Encyclopedia Virginia: Transportation http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_November_14_1796 Fri, 08 Feb 2019 10:55:05 EST Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (November 14, 1796) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_November_14_1796 Fri, 08 Feb 2019 10:55:05 EST]]> /Slave_Sales Fri, 14 Dec 2018 14:09:34 EST <![CDATA[Slave Sales]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Sales Slave sales represented an intricate and economically vital activity in Virginia from late in the eighteenth century through the American Civil War (1861–1865), ending only with the abolition of slavery. Sales in Virginia exceeded those of all other Upper South states, with Richmond doing the most business of any city. The origins of the slave trade date to the end of primogeniture and entail in Virginia, which broke up large estates and their often large communities of slaves. The rise of cotton production in the Lower South and the end of the transatlantic slave trade in 1808 also created a market for Virginia slaveholders, who rushed to sell enslaved people to meet the increasing demand for labor. Throughout Virginia and the Upper South, a large network of traders purchased slaves and transported them to urban centers, where they were confined to so-called jails, usually located on the grounds of large firms. After being held in these facilities, sometimes for weeks at a time, slaves were auctioned, often to another trader. These auctions occurred in sparsely furnished rooms where enslaved people were subject to intrusive physical examinations and the biddings of potential buyers. It was not unusual for such auctions to result in the permanent separation of husbands and wives, parents and children. After the sale, enslaved people were then transported on foot in "coffles," by rail, or by boat to the Lower South. In a contradiction noted by historians, a number of wealthy Virginia slave traders also fathered children and created families with enslaved and non-white women.
Fri, 14 Dec 2018 14:09:34 EST]]>
/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Tobias_Lear_November_22_1790 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:10:39 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Tobias Lear (November 22, 1790)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Tobias_Lear_November_22_1790 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:10:39 EST]]> /Crozet_Claudius_1789-1864 Mon, 15 May 2017 15:44:05 EST <![CDATA[Crozet, Claudius (1789–1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crozet_Claudius_1789-1864 Claudius Crozet was a civil engineer best known for his work blasting tunnels through the Blue Ridge Mountains. Born in France, he received a technical education and artillery training before entering the French army. He was captured by the Russians at the Battle of Borodino in 1812 and served two years as a prisoner of war. From 1816 to 1823 Crozet taught at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, after which he began the first of two stints as principal engineer for the Virginia Board of Public Works. A difficult man, Crozet clashed with government officials over transportation projects in western Virginia. He resigned in 1832 and spent time working in Louisiana before returning to the position in 1837 and serving until 1843. Crozet taught at the Virginia Military Institute and was the first president of its board. In 1849, as chief engineer for the Blue Ridge Railroad Company, he began work on a series of tunnels through the mountains separating Charlottesville and Staunton. The largest, designated the Crozet Tunnel, opened in April 1858. By that time Crozet had moved on to a water project in Washington, D.C., and in 1859 became the chief engineer of the Virginia and Kentucky Railroad. He died in 1864. The town of Crozet in Albemarle County is named for him.
Mon, 15 May 2017 15:44:05 EST]]>
/Highway_Bond_Referendum_1923 Mon, 08 May 2017 14:22:56 EST <![CDATA[Highway Bond Referendum, 1923]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Highway_Bond_Referendum_1923 The 1923 Highway Bond Referendum was defeated by voters after a long and bruising battle in the General Assembly where state senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. emerged as a real political force. At issue was how to pay for much-needed road improvement. While bonds were popular at first, Byrd had managed to muster a fierce and stubborn opposition, arguing that a gas tax, instead of bonds, would allow the state to adopt a "pay-as-you-go" policy that was more fiscally responsible. Byrd's behind-the-scenes machinations foreshadowed the political powerhouse he was about to become—as Virginia's governor, as a U.S. senator, and as head of the Byrd Organization, a statewide Democratic Party machine.
Mon, 08 May 2017 14:22:56 EST]]>
/Richmond_and_Petersburg_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War_The Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:15:13 EST <![CDATA[Richmond and Petersburg Railroad during the Civil War, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Richmond_and_Petersburg_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War_The The Richmond and Petersburg Railroad extended for twenty-two miles and linked the two central Virginia cities. The Virginia General Assembly chartered the company in 1836 and the line was completed two years later. Despite its name, however, the southern terminus of the railroad actually was in the suburb of Pocahontas, which lay on the north bank of the Appomattox River across from Petersburg. Goods and passengers had to be off-loaded and disembarked at the Pocahontas station and then transported by wagon and carriage across a bridge into Petersburg. Once in the city, there were several rail-transportation options. The Petersburg Railroad, also known as the Weldon Railroad, led south to North Carolina, while the South Side Railroad ran west to Lynchburg and the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad linked those two cities.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:15:13 EST]]>
/Mahone_William_1826-1895 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:02:29 EST <![CDATA[Mahone, William (1826–1895)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mahone_William_1826-1895 William Mahone was a Confederate general, Virginia senator (1863–1865), railroad tycoon, U.S. senator (1881–1887), and leader of the short-lived Readjuster Party. Known by his nickname, "Little Billy," Mahone was, in the words of a contemporary, "short in stature, spare almost to emaciation, with [a] long beard, and keen, restless eyes." He attended the Virginia Military Institute on scholarship, worked as a railroad engineer, and eventually became president of the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he distinguished himself at the Battle of the Crater (1864), leading a successful counterattack that also involved the massacre of surrendered black troops. After the war, Mahone founded the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio Railroad, which, before it failed, served his business interests in Norfolk and Southside Virginia. In 1881, he was elected to the United States Senate as a member of the Readjuster Party, an unlikely coalition of poor whites and African Americans interested in repudiating a portion of the massive state debt and, in so doing, restoring social services such as free public education. One of the most successful biracial political coalitions in the New South, the Readjusters held power until 1886, when Mahone lost his Senate seat. A gubernatorial bid in 1889 failed, and Mahone died in Washington, D.C., in 1895.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:02:29 EST]]>
/Braxton_Carter_Moore_1836-1898 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:05:20 EST <![CDATA[Braxton, Carter M. (1836–1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Braxton_Carter_Moore_1836-1898 Carter M. Braxton was a civil engineer, businessman, and a Confederate artillery officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). A Norfolk native, he fought in the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia's major campaigns, from the Seven Days' Battles outside Richmond in 1862 to the Gettysburg Campaign in 1863 and the Overland Campaign in 1864. One account claimed that he had seven horses shot from under him, but he was never wounded in the fighting. Following the war, he published a map of the battlefield at Fredericksburg. In June 1866 Braxton became president of the Fredericksburg and Gordonsville Railroad, and later formed his own engineering construction firm, Braxton, Chandler, and Marye, in Newport News. Braxton also founded a railway company and was vice president of both a bank and a gas company. He died of Bright's disease in Newport News in 1898.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:05:20 EST]]>
/Baltimore_and_Ohio_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:09:11 EST <![CDATA[Baltimore and Ohio Railroad during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Baltimore_and_Ohio_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, an early leader in the transportation revolution, provided the country with a more efficient means of travel. The rail line's construction began on July 4, 1828, and eventually expanded into thirteen states. In 1861 the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad maintained 188 miles in Virginia and independently offered a direct connection to both eastern and western Virginia. The railroad was primarily northern with only a portion of its line in northern Virginia. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the once-vast and continuous line was broken into sections and was subject to a number of raids by both Union and Confederate forces.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:09:11 EST]]>
/Virginia_Central_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War_The Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:08:08 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Central Railroad during the Civil War, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Central_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War_The The Virginia General Assembly chartered the Louisa Railroad, the predecessor of the Virginia Central Railroad, in 1836. The line's eastern terminus was at Hanover Junction (present-day Doswell), about twenty miles north of Richmond, where it joined the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad (RF&P), and Charlottesville was the western terminus. Construction proceeded slowly, and in 1850, after the line had been extended westward of Louisa County, the name was changed to the Virginia Central Railroad. At first, the railroad had shared track to Richmond with the RF&P, but in 1851 it began constructing its own line to the city. Eventually the western terminus was extended to Covington in the Allegheny Mountains, linking the line with the Covington and Ohio Railroad. By the time of the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Virginia Central Railroad was about two hundred miles long, from Richmond to Covington, and traversed the heart of the state.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:08:08 EST]]>
/Richmond_Fredericksburg_and_Potomac_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:07:01 EST <![CDATA[Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Richmond_Fredericksburg_and_Potomac_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War The Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad (RF&P) was a strategically important rail line linking the Potomac River near the United States capital at Washington, D.C., and the Confederate capital at Richmond during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Incorporated in 1834, the railroad was seized by Confederates after Virginia seceded in April 1861, but struggled to maintain its lines under the increased traffic of men and matèriel. The Union army captured a portion of the railroad at Aquia Creek, and engineers led by Herman Haupt engaged in sometimes astonishing feats of engineering—laying three miles of track in three days, for instance, and constructing a 400-foot-long bridge in nine days. Throughout the war, portions of the railroad were destroyed and rebuilt, and Confederates found it increasingly difficult to keep up with repairs for lack of equipment and labor. By the end of the war, its lines were almost completely unusable, but within two months of Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House, service between Richmond and Hamilton's Crossing in Spotsylvania County was restored.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:07:01 EST]]>
/Richmond_and_Danville_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:00:48 EST <![CDATA[Richmond and Danville Railroad during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Richmond_and_Danville_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War The Richmond and Danville Railroad, which connected the Confederate capital at Richmond with Southside Virginia, was an instrumental supply route for the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865). The railroad began construction in 1848 and maintained 140 miles in Virginia, holding one of the largest rolling stocks. The line moved southwest from Richmond to the city of Danville, Virginia, near the North Carolina border. While this railroad's tracks did not exceed the state's boundaries, it did provide connections to various sections of Virginia, particularly Southwest Virginia, through the Richmond and Petersburg and South Side railroads. Though the Richmond and Danville suffered immense damage during the Civil War, the Confederacy continuously used the railroad until Confederate general Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox in April 1865.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:00:48 EST]]>
/Southside_Railroad Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:58:37 EST <![CDATA[South Side Railroad during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Southside_Railroad The South Side Railroad, completed in 1854, was one of the most important supply routes in southern Virginia during the American Civil War (1861–1865). With tracks laid east to west across the state, the railroad began at City Point in Hopewell on the James River and extended westward through Petersburg, Burkeville, Farmville, Appomattox Station, and finally Lynchburg, in western Virginia, for a total of about 132 miles. The South Side Railroad was imperative to the Confederate army for the transport of food, military supplies, and troops throughout the war. Behind the lines of battle, the South Side line saw little damage for the first few years of the war; as the conflict moved south in 1864 and 1865, however, the railroad incurred heavy damage from both the Confederate and Union army as each sought to cut the supply lines of the other.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:58:37 EST]]>
/Manassas_Gap_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:53:27 EST <![CDATA[Manassas Gap Railroad during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Manassas_Gap_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War The Manassas Gap Railroad was chartered in 1849 and served as a short but crucial line for both Confederate and Union forces during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Although it had just seventy-seven miles of track, the railroad also connected points near the United States capital to the Shenandoah Valley, which made the line strategically important. Nearly thirty miles southwest of Washington, D.C., at Manassas Junction the tracks intersected the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, continued west into the Valley via the Blue Ridge Mountain pass known as Manassas Gap, and then went west through Strasburg, to terminate at Mount Jackson. Consequently, this railroad linked the Orange and Alexandria with other rail lines in northern and central Virginia, while its western terminus was in the Valley. The line also showed the strategic advantage railroads played in changing the tide of battle, highlighted during the First Battle of Manassas on July 21, 1861.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:53:27 EST]]>
/Morgan_v_Virginia Mon, 20 Oct 2014 14:38:24 EST <![CDATA[Morgan v. Virginia (1946)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_v_Virginia In Morgan v. Virginia, decided on June 3, 1946, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down a Virginia law requiring racial segregation on commercial interstate buses as a violation of the commerce clause of the U.S. Constitution. The appellant, Irene Morgan, was riding a Greyhound bus from Hayes Store, in Gloucester County, to Baltimore, Maryland, in 1944 when she was arrested and convicted in Saluda for refusing to give up her seat to a white person. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) filed appeals on her behalf, and after the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals ruled against Morgan in 1945, the U.S. Supreme Court heard her arguments. The case came near the end of a string of decisions, dating back to 1878, in which various courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court, had found that the commerce clause did not support state laws that regulated commercial interstate passenger travel. Morgan v. Virginia was not a typical civil rights case in that it did not comment on a state's right to segregate whites from blacks. Still, Morgan's refusal to give up her seat foreshadowed Rosa Parks's more famous action a decade later and marked an early and important victory in the civil rights movement.
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 14:38:24 EST]]>
/Fenwick_Charles_R_1900-1969 Sun, 14 Sep 2014 12:23:24 EST <![CDATA[Fenwick, Charles R. (1900–1969)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fenwick_Charles_R_1900-1969 Charles R. Fenwick served as a Democratic member of the House of Delegates (1940–1945) and the Senate of Virginia (1948–1969) and played a key political role in the development of Northern Virginia after World War II (1939–1945). Fenwick entered politics in the 1930s as a member of the Byrd Organization and represented Arlington County for three terms in the House of Delegates. After an unsuccessful attempt to secure the Democratic nomination for lieutenant governor, Fenwick was elected to the Senate of Virginia in 1947. During the 1950s he opposed the statewide program of Massive Resistance to public-school desegregation, instead supporting local-option plans. He served as the University of Virginia's rector and helped to establish the branch of the university that in 1972 became George Mason University. Fenwick led efforts to regulate the region's public transportation, develop a regional subway system, and establish an authority to build airports in the state. Fenwick died in 1969, while still serving n the Senate. The main library at George Mason University and the Washington, D.C., Metro's Fourteenth Street bridge across the Potomac River are named in his honor.
Sun, 14 Sep 2014 12:23:24 EST]]>
/Chamberlaine_William_W_1836-1923 Wed, 21 Aug 2013 14:44:38 EST <![CDATA[Chamberlaine, William W. (1836–1923)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chamberlaine_William_W_1836-1923 William W. Chamberlaine was a Confederate army officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865), founder of the Norfolk Electric Light Company, first president of the Savings Bank of Norfolk, and a longtime railroad executive who retired as secretary of the Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad. Born in Norfolk, Chamberlaine was wounded at the Battle of Antietam (1862). After the war he worked at a bank with his father before becoming secretary and treasurer of the Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad in 1877. He stayed with the company through the rest of his career, during which time he also founded the light company (1884) and led the Savings Bank (1886). After retiring in 1904, he moved to Washington, D.C., and published a memoir about his wartime service (1912). He died in Washington in 1923.
Wed, 21 Aug 2013 14:44:38 EST]]>
/_Mr_Jefferson_s_Blooded_Stock_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:59:07 EST <![CDATA["Mr. Jefferson's Blooded Stock"; an excerpt from The Private Life of Thomas Jefferson by Hamilton W. Pierson (1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mr_Jefferson_s_Blooded_Stock_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:59:07 EST]]> /Historical_Highway_Marker_Program Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:14:41 EST <![CDATA[Historical Highway Marker Program]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Historical_Highway_Marker_Program Established in 1926, Virginia's Historical Highway Marker Program is one of the oldest in the nation. Originally intended to commemorate such traditional subjects as military events, colonial home sites, and prominent Virginians from early American society, topics today range from authors and musicians to architecture, transportation, and industry, and include significant people, places, and events from all segments of Virginia history and society. Early in the twenty-first century, the Virginia Department of Historic Resources, which administers the highway marker program, led a special effort to fund and create new markers honoring African Americans, Virginia Indians, and women, as well as significant places and events related to their accomplishments, in order to represent the scope of Virginia history more completely. There are more than 2,000 markers installed throughout the state, with twenty to forty new markers added every year. New markers are established through a process whereby an applicant (an individual or a group) submits a marker proposal to the Department of Historic Resources. An editorial committee researches and reviews the written proposal and the draft marker text for accuracy and appropriate significance, then DHR staff formally present the marker proposal to the Board of Historic Resources, which must approve all new state historical markers. Once a marker is approved, an order for its manufacture is sent to a foundry for casting. The marker is then shipped, in most cases, to the appropriate local office of the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) for installation. Thereafter, except for markers in a few municipalities, the marker is maintained by VDOT, an important partner in the historical highway marker program.
Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:14:41 EST]]>
/Progressive_Movement Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:01:21 EST <![CDATA[Progressive Movement]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Progressive_Movement The Progressive movement in Virginia was a series of efforts by early-twentieth-century residents to correct what they perceived as problems or deficiencies in government, business, and society. Their work was part of a national reform movement that existed from late in the 1890s until the United States entered World War I in 1917. Progressive reform in Virginia had many parallels with its national counterpart, but like the rest of the movement's southern manifestation, it also varied from it in important ways. Nationally, Progressives sought to expand democracy, aid victims of industrialization, bring order and efficiency to government and business, and impose morality. State reformers, by contrast, showed little interest in social uplift or racial justice, or in increasing democracy or furthering workers' rights. Instead, they focused on adjusting government and society in ways that both safeguarded the existing social and racial hierarchy and provided order, stability, and economic progress. In Virginia, the movement's participants were predominately urban white professionals, businessmen, educators, church leaders, and politicians; or their wives and daughters. Although the state's reformers had a variety of aims, they worked primarily on restructuring the electorate; improving public education; modifying cities in ways that made them more healthful, efficient, and orderly; upgrading roads; and enacting prohibition of alcohol. They achieved these and other reforms by successfully lobbying government officials for new laws, oversight agencies, and funding measures. While Virginia's Progressives more often than not worked together on their various causes, like reformers elsewhere in the nation, they also occasionally disagreed about the practicality of specific solutions. Those being reformed—typically poor white and African American residents—opposed many of the movement's efforts but lacked the political power to block them.
Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:01:21 EST]]>
/Chesapeake_Bay_Bridge-Tunnel Tue, 19 Apr 2011 08:49:54 EST <![CDATA[Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chesapeake_Bay_Bridge-Tunnel The Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel (CBBT) connects the Virginia mainland at the city of Virginia Beach directly with the Delmarva Peninsula. Completed in 1964 and recognized by the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1965 as one of the "Seven Engineering Wonders of the Modern World," the structure is comprised of bridges, tunnels, and land roads that span a total of twenty-three miles. Initially considered to be a risky financial move, the CBBT is now a profitable and expanding enterprise.
Tue, 19 Apr 2011 08:49:54 EST]]>
/Wreck_of_the_Old_97 Thu, 09 Sep 2010 11:54:12 EST <![CDATA[Wreck of the Old 97]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wreck_of_the_Old_97 The wreck of the Old 97 occurred on September 27, 1903, when the Southern Railway freight train called the Fast Mail (or "Old 97") left the tracks and crashed at the Stillhouse Trestle outside Danville, Virginia, killing eleven people. The accident became a sensation, with thousands of spectators at the scene, newspaper stories, and even a series of musical ballads, the most popular of which became a hit on the country music charts in 1924.
Thu, 09 Sep 2010 11:54:12 EST]]>
/Modern_Environmental_History_of_Virginia Thu, 08 Jan 2009 14:13:24 EST <![CDATA[Modern Environmental History of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Modern_Environmental_History_of_Virginia Virginia's modern history has been shaped by and has in turn shaped its nonhuman natural environment. In one way, nature has been a historical actor changing Virginia: the state's climate, geology, waterways, fisheries, wildlife population, flora and fauna, and soil content have provided the conditions for economic, cultural, and recreational possibilities across the state. In another way, Virginians have acted to change land-use patterns, increase waste flows into rivers and other habitats, and intensify demands for energy, putting increased pressure on the environment during the twentieth century. By century's end, new transportation and energy-producing technologies, more scientific knowledge about interrelated ecosystems, and an accompanying shift in values about environmental features led Virginians to perceive their environments in ways differing significantly from their nineteenth-century predecessors. Moreover, the state's modern history serves as a representative example of the complex intermingling between culture and nature in America's environmental history.
Thu, 08 Jan 2009 14:13:24 EST]]>