackson_Giles_B_1853-1924 Sun, 23 Mar 2014 13:39:06 EST <![CDATA[Jackson, Giles B. (1853–1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jackson_Giles_B_1853-1924 Giles B. Jackson, although born enslaved, became an attorney, entrepreneur, real estate developer, newspaper publisher, and civil rights activist in the conservative mold of his mentor, Booker T. Washington. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served as a body servant to his master, a Confederate cavalry colonel. After the war, Jackson worked for the Stewart family in Richmond, where he learned to read and write. Subsequently, he was employed in the law offices of William H. Beveridge, who tutored Jackson in the law. In 1887, Jackson became the first African American attorney certified to argue before the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals. The next year, he helped found a bank associated with the United Order of True Reformers, and in 1900 became an aide to Washington, who had just founded the National Negro Business League in Boston. Jackson organized and promoted the Jamestown Negro Exhibit at the Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition of 1907 in the face of criticism from some black intellectuals that his attempt to highlight black achievement was itself an accommodation of Jim Crow segregation. He published a newspaper designed to publicize the exhibition and, in 1908, a book detailing its history. His efforts at the end of his life on behalf of a congressional bill aimed at addressing interracial labor problems failed. Jackson died in 1924.
Sun, 23 Mar 2014 13:39:06 EST]]>
/Jackson_Luther_Porter_1892-1950 Sun, 23 Mar 2014 12:34:24 EST <![CDATA[Jackson, Luther Porter (1892–1950)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jackson_Luther_Porter_1892-1950 Luther Porter Jackson was an African American historian and one of Virginia's most important civil rights activists of the 1930s and 1940s. He was a professor of history at Virginia State College in Petersburg for nearly thirty years and authored Free Negro Labor and Property Holding in Virginia, 1830–1860 (1942), research that challenged stereotypes of antebellum blacks. Jackson was perhaps most important, however, as a political and social activist. He helped found the Petersburg League of Negro Voters in 1935, wrote a weekly newspaper column titled "Rights and Duties in a Democracy," and worked to challenge segregation in Richmond's public transit system.
Sun, 23 Mar 2014 12:34:24 EST]]>
/Jenkins_Will_F_1896-1975 Sat, 22 Mar 2014 13:27:05 EST <![CDATA[Jenkins, Will F. (1896–1975)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jenkins_Will_F_1896-1975 Will F. Jenkins was one of the most prolific fiction writers of the twentieth century. He published in several genres, but was best known for his pioneering science fiction writing under the penname of Murray Leinster. He published approximately 1,800 stories in more than 150 periodicals and 74 novels and collections in a career that began in 1913 and ended in 1974. An avid inventor whose gadgets sometimes appeared in his stories, Jenkins wrote about mad scientists, criminal masterminds, alien invasions, and time travel. A 1946 story imagined personal computers and a network that closely resembles today's Internet. "First Contact" (1945) depicts a tense standoff between two spaceship crews, each fearing the other's intent. Jenkins was born in Gloucester County, and some of his stories were set in Virginia. In "Sidewise in Time" (1934), a Fredericksburg professor encounters time shifts and a parallel universe in which the Confederacy won the American Civil War (1861–1865). During the Cold War, Ivan Efremov, a science fiction writer from the Soviet Union, attacked Jenkins's writing in his story "The Heart of the Serpent" (1959), in which aliens read "First Contact" and judge it to be warmongering. Jenkins, who suffered from Alzheimer's disease, died in Gloucester in 1975.
Sat, 22 Mar 2014 13:27:05 EST]]>
/Marshall_George_C_1880-1959 Fri, 07 Mar 2014 10:34:49 EST <![CDATA[Marshall, George C. (1880–1959)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Marshall_George_C_1880-1959 George C. Marshall was a soldier-statesman who served the United States in times of war and peace as Chief of Staff of the Army, secretary of state, and the third secretary of defense. (The position had previously been known as secretary of war.) Having served as chief military advisor to U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt, Marshall supervised the U.S. Army during World War II (1939–1945). As secretary of state he gave his name to the Marshall Plan, the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding the allied countries of Europe and repelling communism after World War II, for which he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953. Educated at the Virginia Military Institute, he was a longtime resident of Virginia.
Fri, 07 Mar 2014 10:34:49 EST]]>
/Martin_Thomas_Staples_1847-1919 Thu, 06 Mar 2014 15:16:17 EST <![CDATA[Martin, Thomas Staples (1847–1919)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Martin_Thomas_Staples_1847-1919 Thomas Staples Martin was a railroad attorney, a longtime U.S. senator from Virginia (serving from 1895 until 1919), and an architect of the state Democratic Party machine that during his time was known as the Martin Organization. A quiet, behind-the-scenes political player, Martin rose through the party ranks largely due to his influence with powerful railroad interests. Under the leadership of Martin's mentor, John S. Barbour Jr., Democrats reestablished control of state politics that, since Reconstruction (1865–1877), had been in the hands of Republicans and Readjusters. Then, in 1893, in a huge and unexpected upset, Martin defeated former Confederate general and Virginia governor Fitzhugh Lee for election to Barbour's U.S. Senate seat, allowing him to take control of the party and, to a large extent, the state. Accused by his critics of bribery and corruption, Martin stayed in power and managed to rise to the position of Senate Majority Leader at least in part because of his pragmatic willingness to forge coalitions between the competing conservative and progressive wings of the Democratic Party. As a result, Martin's political machine and its successor, the Byrd Organization, dominated Virginia politics until the 1960s.
Thu, 06 Mar 2014 15:16:17 EST]]>
/Mason_Lucy_Randolph_1882-1959 Thu, 06 Mar 2014 07:48:45 EST <![CDATA[Mason, Lucy Randolph (1882–1959)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mason_Lucy_Randolph_1882-1959 Lucy Randolph Mason was a social liberal and prominent labor activist who took advantage of a genteel southern pedigree in order to promote the aggressive Congress of Industrial Organizations throughout the South from the 1930s to the 1950s.
Thu, 06 Mar 2014 07:48:45 EST]]>
/Montague_Andrew_Jackson_1862-1937 Sun, 02 Mar 2014 13:22:31 EST <![CDATA[Montague, Andrew Jackson (1862–1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Montague_Andrew_Jackson_1862-1937 Andrew Jackson Montague served as attorney general of Virginia (1898–1902), as governor of Virginia (1902–1906), and as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1913–1937). Elected governor during the turbulent Progressive reform era of the early twentieth century, Montague advocated for a direct primary system and for the improvement of Virginia's public schools and roads. Despite his powerful oratory skills and popularity, Montague lacked the political will to lobby vigorously for his agenda and was held back further by opposition from Thomas Staples Martin, architect of the state Democratic Party machine, and by an economically and socially conservative political climate. In 1905 he challenged Martin for his U.S. Senate seat, but lost the primary election. Montague served as the dean of Richmond College Law School and practiced law in Richmond before being elected in 1912 to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served a lackluster twenty-four-year tenure.
Sun, 02 Mar 2014 13:22:31 EST]]>
/Moton_Robert_Russa_1867-1940 Sat, 01 Mar 2014 05:52:01 EST <![CDATA[Moton, Robert Russa (1867–1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Moton_Robert_Russa_1867-1940 Robert Russa Moton was one of the most prominent black educators in the United States in the first decades of the twentieth century. After graduating from the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton Institute and now Hampton University) in Hampton, Virginia, in 1890, he served as the school's commandant of cadets from 1891 until 1915. He was a close friend of Booker T. Washington, the founding principal of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, and the two shared a conservative vision of race relations. They argued, sometimes controversially, that African Americans should not openly defy segregation, but instead cooperate with whites and better themselves through education. After Washington's death in 1915, Moton became the second principal of Tuskegee, where he made significant contributions to the quality of education, especially in teacher training. He served on various national boards and, during World War I (1914–1918), went to Europe on behalf of U.S. president Woodrow Wilson to investigate the conditions of black soldiers. Moton Field at Tuskegee was named for him, as was Robert Russa Moton High School in Farmville, Virginia, the site of a student walkout in 1951.
Sat, 01 Mar 2014 05:52:01 EST]]>
/Muse_Benjamin_1898-1986 Fri, 28 Feb 2014 15:54:51 EST <![CDATA[Muse, Benjamin (1898–1986)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Muse_Benjamin_1898-1986 Benjamin Muse, a journalist based in Manassas, Virginia, emerged as one of the state's most prominent white liberals during the period of the Massive Resistance movement, which opposed the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 decision outlawing segregation in public schools, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Through a weekly column in the Washington Post, Muse criticized what he perceived to be the undemocratic practices of the Byrd Organization, the Virginia political machine led by U.S. senator and former governor Harry F. Byrd Sr., a Democrat. Muse also charged that Massive Resistance represented a desperate gamble by rural leaders to preserve the state's one-party system. Throughout the five-year crisis, Muse insisted that Virginia must comply with the Supreme Court's ruling, and he championed the efforts of white moderates and liberals from the cities and suburbs who opposed the state's plan, which amounted to abandoning public education rather than accepting any degree of racial integration. In 1959, after federal and state courts invalidated Virginia's school-closing scheme, Muse became the director of the Southern Leadership Project in order to spread the message of compliance with Brown to other states across the region.
Fri, 28 Feb 2014 15:54:51 EST]]>
/Crawford_Robert_Baxter_1895-1973 Fri, 24 Jan 2014 17:09:14 EST <![CDATA[Crawford, Robert B. (1895–1973)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crawford_Robert_Baxter_1895-1973 Robert B. Crawford was president of the Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties, a grassroots political organization dedicated to preserving racial segregation in Virginia's public schools. Crawford, a veteran of World War I (1914–1918) and a former member of the Prince Edward County school board, helped organize the Defenders after the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) mandated the desegregation of public schools. The group helped propel Massive Resistance until 1959, after which its political clout declined rapidly. Crawford resigned as the Defenders' president in 1963, but supported the organization until it dissolved in 1967. He died in 1973.
Fri, 24 Jan 2014 17:09:14 EST]]>
/Moton_School_Strike_and_Prince_Edward_County_School_Closings Tue, 21 Jan 2014 10:28:18 EST <![CDATA[Moton School Strike and Prince Edward County School Closings]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Moton_School_Strike_and_Prince_Edward_County_School_Closings On April 23, 1951, students at Robert Russa Moton High School in the town of Farmville, in Prince Edward County, walked out of school to protest the conditions of their education, which they claimed were vastly inferior to those enjoyed by white students at nearby Farmville High School. The strike, led by student Barbara Johns, is considered by many historians to signal the start of the desegregation movement in America and resulted in a court case that was later bundled with other, similar cases into Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court decided Brown by mandating public-school desegregation, and Virginia state leaders responded with an official policy of Massive Resistance. When, on January 19, 1959, both a federal and a state court simultaneously ruled the state's actions unconstitutional, the Prince Edward County Board of Supervisors closed its public schools rather than integrate them. They stayed shuttered for five years. Another U.S. Supreme Court decision—Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward—finally forced the county's schools to reopen in 1964.
Tue, 21 Jan 2014 10:28:18 EST]]>
/Pollard_John_Garland_1871-1937 Tue, 07 Jan 2014 12:40:56 EST <![CDATA[Pollard, John Garland (1871–1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pollard_John_Garland_1871-1937 John Garland Pollard was a progressive Democrat who served as delegate to the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902, attorney general of Virginia (1914–1918), and governor (1930–1934). Handpicked by Harry F. Byrd Sr. to be his gubernatorial successor, Pollard left a legacy as governor that was clouded by the fact that he took office on the eve of the Great Depression. While independent-minded, Pollard was never able to get fully out from under the thumb of Byrd (supposedly he would remark while patting his belly that he had become so rotund by "swallowing the Byrd machine"). Byrd's control over Pollard and Virginia's political environment was particularly evident in the initiative to legalize alcohol when Byrd went around Pollard to senator William M. Tuck to gather the General Assembly together in order to push through a state referendum to repeal Prohibition and establish the state-run Alcoholic Beverage Control Board. Outside of politics, Pollard was an educator and member of several public and philanthropic commissions and organizations. As a practicing attorney, he wrote Pollard's Code of Virginia, which became an often-consulted reference work on the laws of Virginia. He also served briefly as a professor of constitutional law and history at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg. In 1936 Pollard helped to found the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts in Richmond, the first state art museum in the United States, and served as president of the museum's board of directors.
Tue, 07 Jan 2014 12:40:56 EST]]>
/Price_James_Hubert_1878-1943 Mon, 06 Jan 2014 10:14:17 EST <![CDATA[Price, James H. (1878-1943)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Price_James_Hubert_1878-1943 James H. Price was a governor of Virginia (1938–1942) who advocated for a series of progressive policies designed to help those hurt by the Great Depression of the 1930s. His most notable achievement came in 1938 with the enactment of an Old Age Assistance Plan that enabled Virginians to receive federal Social Security benefits. Throughout his term, Price battled with United States Senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. and members of his political machine over policy and patronage issues. While Price won some of these battles, by 1940 Byrd and the Byrd Organization had derailed his legislative agenda, leaving a defeated Price to spend most of his last two years in office helping to mobilize Virginia for war.
Mon, 06 Jan 2014 10:14:17 EST]]>
/Reynolds_J_Sargeant_1936-1971 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 14:04:19 EST <![CDATA[Reynolds, J. Sargeant (1936–1971)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Reynolds_J_Sargeant_1936-1971 J. Sargeant Reynolds was a member of the House of Delegates (1966–1967) and the Senate of Virginia (1968–1969) and was the lieutenant governor of Virginia (1970–1971). The son of industrialist Richard S. Reynolds Jr., he enjoyed the advantages of wealth and social position, but used his privilege to advocate for the less fortunate. Reynolds positioned himself as a moderate and won support across the political spectrum despite his more liberal goals, which included education improvement, economic development, and equal opportunity regardless of race. The Virginia Democrats' most promising candidate for the 1973 gubernatorial race, Reynolds was diagnosed with an inoperable brain tumor in the summer of 1970. After undergoing radiation treatments, he was able to preside over the state senate in January 1971. That April, at a whites-only political gathering in Southside Virginia, he denounced the Byrd Organization's Massive Resistance policy and defiance of United States Supreme Court decisions such as Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg, North Carolina (1971), which upheld the busing of schoolchildren for the purpose of desegregation. Thereafter, his health declined: further radiation treatments weakened his immune system, and he contracted pneumonia. He died on June 13, 1971, at age thirty-four.
Sun, 05 Jan 2014 14:04:19 EST]]>
/Robb_Charles_S_1939- Sun, 05 Jan 2014 13:27:07 EST <![CDATA[Robb, Charles S. (1939– )]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robb_Charles_S_1939- Charles S. "Chuck" Robb served as lieutenant governor (1978–1982) and governor of Virginia (1982–1986) and for two terms as U.S. senator (1989–2001). The son-in-law of U.S. president Lyndon B. Johnson, Robb entered Virginia politics as a "celebrity" without the customary résumé of serving in lower office. A Democrat, Robb was instrumental in reviving his party's fortunes in the state after a period of Republican dominance. His election in 1981 ushered in the first of three consecutive Democratic governorships. A moderate, Robb also played a role in national politics, moving his party to the center but never seeking national office himself. His promising career was tarnished by a series of scandals and he was ultimately defeated for reelection in 2000.
Sun, 05 Jan 2014 13:27:07 EST]]>
/Robertson_A_Willis_1887-1971 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 09:56:34 EST <![CDATA[Robertson, A. Willis (1887–1971)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robertson_A_Willis_1887-1971 A. Willis Robertson served in the Senate of Virginia (1916–1922), the United States House of Representatives (1933–1946), and the United States Senate (1946–1966). His career closely paralleled that of his friend and mentor, Harry F. Byrd, the leader of the Democratic Party in Virginia. They were born within two weeks of each other and only a few streets apart in Martinsburg, West Virginia, in 1887. They began their service in the Virginia state senate on the same day in 1916, and arrived at the United States Congress—Byrd to the Senate, Robertson to the House—on the same day in 1933. Though he stood with Byrd on many issues, including civil rights, Robertson asserted his independence from Byrd's political machine, the Byrd Organization, throughout his twenty-year senatorial career. Robertson differed from Byrd in his views on foreign policy and in his support of Democratic presidential candidate Adlai Stevenson in 1952 and 1956; in addition, Robertson was not a strong supporter of Byrd's Massive Resistance policy. In 1966 Robertson lost his Senate seat to William B. Spong, a more liberal Democrat from Portsmouth.
Sun, 05 Jan 2014 09:56:34 EST]]>
/Robinson_Morgan_Poiteaux_1876-1943 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 07:03:37 EST <![CDATA[Robinson, Morgan Poitiaux (1876–1943)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robinson_Morgan_Poiteaux_1876-1943 Morgan Poitiaux Robinson, Virginia's first state archivist, worked to make the state's records more accessible and to ensure that local records were stored in fireproof buildings. The son of John Enders Robinson and Virginia Morgan, he was born in Richmond on February 11, 1876. After receiving his early education in the city at Mrs. Camm's School for Boys and McGuire's University School, he entered the University of Virginia, where he earned a bachelor's degree, a master's degree, and a law degree.
Sun, 05 Jan 2014 07:03:37 EST]]>
/Sandy_Thomas_Oldham_1857-1919 Sat, 04 Jan 2014 16:41:15 EST <![CDATA[Sandy, T. O. (1857–1919)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sandy_Thomas_Oldham_1857-1919 T. O. Sandy was Virginia's earliest agricultural extension agent. A farmer, scientist, and teacher, he opened the state's first extension office in Burkeville in 1907, serving the residents in surrounding counties with practical agricultural advice. In 1914, Virginia Polytechnic Institute (now Virginia Tech) in Blacksburg assumed the administration of the statewide program. Sandy, who had briefly attended Virginia Tech, coordinated Virginia's extension efforts until his retirement in 1917. During Sandy's tenure as extension agent, farming practices and attitudes toward scientific agriculture in Virginia significantly improved.
Sat, 04 Jan 2014 16:41:15 EST]]>
/Stanley_Thomas_Bahnson_1890-1970 Mon, 30 Dec 2013 17:54:58 EST <![CDATA[Stanley, Thomas B. (1890-1970)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Stanley_Thomas_Bahnson_1890-1970 Thomas B. Stanley served as governor of Virginia (1954–1958) during the turbulent first years of Massive Resistance to school desegregation. His initial reaction to the 1954 Supreme Court of the United States decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas was moderate, but Stanley, a politician of few gifts, was unable to curb increasing calls for a defiant stance to school desegregation. Stanley eventually followed the lead of more conservative Democrats and backed legislation designed to maintain what supporters called "separate but equal" schools.
Mon, 30 Dec 2013 17:54:58 EST]]>
/Stuart_Henry_Carter_1855-1933 Sat, 28 Dec 2013 15:20:02 EST <![CDATA[Stuart, Henry Carter (1855–1933)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Stuart_Henry_Carter_1855-1933 Henry C. Stuart served as the governor of Virginia from 1914 until 1918. A wealthy cattleman from Southwest Virginia known for his encyclopedic mind, his extensive knowledge of agriculture, and his moderately progressive impulses against industrialization and "demon rum," Stuart also helped write the landmark Constitution of 1902, which, among other provisions, removed voting rights from African Americans and illiterate whites. He was one of the first commissioners to serve on the State Corporation Commission and, like most other Virginia Democrats of his day, worked to disenfranchise African Americans, regulate railroads and other corporations, reform the state's tax and legal codes, and prohibit the construction of highways financed by state highway bonds.
Sat, 28 Dec 2013 15:20:02 EST]]>
/Swanson_Claude_A_1862-1939 Sat, 28 Dec 2013 10:54:53 EST <![CDATA[Swanson, Claude A. (1862–1939)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Swanson_Claude_A_1862-1939 Claude A. Swanson was a powerful Democratic Party leader and one of the most successful Virginia politicians of his era. He served seven terms in the United States House of Representatives (1893–1906), was governor of Virginia from 1906 until 1910, and U.S. senator from 1910 until 1933. In addition, Swanson served as secretary of the United States Navy under U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt from 1933 until his death in 1939. While in the House, Swanson presided over a raucous time in state politics that culminated in the adoption of the state Constitution of 1902 that was notorious for its disfranchisement of African Americans and poor whites in spite of the universal suffrage called for by the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1870). As governor, he instituted a number of progressive reforms and continued to advance those reforms, as well as his belief in a strong U.S. Navy while in the U.S. Senate and in Roosevelt's cabinet.
Sat, 28 Dec 2013 10:54:53 EST]]>
/Thompson_Ida_Mae_1866-1947 Fri, 27 Dec 2013 06:42:46 EST <![CDATA[Thompson, Ida Mae (1866–1947)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thompson_Ida_Mae_1866-1947 Ida Mae Thompson was an important figure in Virginia's woman suffrage movement, not for her political work but for her recordkeeping. First as a member of the Equal Suffrage League, the organization that led the effort to win women the right to vote, and then as a member of the League of Women Voters, Thompson collected and preserved the movement's history.
Fri, 27 Dec 2013 06:42:46 EST]]>
/Washington_Booker_T_1856-1915 Mon, 23 Dec 2013 14:46:05 EST <![CDATA[Washington, Booker T. (1856–1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_Booker_T_1856-1915 Booker T. Washington was an author, educator, orator, philanthropist, and, from 1895 until his death in 1915, the United States' most famous African American. The tiny school he founded in Tuskegee, Alabama, in 1881 is now Tuskegee University, an institution that currently enrolls more than 3,000 students. The most famous of the several books he authored, coauthored, or edited during his lifetime, Up from Slavery (1901), has become a classic of American autobiography, drawing comparisons not only to earlier slave narratives but also to such texts as The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin.In the eyes of many of his contemporaries, Washington was an exemplary American citizen, "a public man second to no other American in importance," as the novelist William Dean Howells called him in 1901. When Washington became the first African American to receive an honorary degree from Harvard University in 1896, a Boston newspaper ranked him among "our national benefactors." When he became the first to dine at the White House in 1901, he did so at the invitation of U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, who would later call Washington "one of the most useful citizens of our land." Even his foremost critic, the African American writer and intellectual W.E.B. Du Bois, acknowledged Washington's status as both a racial and national leader, referring to him in 1903 as "the one recognized spokesman of his ten million fellows, and one of the most notable figures in a nation of seventy millions." Yet Washington also continues to inspire ambivalent and sometimes hostile reactions for having been an "accommodationist": one who, in order to gain a measure of economic success for African Americans in the former slave states, accepted segregation and refused to speak out loudly in favor of other forms of advancement, namely the pursuit of full legal, political, and social equality.
Mon, 23 Dec 2013 14:46:05 EST]]>
/Dan_River_Mills Thu, 21 Nov 2013 11:45:54 EST <![CDATA[Dan River Mills]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dan_River_Mills Dan River Mills in Danville, Virginia, is a historic manufacturer of apparel fabrics and home fashion products such as bedding. Opened in 1882 as the Riverside Cotton Mills, the company grew to become the largest textile firm in the South. The mills were a prime target for union leaders, who reasoned that they could organize textile plants across the region if they could crack the strategically located Dan River Mills. In 1930 and 1951, major strikes occurred at the mills; both ended in defeat for the workers. From the 1970s, employment levels at the Virginia firm fell dramatically as it struggled to compete with cheap imported textiles, competition that eventually brought the historic firm to final dissolution in 2006.
Thu, 21 Nov 2013 11:45:54 EST]]>
/Wilder_Lawrence_Douglas_1931- Mon, 11 Nov 2013 13:10:02 EST <![CDATA[Wilder, Lawrence Douglas (1931– )]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wilder_Lawrence_Douglas_1931- L. Douglas Wilder was governor of Virginia from 1990 until 1994. His was a political career of many firsts: the grandson of slaves, he was the first African American elected governor of any state in America. He was the first black member of the Virginia Senate in the twentieth century. And he was the first African American to win statewide office in Virginia when he was elected lieutenant governor in 1985. A Democrat, he ran briefly for United States president in 1991 and in 2004 was elected mayor of Richmond, serving until 2008.
Mon, 11 Nov 2013 13:10:02 EST]]>
/Defenders_of_State_Sovereignty_and_Individual_Liberties Wed, 23 Oct 2013 16:21:50 EST <![CDATA[Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Defenders_of_State_Sovereignty_and_Individual_Liberties The Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties, a grassroots political organization created in Petersburg in October 1954, was dedicated to preserving strict racial segregation in Virginia's public schools. A group of prominent Southside leaders formed the group following Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, the U.S. Supreme Court decision, handed down on May 17, 1954, that mandated the desegregation of public schools. Opening chapters across the state and employing a variety of tactics, the Defenders rigorously confronted the Brown mandate, influencing the state commission that bestowed its blessing on the policy of Massive Resistance and even the temporary closing of public schools in Warren County, Norfolk, and Charlottesville. When Massive Resistance was declared unconstitutional, the Defenders organized a Bill of Rights Crusade and protested in Richmond, but the group's support and influence was on the wane. It dissolved in 1967.
Wed, 23 Oct 2013 16:21:50 EST]]>
/Lewis_Rand_1908 Fri, 18 Oct 2013 13:25:39 EST <![CDATA[Lewis Rand (1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_Rand_1908 Lewis Rand (1908), the fifth novel by the Virginia-born writer Mary Johnston, has been singled out by some critics as her best work. A historical novel set in Virginia at the beginning of the nineteenth century, it tells the story of Lewis Rand, the poor son of an Albemarle County tobacco-roller who, under the mentorship of Thomas Jefferson, escapes poverty, joins the bar, and is elected to the General Assembly before his ambition, and an impulsive murder, finally strikes him down. The backdrop for Johnston's tale is the fierce, sometimes violent rivalry between the populist Democratic-Republican Party and the more aristocratic Federalists, a rivalry echoed by the competition between Rand and the highborn Churchill and Cary families. Lewis Rand was enthusiastically received by critics, who admired Johnston's handling of her historical material. In the Smart Set, H. L. Mencken lauded its achievement, while the New York Times declared it "one of the strongest works of fiction that has seen the light of day in America." Critics reserved special praise for the character of Jacqueline Churchill, Randolph's wife, with one reviewer placing her goodness in the context of the more complex understandings of womanhood raised by a recent, nationally publicized murder trial. Subsequent critics have situated Lewis Rand among the author's best works, but by and large Johnston is ignored by twenty-first-century readers.
Fri, 18 Oct 2013 13:25:39 EST]]>
/Dean_Jennie_Serepta_1848-1913 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:50:25 EST <![CDATA[Dean, Jennie Serepta (1848–1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dean_Jennie_Serepta_1848-1913 Jennie Serepta Dean founded the Manassas Industrial School for Colored Youth. A former slave, Dean attended schools in Fairfax County and Washington, D.C., and in 1878 began to establish a series of Sunday schools. She was a skilled fund-raiser, securing money from African American and white donors in Virginia and in northern cities to support her plan to open a school that would teach skilled trades to young African Americans. The Manassas Industrial School for Colored Youth opened in 1894 after nearly six years of fundraising. Dean served on the school's board of directors and executive committee. She died in 1913.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:50:25 EST]]>
/Dabney_Virginius_1901-1995 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:20:28 EST <![CDATA[Dabney, Virginius (1901–1995)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dabney_Virginius_1901-1995 Virginius Dabney was a journalist, writer, historian, and recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing. As the longtime editor of the Richmond Times-Dispatch (1936–1969), he earned a name, at least at first, as a liberal reformer who targeted religious fundamentalists, prohibitionists, and machine politicians. His 1929 biography of James Cannon, the Methodist bishop and prohibitionist, was so scathing it did not find a publisher until 1949, after Cannon's death. His inclinations, however, often put him in disagreement with his publisher and with U.S. senator Harry F. Byrd and his Democratic Party machine, the Byrd Organization. In the 1930s, Dabney advocated a federal antilynching law and opposed the poll tax, but following World War II (1939–1945) he generally supported segregation, a position that increasingly put him at odds with the liberal mainstream and the burgeoning civil rights movement. In 1956, Byrd called for massive resistance against the U.S. Supreme Court-mandated desegregation of public schools, and Dabney reluctantly went along. His reputation among liberals plummeted. After retiring from the Times-Dispatch, he concentrated on writing history, completing a large one-volume history of Virginia in 1971 and a defense of Thomas Jefferson against accusations that he had children with the enslaved Sally Hemings.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:20:28 EST]]>
/Cox_Earnest_Sevier_1880-1966 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 12:01:35 EST <![CDATA[Cox, Earnest Sevier (1880–1966)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cox_Earnest_Sevier_1880-1966 Earnest Sevier Cox was a committed white supremacist who advocated on behalf of anti-miscegenation laws and in 1922 cofounded with the composer John Powell the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, a Richmond-based, nationwide organization devoted to maintaining a strict separation of the races. In 1923, Cox published White America, a book that described his travels in Africa and argues that race-mixing would result in the collapse of "white civilization." He also wrote extensively on eugenics, a now discredited scientific movement aimed at proving the superiority of the white race. Together with composer Powell and Virginia state registrar Walter Plecker, Cox played an influential role in lobbying the Virginia General Assembly to pass the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, a strict anti-miscegenation law, and later the Massenburg Bill, which banned racial mixing in all public places. In 1924, Cox formed an unlikely alliance with the black nationalist Marcus Garvey based on their shared belief that the only way to save the races was for African Americans to relocate to Africa. Cox retired from the real estate business in 1958 and died in Richmond in 1966.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 12:01:35 EST]]>
/Chaloner_John_Armstrong_1862-1935 Wed, 21 Aug 2013 13:52:04 EST <![CDATA[Chaloner, John Armstrong (1862–1935)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chaloner_John_Armstrong_1862-1935 John Armstrong Chaloner was a celebrity and writer known for coining the catchphrase "Who's looney now?" after his personal trials with psychiatric experimentation and treatment. When his wealthy family learned that he believed he possessed a new sense, which he called the "X-Faculty," they had him committed to a psychiatric hospital in New York in 1897; a court later declared him insane and ruled he be permanently institutionalized. He escaped the institution and was ultimately deemed sane more than twenty years later. In the meantime, he published about two dozen books on his experiments with psychotherapy and his stay in the insane asylum. His books, such as The Lunacy Law of the World (1906), often attacked the rising power of psychiatric medicine, and his case was controversial particularly among the nation's leading psychologists, who disagreed about whether he was rational or paranoid. He married and divorced the novelist Amélie Rives, but lived near her Albemarle County home for much of his life.
Wed, 21 Aug 2013 13:52:04 EST]]>
/House_Joint_Resolution_No_607_2001 Tue, 09 Jul 2013 17:20:07 EST <![CDATA[House Joint Resolution No. 607 (2001)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/House_Joint_Resolution_No_607_2001 Tue, 09 Jul 2013 17:20:07 EST]]> /_NAACP_Carries_Teacher_Salary_Fight_into_VA_1938 Fri, 14 Jun 2013 11:55:05 EST <![CDATA["NAACP Carries Teacher Salary Fight into VA." (1938)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_NAACP_Carries_Teacher_Salary_Fight_into_VA_1938 Fri, 14 Jun 2013 11:55:05 EST]]> /Negro_in_Virginia_The_1940 Thu, 13 Jun 2013 16:53:17 EST <![CDATA[Negro in Virginia, The (1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Negro_in_Virginia_The_1940 The Negro in Virginia, published in 1940, traces the political, economic, and social history of African Americans in Virginia from the arrival of the first Africans in 1619 through the American Revolution (1775–1783), the American Civil War (1861–1865), Reconstruction (1865–1877), and the rise of Jim Crow laws in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. One of a planned series of "racial studies" undertaken by the Works Progress Administration's Federal Writers' Project (FWP), the book was completed by the Virginia Writers' Project (VWP). Specifically, it was researched and written under the auspices of the VWP's Negro Studies Project and was published by the VWP. Relying on interviews with more than 300 former slaves, along with a wide-ranging review of the relevant literature and laborious primary research in courthouses and archives across the state, the book's twenty-nine chapters constitute a singular achievement for its time: an attempt to tell what its editor, Professor Roscoe E. Lewis of Hampton Institute, called the "story of the Negro" from an African American point of view.
Thu, 13 Jun 2013 16:53:17 EST]]>
/Virginia_State_Hospitals_for_Mental_Patients_1934 Wed, 12 Jun 2013 15:49:11 EST <![CDATA[Virginia State Hospitals for Mental Patients (1934)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_State_Hospitals_for_Mental_Patients_1934 Wed, 12 Jun 2013 15:49:11 EST]]> /_Mendel_s_Law_A_Plea_for_a_Better_Race_of_Men Mon, 10 Jun 2013 08:53:55 EST <![CDATA["Mendel's Law: A Plea for a Better Race of Men"]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mendel_s_Law_A_Plea_for_a_Better_Race_of_Men Mon, 10 Jun 2013 08:53:55 EST]]> /Negro_Organization_Society Wed, 15 May 2013 14:30:50 EST <![CDATA[Negro Organization Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Negro_Organization_Society The Negro Organization Society was a grassroots advocacy association that stressed community self-improvement for African Americans in Virginia during the Jim Crow era. Founded in 1912 at the Hampton Institute by Robert Russa Moton, its motto was "Better Schools, Better Health, Better Homes, Better Farms." Pursuit of these four goals was considered essential to the protection and welfare of black citizens, especially in rural areas where the great majority of Virginia's African Americans lived. Over the years, the organization's actions shifted from building schools to improving education by accrediting more institutions and improving teacher pay. By the 1950s, when the Negro Organization Society had begun to dissolve, the fight for African American civil rights had largely shifted from community and regional organizers to the court system.
Wed, 15 May 2013 14:30:50 EST]]>
/Chapter_2_Mr_Jefferson_an_excerpt_from_Lewis_Rand_by_Mary_Johnston_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 10:11:52 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 2: "Mr. Jefferson"; an excerpt from Lewis Rand by Mary Johnston (1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_2_Mr_Jefferson_an_excerpt_from_Lewis_Rand_by_Mary_Johnston_1908 Fri, 01 Mar 2013 10:11:52 EST]]> /Colonial_Williamsburg Thu, 06 Dec 2012 01:41:45 EST <![CDATA[Colonial Williamsburg]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colonial_Williamsburg Colonial Williamsburg is the restored and reconstructed historic area of Williamsburg, Virginia, a small city between the York and James rivers that was founded in 1632, designated capital of the English colony in 1698, and bestowed with a royal charter in 1722. It was a center of political activity before and during the American Revolution (1775–1783)—where George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Patrick Henry debated taxes, slavery, and the inalienable rights of men—and has since become the site of an ambitious restoration project launched in the 1930s and funded largely by the family of John D. Rockefeller Jr. With many of its historic structures rebuilt and with "interpreters" reenacting eighteenth-century life, Colonial Williamsburg has become a landmark in the history of the American preservation movement. More than that, though, the project serves as a self-conscious shrine of American ideals. The history and legacy of slavery, once downplayed at Williamsburg, is now dealt with openly—interpreters are both white and African American—but the focus remains on what the site's originators called "healthful" information about democracy, freedom, and representative government.
Thu, 06 Dec 2012 01:41:45 EST]]>
/Reston_Virginia Thu, 29 Nov 2012 16:06:29 EST <![CDATA[Reston, Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Reston_Virginia Reston is a community in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area located in western Fairfax County, Virginia. Conceived as an alternative to ailing cities and sprawling suburbs, Reston, along with Columbia, Maryland, was among the first post–World War II "new towns" in the United States. Founded in 1964 by Robert E. Simon Jr., Reston took its name from Simon's initials and represented a kind of urban utopia—a place with swimming pools, community centers, and tennis courts in every neighborhood and no restrictions based on race. Control of the project was taken over first by Gulf Oil—Simon's major lender—and then Mobil, but the community grew steadily. Its 2007 population was approximately 60,000; the town, meanwhile, enjoys a strong economy based on high technology and information.
Thu, 29 Nov 2012 16:06:29 EST]]>
/Hemings-Jefferson_DNA_an_excerpt_from_Jefferson_Fathered_Slave_s_Last_Child_by_Eugene_A_Foster_et_al_November_5_1998 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 15:03:58 EST <![CDATA[Hemings-Jefferson DNA; an excerpt from "Jefferson Fathered Slave's Last Child" by Eugene A. Foster, et al. (November 5, 1998)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hemings-Jefferson_DNA_an_excerpt_from_Jefferson_Fathered_Slave_s_Last_Child_by_Eugene_A_Foster_et_al_November_5_1998 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 15:03:58 EST]]> /Historical_Highway_Marker_Program Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:14:41 EST <![CDATA[Historical Highway Marker Program]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Historical_Highway_Marker_Program Established in 1926, Virginia's Historical Highway Marker Program is one of the oldest in the nation. Originally intended to commemorate such traditional subjects as military events, colonial home sites, and prominent Virginians from early American society, topics today range from authors and musicians to architecture, transportation, and industry, and include significant people, places, and events from all segments of Virginia history and society. Early in the twenty-first century, the Virginia Department of Historic Resources, which administers the highway marker program, led a special effort to fund and create new markers honoring African Americans, Virginia Indians, and women, as well as significant places and events related to their accomplishments, in order to represent the scope of Virginia history more completely. There are more than 2,000 markers installed throughout the state, with twenty to forty new markers added every year. New markers are established through a process whereby an applicant (an individual or a group) submits a marker proposal to the Department of Historic Resources. An editorial committee researches and reviews the written proposal and the draft marker text for accuracy and appropriate significance, then DHR staff formally present the marker proposal to the Board of Historic Resources, which must approve all new state historical markers. Once a marker is approved, an order for its manufacture is sent to a foundry for casting. The marker is then shipped, in most cases, to the appropriate local office of the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) for installation. Thereafter, except for markers in a few municipalities, the marker is maintained by VDOT, an important partner in the historical highway marker program.
Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:14:41 EST]]>
/Naval_Station_Norfolk Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:03:20 EST <![CDATA[Naval Station Norfolk]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Naval_Station_Norfolk Naval Station Norfolk (NSN) is a United States Navy facility located near the mouth of the Elizabeth River and Hampton Roads at Sewells Point in Norfolk. Covering more than 4,300 acres of land, NSN is one of the largest military facilities in the world. The base serves as the deepwater home port for seventy-five warships and submarines, including five of the U.S. Navy's twelve aircraft carriers. It supports numerous naval air squadrons that operate E-2C Hawkeye early warning aircraft, C-2 Greyhound cargo planes, and CH-46 helicopters. The base is also home to many shore-based Naval and joint forces commands with particular emphasis on advance training activities.
Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:03:20 EST]]>
/Progressive_Movement Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:01:21 EST <![CDATA[Progressive Movement]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Progressive_Movement The Progressive movement in Virginia was a series of efforts by early-twentieth-century residents to correct what they perceived as problems or deficiencies in government, business, and society. Their work was part of a national reform movement that existed from late in the 1890s until the United States entered World War I in 1917. Progressive reform in Virginia had many parallels with its national counterpart, but like the rest of the movement's southern manifestation, it also varied from it in important ways. Nationally, Progressives sought to expand democracy, aid victims of industrialization, bring order and efficiency to government and business, and impose morality. State reformers, by contrast, showed little interest in social uplift or racial justice, or in increasing democracy or furthering workers' rights. Instead, they focused on adjusting government and society in ways that both safeguarded the existing social and racial hierarchy and provided order, stability, and economic progress. In Virginia, the movement's participants were predominately urban white professionals, businessmen, educators, church leaders, and politicians; or their wives and daughters. Although the state's reformers had a variety of aims, they worked primarily on restructuring the electorate; improving public education; modifying cities in ways that made them more healthful, efficient, and orderly; upgrading roads; and enacting prohibition of alcohol. They achieved these and other reforms by successfully lobbying government officials for new laws, oversight agencies, and funding measures. While Virginia's Progressives more often than not worked together on their various causes, like reformers elsewhere in the nation, they also occasionally disagreed about the practicality of specific solutions. Those being reformed—typically poor white and African American residents—opposed many of the movement's efforts but lacked the political power to block them.
Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:01:21 EST]]>
/Honorary_Virginians Mon, 17 Sep 2012 09:56:44 EST <![CDATA[Honorary Virginians]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Honorary_Virginians Mon, 17 Sep 2012 09:56:44 EST]]> /Great_Depression_in_Virginia Fri, 14 Sep 2012 08:22:50 EST <![CDATA[Great Depression in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Great_Depression_in_Virginia The Great Depression of the 1930s was the most serious economic crisis in American history. A combination of economic maladies—including overproduction, inequitable distribution of wealth, excessive borrowing and speculation, inappropriate tax and tariff policies, and a shaky banking structure—produced an economic collapse that was announced by the stock market crash of October 1929. Over the next four years, millions of Americans (amounting to 25 percent of the work force) lost their jobs; millions more worked only part-time. Factories closed their doors, homes and farms were foreclosed, and the banking system verged on collapse. Itinerants, soup kitchens, and shantytowns became common features of the urban landscape. In Virginia the economic impact of the Great Depression was less severe than in other parts of the country. While the state suffered industrial reverses, above-normal unemployment, and much hardship, its citizens did not experience, in the same degree, the wholesale misfortune that much of the rest of the nation endured.
Fri, 14 Sep 2012 08:22:50 EST]]>
/Bristol_Sessions_1927_The Thu, 13 Sep 2012 14:52:40 EST <![CDATA[Bristol Sessions (1927), The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bristol_Sessions_1927_The The Bristol Sessions occurred in 1927 when the Victor Talking Machine Company brought a field unit to Bristol, Tennessee/Virginia, to record musicians from the region. Victor held the sessions on the second and third floors of the Taylor-Christian Hat Company building at 408 State Street on the Tennessee side of Bristol's main thoroughfare, which also serves as the Tennessee-Virginia border. Director Ralph Peer and the Victor engineers recorded fiddle tunes, sacred songs, string bands, harmonica solos, and others from July 25 to August 5. Celebrated as the session that produced the first recordings of country music legends Jimmie Rodgers and the Carter Family, the session also featured artists who had made previous recordings for other record labels. The session captured on 78-rpm commercial recordings an excellent cross section of the styles of music present in the Blue Ridge Mountains and Appalachian regions.
Thu, 13 Sep 2012 14:52:40 EST]]>
/Chrysler_Museum_of_Art Wed, 12 Sep 2012 14:35:35 EST <![CDATA[Chrysler Museum of Art]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chrysler_Museum_of_Art The Chrysler Museum of Art is a fine arts museum located along the banks of the Hague in the Ghent district of Norfolk. The museum is modeled in Italian Renaissance style and boasts more than 30,000 pieces of art by a vast array of renowned artists covering many regions and time periods. Greatly expanded by a gift from the art collector Walter P. Chrysler (1909–1988) in 1971, the museum contains one of the world's largest collections of Tiffany glass.
Wed, 12 Sep 2012 14:35:35 EST]]>
/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 Tue, 12 Jun 2012 14:32:24 EST <![CDATA[Anti-Lynching Law of 1928]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 The Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, signed by Virginia governor Harry Flood Byrd Sr. on March 14, 1928, was the first measure in the nation that defined lynching specifically as a state crime. The bill's enactment marked the culmination of a campaign waged by Louis Isaac Jaffé, the editor of the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, who responded more forcefully than any other white Virginian to an increase in mob violence in the mid-1920s. Jaffé's efforts, however, which earned him a Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing in 1929, came to fruition only after the state's political and business leadership recognized that mob violence was a threat to their efforts to attract business and industry. Ironically, no white person was ever convicted of lynching an African American under the law.
Tue, 12 Jun 2012 14:32:24 EST]]>
/United_Daughters_of_the_Confederacy Thu, 02 Feb 2012 09:59:22 EST <![CDATA[United Daughters of the Confederacy]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/United_Daughters_of_the_Confederacy The United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) was formed in 1894 to protect and perpetuate Confederate memory following the American Civil War (1861–1865). According to the group's founding documents, it sought "to fulfill the duties of sacred charity to the survivors of the war and those dependent upon them … to perpetuate the memory of our Confederate heroes and the glorious cause for which they fought." Through chapters in Virginia and other southern states (and even a handful in the North), members directed most of their efforts toward raising funds for Confederate monuments, sponsoring Memorial Day parades, caring for indigent Confederate widows, sponsoring essay contests and fellowships for southern students, and maintaining Confederate museums and relic collections. The context of these efforts was the Lost Cause interpretation of the Civil War, which emphasized states' rights and secession over slavery as causes of the war and was often used to further the goals of white supremacists in the twentieth century. The organization continues to perform memorial work, its national headquarters located in the former Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia.
Thu, 02 Feb 2012 09:59:22 EST]]>
/Civil_Rights_Act_of_1964 Tue, 31 Jan 2012 14:15:46 EST <![CDATA[Civil Rights Act of 1964]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Civil_Rights_Act_of_1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a landmark piece of national legislation, not only for the civil rights movement but for the emerging women's movement of the 1960s. It officially outlawed discrimination in public accommodations and employment and established the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights and the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission to enforce those provisions. In contrast to earlier civil rights measures, it included a ban on employment discrimination on the basis of gender, as well as race, color, and religion, making it the most comprehensive civil rights bill in American history and giving the revived women's movement new legal—and moral—weight. Yet, in an ironic twist, the legislation banned gender discrimination only because of the efforts of Howard W. Smith, U.S. representative from Virginia, a leader of the Conservative Coalition in Congress, and an opponent of civil rights. His tireless attempts to defeat the bill—including adding "sex" as grounds for illegal discrimination, which he believed would guarantee the bill's failure—resulted in a more expansive bill passing.
Tue, 31 Jan 2012 14:15:46 EST]]>
/Shenandoah_National_Park Wed, 18 Jan 2012 15:53:16 EST <![CDATA[Shenandoah National Park]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Shenandoah_National_Park Shenandoah National Park in the northern Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia was created in 1926 to preserve an area of natural beauty and provide recreational opportunities for the people in the surrounding region. Long populated by Siouan- and Iroquoian-speaking Indians, the area was first opened for settlement by whites early in the eighteenth century. When the National Park Service expressed an interest in a park in the Appalachian Mountains, a group of Virginia businessmen, in league with then-state senator Harry F. Byrd Sr., championed a "skyline" drive through the Blue Ridge. Byrd's fund-raising and administrative skills proved to be crucial to the project, especially in the wake of dwindling federal support during the Great Depression. The 160,000-acre park (which has since grown to almost 200,000 acres) was dedicated in 1936 and the Skyline Drive completed in 1939.
Wed, 18 Jan 2012 15:53:16 EST]]>
/Jamestown_350th_Anniversary_1957 Wed, 18 Jan 2012 15:52:23 EST <![CDATA[Jamestown 350th Anniversary, 1957]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jamestown_350th_Anniversary_1957 In 1957, Virginia hosted an eight-month-long celebration known as the "Jamestown Festival" to commemorate the 350th anniversary of the founding of the colony at Jamestown. Organized through the efforts of the Virginia 350th Anniversary Commission the festival emphasized the key role that Jamestown, as the first permanent English settlement in North America, played in American history. The event drew national and international attention to the state, and brought more than a million visitors to the Jamestown area, including then-U.S. vice president Richard Nixon and Queen Elizabeth II of England. It also suffered from the limitations of its day, namely the failure to take into account more fully the perspectives of Virginia Indians and African Americans.
Wed, 18 Jan 2012 15:52:23 EST]]>
/Massive_Resistance Wed, 29 Jun 2011 11:09:35 EST <![CDATA[Massive Resistance]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Massive_Resistance Massive Resistance was a policy adopted in 1956 by Virginia's state government to block the desegregation of public schools mandated by the U.S. Supreme Court in its 1954 ruling in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Advocated by U.S. senator Harry F. Byrd Sr., a conservative Democrat and former governor who coined the term, Massive Resistance reflected the racial views and fears of Byrd's power base in Southside Virginia as well as the senator's reflexive disdain for federal government intrusion into state affairs. When schools were shut down in Front Royal in Warren County , Charlottesville , and Norfolk to prevent desegregation, the courts stepped in and overturned the policy. In the end, Massive Resistance added more bitterness to race relations already strained by the resentments engendered by the caste system and delayed large-scale desegregation of Virginia's public schools for more than a decade. Meanwhile, Virginia's defiance served as an example for the states of the Lower South, and the legal vestiges of Massive Resistance lasted until early in the 1970s.
Wed, 29 Jun 2011 11:09:35 EST]]>
/Chesapeake_Bay_Bridge-Tunnel Tue, 19 Apr 2011 08:49:54 EST <![CDATA[Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chesapeake_Bay_Bridge-Tunnel The Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel (CBBT) connects the Virginia mainland at the city of Virginia Beach directly with the Delmarva Peninsula. Completed in 1964 and recognized by the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1965 as one of the "Seven Engineering Wonders of the Modern World," the structure is comprised of bridges, tunnels, and land roads that span a total of twenty-three miles. Initially considered to be a risky financial move, the CBBT is now a profitable and expanding enterprise.
Tue, 19 Apr 2011 08:49:54 EST]]>
/Pentagon_The Thu, 07 Apr 2011 13:40:47 EST <![CDATA[Pentagon, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pentagon_The The Pentagon, located in Arlington, Virginia, is home to the Department of Defense and serves as military headquarters for the United States. The enormous, 6.24-million-square-foot concrete structure is the largest office building in the world, covering thirty-four acres. Built to house the burgeoning War Department on the eve of the United States' entry into World War II (1939–1945), the headquarters was constructed in just seventeen months. From the moment Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson and Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall moved into the building in November 1942, the Pentagon has served as the focal point of American military planning and operations. Vital decisions regarding the D-Day invasion of Europe and the development of the atomic bomb were made at the Pentagon during World War II. In subsequent years the Pentagon has been the setting for many more critical decisions, from the Cold War and the Vietnam War (1961–1975) to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. On September 11, 2001, terrorists flew a hijacked passenger jet into the Pentagon, killing 184 people and seriously damaging the building but not shutting it down. With its iconic, five-sided shape, the Pentagon is one of the world's most recognizable buildings and it has come to serve as a symbol of American military strength.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 13:40:47 EST]]>
/Virginia_s_State_Parks Thu, 07 Apr 2011 12:57:00 EST <![CDATA[Virginia's State Parks]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_s_State_Parks Virginia's state parks system was launched on June 15, 1936, when the six inaugural parks opened simultaneously. The creation of those parks was made possible through one of U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal programs, the goal of which was to create jobs to help pull the country out of the Great Depression. The success of those first six parks in providing citizens with recreational opportunities and preserving Virginia's natural areas led to an expansion to thirty-four state parks established in Virginia in 2008.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 12:57:00 EST]]>
/Virginia_Writers_Project Thu, 07 Apr 2011 12:55:55 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Writers Project]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Writers_Project The Virginia Writers Project was formed in 1935 as part of the Works Progress Administration, a federal program designed to combat the Great Depression. With a staff of approximately forty Virginia teachers, writers, librarians, clerks, and other professionals, the VWP interviewed thousands of Virginians from all walks of life about their lives, work, and memories. In addition, VWP interviewers collected and checked information about the geography and history of Virginia, a process that resulted in two important books: the 700-page Virginia: A Guide to the Old Dominion (1940) and The Negro in Virginia (1940), which included oral histories from Virginians who had lived through slavery and the American Civil War (1861–1865). The VWP shut down in 1943, but its material was archived—much of it at the Library of Virginia—where it continues to be useful to those interested in primary resources about Virginia's past.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 12:55:55 EST]]>
/Desegregation_in_Higher_Education Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:14:13 EST <![CDATA[Desegregation in Higher Education]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Desegregation_in_Higher_Education The desegregation of higher education in Virginia was the result of a long legal and social process that began after the American Civil War (1861–1865) and did not end before the 1970s. When the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" public accommodations for blacks and whites were constitutional in the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the court established a sturdy legal basis for segregation. This ruling encouraged the Jim Crow era of legalized discrimination against blacks in the south. But the terminology of "separate but equal" eventually also created an opening for African Americans to demand educational opportunities and facilities equal to those available to whites. Educational opportunities for blacks were vastly inferior to whites, and segregation in higher education was entrenched in Virginia through World War II (1941–1945). But during the 1950s and 1960s, the first black students entered various graduate programs at the University of Virginia and the College of William and Mary, then undergraduate engineering programs at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and the University of Virginia, and finally general undergraduate programs at all historically white colleges and universities. In 1935 Alice Jackson failed to win admission to a graduate program at the University of Virginia, but Gregory Swanson, with the help of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and a ruling from a federal court, gained admission to the university's law school in 1950. Admittance into programs did not mean an immediate end to unfair and unequal treatment on campus, but by 1972 black students were able to enroll in Virginia in any curriculum and also live and eat in campus facilities.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:14:13 EST]]>
/Cooperative_Education_Association Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:03:39 EST <![CDATA[Cooperative Education Association]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooperative_Education_Association The Cooperative Education Association was organized in 1904 to advocate for public education reform in Virginia. The group was part of the larger, national Progressive movement, which generally pushed for workers' rights, women's rights, and more efficient government. The cooperative saw itself representing all citizens of Virginia, "whether living in the city or the country, whether white or black," and was an outgrowth of the Richmond Education Association, founded in 1900 by Lila Meade Valentine and dedicated to education reform. The idea behind the cooperative was to extend the group's successes in Richmond to the rest of the state.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:03:39 EST]]>
/Anti-Saloon_League_of_Virginia Thu, 07 Apr 2011 10:25:48 EST <![CDATA[Anti-Saloon League of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anti-Saloon_League_of_Virginia The Anti-Saloon League of Virginia, established in 1901, led the movement that brought Prohibition to the state in 1916. While the state had established the Virginia Society for the Promotion of Temperance as early as October 1826, the league became a major force in Virginia politics, especially within the Democratic Party, in the first two decades of the twentieth century. An affiliate of the Anti-Saloon League of America, a national dry pressure group based in Ohio, the Virginia League gave political direction to the temperance beliefs of Protestant evangelicals, chiefly Baptists and Methodists.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 10:25:48 EST]]>
/National_D-Day_Memorial Tue, 23 Nov 2010 12:01:14 EST <![CDATA[National D-Day Memorial]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/National_D-Day_Memorial The National D-Day Memorial is a congressionally approved national war memorial in Bedford, Virginia, honoring the American GIs who participated in the invasion of France at Normandy on June 6, 1944, during World War II (1939–1945). Dedicated on June 6, 2001, by United States president George W. Bush and receiving as many as 100,000 visitors per year, the memorial is remarkable for its stone arch that rises nearly forty-five feet in the air. The structure's six components correspond, often in directly representational ways, to the planning and execution of Operation Overlord, the largest invasion in history. Conceived by Roanoke native and D-Day veteran J. Robert "Bob" Slaughter, the memorial is located in Bedford partly for symbolic reasons: the Virginia town lost nineteen of its men engaged that day, all members of Company A, 29th Infantry Division, possibly the largest per capita loss of any town in America on that day. (Four more Bedford soldiers died later in the campaign.) Although Slaughter had originally envisioned something modest, the project turned into a $25 million colossus that resulted in the memorial foundation's bankruptcy in 2002 and two federal fraud indictments against its executive director, Richard B. Burrow. Two trials ended in hung juries, and charges against Burrow were dismissed in October 2004.
Tue, 23 Nov 2010 12:01:14 EST]]>
/Fort_Lee Tue, 23 Nov 2010 10:37:44 EST <![CDATA[Fort Lee]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fort_Lee Fort Lee, located near Petersburg, Virginia, serves as the headquarters of the U.S. Army's Combined Arms Support Command and Quartermaster Corps. Since 1917, it has trained and educated thousands of soldiers for service in every major conflict and continues to develop future combat systems and doctrine for the all of the Army's logistics branches.
Tue, 23 Nov 2010 10:37:44 EST]]>
/Hurricane_Camille_August_1969 Thu, 09 Sep 2010 13:00:10 EST <![CDATA[Hurricane Camille (August 1969)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hurricane_Camille_August_1969 Hurricane Camille arrived in Virginia on the night of August 19, 1969, one of only three category five storms ever to make landfall in the United States since record-keeping began. One of the worst natural disasters in Virginia's history, the storm produced what meteorologists at the time guessed might be the most rainfall "theoretically possible." As it swept through Virginia overnight, it seemed to catch authorities by surprise. Communication networks were not in place or were knocked out, leaving floods and landslides to trap residents as they slept. Hurricane Camille cost Virginia 113 lives lost and $116 million in damages. It also served as a lesson that inland flooding could be as great a danger as coastal flooding during a hurricane.
Thu, 09 Sep 2010 13:00:10 EST]]>
/Wreck_of_the_Old_97 Thu, 09 Sep 2010 11:54:12 EST <![CDATA[Wreck of the Old 97]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wreck_of_the_Old_97 The wreck of the Old 97 occurred on September 27, 1903, when the Southern Railway freight train called the Fast Mail (or "Old 97") left the tracks and crashed at the Stillhouse Trestle outside Danville, Virginia, killing eleven people. The accident became a sensation, with thousands of spectators at the scene, newspaper stories, and even a series of musical ballads, the most popular of which became a hit on the country music charts in 1924.
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/Modern_Environmental_History_of_Virginia Thu, 08 Jan 2009 14:13:24 EST <![CDATA[Modern Environmental History of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Modern_Environmental_History_of_Virginia Virginia's modern history has been shaped by and has in turn shaped its nonhuman natural environment. In one way, nature has been a historical actor changing Virginia: the state's climate, geology, waterways, fisheries, wildlife population, flora and fauna, and soil content have provided the conditions for economic, cultural, and recreational possibilities across the state. In another way, Virginians have acted to change land-use patterns, increase waste flows into rivers and other habitats, and intensify demands for energy, putting increased pressure on the environment during the twentieth century. By century's end, new transportation and energy-producing technologies, more scientific knowledge about interrelated ecosystems, and an accompanying shift in values about environmental features led Virginians to perceive their environments in ways differing significantly from their nineteenth-century predecessors. Moreover, the state's modern history serves as a representative example of the complex intermingling between culture and nature in America's environmental history.
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