Encyclopedia Virginia: Slavery http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Stratford_Hall Tue, 21 Nov 2017 14:25:40 EST Stratford Hall http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Stratford_Hall Stratford Hall is a 1,500-acre plantation located in Westmoreland County on the Potomac River. The politician and planter Thomas Lee purchased the land for Stratford in 1717; although no records exist to indicate when the house was built, construction likely began in 1738 and was completed sometime in the 1740s. The plantation was home to two signers of the Declaration of Independence—Richard Henry Lee and Francis Lightfoot Lee—and was the birthplace of the Confederate general Robert E. Lee. Thomas Lee's descendants lived at Stratford until the 1820s, when Henry Lee IV sold the plantation to cover his debts. Since 1929, the Robert E. Lee Memorial Association, or RELMA, has owned Stratford Hall.
Tue, 21 Nov 2017 14:25:40 EST]]>
/Burns_Anthony_The_Trial_of_1854 Tue, 14 Nov 2017 11:24:50 EST <![CDATA[Burns, Anthony, The Trial of (1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burns_Anthony_The_Trial_of_1854 The trial of Anthony Burns, a fugitive slave from Virginia, occurred in Boston, Massachusetts, during the spring of 1854. Hired out in Richmond, Burns had saved money and stowed away on a ship to Boston, where he worked in a clothing store. A letter home to his brother unintentionally revealed his location, and when it was intercepted, Burns's owner, Charles F. Suttle, traveled north and claimed Burns under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Approved as part of the Compromise of 1850, the law was designed to strengthen federal protections for southerners attempting recover slaves who had fled to free states. Members of the Boston Vigilance Committee, a group of antislavery activists who were committed to resisting the law, made an attempt to free Burns from custody. The rescue effort was unsuccessful, and a guard was killed in the process. In the trial, Burns's lawyers argued that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional and that Burns was not actually the man whom Suttle claimed to own. On June 1, 1854, Judge Edward Greely Loring ruled against Burns, who was afterward transported to Norfolk, Virginia, on a U.S. Revenue Cutter. Antislavery activists later purchased his freedom, and he became a minister, dying in Canada in 1862. None of those responsible for the guard's death was convicted, and many southerners believed that, in spite of the Fugitive Slave Act's successful enforcement, the Burns affair proved that northerners could not be trusted to fulfill their constitutional obligations.
Tue, 14 Nov 2017 11:24:50 EST]]>
/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_July_4-7_1840 Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:53:53 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Board of Visitors Minutes (July 4–7, 1840)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_July_4-7_1840 Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:53:53 EST]]> /Free_Blacks_in_Colonial_Virginia Thu, 26 Oct 2017 09:18:09 EST <![CDATA[Free Blacks in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Free_Blacks_in_Colonial_Virginia Thu, 26 Oct 2017 09:18:09 EST]]> /Billy_Billy_or_Blind_ca_1805-1855 Mon, 16 Oct 2017 16:43:17 EST <![CDATA[Billy or Blind Billy (ca. 1805–1855)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Billy_Billy_or_Blind_ca_1805-1855 Mon, 16 Oct 2017 16:43:17 EST]]> /Abrams_Joseph_1791-1854 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:23:30 EST <![CDATA[Abrams, Joseph (1791–1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Abrams_Joseph_1791-1854 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:23:30 EST]]> /William_Daniel_Jr_1806-1873 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:19:12 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, William Jr. (1806–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/William_Daniel_Jr_1806-1873 William Daniel Jr. was a member of the House of Delegates (1831–1832, 1835–1836, 1838) and served as a judge of the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals (1847– 1865). Born in Winchester, Daniel earned a law degree from the University of Virginia and practiced in Lynchburg. He represented Campbell County in the House of Delegates, and during the slavery debate of 1831–1832 spoke against a proposal to free children born to enslaved mothers. Elected to the Supreme Court of Appeals in 1846, he sat on the bench through the American Civil War (1861–1865) issuing respected rulings on equity jurisprudence and property rights. In 1861, he wrote an opinion in Baker v. Wise, Governor, which upheld a Virginia law that required state inspectors to verify that ships owned out of state and bound for the North did not harbor fugitive slaves. After the war Daniel resumed his law practice in Lynchburg and died in nearby Nelson County in 1873.
Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:19:12 EST]]>
/Boxley_George_ca_1780-1865 Mon, 11 Sep 2017 16:09:29 EST <![CDATA[Boxley, George (ca. 1780–1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boxley_George_ca_1780-1865 George Boxley was an antislavery leader who allegedly conspired to help slaves revolt in 1816. Born in Spotsylvania County, he farmed and ran a general store and himself owned slaves. His motivations for turning against slavery in 1815 remain unclear, although speculation has included everything from personal grievances to religious delusions. Boxley's plans were exposed, a number of slaves were arrested, and he turned himself in. What resulted was the largest prosecution for insurrection between Gabriel's Conspiracy in 1800 and Nat Turner's Revolt in 1831. With the help of his wife, Boxley escaped jail and spent the next several years on the run, outwitting bounty hunters. He finally settled in Hamilton County, Indiana, where he died in 1865.
Mon, 11 Sep 2017 16:09:29 EST]]>
/Crane_William_1790-1866 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 16:06:08 EST <![CDATA[Crane, William (1790–1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crane_William_1790-1866 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 16:06:08 EST]]> /Dickinson_R_H_1811_or_1812-1873 Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:42:53 EST <![CDATA[Dickinson, R. H. (1811 or 1812–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dickinson_R_H_1811_or_1812-1873 R. H. Dickinson was a slave trader in Richmond. Born probably on his parents' Caroline County plantation, he moved to Richmond and went into the slave-trading business there with one or both of his brothers. They purchased slaves in Virginia and Maryland for resale in bigger, Deep South markets, and in 1856 may have earned as much as $200,000. Dickinson was a part owner of the Saint Charles Hotel, where he conducted at least some of his sales and may have had an office. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served in the state reserves and sold slaves right up to the fall of Richmond. The end of the Confederacy and the abolition of slavery erased much of Dickinson's wealth, and little is known of his life after the war. He died in 1873.
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:42:53 EST]]>
/Prentis_John_B_1788-1848 Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:33:13 EST <![CDATA[Prentis, John B. (1788–1848)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Prentis_John_B_1788-1848 John B. Prentis was a prominent slave trader in Richmond. Born in Williamsburg, he did not follow his father into politics and the law. Instead, he apprenticed as an architect in Philadelphia before working as a builder in Richmond. Early in his life Prentis may have harbored antislavery feelings, but by 1820 he had turned to the slave trade for a living. He spent summers traveling across the Upper South buying enslaved men, women, and children and then either reselling them in Richmond or transporting them to markets in the Deep South. By 1826 he had accumulated more than 100 acres of land in Richmond and a nice residence in the city's Church Hill neighborhood. He died in 1848 .
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:33:13 EST]]>
/Virginia_Slavery_Debate_of_1831-1832_The Fri, 25 Aug 2017 11:29:50 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Slavery Debate of 1831–1832, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Slavery_Debate_of_1831-1832_The The Virginia slavery debate occurred in the House of Delegates during its 1831–1832 session and was prompted by a slave insurrection in August 1831 led by Nat Turner. In the months that followed, about forty petitions, signed by more than 2,000 Virginians, urged the General Assembly to engage the problems associated with slavery. Some petitions called for outright emancipation, others for colonization. Many focused on removing from the state free blacks, who were widely seen as a nefarious influence. The House established a select committee, and when the debate finally spilled over into the full body, in mid-January 1832, it focused on two resolutions. One, made by William O. Goode, called for the rejection of all petitions calling for emancipation. Another, made by Thomas Jefferson Randolph, asked the committee to prepare an emancipation plan to go before the state's voters. By taking up these questions, the House, in effect, considered whether to free Virginia's slaves. After vigorous debate, members declined to pass such a law, deciding instead that they "should await a more definite development of public opinion." In fact, pro-slavery, anti-abolitionist opinion hardened in Virginia in the years that followed, buttressed by arguments previewed in the House. Randolph believed that even having such an open debate should be considered a victory, while others lamented how divided the state was on the crucial question of slavery.
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 11:29:50 EST]]>
/Bruce_James_Coles_1806-1865 Tue, 22 Aug 2017 11:58:13 EST <![CDATA[Bruce, James Coles (1806–1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bruce_James_Coles_1806-1865 James Coles Bruce was a planter, a member of the House of Delegates (1831–1834), and a member of the Convention of 1861. Born in Halifax County, he studied law at the University of Virginia before returning home to farm. In the House of Delegates, during the slavery debate of 1831–1832, he described slavery as a necessary evil and denounced efforts to abolish it. He himself owned probably more slaves than any other legislator. After his term he commissioned the building of Berry Hill, a grand mansion modeled after the Parthenon, and participated in public conversations about how the South's agricultural economy might be stimulated. Bruce suggested crop rotation, diversification, better use of capital and credit, and the sale of surplus slaves. He also advocated for the establishment of a state system of public schools open equally to men and women. One of the wealthiest men in the country. Bruce represented Halifax County at the Convention of 1861, called to consider whether Virginia should secede from the Union. He gave speeches in favor of states' rights and against abolitionism and eventually voted to secede. Bruce died in 1865.
Tue, 22 Aug 2017 11:58:13 EST]]>
/Caldwell_Alfred_1817-1868 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 17:06:21 EST <![CDATA[Caldwell, Alfred (1817–1868)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Caldwell_Alfred_1817-1868 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 17:06:21 EST]]> /Colonial_Virginia Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST <![CDATA[Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colonial_Virginia The colonial period in Virginia began in 1607 with the landing of the first English settlers at Jamestown and ended in 1776 with the establishment of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although a thriving Indian society had existed for thousands of years before the English arrived, war with the European settlers and the introduction of new diseases for which the Indians had no resistance spelled disaster for it. The English colonists, meanwhile, just barely survived, suffering through summer droughts and winter starvation. Salvation came to the colony in the form of smoking tobacco, or what King James I called a "vile and stinking custom," when John Rolfe cultivated a variety of tobacco that sold well in England. In 1619, a General Assembly convened, bringing limited self-government to America. That same year brought the first slaves to Virginia. For most of the 1600s, white indentured servants worked the colony's tobacco fields, but by 1705 the Virginia colony had become a slave society. Nearly all power was in the hands of white male landowners, who ran the government and, by law, belonged to the Church of England. Women who married and worked at home were considered "good wives"; those who refused such "proper" roles were considered troublesome. And while Virginia's ruling men did not encourage women to be independent, they nevertheless fought for their own independence, taking full part in the American Revolution (1775–1783).
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST]]>
/Tait_Bacon_1796-1871 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:47:41 EST <![CDATA[Tait, Bacon (1796–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tait_Bacon_1796-1871 Bacon Tait was one of the most successful Richmond slave traders and jail operators in the years leading up to the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born near Lynchburg, he served briefly during the War of 1812 and spent time working in Richmond before relocating there permanently by 1828. In that year he made his first significant transaction in slaves, selling thirty-seven in New Orleans and entering into a year-long, unsuccessful partnership with two other men. About the same time Tait began what would be a longstanding business relationship with Thomas Boudar that included the buying and selling of slaves and the operation of a so-called jail for the confinement of enslaved men, women, and children awaiting sale. Tait probably first built the facility that came to be known as Lumpkin's Jail before constructing an even bigger one on the corner of Fifteenth and Cary streets. Although his business was not widely considered to be a respectable one, Tait served four terms on the Richmond City Council (1847–1851). Between 1843 and 1848 he fathered four children, including twins, with Courtney Fountain, a free black woman, and in 1851 Tait and Fountain moved to Salem, Massachusetts. He lived in Richmond during the Civil War and his wealth survived the war intact. He died in 1871.
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:47:41 EST]]>
/Washington_John_M_1838-1918 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:37:52 EST <![CDATA[Washington, John M. (1838–1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_John_M_1838-1918 John M. Washington was a slave in Fredericksburg who escaped to freedom during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and later wrote a narrative of his life entitled Memorys of the Past. Born in Fredericksburg, Washington spent his earliest years on an Orange County plantation where his mother had been hired out as a field laborer. Upon their return to Fredericksburg, Washington served as his owner's personal slave, remaining in that role even when his mother was hired out to a school principal in Staunton. In 1860, Washington labored in a Fredericksburg tobacco factory and then spent the next year as a waiter in Richmond. When Union troops occupied Fredericksburg in April 1862, he was tending bar in that city's Shakespeare Hotel and used the opportunity to escape to Union lines. Washington worked at the headquarters of Union general Rufus King until Union troops abandoned the city on August 31. He escaped to Washington, D.C., and was eventually joined there by his wife and newborn son, his mother, and her husband. Washington worked as a painter after the war and was active in the Baptist church. He wrote his narrative in 1873 and died at the Massachusetts home of one of his sons in 1918.
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:37:52 EST]]>
/West_Virginia_Creation_of Tue, 08 Aug 2017 17:55:53 EST <![CDATA[West Virginia, Creation of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/West_Virginia_Creation_of West Virginia was recognized by the U.S. government as the thirty-fifth state on June 20, 1863, an event that was the culmination of more than sixty years of heated sectional politics and legislative maneuverings. From the first political rumblings of new-state advocates at the turn of the nineteenth century through the formative sessions of the Wheeling conventions held from 1861 until 1863, the creation of West Virginia was a complex and contentious process that divided the residents, communities, and political leaders of Virginia. Spearheaded by northwestern Virginians, the statehood movement began as an effort to expand western political influence and the region's growing industrial economy. Final approval of West Virginia's statehood was forged amid the chaos and divisiveness of the secession debate and the bloodshed of the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Tue, 08 Aug 2017 17:55:53 EST]]>
/Blackford_Mary_Berkeley_Minor_1802-1896 Tue, 08 Aug 2017 15:32:35 EST <![CDATA[Blackford, Mary Berkeley Minor (1802–1896)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blackford_Mary_Berkeley_Minor_1802-1896 Mary Berkeley Minor Blackford was an antislavery leader who founded a female auxiliary of the American Colonization Society in Fredericksburg. Born in Fredericksburg, she was unusually well educated by the time she married the attorney William Blackford in 1825. Together they were active in the Episcopal Church and she was a lifelong temperance advocate. Unlike her husband, Blackford saw colonization as the first step toward the abolition of slavery, and she became the most prominent female advocate of colonization in Virginia. In 1829 she founded the Fredericksburg and Falmouth Female Auxiliary to the American Colonization Society, raising hundreds of dollars and recruiting elite women such as Dolley Madison as life members. As public support for colonization and emancipation waned, she turned her efforts to promoting the education of women in Liberia. When she and her husband moved to Lynchburg in 1846, her work ended, although not her strong feelings about the cause. She became increasingly alienated from her family and opposed secession in 1861. She died in 1896.
Tue, 08 Aug 2017 15:32:35 EST]]>
/Foster_Kitty_ca_1790-1863 Fri, 28 Jul 2017 16:35:52 EST <![CDATA[Foster, Kitty (ca. 1790–1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Foster_Kitty_ca_1790-1863 Kitty Foster was a free African American woman who owned property just south of the University of Virginia, the site of which has been memorialized by the school. Born enslaved in Albemarle County, Foster was free by 1820 and renting land in an African American community near the university known as Canada. She purchased just more than two acres from a white merchant in 1833 and lived there until her death, washing clothes for students and faculty. In 1837, a university report accused her of holding firearms for students who were prohibited from carrying them on the university's grounds. Foster died in 1863 and was buried in a cemetery on her property. Archaeologists discovered the cemetery in 1993, and in 2011 the University of Virginia dedicated a memorial on the site.
Fri, 28 Jul 2017 16:35:52 EST]]>
/Campbell_Archibald_W_1833-1899 Fri, 28 Jul 2017 15:52:48 EST <![CDATA[Campbell, Archibald W. (1833–1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Campbell_Archibald_W_1833-1899 Archibald W. Campbell was a journalist, abolitionist, and Republican Party leader. Born in Ohio, he grew up in western Virginia and studied law in New York, where he met the abolitionist and future secretary of state William H. Seward. Campbell followed Seward into the Republican Party and in 1856 purchased the Wheeling Daily Intelligencer, making it the most influential Virginia newspaper outside Richmond. During the American Civil War (1861–1865) Campbell helped lead the movement for the creation of West Virginia but fell out with many Republican Party leaders after the war. He never sought public office and died in 1899.
Fri, 28 Jul 2017 15:52:48 EST]]>
/Washington_George_and_Slavery Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:50:15 EST <![CDATA[Washington, George and Slavery]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_George_and_Slavery George Washington owned enslaved people from age eleven until his death, when his will promised his slaves freedom. His actions and private statements suggest a long evolution in his stance on slavery, based on experience and a possible awakening of conscience. Born in 1732, Washington came of age in a time when large-scale tobacco planting, carried out by enslaved labor, dominated the economy and society of colonial Virginia. Washington made no official public statements on slavery or emancipation as a Virginia legislator, as a military officer, or as president of the United States. As a young man he acted as most of his slaveholding peers did—making full and lawful use of slave labor, buying and selling slaves, and even raffling off a debtor's slaves, including children, to recoup a loan. His marriage brought many slaves under his control, but he did not legally own these "dower" slaves. After the American Revolution (1775–1783) his private statements became more in line with abolitionist goals than with the economic and political positions of his Virginia peers, until he reached the point, around 1789, when his "regret" over slavery grew so strong that he eventually rewrote his will with provisions to free slaves. Washington was the only southern Founding Father to free all his slaves.
Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:50:15 EST]]>
/Slave_Literacy_and_Education_in_Virginia Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:59:20 EST <![CDATA[Slave Literacy and Education in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Literacy_and_Education_in_Virginia Many enslaved African Americans in Virginia learned to read and write, either on their own or at the behest of their masters. As many as 5 percent of slaves may have been literate by the start of the American Revolution (1775–1783), their educations often tied to religious instruction. Many slaveholders viewed Christian teaching as their duty, and converts to the Church of England were required to be literate enough to read a catechism. The Anglican bishop Edmund Gibson and the minister Dr. Thomas Bray both promoted slave education in America with the Associates of Dr. Bray founding a number of schools, including in Williamsburg and Fredericksburg. Virginia law never explicitly prohibited the education of slaves, but in the years after Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800), the General Assembly made it more difficult. Elite whites worried that slaves who could read and write could travel through white society more easily and be exposed to ideas of freedom, making them more inclined to rebel. The gathering of slaves for the purpose of education was prohibited, so individuals stole away to learn on their own, often at great personal risk. During the antebellum period, the percentage of literate slaves had doubled to 10 percent. The laws became even stricter after Nat Turner's Revolt in 1831—Turner was a literate preacher—but during and after the American Civil War (1861–1865) freedpeople quickly established their own schools. Literacy rates rose to 30 percent and then, by 1910, to as high as 70 percent.
Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:59:20 EST]]>
/Advertisement_by_Lewis_A_Collier_Richmond_Enquirer_August_23_1833 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:22:54 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement by Lewis A. Collier, Richmond Enquirer (August 23, 1833)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_by_Lewis_A_Collier_Richmond_Enquirer_August_23_1833 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:22:54 EST]]> /_Private_Jails_The_Liberator_December_27_1834 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:21:13 EST <![CDATA["Private Jails," The Liberator (December 27, 1834)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Private_Jails_The_Liberator_December_27_1834 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:21:13 EST]]> /_Mysteries_of_a_Shamble_New-York_Tribune_July_15_1861 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:15:46 EST <![CDATA["Mysteries of a Shamble," New-York Tribune (July 15, 1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mysteries_of_a_Shamble_New-York_Tribune_July_15_1861 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:15:46 EST]]> /VIRGINIA_In_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_MARCH_16_1798 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:00:11 EST <![CDATA[VIRGINIA: In the High Court of Chancery, MARCH 16, 1798.]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/VIRGINIA_In_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_MARCH_16_1798 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:00:11 EST]]> /_An_Act_to_Explain_and_Amend_an_Act_Entitled_An_Act_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_Slavery_March_29_1788 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:53:24 EST <![CDATA["An Act to Explain and Amend an Act Entitled 'An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery'" (March 29, 1788)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_to_Explain_and_Amend_an_Act_Entitled_An_Act_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_Slavery_March_29_1788 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:53:24 EST]]> /Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Claypool_s_American_May_25_1796 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:45:55 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement for the Capture of Oney Judge, Claypoole's American (May 25, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Claypool_s_American_May_25_1796 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:45:55 EST]]> /Davis_Hector_1816-1863 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:09:00 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Hector (1816–1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Hector_1816-1863 Hector Davis was a prominent slave trader in Richmond in the years leading up to the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born probably in Goochland County, Davis moved to Richmond sometime in the 1840s and established there a slave trading business. He ran a so-called jail, where enslaved men, women, and children were confined awaiting sale. In 1859 his auction house alone did business the value of which exceeded all the flour and equaled all the tobacco exported from Virginia that year. Early in 1860 he and thirteen other men chartered the Traders Bank of Virginia, with Davis serving as the president. Davis never married, but he had several children with an enslaved woman he owned, Ann Banks Davis, whom he moved to Philadelphia about 1860 and freed in his will. Davis died in Richmond in 1863.
Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:09:00 EST]]>
/Davis_Ann_Banks_1830-1907 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:05:24 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Ann Banks (1830–1907)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Ann_Banks_1830-1907 Ann Banks Davis was an enslaved woman who bore several children with the Richmond slave trader Hector Davis. Little is known of Ann Davis's early life. She likely was the daughter of an enslaved woman named Mathilda Banks and did not take the name Davis until later in life. By 1852 she was owned by Hector Davis and that year bore him the first of at least four children. The two never legally married and it is unlikely that, as Davis's property, she could have consented to their physical relationship. By 1860, Hector Davis had moved Ann and her children to Philadelphia, where they continued to live after his death in 1863. He left them substantial money in his will but the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865) rendered much of his inheritance worthless or unattainable. Davis died in 1907.
Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:05:24 EST]]>
/Hinton_Corinna_1835-1887 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:00:35 EST <![CDATA[Hinton, Corinna (1835–1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hinton_Corinna_1835-1887 Corinna Hinton was an enslaved woman who bore several children with the Richmond slave trader Silas Omohundro and helped him run his business. Little is known of Hinton's early life. By the time she was thirteen years old, she was owned by Omohundro and had given birth to the first of their seven children. The two never legally married and it is unlikely that, as Omohundro's property, Hinton could have consented to their physical relationship, although historians have varying interpretations. In addition to running the household, Hinton made clothes for slaves about to be sold and helped operate a boardinghouse. Omohundro died in 1864, freeing Hinton and acknowledging himself as the father of her children. She later went into business with a white journalist from Maine, Nathaniel Davidson. It is unclear whether the two married. Hinton died in 1887.
Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:00:35 EST]]>
/Barret_William_1786-1871 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 14:55:50 EST <![CDATA[Barret, William (1786–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barret_William_1786-1871 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 14:55:50 EST]]> /Virginia_s_First_Africans Wed, 05 Jul 2017 09:45:01 EST <![CDATA[Africans, Virginia's First]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_s_First_Africans Virginia's first Africans arrived at Point Comfort, on the James River, late in August 1619. There, "20. and odd Negroes" from the English ship White Lion were sold in exchange for food and some were transported to Jamestown, where they were sold again, likely into slavery. Historians have long believed these Africans to have come to Virginia from the Caribbean, but Spanish records suggest they had been captured in a Spanish-controlled area of West Central Africa. They probably were Kimbundu-speaking people, and many of them may have had at least some knowledge of Catholicism. While aboard the São João Bautista bound for Mexico, they were stolen by the White Lion and another English ship, the Treasurer. Once in Virginia, they were dispersed throughout the colony. The number of Virginia's Africans increased to thirty-two by 1620, but then dropped sharply by 1624, likely because of the effects of disease and the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632). Evidence suggests that many were baptized and took Christian names, and some, like Anthony and Mary Johnson, won their freedom and bought land. By 1628, after a shipload of about 100 Angolans was sold in Virginia, the Africans' population jumped dramatically.
Wed, 05 Jul 2017 09:45:01 EST]]>
/Omohundro_Silas_1807-1864 Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:34:56 EST <![CDATA[Omohundro, Silas (1807–1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Omohundro_Silas_1807-1864 Silas Omohundro was a Richmond slave trader who also operated, with his enslaved concubine Corinna Hinton, a complex that included a slave jail and boardinghouse. Born in 1807 and raised on his father's farm in Fluvanna County, Omohundro worked as an agent for the slave-trading firm Franklin & Armfield, in Alexandria, before moving to Richmond by the mid-1840s. There he ran a boardinghouse for slave traders and a jail where they confined enslaved men, women, and children awaiting sale. Omohundro also engaged in the direct buying and selling of slaves, including those he and other traders called "fancy," a label that indicated that they were to be sold for sexual purposes. Although never legally married, Omohundro had children with at least three different women, including his slaves Louisa Tandy and Corinna Hinton. With the latter he had seven children and on at least two occasions introduced the light-skinned Hinton as his wife. In his will, executed in July 1864, Omohundro legally acknowledged Hinton's children as his own and freed them and their mother.
Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:34:56 EST]]>
/Slave_Trade_Eyre_Crowe_s_Images_of_the Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:17:22 EST <![CDATA[Slave Trade, Eyre Crowe's Images of the]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Trade_Eyre_Crowe_s_Images_of_the English painter Eyre Crowe's images of the American slave trade include a series of sketches later published as wood engravings and, in two instances, turned into oil paintings that depict the domestic trade in enslaved African Americans just before the American Civil War (1861–1865). These images provide some of the only eyewitness visual renderings of the slave trade in Richmond, the largest slave-trading center in the Upper South. An act of Congress had abolished the international slave trade in the United States effective 1808, but a domestic trade accounted for the sale of millions of slaves from the Upper South to the Deep South, where the cotton boom led to a near-bottomless market for enslaved labor. The process of trafficking slaves, which Crowe's images helped to illuminate and publicize, included auction houses, auction blocks, so-called slave jails, and transportation either on foot or by train. Crowe was visiting Richmond in 1853 as the secretary of British novelist William Makepeace Thackeray, who was on a lecture tour, when he witnessed and sketched a slave auction on Wall Street, down the hill from downtown Richmond. His sketching nearly caused him to be removed from the auction house. Later, he also witnessed and depicted slaves being taken to a railroad depot. Two paintings made from his sketches, After the Sale: Slaves Going South from Richmond and Slaves Waiting for Sale, Richmond, Virginia, were exhibited in Great Britain in 1854 and 1861 respectively. Together with Crowe's other images, these paintings played an important role in spreading antislavery awareness in both Britain and in America.
Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:17:22 EST]]>
/PLEASANTS_against_PLEASANTS_Nov_r_Term_1798 Fri, 09 Jun 2017 12:00:07 EST <![CDATA[PLEASANTS against PLEASANTS. Nov'r. Term 1798.]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/PLEASANTS_against_PLEASANTS_Nov_r_Term_1798 Fri, 09 Jun 2017 12:00:07 EST]]> /Martin_Henry_1826-1915 Mon, 15 May 2017 17:18:33 EST <![CDATA[Martin, Henry (1826–1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Martin_Henry_1826-1915 Henry Martin was the head janitor and bell-ringer at the University of Virginia from at least 1868 until his retirement in 1909. Born enslaved at Monticello, he was purchased by the Carr family and before the American Civil War (1861–1865) labored at a boardinghouse on what came to be known as Carr's Hill, near the University of Virginia. During the war he tended the wounded at the military hospital in Charlottesville. In 1866 he was hired by the university to haul coal and by 1868 was working as the head janitor and bell-ringer. He worked at the school for more than four decades, becoming a well-known figure there but one who was treated in the context of the Lost Cause archetype of the faithful servant. He died in 1915.
Mon, 15 May 2017 17:18:33 EST]]>
/Black_Confederates Mon, 15 May 2017 08:02:57 EST <![CDATA[Black Confederates]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Confederates Black Confederates is a term often used to describe both enslaved and free African Americans who filled a number of different positions in support of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Most often this assistance was coerced rather than offered voluntarily. Male slaves were either hired out by their owners or impressed to work in various departments of the Confederate army. Free black men were also routinely impressed or otherwise forced to perform manual labor for the army. The government's use of black labor, whether free or slave, followed patterns established during the antebellum period, when county governments routinely engaged the service of black men to help maintain local roads and other public property. While large numbers of black men thus accompanied every Confederate army on the march or in camp, those men would not have been considered soldiers. Only a few black men were ever accepted into Confederate service as soldiers, and none did any significant fighting. Through most of the war, the Confederate government's official policies toward black men maintained that those men were laborers, not soldiers; changes to that policy in March 1865 came too late to make any difference to Confederate prospects for victory. Those changes were also accompanied by widespread debate indicating that a significant minority of white Southerners opposed any change to the institution of slavery, even if that change might help bring about a Confederate victory.
Mon, 15 May 2017 08:02:57 EST]]>
/Deed_of_Gift_Robert_Carter_III_s Fri, 05 May 2017 11:35:46 EST <![CDATA[Deed of Gift, Robert Carter III's]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Deed_of_Gift_Robert_Carter_III_s Robert Carter III's Deed of Gift was a legal document, signed on August 1, 1791, and presented in Northumberland District Court on September 5, that set out provisions to free 452 enslaved men and woman. By the time those provisions were fulfilled, more than three decades later, between 500 and 600 were freed, probably the largest emancipation by an individual in the United States before 1860. Carter was a member of one of the wealthiest families in Virginia and inherited hundreds of slaves. Perhaps because of a religious conversion, he turned against slavery during and after the American Revolution (1775–1783). His plan to free his own slaves was carefully designed to conform to state law and to be gradual. Adults would be freed in small groups each year based on their age, children would be freed when they became adults, and the elderly would be allowed to independently farm on Carter's Nomony Hall estate for the remainder of their lives. In 1793, Carter moved to Baltimore, leaving the process in the hands of the Baptist minister Benjamin Dawson. He later sold his remaining slaves to Dawson. After Carter's death in 1804, Carter's heirs sued the minister to stop the manumissions but lost an 1808 ruling by the Virginia Court of Appeals. The scholar Andrew Levy has noted that Carter's Deed of Gift has not simply been forgotten but actively ignored. Perhaps in response to his complaint, a roadside marker dedicated to the deed was erected in Northumberland County in 2016.
Fri, 05 May 2017 11:35:46 EST]]>
/Carter_Robert_1728-1804 Fri, 05 May 2017 11:32:43 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Robert (1728–1804)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Robert_1728-1804 Robert Carter, also known as Robert Carter III and Councillor Carter, was a member of Virginia's Council of State (1758–1776) who, after a religious conversion, emancipated more than five hundred of his enslaved African Americans. Heir to a fortune in land and slaves built by his grandfather, Robert "King" Carter, Carter studied law in London before returning to Virginia in 1751. His contemporaries remarked on his lack of learning and social grace, and he twice ran unsuccessfully for the House of Burgesses, receiving only a handful of votes each time. Through the influence of his wife's uncle, Carter was appointed to the Council. In 1763, he served on the Virginia Committee of Correspondence, and in 1766 drafted the Council's response to the Stamp Act. In 1777, he converted to evangelical Christianity, aligning himself with the Baptists. In 1788, he converted again, this time to the teachings of the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg. On August 1, 1791, he took the legal steps to gradually manumit, or free, more than 500 of his slaves, the largest individual emancipation before 1860. After the death of his wife, Carter moved to Baltimore, Maryland, where he died in 1804.
Fri, 05 May 2017 11:32:43 EST]]>
/_Henry_Martin_by_David_Marvel_Reynolds_Culbreth_The_University_of_Virginia_Memories_of_Her_Student-Life_and_Professors_1908 Fri, 05 May 2017 10:32:47 EST <![CDATA["Henry Martin" by David M. R. Culbreth, The University of Virginia: Memories of Her Student-Life and Professors (1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Henry_Martin_by_David_Marvel_Reynolds_Culbreth_The_University_of_Virginia_Memories_of_Her_Student-Life_and_Professors_1908 Fri, 05 May 2017 10:32:47 EST]]> /_Funeral_of_Henry_Martin_Daily_Progress_October_9_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:45:39 EST <![CDATA["Funeral of Henry Martin," Charlottesville Daily Progress (October 9, 1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Funeral_of_Henry_Martin_Daily_Progress_October_9_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:45:39 EST]]> /_Henry_Martin_1826-1915_by_John_S_Patton_Alumni_Bulletin_January_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:28:25 EST <![CDATA["Henry Martin, 1826–1915" by John S. Patton, Alumni Bulletin (October 1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Henry_Martin_1826-1915_by_John_S_Patton_Alumni_Bulletin_January_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:28:25 EST]]> /_Uncle_Henry_Bell-Ringer_A_Dramatic_Monologue_Cork_and_Curls_1914 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:18:15 EST <![CDATA["Uncle Henry: Bell-Ringer, A Dramatic Monologue," Corks and Curls (1914)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Uncle_Henry_Bell-Ringer_A_Dramatic_Monologue_Cork_and_Curls_1914 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:18:15 EST]]> /Robert_Carter_III_s_Deed_of_Gift_August_1_1791 Wed, 03 May 2017 10:47:14 EST <![CDATA[Robert Carter III's Deed of Gift (August 1, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robert_Carter_III_s_Deed_of_Gift_August_1_1791 Wed, 03 May 2017 10:47:14 EST]]> /Ferdinando_Fairfax_Plan_for_liberating_the_negroes_within_the_united_states_December_1_1790 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 14:06:44 EST <![CDATA[Ferdinando Fairfax, "Plan for liberating the negroes within the united states" (December 1, 1790)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ferdinando_Fairfax_Plan_for_liberating_the_negroes_within_the_united_states_December_1_1790 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 14:06:44 EST]]> /Virginia_Gazette_and_General_Advertiser_September_28_1791 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 09:30:52 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser (September 28, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Gazette_and_General_Advertiser_September_28_1791 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 09:30:52 EST]]> /_Funeral_Procession_Richmond_Dispatch_June_7_1854 Thu, 27 Apr 2017 12:52:55 EST <![CDATA["Funeral Procession," Richmond Dispatch (June 7, 1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Funeral_Procession_Richmond_Dispatch_June_7_1854 Thu, 27 Apr 2017 12:52:55 EST]]> /Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Philadelphia_Gazette_May_24_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 15:14:32 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement for the Capture of Oney Judge, Philadelphia Gazette (May 24, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Philadelphia_Gazette_May_24_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 15:14:32 EST]]> /_Washington_s_Runaway_Slave_The_Liberator_August_22_1845 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:48:40 EST <![CDATA["Washington's Runaway Slave," The Liberator (August 22, 1845)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Washington_s_Runaway_Slave_The_Liberator_August_22_1845 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:48:40 EST]]> /_A_Slave_of_George_Washington_by_Benjamin_Chase_The_Liberator_January_1_1847 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:24:32 EST <![CDATA["A Slave of George Washington!" by Benjamin Chase, The Liberator (January 1, 1847)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Slave_of_George_Washington_by_Benjamin_Chase_The_Liberator_January_1_1847 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:24:32 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Lee_to_George_Washington_June_28_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 13:23:46 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Lee to George Washington (June 28, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Lee_to_George_Washington_June_28_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 13:23:46 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Burwell_Bassett_Jr_August_11_1799 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 09:47:34 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Burwell Bassett Jr. (August 11, 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Burwell_Bassett_Jr_August_11_1799 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 09:47:34 EST]]> /Judge_Oney_ca_1773-1848 Wed, 19 Apr 2017 16:51:23 EST <![CDATA[Judge, Oney (ca. 1773–1848)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judge_Oney_ca_1773-1848 Oney Judge was the enslaved personal attendant of Martha Custis Washington when she ran away from the President's House in Philadelphia in 1796. Born about 1773 at Mount Vernon, Judge began laboring in the mansion when she was ten years old. After George Washington was elected president in 1789, she accompanied the family to New York and then, when the federal capital moved, to Philadelphia. On May 21, 1796, she escaped from the president's mansion while the family ate dinner and boarded a ship for Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Washington's agents tracked her there, twice speaking with her, in 1796 and 1799, but failing to apprehend her. Judge married the free black sailor John Staines in 1797 and the couple had three children before his death in 1803. Oney Judge Staines lived the rest of her life in poverty. In 1845 and 1847 she gave interviews to abolitionist newspapers, recounting the story of her life with the Washington family and her escape from slavery. She died in Greenland, New Hampshire, in 1848.
Wed, 19 Apr 2017 16:51:23 EST]]>
/Brown_Henry_Box_ca_1815 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 14:23:44 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Henry Box (1815 or 1816–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Henry_Box_ca_1815 Henry Box Brown was an abolitionist lecturer and performer. Born a slave in Louisa County, he worked in a Richmond tobacco factory and lived in a rented house. Then, in 1848, his wife, who was owned by another master and who was pregnant with their fourth child, was sold away to North Carolina, along with their children. Brown resolved to escape from slavery and enlisted the help of a free black and a white slaveowner, who conspired to ship him in a box to Philadelphia. In March 1849 the package was accepted there by a leader of the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. As a free man, Brown lectured across New England on the evils of slavery and participated in the publication of the Narrative of Henry Box Brown (1849). In 1850, a moving panorama, Henry Box Brown's Mirror of Slavery, opened in Boston. That same year, Brown, worried that he might be re-enslaved, moved to England, where he lectured, presented his panorama, and performed as a hypnotist. In 1875, he returned to the United States with his wife and daughter Annie and performed as a magician. Brown died in Toronto on June 15, 1897. He stands as a powerful symbol of the Underground Railroad and enslaved African Americans' thirst for freedom.
Fri, 14 Apr 2017 14:23:44 EST]]>
/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Tobias_Lear_April_12_1791 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 13:02:31 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Tobias Lear (April 12, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Tobias_Lear_April_12_1791 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 13:02:31 EST]]> /Letter_from_Joseph_Whipple_to_George_Washington_December_22_1796 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 12:07:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Joseph Whipple to George Washington (December 22, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Joseph_Whipple_to_George_Washington_December_22_1796 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 12:07:44 EST]]> /_An_ACT_concerning_descendants_of_indians_and_other_persons_of_mixed_blood_not_being_free_negroes_or_mulattoes_February_25_1833 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 11:39:11 EST <![CDATA["An ACT concerning descendants of indians and other persons of mixed blood, not being free negroes or mulattoes" (February 25, 1833)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_concerning_descendants_of_indians_and_other_persons_of_mixed_blood_not_being_free_negroes_or_mulattoes_February_25_1833 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 11:39:11 EST]]> /Cary_Lott_ca_1780-1828 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:41:35 EST <![CDATA[Cary, Lott (ca. 1780–1828)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cary_Lott_ca_1780-1828 Lott Cary was a Baptist minister and one of the first American settlers of Liberia. Born enslaved about 1780, he labored in Richmond tobacco warehouses before purchasing his own freedom by about 1813. He bought land in Henrico County, married, and became a popular lay preacher. In 1815 Cary helped found the Richmond African Baptist Missionary Society and after the establishment of the American Colonization Society a year later, prepared to immigrate with other free blacks to Liberia, in West Africa. He arrived there in 1821 and helped to settle what became the town of Monrovia in 1824. Demonstrating a wide range of leadership skills, he tended the sick, organized a native labor force, established a joint stock company, and helped extend the settlement's territory. He was twice elected vice agent of Liberia, in 1826 and 1827, and president of the Monrovia Baptist Missionary Society. He assumed leadership of Monrovia in 1828 but died later that year in an accidental gunpowder explosion. After his death, Cary became something of a folk hero, becoming even more eloquent and pious than he had been in life.
Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:41:35 EST]]>
/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Joseph_Whipple_November_28_1796 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 12:55:19 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Joseph Whipple (November 28, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Joseph_Whipple_November_28_1796 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 12:55:19 EST]]> /Atkinson_Archibald_1792-1872 Mon, 10 Apr 2017 15:05:50 EST <![CDATA[Atkinson, Archibald (1792–1872)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Atkinson_Archibald_1792-1872 Mon, 10 Apr 2017 15:05:50 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Oliver_Wolcott_Jr_September_1_1796 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 12:19:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Oliver Wolcott Jr. (September 1, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Oliver_Wolcott_Jr_September_1_1796 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 12:19:35 EST]]> /Barrett_Gilbert_Hunt_the_City_Blacksmith_by_Philip_1859 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 10:41:13 EST <![CDATA[Gilbert Hunt, the City Blacksmith by Philip Barrett (1859)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barrett_Gilbert_Hunt_the_City_Blacksmith_by_Philip_1859 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 10:41:13 EST]]> /Hunt_Gilbert_ca_1780-1863 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 17:05:28 EST <![CDATA[Hunt, Gilbert (ca. 1780–1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hunt_Gilbert_ca_1780-1863 Gilbert Hunt was an African American blacksmith in Richmond who became known in the city for his aid during two fires: the Richmond Theatre fire in 1811 and the Virginia State Penitentiary fire in 1823. Born enslaved in King William County, Hunt trained as a blacksmith in Richmond and remained there most of the rest of his life. After the Richmond Theatre caught fire on December 26, 1811, he ran to the scene and, with the help of Dr. James D. McCaw, helped to rescue as many as a dozen women. He performed a similar feat of courage on August 8, 1823, during the penitentiary fire. Hunt purchased his freedom and in 1829 immigrated to the West African colony of Liberia, where he stayed only eight months. After returning to Richmond, he resumed blacksmithing and served as an outspoken, sometimes-controversial deacon in the First African Baptist Church. In 1848 he helped form the Union Burial Ground Society. In 1859, a Richmond author published a biography of Hunt, largely in the elderly blacksmith's own words, but portraying him as impoverished and meek, a depiction at odds with the historical record. Hunt died in 1863.
Wed, 05 Apr 2017 17:05:28 EST]]>
/Beverley_Robert_ca_1740-1800 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:37:06 EST <![CDATA[Beverley, Robert (ca. 1740–1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beverley_Robert_ca_1740-1800 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:37:06 EST]]> /Batte_Archibald_d_by_April_12_1830 Fri, 31 Mar 2017 15:05:46 EST <![CDATA[Batte, Archibald (d. by April 12, 1830)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Batte_Archibald_d_by_April_12_1830 Fri, 31 Mar 2017 15:05:46 EST]]> /Allen_William_1768-1831 Wed, 29 Mar 2017 11:24:41 EST <![CDATA[Allen, William (1768–1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allen_William_1768-1831 Wed, 29 Mar 2017 11:24:41 EST]]> /Godwyn_Preface_and_Introduction_from_The_Negro_s_and_Indians_Advocate_by_Morgan_1680 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:18:01 EST <![CDATA[Godwyn, Preface and Introduction from The Negro's and Indians Advocate by Morgan (1680)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Godwyn_Preface_and_Introduction_from_The_Negro_s_and_Indians_Advocate_by_Morgan_1680 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:18:01 EST]]> /Johnson_Excerpts_from_Twenty-Eight_Years_a_Slave_by_Thomas_L_1909 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:11:03 EST <![CDATA[Johnson, Excerpts from Twenty-Eight Years a Slave by Thomas L. (1909)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Johnson_Excerpts_from_Twenty-Eight_Years_a_Slave_by_Thomas_L_1909 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:11:03 EST]]> /Refugees_During_the_Civil_War Mon, 27 Mar 2017 11:37:54 EST <![CDATA[Refugees during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Refugees_During_the_Civil_War Virginia possessed the largest number of the estimated 200,000 Southerners who fled their homes during the American Civil War (1861–1865). There were three broad classes of refugees in Virginia during the war—slaves, white Unionists and other dissidents, and Confederates—although historians have tended to focus only on Confederates. These three groups shared some of the same dislocations, but their experiences of the war differed dramatically. White and black Unionists and dissidents who fled to Union lines contributed to the Northern war effort. Confederates, in contrast, bitterly resented the Union invaders, but the hardships of refugee life exacerbated feelings of war weariness. This, combined with social divisions inside Virginia, factored into Confederate defeat.
Mon, 27 Mar 2017 11:37:54 EST]]>
/An_ACT_providing_for_the_voluntary_enslavement_of_the_free_negroes_of_the_commonwealth_February_18_1856 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:44:38 EST <![CDATA[An ACT providing for the voluntary enslavement of the free negroes of the commonwealth (February 18, 1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_providing_for_the_voluntary_enslavement_of_the_free_negroes_of_the_commonwealth_February_18_1856 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:44:38 EST]]> /An_ACT_for_the_Voluntary_Enslavement_of_Free_Negroes_without_compensation_to_the_Commonwealth_March_28_1861 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:29:53 EST <![CDATA[An ACT for the Voluntary Enslavement of Free Negroes, without compensation to the Commonwealth (March 28, 1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_for_the_Voluntary_Enslavement_of_Free_Negroes_without_compensation_to_the_Commonwealth_March_28_1861 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:29:53 EST]]> /Advertisements_Virginia_Gazette_September_8_1774 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:32:51 EST <![CDATA[Advertisements, Virginia Gazette (September 8, 1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisements_Virginia_Gazette_September_8_1774 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:32:51 EST]]> /An_ACT_to_amend_and_explain_an_act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_4_1805 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:18:44 EST <![CDATA[An ACT to amend and explain an act further declaring what shall be deemed unlawful meetings of slaves (January 4, 1805)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_to_amend_and_explain_an_act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_4_1805 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:18:44 EST]]> /An_act_to_amend_an_act_entitled_quot_an_act_reducing_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_quot_1832 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:58:34 EST <![CDATA[An act to amend an act entitled, "an act reducing into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes, and for other purposes" (1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_to_amend_an_act_entitled_quot_an_act_reducing_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_quot_1832 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:58:34 EST]]> /An_Act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_24_1804 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:47:39 EST <![CDATA[An Act further declaring what shall be deemed unlawful meetings of slaves (January 24, 1804)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_24_1804 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:47:39 EST]]> /An_Act_to_amend_the_act_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_April_7_1831 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:50:19 EST <![CDATA[An Act to amend the act concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes (April 7, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_amend_the_act_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_April_7_1831 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:50:19 EST]]> /_Letter_from_Virginia_Slaves_to_Bishop_Edmund_Gibson_August_4_September_8_1723 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:53:23 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Virginia Slaves to Bishop Edmund Gibson (August 4, September 8, 1723)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Letter_from_Virginia_Slaves_to_Bishop_Edmund_Gibson_August_4_September_8_1723 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:53:23 EST]]> /Black_Baptists_in_Virginia_1865-1902 Fri, 03 Mar 2017 14:03:30 EST <![CDATA[Black Baptists in Virginia (1865–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Baptists_in_Virginia_1865-1902 Most religious African Americans after the American Civil War (1861–1865) belonged to Baptist churches. Even prior to the abolition of slavery, Baptists, black and white, came closer to the principle of the equality of all believers than many other religious bodies. Even white Baptists recognized in principle the idea that African Americans were full members of the church, though whites generally did not consent to the ordination of their black counterparts. Once free, African American Baptists became even more assertive in forming churches and organizing independent local and state associations. These groups gave a platform to African American views of the world, from the theological to the political, and an avenue by which connections could be made both domestically and abroad. For instance, black Baptists in Virginia sought educational and humanitarian support from white Baptists in the North while at the same time, in part through the Baptist Foreign Mission Convention, created in 1880, establishing missions in West Africa. This strategy eventually caused a rift between those black Baptists (so-called independents) who balked at asking white Baptists for help, and others (so-called cooperationists) who argued that they should rise above racial differences. Taking advantage of their numbers and influence, Baptist groups also lobbied hard for black civil rights. And for a time black men voted and regularly held office in Virginia. But by 1902, and the ratification of a new state constitution, such rights were effectively eliminated. In the difficult years to come, Virginia's black Baptists relied on their now well-established institutions to pursue their social and political interests.
Fri, 03 Mar 2017 14:03:30 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Rev_Jonathan_Boucher_to_Rev_John_Waring_March_9_1767 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:31:13 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. Jonathan Boucher to Rev. John Waring (March 9, 1767)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_Jonathan_Boucher_to_Rev_John_Waring_March_9_1767 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:31:13 EST]]> /Associates_of_Dr_Bray Mon, 20 Feb 2017 17:26:26 EST <![CDATA[Associates of Dr. Bray]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Associates_of_Dr_Bray The Associates of Dr. Bray was a philanthropic group founded in 1724 by the English clergyman Thomas Bray to educate enslaved African Americans in the British North American colonies. Educated at Oxford, Bray founded two groups—the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (1699) and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (1701)—charged with spreading literacy and Christianity throughout England and America. A friend's bequest led to the establishment of the Associates of Dr. Bray, dedicated to the religious education of enslaved African Americans in particular. After briefly merging with a group intent on founding a convict colony in Georgia, the Associates concentrated on their primary function. Missions to Georgia and South Carolina failed, but in 1757 Benjamin Franklin suggested that a school be established in Philadelphia. When that succeeded, Franklin recommended that Bray schools be opened in New York; Newport, Rhode Island; and Williamsburg, Virginia. The Williamsburg school operated from 1760 to 1774; it employed a single teacher and was overseen by a number of people, including successive presidents of the College of William and Mary. A similar school opened in Fredericksburg in 1765 and closed five years later due to low enrollment and hostility from local slaveholders. By the second year of the American Revolution (1775–1783), all the Bray schools had closed.
Mon, 20 Feb 2017 17:26:26 EST]]>
/Daniel_Peter_V_1784-1860 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:00:59 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Peter V. (1784–1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Peter_V_1784-1860 Peter V. Daniel was a member of the House of Delegates (1808–1810) and the Council of State (1812–1836), a U.S. district court judge (1836–1841), and an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1841–1860). Born in Stafford County to a wealthy family, Daniel was educated at the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University) and studied law in Richmond with Edmund Randolph. (He later married Randolph's daughter.) Daniel was elected to the House of Delegates in 1808 as an advocate of states' rights and limited government, and that year he mortally wounded John Seddon in a duel fought in Maryland. He served on the Council of State for more than two decades, serving as president from 1818, making him acting governor in the absence of the chief executive. After the death of Associate Justice Philip Pendleton Barbour, a fellow Virginian, Daniel won confirmation to the seat after a fight in the U.S. Senate. On the bench, Daniel was sharply conservative, at times provincial, and often acerbic and witty in his opinions. He was a strong supporter of slavery and wrote a separate, even more strongly worded opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford(1857). He died in 1860.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:00:59 EST]]>
/Custis_George_Washington_Parke_1781-1857 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:46:27 EST <![CDATA[Custis, George Washington Parke (1781–1857)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_George_Washington_Parke_1781-1857 George Washington Parke Custis was a writer and orator who worked to preserve the legacy of their stepgrandfather, George Washington. Born in Maryland, Custis moved to Mount Vernon after the death of his father in 1781. He was expelled from college, served in the army, and lost election to the House of Delegates before moving to an inherited estate he called Arlington. In addition, Custis owned two other large plantations and property in four other counties. He promoted agricultural reform and commercial independence and disapproved of slavery on economic grounds, supporting gradual emancipation and colonization. During the War of 1812, Custis manned a battery, helped Dolley Madison save Washington's portrait at the White House, and delivered well-received orations on a variety of topics. In the years after the war, he began writing essays, often about Washington's family and career. He later turned to the penning of historical plays and operettas. Pocahontas; or, The Settlers of Virginia, from 1830, was dedicated to John Marshall and remains his most durable work. The patriotism of his plays fed into his work to preserve the legacy of his stepgrandfather. Custis curated a collection of Washington relics made available for public view and sometimes distributed as gifts. He arranged for portraits of Washington and painted his own scenes of life during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Custis died at Arlington in 1857.
Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:46:27 EST]]>
/Carter_Willis_M_1852-1902 Thu, 02 Feb 2017 16:18:36 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Willis M. (1852–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Willis_M_1852-1902 Willis M. Carter was an educator and editor who, by the end of the nineteenth century, had become one of Virginia's best-known African Americans. Born into slavery in Albemarle County, he worked as a laborer and a waiter after the American Civil War (1861–1865). In 1874 he moved to Washington, D.C., and received a teaching degree in 1881. Carter then moved to Staunton, where he spent the rest of his life. He served as principal of the West End School there for fifteen years and as president of the August County Teachers' Association. Following the Danville Riot in November 1883 he led a group of African Americans that considered leaving Virginia. He also served as editor and president of the black newspaper the Southern Tribune, published in Staunton. (He changed the paper's name to the Staunton Tribune in 1893.) In 1901 he participated in protests against the new constitutional convention called to disfranchise African Americans. He died in Staunton in 1902.
Thu, 02 Feb 2017 16:18:36 EST]]>
/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 Tue, 24 Jan 2017 11:11:52 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, St. George (1752–1827)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 St. George Tucker was a lawyer, teacher, poet, essayist, inventor, and judge. One of the most influential jurists and legal scholars in the early years of the United States, he sat on three courts in Virginia: the General Court (1789–1804), the Court of Appeals (1804–1811), and the U.S. District Court for the District of Virginia (and later the Eastern District of Virginia) (1813–1825). He also served as rector (1789–1790) and professor of law (1790–1804) at the College of William and Mary. His five-volume edition of Sir William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, published in 1803, was the first major treatise on American law. Born in Bermuda, Tucker studied law as an apprentice to George Wythe in Williamsburg, gaining admission to the bar in 1774. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he smuggled needed supplies into Virginia and fought under Nathanael Greene at the Battle of Guilford Court House (1781) and under George Washington at the siege of Yorktown (1781). After the war he practiced in the county courts before being elevated to a judgeship. At William and Mary, he advocated the study of law as an academic discipline, and in 1796 he published A Dissertation on Slavery, his plan to gradually abolish slavery in Virginia. The General Assembly ignored it. Tucker married twice and had five surviving children, including the jurist and congressman Henry St. George Tucker and the writer and states' rights advocate Nathaniel Beverley Tucker. He died in Nelson County in 1827.
Tue, 24 Jan 2017 11:11:52 EST]]>
/Custis_Mary_Lee_Fitzhugh_1788-1853 Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:38:31 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Mary Lee Fitzhugh (1788–1853)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_Mary_Lee_Fitzhugh_1788-1853 Mary Lee Fitzhugh Custis was an Episcopal lay leader whose efforts helped to revive Virginia's Episcopal church early in the nineteenth century. Custis's father, William Fitzhugh, served in the Continental Congress. Her husband, George Washington Parke Custis, was the stepgrandson of George Washington and well-known writer and orator. Their daughter, Mary Randolph Custis, married Robert E. Lee. Mary Custis lived at Arlington, a plantation in Alexandria County, and from there involved herself in raising funds for Episcopal schools and the American Colonization Society, which sought to free enslaved African Americans and send them to Africa. She and her daughter Mary also took an active role in the education of slaves. Custis died in 1853 and was buried at Arlington.
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:38:31 EST]]>
/United_States_Colored_Troops_The Tue, 20 Dec 2016 08:37:35 EST <![CDATA[United States Colored Troops, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/United_States_Colored_Troops_The The United States Colored Troops (USCT) was a branch of the United States Army founded in 1863 to recruit, organize, and oversee the service of African American soldiers during the American Civil War (1861–1865). USCT regiments consisted of black enlisted men led in almost all cases by white officers. By the end of the Civil War, more than 185,000 men had served in the USCT, including more than 178,000 black soldiers and approximately 7,000 white officers. At least 5,723 black soldiers were mustered into service in Virginia, although Virginia-born and -raised black troops—especially former slaves who may have fled from the state or been sold to other parts of the Confederacy—likely joined in other locations. The administration of President Abraham Lincoln initially did not approve of black soldiers, and used them only as laborers. As the war dragged on, however, attitudes began to change, and the Final Emancipation Proclamation (1863) provided for the enlistment of African Americans. Once in uniform, the men of the USCT saw action in every major theater of the war, with five Virginians being awarded a Medal of Honor. In addition to making significant contributions to the war effort, they were also subjected to racially motivated atrocities. At war's end, many black veterans continued to serve in the South during Reconstruction (1865–1877) while others became leaders in their communities.
Tue, 20 Dec 2016 08:37:35 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786), founder of the University of Virginia (1819), governor of Virginia (1779–1781), and third president of the United States (1801–1809). Born at Shadwell, his parents' estate in Albemarle County, he attended the College of William and Mary and studied the law under the tutelage of George Wythe. In 1769, Jefferson began construction of Monticello, his home in Albemarle County, and for the rest of his life pursued an interest in architecture, which included design of Poplar Forest and the State Capitol. Jefferson also indulged a passion for science, serving as president of the American Philosophical Society (1797–1814) and publishing Notes on the State of Virginia (1795). After representing Albemarle County in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), Jefferson was a delegate to Virginia's five Revolutionary Conventions and served in the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776) and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He earned a reputation during the American Revolution (1775–1783) as a forceful advocate of revolutionary principles, articulated in A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774), the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking Up Arms (1775), and, most famously, the Declaration of Independence, approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. His two terms as governor were marked by British invasion and Jefferson's controversial flight to Poplar Forest. From 1784 to 1789, he served as a diplomat in France and there may have begun a sexual relationship with his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Jefferson served as secretary of state in the administration of George Washington (1790–1793) and as vice president under John Adams (1797–1801) before being elected president by the U.S. House of Representatives after a tie vote in the Electoral College. As president Jefferson arranged for the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the subsequent Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806). With James Madison, Jefferson helped found the Republican Party and advocated for states' rights and a small federal government, although as president he sometimes pushed the limits of his executive authority. In his retirement he founded the University of Virginia, which was chartered in 1819 and opened for classes in the spring of 1825. Jefferson died at Monticello on July 4, 1826, fifty years after the Declaration of Independence was approved. He is buried at Monticello.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST]]>
/Dawson_John_M_1829-1913 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 08:26:41 EST <![CDATA[Dawson, John M. (1829–1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dawson_John_M_1829-1913 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 08:26:41 EST]]> /Paige_R_G_L_1846-1904 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 11:02:00 EST <![CDATA[Paige, R. G. L. (1846–1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Paige_R_G_L_1846-1904 R. G. L. Paige was a Republican member of the House of Delegates (1871–1875, 1879–1882) and possibly the first African American lawyer in Norfolk and one of the first in Virginia. Born into slavery in the city of Norfolk, Paige escaped to Philadelphia about 1857 and eventually settled in Boston. After the American Civil War (1861–1865) and the abolition of slavery, he returned to Norfolk. There he purchased the local African American burial ground (later Mount Olive Cemetery) and in 1871 won election to the House of Delegates. In the General Assembly Paige lobbied for civil rights, served as a delegate to the Republican National Convention, and won a patronage appointment as an assistant clerk at the Norfolk customs house. In 1880 he delivered a speech against lynching that was widely reprinted, but no legislation resulted. That same year he threatened to, but in the end did not, sue a Richmond theater company that refused to seat him. From 1882 to 1885 he served as secretary of the curators of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute. In 1882 he helped pass legislation chartering the Virginia Building and Savings Association and became a founding member of its board of directors. Paige died in 1904.
Wed, 09 Nov 2016 11:02:00 EST]]>
/Toler_Burwell_ca_1822-1880 Wed, 02 Nov 2016 14:47:35 EST <![CDATA[Toler, Burwell (ca. 1822–1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Toler_Burwell_ca_1822-1880 Wed, 02 Nov 2016 14:47:35 EST]]> /_quot_The_Negro_and_the_Criminal_Law_quot_chapter_6_of_The_Plantation_Negro_as_Freeman_by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1889 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:47:42 EST <![CDATA["The Negro and the Criminal Law"; chapter 6 of The Plantation Negro as Freeman by Philip Alexander Bruce (1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Negro_and_the_Criminal_Law_quot_chapter_6_of_The_Plantation_Negro_as_Freeman_by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1889 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:47:42 EST]]> /Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_Refugee_gt_1856 Fri, 28 Oct 2016 10:59:11 EST <![CDATA[Arrivals from Virginia; an excerpt from The Refugee (1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_Refugee_gt_1856 Fri, 28 Oct 2016 10:59:11 EST]]> /Sound_in_Jefferson_s_Virginia Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:13:42 EST <![CDATA[Sound in Jefferson's Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sound_in_Jefferson_s_Virginia Sound in Thomas Jefferson's Virginia included natural, man-made, and melodic noises. The areas surrounding Monticello, the Albemarle County estate of Jefferson, and the city of Charlottesville, reverberated with thunder, cicadas, bells, work songs, fiddles, and drums. Nearby taverns, parlors, dances, and political rallies resonated with the sounds of crowd noises, toasts, songs, military salutes, fireworks, and shouts. Jefferson's world was as noisy as any small town of its time, filled with the sounds of nature (especially cicadas), Western art music, political music, and the sounds of the enslaved. In taverns, patrons sang drinking songs and patriotic tunes. In parlors, young women performed with keyboards and lutes. At dances, men played fiddles, and in the military, they participated in fife and drum corps. In slave quarters, enslaved men and women, though regularly ignored, sang spirituals and played fiddles and drums, sometimes to communicate with one another.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:13:42 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_and_the_Practice_of_Law Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:07:34 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and the Practice of Law]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_the_Practice_of_Law Thomas Jefferson's life in the law has been generally overlooked, despite the years he devoted to its practice and the impact it had on the American Revolution (1775–1783) and subsequent generations. Admitted to the Virginia bar in 1765 after more than two years of reading law under the tutelage of George Wythe, Jefferson practiced before the General Court in Williamsburg, specializing in land cases. By the time Edmund Randolph took over his practice in 1774, he had handled more than 900 matters, with clients ranging from common farmers and indentured servants to the most powerful and wealthy of the colony's planter elite. In Bolling v. Bolling (1771) and Blair v. Blair (1772) he became involved in the private, often sensational affairs of the gentry, while in Howell v. Netherland (1770) he attempted to win the freedom of a mixed-race man he believed to be illegally bound to servitude. Jefferson was influenced by an English tradition distinguishing between common law—a tradition preserved by courts through precedent—and natural law, or rights ordained by God. In this way, his legal training left its mark on his revolutionary writings, in particular the "Summary View of the Rights of British America" (1774) and the Declaration of Independence (1776). Following the Revolution, he used these principles to campaign for legal reform in Virginia, drafting, among many other bills, the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786).
Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:07:34 EST]]>
/Virginia_Mob_New-York_Spectator_August_20_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:07:52 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Mob, New-York Spectator (August 20, 1835)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Mob_New-York_Spectator_August_20_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:07:52 EST]]> /_quot_The_Execution_Yesterday_quot_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_October_22_1864 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:05:01 EST <![CDATA["The Execution Yesterday," Richmond Daily Dispatch (October 22, 1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Execution_Yesterday_quot_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_October_22_1864 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:05:01 EST]]> /Slave_Housing_in_Virginia Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:15:07 EST <![CDATA[Slave Housing in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Housing_in_Virginia Slave housing in Virginia varied widely depending on the context: whether it was rural or urban, whether it was on an elite plantation or a small farm, and even whether it was located close to or far from the slaveholder's main house. Many of the first Africans who came to Virginia lived in barracks-style housing and other, less-than-permanent accommodations. As the enslaved population grew, however, houses were designed and constructed specifically for black laborers and, in particular, those living in family units. Most slave quarters were constructed of wood, and many were log and earthfast structures with no foundations. Those located closest to elite plantation houses were generally better built, with wooden frames and masonry chimneys and foundations. Separate one or two-room structures, designed to accommodate one- or two-family units, were the most popular house type, although many enslaved laborers slept where they worked—in kitchens, laundries, and stables. Slaves who were hired out in cities sometimes resided in separate "shanty towns." Few intact slave quarters exist in the twenty-first century—likely fewer than 300—and most of those are relatively large and well-built.
Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:15:07 EST]]>
/_On_the_Beauty_and_Fertility_of_America_chapter_14_of_A_Huguenot_Exile_in_Virginia_by_Durand_de_Dauphine_1687 Tue, 20 Sep 2016 11:31:17 EST <![CDATA["On the Beauty and Fertility of America"; chapter 14 of A Huguenot Exile in Virginia by Durand de Dauphiné (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_On_the_Beauty_and_Fertility_of_America_chapter_14_of_A_Huguenot_Exile_in_Virginia_by_Durand_de_Dauphine_1687 Tue, 20 Sep 2016 11:31:17 EST]]> /The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_Thomas_R_Gray_1832 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:21:31 EST <![CDATA[The Confessions of Nat Turner by Thomas R. Gray (1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_Thomas_R_Gray_1832 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:21:31 EST]]> /The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_William_Styron_1967 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:03:45 EST <![CDATA[Confessions of Nat Turner, The (1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_William_Styron_1967 The Confessions of Nat Turner, a novel by William Styron, was published in 1967 and won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1968. The title character is based on the historical Nat Turner, a slave preacher and self-styled prophet who, in August 1831, led the only successful slave revolt in Virginia's history, which in just twelve hours left fifty-five white people in Southampton County dead. (A slave named Gabriel conspired to revolt in 1800, but his plans were discovered before he could carry them out.) The historical Nat Turner, in turn, is largely the product of "The Confessions of Nat Turner, as fully and voluntarily made to Thomas R. Gray," a pamphlet published shortly after Turner's trial and execution in November 1831. Although it played a crucial role in shaping perceptions of the event around the central figure of Turner, the pamphlet itself only reached a small portion of the reading public. The story awaited the Virginia-born Styron, who translated the historical record into a popular medium that commanded the full attention of the reading public and the national media. Despite its awards, however, that attention was not always positive. Published at the height of the Black Power movement and after a long summer of race riots in the United States, Styron's novel was labeled by some civil rights activists as racist, especially because of the author's depiction of Turner lusting after white women, one of whom he eventually kills.
Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:03:45 EST]]>
/_The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_1831 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 13:58:52 EST <![CDATA["Confessions of Nat Turner, The" (1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_1831 The Confessions of Nat Turner, the leader of the late insurrection in Southampton, Va., as fully and voluntarily made to Thomas R. Gray" is a pamphlet published shortly after the trial and execution of Nat Turner in November 1831. The previous August, Turner, a slave preacher and self-styled prophet, had led the only successful slave revolt in Virginia's history, leaving fifty-five white people in Southampton County, Virginia, dead, the slaveholding South convulsed with panic, and the myth of the contented slave in tatters. His confessions, dictated from Turner's jail cell to a Southampton lawyer, have provided historians with a crucial perspective missing from an earlier planned uprising, by Gabriel (also sometimes known as Gabriel Prosser) in 1800, as well as fodder for debate over the veracity of Turner's account. Meanwhile, the book arguably is one of two American literary classics to come from the revolt, the other being The Confessions of Nat Turner, the Pulitzer Prize–winning novel by Virginia-native William Styron, published at the height of the Black Power movement in September 1967. Each of these texts has demonstrated the power of print media to shape popular perceptions of historical fact, even as each raised critical questions of accuracy, authenticity, and community control over historical interpretations of the past.
Wed, 14 Sep 2016 13:58:52 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_14_1765 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (September 14, 1765)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_14_1765 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_October_31_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:14 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (October 31, 1768)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_October_31_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:14 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_February_1_1772 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:50:27 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (February 1, 1772)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_February_1_1772 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:50:27 EST]]> /Letter_from_Rev_James_Marye_Jr_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_25_1764 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:49:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. James Marye Jr. to Rev. John Waring (September 25, 1764)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_James_Marye_Jr_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_25_1764 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:49:44 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_November_17_1774 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:48:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert Carter Nicholas to Rev. John Waring (November 17, 1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_November_17_1774 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:48:35 EST]]> /Letter_from_Rev_John_Waring_to_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_April_20_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:47:17 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. John Waring to Robert Carter Nicholas (April 20, 1768)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_John_Waring_to_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_April_20_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:47:17 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_Yates_and_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_30_1762 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:42:18 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William Yates and Robert Carter Nicholas to Rev. John Waring (September 30, 1762)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_Yates_and_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_30_1762 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:42:18 EST]]> /Pamphlet_Gowan_fl_1779-1807 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:27:56 EST <![CDATA[Pamphlet, Gowan (fl. 1779–1807)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pamphlet_Gowan_fl_1779-1807 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:27:56 EST]]> /Conference_with_President_Andrew_Johnson_June_16_1865 Mon, 29 Aug 2016 10:21:29 EST <![CDATA[Conference with President Andrew Johnson (June 16, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Conference_with_President_Andrew_Johnson_June_16_1865 Five prominent African American men from Richmond met with President Andrew Johnson in the White House, in Washington, D.C., on June 16, 1865. Led by Fields Cook, a former slave and a Baptist minister, they complained about "the wrongs, as we conceive them to be, by which we are sorely oppressed." The men explained that, with the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865) and the abolition of slavery in Virginia, they were now at the mercy of former masters and a law code not equipped to deal with the new circumstances. They articulated several specific grievances: their inability to employ African American ministers in their churches; their lack of full civil rights in Richmond; and the conduct of the U.S. Army and of the civilian government under Governor Francis H. Pierpont and Mayor Joseph Mayo. Although Johnson did not make a formal response to the complaints, he informed the petitioners of changes of civil and military leadership in Richmond that eased their concerns.
Mon, 29 Aug 2016 10:21:29 EST]]>
/Cohabitation_Act_of_1866 Thu, 18 Aug 2016 15:05:24 EST <![CDATA[Cohabitation Act of 1866]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cohabitation_Act_of_1866 The Cohabitation Act of 1866, passed by the General Assembly on February 27, 1866, legalized the marriages of formerly enslaved people in Virginia and declared their children to be legitimate. Because slave marriages were neither legally recognized nor protected, Governor Francis H. Pierpont recommended that the General Assembly of the Restored government of Virginia, which had remained loyal to the United States during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and had abolished slavery, pass a law to legalize and protect their existing marriages. With the end of the war, the Restored government's jurisdiction extended across the state, and in 1866 the General Assembly in Richmond passed the law legitimizing such marriages and the children who resulted from them.
Thu, 18 Aug 2016 15:05:24 EST]]>
/Robinson_John_1825_or_1826-1908 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:11:45 EST <![CDATA[Robinson, John (1825 or 1826–1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robinson_John_1825_or_1826-1908 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:11:45 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Holmes_April_22_1820 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:57:24 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Holmes (April 22, 1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Holmes_April_22_1820 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:57:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Mann_Randolph_Jr_April_19_1792 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:27:47 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Thomas Mann Randolph Jr. (April 19, 1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Mann_Randolph_Jr_April_19_1792 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:27:47 EST]]> /Lumpkin_s_Jail Thu, 26 May 2016 22:36:09 EST <![CDATA[Lumpkin's Jail]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lumpkin_s_Jail Lumpkin's Jail was a slave-trading complex located on Wall Street, in the Shockoe Bottom district of Richmond, which operated from the 1830s until the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). The slave-trader Bacon Tait owned the property first, followed by Lewis A. Collier, who built the so-called jail, which confined enslaved African Americans prior to their sale. Robert Lumpkin purchased the property in 1844 and used the facility to pursue his own slave-trading business, accommodating his clients in a boardinghouse on the premises. Lumpkin also charged slave dealers and owners a daily fee for holding their slaves. Anthony Burns, a runaway slave returned to Richmond under the Fugitive Slave Law, was housed at Lumpkin's for four months under appalling conditions. Lumpkin died in 1866, and his widow, a formerly enslaved woman named Mary, leased the property to a Baptist minister who founded the Colver Institute, a religious school for emancipated African Americans, and held classes in the former jail building. The school eventually became Virginia Union University. The jail was demolished by 1876 and large industrial buildings later occupied the site. Its history was largely forgotten until 2005, when archaeologists began the first phase of an investigation that eventually found evidence of the complex, including the original jail building buried nearly fifteen feet beneath the modern ground level. The archaeological remains were subsequently reburied, and the Lumpkin's Jail site is commemorated as one of seventeen places on the Richmond Slave Trail.
Thu, 26 May 2016 22:36:09 EST]]>
/Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_1785 Fri, 06 May 2016 12:34:19 EST <![CDATA[Notes on the State of Virginia (1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_1785 Notes on the State of Virginia, by Thomas Jefferson, is at once a compendium of information about the state and a sweeping commentary on natural history, society, politics, education, religion, slavery, liberty, and law. Many consider it the most important American book written before 1800. Jefferson originally composed the work in 1781 in answer to queries posed by a French diplomat, and then revised and expanded it into a description and defense of the young United States as interpreted through a Virginia lens. The book is divided into twenty-three chapters, largely taken from the diplomat's queries, though Jefferson reordered and renumbered them. Notes was first published in Paris in 1785 in an edition of 200. Both a French translation, published in 1786, and the widely circulated London edition of 1787 incorporated important structural changes and a detailed map. Notes on the State of Virginia wrested the interpretation of the young American nation from European critics and intellectuals and offered an eloquent indigenous voice. It profoundly influenced European understanding of the United States, as well as American views of Virginia. It established Jefferson's international reputation as a serious scientist, a man of letters, and the principal spokesman for his "country," whether Virginia or the United States; his discursive text, ranging over the entire continent, implicitly blurred the distinction between the two. As the most detailed and influential portrait of any state or region of the United States for generations, Notes ensured that Virginia would be a primary focus of future studies of the American republic. The book contains Jefferson's most powerful indictments of slavery; it is also a foundational text of racism.
Fri, 06 May 2016 12:34:19 EST]]>
/Ruffner_William_H_1824-1908 Fri, 29 Apr 2016 15:56:36 EST <![CDATA[Ruffner, William Henry (1824–1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ruffner_William_H_1824-1908 William Henry Ruffner was the designer and first superintendent of Virginia's public school system and later served as principal of the State Female Normal School (later Longwood University). Born in Lexington and a graduate of Washington College (later Washington and Lee University), he spent the years before the American Civil War (1861–1865) as a Presbyterian minister and farmer in Rockingham County. Ruffner owned slaves, and he advocated the gradual emancipation and colonization of the state's African Americans. He raised funds for the American Colonization Society. After the Constitution of 1869 mandated the creation of public schools, the General Assembly elected Ruffner the state's first superintendent of public instruction. During his twelve-year tenure Ruffner gave Virginia's public school system a lasting foundation and as he defended the system from vigorous opposition and the shortfalls generated by the state's crippling debt. In 1884 he became principal of the new State Female Normal School, where he served for three years. Ruffner spent his later years teaching geology, writing about the history of Washington and Lee University, and advocating the school system he helped create. He died at his daughter's home in Asheville, North Carolina, in 1908.
Fri, 29 Apr 2016 15:56:36 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_and_His_Family Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:04:45 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and His Family]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_His_Family Thomas Jefferson regularly commented on the importance of family. In 1789 he wrote to his brother Randolph that "no society is so precious as that of one's own family" and—in another letter, to Francis Willis—that he longed for domestic tranquility within the "bosom" of his family. Jefferson was raised at Shadwell, his father's Albemarle County plantation, with nine siblings. The absence of extant letters between Jefferson and his parents has led some historians to suggest a frosty relationship, but his letters to siblings suggest that the family was, in fact, close and loving. Jefferson married Martha Wayles Skelton in 1772, and by all accounts the two were very much in love. Of their six children, only two—Martha and Mary (later Maria)—survived to adulthood. The elder Martha Jefferson died a few months after giving birth in 1782, and Jefferson's daughters, and later his grandchildren, became the focus of his domestic life. While president in 1802, his family life attracted public attention when the Richmond journalist James Thomson Callender accused him of fathering children with his slave—and his wife's likely half-sister—Sally Hemings. Many historians now accept that Jefferson fathered Hemings's six children. His later years were marked by family strife, including a feud between his two sons-in-law and alcohol-fueled violence perpetrated by the husband of one of his granddaughters. Debts also accumulated, but Jefferson maintained his home at Monticello as a refuge for family, and they surrounded him there on his death in 1826.
Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:04:45 EST]]>
/Gabriel_s_Conspiracy_1800 Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:02:35 EST <![CDATA[Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gabriel_s_Conspiracy_1800 Gabriel's Conspiracy was a plan by enslaved African American men to attack Richmond and destroy slavery in Virginia. Although thwarted, it remains one of the half-dozen most important insurrection plots in the history of North American slavery. Named after an enslaved blacksmith who emerged as the most significant leader of the plot, Gabriel's Conspiracy originated during the spring and summer of 1800 in a Henrico County neighborhood north of Richmond and extended primarily across Hanover County into Caroline County and south toward Petersburg. Two slave men betrayed the plot just hours before a torrential rainstorm prevented the conspirators from gathering on the night of August 30, 1800. In response, Virginia authorities arrested and prosecuted more than seventy enslaved men for insurrection and conspiracy. Twenty-six of those found guilty were hanged and eight more were transported, or sold outside of the state, while another suspected conspirator committed suicide before his arraignment. A small number of free blacks were also implicated and one was prosecuted. The alleged involvement of two Frenchmen in the plot provided fodder for Federalist attacks on Thomas Jefferson's candidacy for the presidency that year. The aborted uprising also provoked refinements in the state's slave laws at the next meeting of the General Assembly, including the adoption of transportation as an alternative to capital punishment for some slave offenders and calls for an end to private manumissions and for the deportation of free blacks.
Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:02:35 EST]]>
/Indian_Enslavement_in_Virginia Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:25:04 EST <![CDATA[Indian Enslavement in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indian_Enslavement_in_Virginia Indians were enslaved in Virginia by settlers and traders from shortly after the founding of Jamestown until the end of the eighteenth century, peaking late in the seventeenth century and providing a workforce for English plantations and households. By this time the Atlantic slave trade was at its peak, flooding Virginia with cheaper African labor. African slavery took nearly a century to develop, however, and in the meantime those white Virginians who required men and women to work as servants or in tobacco fields mostly relied on indentured servants and enslaved Indians. Europeans sold guns for slaves in an existing indigenous trading market, and encouraged allied tribes to provide the slaves by targeting Indian groups on the periphery of English settlements (similar to African participation in the capture of slaves in Africa). While there are examples of continued enslavement of Indians throughout the early settlement period, mass enslavement typically coincided with the upheaval of war that led to Indian prisoners who could be sold as slaves. Virginia's laws were neither clear nor effective with respect to the enslavement of Indians, at times banning the practice and at other times encouraging it. Some scholars argue that Indian enslavement had declined by 1800 because Indians were prone to illness or escape, but others maintain that it was only when Indians, wracked by war and enslavement, could not provide a sufficient quantity of cheap workers that English colonists turned primarily to chattel African slavery. American Indians were most clearly deemed free by Virginia law early in the 1800s, and Indians who were unable to gain their freedom often became assimilated within the predominantly African slave communities.
Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:25:04 EST]]>
/Archaeology_at_Mount_Vernon Fri, 01 Apr 2016 08:27:02 EST <![CDATA[Mount Vernon, Archaeology at]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Archaeology_at_Mount_Vernon Archaeology at Mount Vernon, the Fairfax County plantation home of George Washington, began in the 1930s and has continued over the subsequent decades. As part of research and renovation efforts undertaken by the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, excavations have sought to uncover evidence of daily life on the property during the eighteenth century. In 1987, the association, which has owned and operated the estate since 1860, hired a full-time archaeologist. Since then, archaeological digs at the Mansion House Farm have taken place at the main slave quarter, known as the House for Families, and the blacksmith shop (1987–1990), the fruit garden and nursery (1988–1991), the South Grove trash dump, or midden (1990–1993), the dung repository (1992–1994), and the Upper Garden (2005–2010). Extensive work has also been conducted at the distillery, located near the outlying gristmill (1999–2005). These investigations have turned up a rich array of artifacts and other kinds of evidence attesting to the lives of the Washington family and their enslaved laborers, including the size and nature of structures in which they lived and worked, the tools they manufactured and used, and the foods they ate.
Fri, 01 Apr 2016 08:27:02 EST]]>
/Cocke_John_Hartwell_1780-1866 Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:41:33 EST <![CDATA[Cocke, John Hartwell (1780–1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cocke_John_Hartwell_1780-1866 John Hartwell Cocke was a farmer whose plantation, Bremo, in Fluvanna County, was both architecturally and scientifically innovative. He also was a reformer who advocated temperance, the end of tobacco production in central Virginia, and the colonization of the state's slaves. Closely involved with the founding of the University of Virginia, he served on the school's board of visitors from 1819 until 1856. Born in Surry County, Cocke inherited Bremo and moved to the estate in 1809. There he worked out new methods of scientific farming and helped to found the Agricultural Society of Albemarle. He designed, or helped to design, various parts of Bremo, as well as buildings elsewhere in Fluvanna County. After the death of his first wife in 1816, Cocke embraced evangelical Christianity, which informed his work on behalf of temperance causes—he served as president of state and national temperance unions—and against the cultivation of tobacco. Despite owning slaves himself, he thought slavery to be against God's will and argued that removing African Americans to Africa was the best solution to the institution's various evils. Cocke's opposition to abolitionism and his support of the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865) caused his views to become pro-slavery over time. He died at Bremo in 1866.
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:41:33 EST]]>
/Richmond_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 22 Mar 2016 09:31:03 EST <![CDATA[Richmond during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Richmond_During_the_Civil_War Richmond, Virginia, was the capital of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865). It also served as the capital of Virginia, although when the city was about to fall to Union armies in April 1865, the state government, including the governor and General Assembly, moved to Lynchburg for five days. Besides being the political home of the Confederacy, Richmond was a center of rail and industry, military hospitals, and prisoner-of-war camps and prisons, including Belle Isle and Libby Prison. It boasted a diversified economy that included grain milling and iron manufacturing, with the keystone of the local economy being the massive Tredegar ironworks. From the start of war, Confederate citizens flocked to the capital seeking safety and jobs, leading to periodic civil unrest, manifested most notably in the Bread Riot of April 1863. Because of its economic and political importance as well as its location near the United States capital, Richmond became the focus for most of the military campaigns in the war's Eastern Theater. In a sense, its success—especially in mobilizing, outfitting, and feeding the Confederate armies—predestined it to near-destruction in 1865. Just as ironic, that destruction was largely caused by Confederates, although images of the city's ruins have become iconic representations of the cost of war.
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 09:31:03 EST]]>
/Fitzhugh_George_1806-1881 Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:22:49 EST <![CDATA[Fitzhugh, George (1806–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fitzhugh_George_1806-1881 George Fitzhugh was a proslavery writer best known for two books: Sociology for the South; or the Failure of Free Society (1854) and Cannibals All! or, Slaves Without Masters (1857). Born in Prince William County and raised in King George County, Fitzhugh studied law before marrying and establishing a practice in Caroline County. In the years before the American Civil War (1861–1865), Fitzhugh distinguished himself for his aggressive and provocative defenses of slavery. In Fitzhugh's writings, Virginia slaveholders presided over a society that was more free than in factory towns in the North and where enslaved African Americans were well treated and even better off enslaved. He argued for the benefits of slavery in general, regardless of the slave's skin color, although he also asserted the moral inferiority of black people. In addition to publishing book-length arguments, Fitzhugh traveled widely, including in the North, where he sometimes debated abolitionists. In order to pay for his travels and publishing, Fitzhugh, ironically, may have had to sell many of his slaves. Before the war he worked in Washington, D.C., briefly, during the war for the Confederate Treasury Department in Richmond, and after the war for the Freedmen's Bureau. He later moved to Kentucky and then Texas, where he died in 1881.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:22:49 EST]]>
/Burns_Anthony_1834-1862 Mon, 21 Mar 2016 09:26:59 EST <![CDATA[Burns, Anthony (1834–1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burns_Anthony_1834-1862 Anthony Burns was a fugitive slave from Virginia who, while living in Boston in 1854, became the principal in a famous court case brought in an effort to extradite him back to the South. Born in Stafford County, Burns was the property of the merchant Charles F. Suttle, who later hired him out to William Brent, of Falmouth. In 1854, Burns escaped slavery and traveled to Boston, where he wrote a letter back to one of his brothers. Intercepted by Suttle, the letter revealed Burns's whereabouts, and Suttle and Brent themselves traveled to Boston and claimed Burns under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. The subsequent rendition trial sparked the interest of antislavery activists, and an attempt at freeing Burns by force killed a federal marshal. Burns eventually lost his case and was sold to a man in North Carolina. Boston activists later purchased his freedom, however, and he attended school in Ohio and lectured on his experiences. He ended up in Canada, where he died in 1862 from health problems related to his post-trial confinement.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 09:26:59 EST]]>
/Lafayette_James_ca_1748-1830 Thu, 10 Mar 2016 16:57:07 EST <![CDATA[Lafayette, James (ca. 1748–1830)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lafayette_James_ca_1748-1830 James Lafayette was a spy during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Born a slave about 1748, he was a body servant for his owner, William Armistead, of New Kent County, in the spring of 1781. At the time, Armistead served as state commissary of military supplies, and his position allowed Lafayette—then known only by his first name—access to the front lines of war. Lafayette's race made it easy for him to pass between lines, and he began serving as a double agent, spying for the Americans while pretending to spy for the British. After the war, the marquis de Lafayette attested in writing to James Lafayette's service, and the former spy petitioned the General Assembly for his freedom, which was granted in 1787. Around this time he took the surname Lafayette. Late in 1818 Lafayette petitioned for and won a military pension. He lived on forty acres of land he purchased in New Kent County, traveling to Richmond twice a year to collect his pension. He reportedly greeted the marquis de Lafayette on the Frenchman's tour of Virginia in 1824. James Lafayette died in Baltimore in 1830.
Thu, 10 Mar 2016 16:57:07 EST]]>
/Brodnax_William_H_ca_1786-1834 Thu, 25 Feb 2016 15:53:08 EST <![CDATA[Brodnax, William H. (ca. 1786–1834)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brodnax_William_H_ca_1786-1834 William H. Brodnax was a member of the House of Delegates (1818–1819, 1830–1833) and of the Virginia constitutional convention of 1829. A native of Brunswick County, he studied and then practiced law in Petersburg and lived on a 1,600-acre plantation in Dinwiddie County. During the constitutional convention, he supported policies that extended white male suffrage while retaining most political advantages enjoyed by eastern Virginians over their western counterparts. As a brigadier general of the state militia, he led the welcoming escort of the marquis de Lafayette in 1824 and, in 1831, commanded the forces that put down Nat Turner's Rebellion. During the debate on slavery in the ensuing session of the General Assembly, he chaired a select committee and proposed a plan to colonize the state's free and enslaved African Americans. A member of the Whig Party and a supporter of states' rights, he died of cholera in 1834.
Thu, 25 Feb 2016 15:53:08 EST]]>
/Cottrell_Sally_d_1875 Wed, 10 Feb 2016 13:44:56 EST <![CDATA[Cole, Sally Cottrell (d. 1875)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cottrell_Sally_d_1875 Sally Cottrell was an enslaved maid and seamstress. Born sometime around 1800, she served as a maid to Ellen Wayles Randolph at Monticello from 1809 until 1824, after which Randolph married and moved to Boston. Cottrell was then hired out to a University of Virginia professor, who later purchased her with the intention of freeing her. It is unclear whether Cottrell was ever officially freed, but by early 1828 she was working on her own as a seamstress. She was baptized in Charlottesville in 1841, married in 1846, and died in 1875. She had no children.
Wed, 10 Feb 2016 13:44:56 EST]]>
/Slave_Clothing_and_Adornment_in_Virginia Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:22:03 EST <![CDATA[Slave Clothing and Adornment in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Clothing_and_Adornment_in_Virginia Slave clothing and adornment varied across time and across Virginia. In West Africa, where many American slaves originated, clothing was minimal, and even that was generally stripped from newly enslaved people just prior to the Middle Passage. In Virginia, slaves were outfitted with European clothing they often found to be constricting and uncomfortable. The fabrics used for construction tended to be inferior, with their owners using whatever was most cost-effective. Homespun Virginia cloth and imported osnaburg fabric (made from flax and hemp) were common in the eighteenth century. By the nineteenth century, with the rise of cotton production, blends such as jean cloth became more common and allowed owners to provide slaves clothing that was untailored and ready-made. The most common practice was to distribute clothes in twice-a-year allotments, with liveried (uniformed) and domestic slaves receiving higher-quality clothing than field slaves, who wore the plainest and coarsest clothing. Children wore simple gowns. Boys transitioned to breeches, or short pants, and then to long pants and girls wore adult dresses when they began to menstruate. Plain leather shoes and sometimes hats were also included in allotments, while women, reflecting West African traditions, sometimes wore cloth head wraps. To aid in running away, some slaves stole better clothes while others saved money and purchased or, in some instances, earned better attire.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:22:03 EST]]>
/Jennings_Paul_1799-1874 Wed, 03 Feb 2016 08:16:04 EST <![CDATA[Jennings, Paul (1799–1874)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jennings_Paul_1799-1874 Paul Jennings is the author of A Colored Man's Reminiscences of James Madison (1865), a memoir about his service as an enslaved footman in the White House. Born at the Madison plantation, Montpelier, Jennings lived in the president's house during James Madison's two terms as president and, in his narrative, recounts his role in rescuing Gilbert Stuart's 1796 portrait of George Washington before the arrival of British soldiers during the War of 1812. His version of these events gives Dolley Madison a less prominent role than most subsequent histories. Jennings served James Madison until the former president's death in 1836, after which Jennings lived at Dolley Madison's in Washington, D.C. For a time he worked in the White House again, for President James K. Polk. Madison sold Jennings in 1846, and six months later, Senator Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, purchased and freed Jennings, who then went to work for Webster. In 1848, Jennings was involved in the Pearl incident, a plot to smuggle seventy-seven slaves to freedom aboard the schooner Pearl. The plot was betrayed and the slaves captured, but the authorities never learned of Jennings's involvement. In January 1863, while working for the federal Department of the Interior, Jennings published his memoir in a magazine with the help of John Brooks Russell, a clerk in his office. The Reminiscences were privately published in book form in 1865. Jennings married three times and fathered five children. He died at his home in Washington, D.C., in 1874.
Wed, 03 Feb 2016 08:16:04 EST]]>
/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_October_4-5_1824 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:11:23 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Board of Visitors Minutes (October 4–5, 1824)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_October_4-5_1824 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:11:23 EST]]> /Slavery_at_the_University_of_Virginia Tue, 02 Feb 2016 10:55:46 EST <![CDATA[Slavery at the University of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slavery_at_the_University_of_Virginia The University of Virginia utilized the labor of enslaved African Americans from the earliest days of its construction, in 1817, until the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). Most of the university's first enslaved laborers were rented from local landowners and worked alongside whites and free blacks in performing all the tasks associated with building what the school's founder, Thomas Jefferson, called the Academical Village. In March 1825, the first students arrived and African Americans transitioned to working in the pavilions, hotels, and the Rotunda; maintaining classrooms, laboratories, and the library; ringing the bell; and serving the daily needs of students and faculty. While faculty were allowed to bring personal slaves on Grounds, as the university campus was called, students were not—a reflection, perhaps, of Jefferson's view that slavery raised the young in habits of tyranny. Students nevertheless tended to treat the university's slaves poorly, at times even attacking them. The university's response to such behavior was inconsistent. Although the men who founded the university were ambivalent about slavery, over time students and faculty alike tended to take a harder line in favor of the institution. When the slaves were freed in 1865, the faculty was not, as a group, inclined to help them. The university hired many of its former slaves to work their previous jobs but never articulated a formal policy regarding the newly freed men and women.
Tue, 02 Feb 2016 10:55:46 EST]]>
/Davis_Noah_1804-1867 Tue, 12 Jan 2016 11:47:08 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Noah (1804–1867)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Noah_1804-1867 Noah Davis was a Baptist minister and author of an emancipation narrative, A Narrative of the Life of Rev. Noah Davis, a Colored Man, published in 1859. Born into slavery in Madison County, Davis learned farming and carpentry and joined the Baptist church in Fredericksburg, which elected him a deacon. In 1847, white Baptists paid for Davis's freedom (he had already raised some of the money) and hired him as a missionary to African Americans in Baltimore. The next year he established the Second Colored Baptist Church in that city and over the next decade raised the money to free his family, who were in danger of being sold. His memoir was published in part to earn funds for that effort. In 1863, Davis attended the American Baptist Missionary Convention in Washington, D.C., and there met with President Abraham Lincoln, requesting he be allowed to preach to African American troops. In 1866, his church united with another, and Davis died the next year, in Baltimore.
Tue, 12 Jan 2016 11:47:08 EST]]>
/Letter_from_John_C_Underwood_in_the_New_York_Times_January_6_1857 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:45:59 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John C. Underwood in the New York Times (January 6, 1857)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_C_Underwood_in_the_New_York_Times_January_6_1857 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:45:59 EST]]> /Depositions_for_the_Claim_of_William_James_March_20_1872 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 11:30:49 EST <![CDATA[Depositions for the Claim of William James (March 20, 1872)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Depositions_for_the_Claim_of_William_James_March_20_1872 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 11:30:49 EST]]> /Depositions_for_the_Claim_of_Benjamin_Summers_February_6_1872 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 11:29:00 EST <![CDATA[Depositions for the Claim of Benjamin Summers (February 6, 1872)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Depositions_for_the_Claim_of_Benjamin_Summers_February_6_1872 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 11:29:00 EST]]> /Bowser_Mary_Richards_fl_1846-1867 Fri, 08 Jan 2016 17:33:03 EST <![CDATA[Bowser, Mary Richards (fl. 1846–1867)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowser_Mary_Richards_fl_1846-1867 Fri, 08 Jan 2016 17:33:03 EST]]> /Underwood_John_C_1809-1873 Sun, 13 Dec 2015 13:03:45 EST <![CDATA[Underwood, John C. (1809–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Underwood_John_C_1809-1873 John C. Underwood was one of the most conspicuous antislavery activists in Virginia during the 1850s, one of the first members of the Republican Party in Virginia, a federal judge from 1863 to 1873, and the president of the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868. Born in New York, Underwood practiced law before moving to Virginia. There his condemnations of slavery were such that his wife, a cousin of the future Confederate general Thomas J. Jackson, worried for his safety. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), President Abraham Lincoln appointed Underwood a federal judge for the eastern district of Virginia. His actions on the bench often appeared to be politically motivated and included repeated efforts to confiscate the estates of Confederates in order to destroy slavery and apply what he called "retributive justice." After the war, he admitted that he could pack a jury, if necessary, to convict the former Confederate president, Jefferson Davis, of treason. He also publicly endorsed African American suffrage and full citizenship rights for freedpeople. Toward that end, he served as president of the constitutional convention that met in 1867–1868, during which he argued, unsuccessfully, that women, too, should be granted full suffrage rights. Underwood remained on the bench in his later years, earning a reputation as an outspoken radical and one who was often contemptuous of his critics. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1873.
Sun, 13 Dec 2015 13:03:45 EST]]>
/Underground_Railroad_in_Virginia Thu, 10 Dec 2015 13:57:57 EST <![CDATA[Underground Railroad in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Underground_Railroad_in_Virginia The Underground Railroad in Virginia was a series of secret networks, often working independently of one another and manned by both free blacks and whites, designed to help enslaved African Americans escape to the North and to Canada. Such networks were less necessary in the earliest days of slavery in Virginia because runaways tended to stay relatively close to home. Only after the American Revolution (1775–1783), when northern states outlawed slavery and a new domestic trade began to send thousands of enslaved men, women, and children into the Deep South, did fugitive slaves cross state lines in great numbers. Federal fugitive slave laws in 1793 and 1850 made such escapes more difficult but they also led to the development of the Underground Railroad, a term that had gained popular currency by the 1840s. Quakers in Philadelphia, New York, and North Carolina, burning with antislavery zeal, aided kidnapped African Americans and fugitive slaves and, in concert with free blacks and even some slaves, began to develop networks by which to smuggle them to freedom. With the largest slave population, Virginia also had among the greatest number of fugitives. They left mostly by sea, with some remaining in the North and others joining black communities in Canada. While it remains up for debate exactly how many escaped, slaveholders regularly complained of financial losses. Only the abolition of slavery ended the Underground Railroad's work.
Thu, 10 Dec 2015 13:57:57 EST]]>
/Teamoh_George_1818-after_1887 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:34:53 EST <![CDATA[Teamoh, George (1818–after 1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Teamoh_George_1818-after_1887 George Teamoh represented Portsmouth and Norfolk County at the Convention of 1867–1868 and in the Senate of Virginia (1869–1871). Born enslaved, Teamoh secretly learned to read in his youth and worked in Portsmouth's shipyards. After his wife was sold, one of his owners helped him escape from a ship. Teamoh returned to Virginia after the American Civil War (1861–1865), and he quickly became involved in local politics and labor issues. He won election to the Convention called to create a new state constitution, and then served a term in the General Assembly's upper house. Republican Party infighting cost him his political career. He returned to the Norfolk shipyards and died sometime after 1887. His autobiography, God Made Man, Man Made the Slave, was published in 1990.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:34:53 EST]]>
/Lee_Mary_Anna_Randolph_Custis_1807-1873 Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:30:05 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Mary Randolph Custis (1807–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Mary_Anna_Randolph_Custis_1807-1873 Mary Randolph Custis Lee was an artist, author, and early antislavery activist. The great-granddaughter of Martha Washington, she enjoyed virtually unequalled social status throughout her life. Tutored in history and philosophy, she became acquainted with the early republic's leaders, who visited her father's estate, Arlington. Following her mother's lead, she fought slavery, and helped to ease the lives of her own family's slaves. Her uncle's death in 1830 prompted a religious awakening, and marriage the next year to Robert E. Lee put her in the position of being an army wife, a somewhat uncomfortable role for someone of her background. She followed her husband to his various outposts, sketching her travels and becoming an artist of some note. While her connection to Lee did not immediately augment her social standing, when he led the Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War (1861–1865), she was accorded further deference. Mary Custis Lee had not supported secession, but she was a devoted Confederate, her grace under pressure making her a symbol of quiet strength in wartime Richmond. At the end of her life, she was embittered by the Union occupation of her beloved Arlington and felt betrayed by her family's former slaves. She died in 1873.
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:30:05 EST]]>
/Charlottesville_During_the_Civil_War Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:20:34 EST <![CDATA[Charlottesville during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Charlottesville_During_the_Civil_War Charlottesville provided the Confederate war effort with swords, uniforms, and artificial limbs during the American Civil War (1861–1865). It was also home to a 500-bed military hospital that employed hundreds of the town's residents, cared for more than 22,000 patients, and was superintended by Dr. J. L. Cabell, a professor of medicine at the nearby University of Virginia. In the summer of 1861, the 19th Virginia Infantry Regiment was organized, recruiting most of its members from Charlottesville and Albemarle County. The unit served with the Army of Northern Virginia all the way through to the Appomattox Campaign (1865), including at Pickett's Charge (1863), where it lost 60 percent of its men. African Americans, both enslaved and free, who composed a majority of the town and county's population, were the subject of heightened white fears of violence, their movements controlled by a curfew. In 1863, black members of the biracial First Baptist Church established the Charlottesville African Church. Although the war's fighting stayed mostly to the east and west, a raid led by Union general George A. Custer was stopped just north of the city in the spring of 1864. Early the next year, town leaders surrendered Charlottesville to Custer, preventing the community's destruction.
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:20:34 EST]]>
/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:59:11 EST <![CDATA[Daniels, Edward D. (1828–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Edward D. Daniels was an agricultural reformer, newspaper editor, and an active member of the Republican Party. The Massachusetts-born Daniels worked as a geologist in Wisconsin, helped mount expeditions to establish abolitionist colonies in Kansas, served in the U.S. Army, and was involved in manufacturing in the Midwest before settling in Virginia in 1868, at his doctor's recommendation. That same year he bought Gunston Hall, the onetime home of George Mason, and tried to transform the plantation into a cooperative community of independent farmers and artisans. He hired African American laborers, instructed them in scientific farming techniques, and paid them relatively high wages. The venture was not profitable, however, and he sold the property in 1891, retaining a small piece of land for himself. Daniels extended his ambitions for reform into politics: he edited and published the Richmond Evening State Journal in support of the Republican Party, twice ran for office (and was twice defeated), and supported the nascent Readjusters. Daniels's financial troubles often thwarted his reform efforts, but a primary school for black children that he helped found survived into the 1920s. He died at his farm near Gunston Hall in 1916 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:59:11 EST]]>
/Brooks_Albert_Royal_c_1817-1881 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:13:41 EST <![CDATA[Brooks, Albert R. (c. 1817–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brooks_Albert_Royal_c_1817-1881 Albert R. Brooks was a Richmond businessman who thrived before the American Civil War (1861–1865) despite his enslavement. In the antebellum years Brooks took advantage of the common though illegal practice of earning wages for his work, which he then invested in an eating house and a prosperous hack and livery stable. Between 1862 and 1865 Brooks managed to purchase his freedom, his wife's, and that of most of their children. After the war Brooks became a community leader. He helped halt the revival of slavery-era pass laws that governed African American movement in the city and sat on the racially mixed jury that considered Jefferson Davis's treason charges. He was also active in the state's nascent Republican Party. Brooks retreated from political activity in 1868, possibly worried that his white customers would boycott his businesses, but continued to support universal suffrage, equal justice, public education, black uplift, and civil rights. Brooks died in 1881 and is probably buried in Richmond's Union Mechanics Cemetery.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:13:41 EST]]>
/Anderson_Joseph_Reid_1813-1892 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:17:17 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, Joseph R. (1813–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_Joseph_Reid_1813-1892 Joseph R. Anderson was an iron manufacturer and Confederate army officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). In 1848 he purchased the Tredegar Iron Company, the largest producer of munitions, cannon, railroad iron, steam engines, and other ordnance for the Confederate government during the Civil War. One of Anderson's most notable decisions was to introduce slaves into skilled industrial work at the ironworks, and by 1864, more than half the workers at Tredegar were bondsmen. Anderson served as a brigadier general for the Confederate army, and fought and was wounded during the Seven Days' Battles. He resigned his commission in the Confederate Army in 1862 to resume control of the ironworks, and after the war, Anderson was a strong proponent for peace, hoping to keep the Union army from taking possession of the ironworks. He failed, but regained control of Tredegar after he was pardoned by U.S. president Andrew Johnson in 1865. By 1873 Anderson had doubled the factory's prewar capacity, and its labor force exceeded 1,000 men, many of them black laborers and skilled workmen who received equal pay with white workers. Though Tredegar failed to make the transition from iron to steel production late in the nineteenth century, the company survived into the 1980s. Anderson was a well-known member of the Richmond community, serving multiple terms on the Richmond City Council and in the House of Delegates before and after the war.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:17:17 EST]]>
/Indentured_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Wed, 28 Oct 2015 15:08:38 EST <![CDATA[Indentured Servants in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indentured_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Indentured servants were men and women who signed a contract (also known as an indenture or a covenant) by which they agreed to work for a certain number of years in exchange for transportation to Virginia and, once they arrived, food, clothing, and shelter. Adults usually served for four to seven years and children sometimes for much longer, with most working in the colony's tobacco fields. With a long history in England, indentured servitude became, during most of the seventeenth century, the primary means by which Virginia planters filled their nearly inexhaustible need for labor. At first, the Virginia Company of London paid to transport servants across the Atlantic, but with the institution of the headright system in 1618, the company enticed planters and merchants to incur the cost with the promise of land. As a result, servants flooded into the colony, where they were greeted by deadly diseases and often-harsh conditions that killed a majority of newcomers and left the rest to the mercy of sometimes-cruel masters. The General Assembly passed laws regulating contract terms, as well as the behavior and treatment of servants. Besides benefiting masters with long indentures, these laws limited servant rights while still allowing servants to present any complaints in court. By the end of the seventeenth century, the number of new servants in Virginia had dwindled, and the colony's labor needs were largely met by enslaved Africans.
Wed, 28 Oct 2015 15:08:38 EST]]>
/Virginia_Soldiers_Confederate_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:30:42 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Soldiers (Confederate) during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Soldiers_Confederate_During_the_Civil_War Approximately 155,000 Virginia men served in Confederate forces during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Another 32,000 served in Union forces; most of these came from the counties that today comprise the state of West Virginia, while a number of West Virginia troops were recruited from the neighboring states of Ohio and Pennsylvania. The total number of men eligible for military service in the state was 224,000. When those areas of Union-controlled Virginia are subtracted, the total drops to 174,000, making the enlistment rate in Confederate Virginia 89 percent. This represents a remarkable mobilization of resources and demonstrates how the Civil War represented an all-consuming experience for those who lived through it. Virginia sent more men to fight for the Confederacy than did any other state. Though Virginia soldiers served in all branches and participated in all theaters of war, a significant majority of them fought within the boundaries of their own state.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:30:42 EST]]>
/Unionism_in_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:29:09 EST <![CDATA[Unionism in Virginia during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Unionism_in_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War Unionists in Virginia supported the United States government during the secession crisis, the American Civil War (1861–1865), or both. Representing a minority of white Virginians and an overwhelming majority of both free and enslaved African Americans, Unionists articulated their beliefs through a range of actions. Some explicitly supported the ideals of the Union; others defined their Unionism as a rejection of slavery. Many Virginians feared the economic consequences of secession, while African Americans saw Unionism as an opportunity for personal liberty. Just prior to the war, Unionism had been particularly strong in Virginia, but by the time the question of secession was put to a referendum, Unionist influence had declined sharply. Most Unionists lived in the state's western counties, although their antipathy to secession had less to do with slavery than with the undemocratic political advantages enjoyed by slave owners. Unionists flourished in Union-occupied areas of Northern Virginia and fought guerrilla actions in Southwest Virginia. Ethnicity and religion played an important role in formulating Unionist or anti-Confederate actions, with pacifist Germans sometimes refusing to serve in the Confederate armed forces. In Richmond, Unionists formed a spy network, and across the state slaves deprived the Confederacy of critical labor by running away. All of these efforts contributed to the eventual Confederate defeat.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:29:09 EST]]>
/Women_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:26:51 EST <![CDATA[Women during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Women_During_the_Civil_War Although women were not permitted to bear arms on the battlefront, they made invaluable contributions to and were deeply affected by the American Civil War (1861–1865). This was particularly true of women living in Virginia, since they witnessed more battles than did the women of any other state engaged in the conflict. The removal of hundreds of thousands of men from their homes, farms, and businesses necessitated the vastly increased participation of women, both black and white, in areas that they had been previously discouraged, if not forbidden, from pursuing. Differences of race and class, however, sometimes sharply divided their views and experiences. Some devoted everything they had to the service of the Confederacy, while others openly rebelled against it. The end of the war brought the collapse of both the Confederate government and slave society, and while freedom created a new commonality between the races and between women and men, it challenged them to redefine themselves and their society. In the words of diarist Lucy Buck from Front Royal, "We shall never any of us be the same as we have been."
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:26:51 EST]]>
/Slavery_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:20:10 EST <![CDATA[Slavery during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slavery_During_the_Civil_War Virginia had the largest population of enslaved African Americans of any state in the Confederacy, and those slaves responded to the American Civil War (1861–1865) in a variety of ways. Some volunteered to assist the Confederate war effort, while many others were forced to support the Confederacy, working on farms and in factories and households throughout Virginia. Thousands escaped to the Union army's lines, earning their freedom and forcing the United States to develop a uniform policy regarding emancipation. Others remained on their home plantations and farms but took advantage of the war to gain some measure of autonomy for their families. Slaves' wartime actions most often exhibited their strong desire for freedom, and even those who chose not to escape frequently welcomed the Union army as liberators.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:20:10 EST]]>
/_An_ACT_providing_additional_protection_for_the_slave_property_of_citizens_of_this_commonwealth_1856 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:34:33 EST <![CDATA["An ACT providing additional protection for the slave property of citizens of this commonwealth" (1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_providing_additional_protection_for_the_slave_property_of_citizens_of_this_commonwealth_1856 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:34:33 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_amend_an_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_1795 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:29:48 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to amend an act, intituled, 'An act to reduce into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes, and for other purposes'" (1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_amend_an_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_1795 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:29:48 EST]]> /General_Provisions_as_to_Slaves_1860 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:14:52 EST <![CDATA[General Provisions as to Slaves (1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/General_Provisions_as_to_Slaves_1860 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:14:52 EST]]> /An_act_declaring_what_persons_shall_be_deemed_mulattoes_October_1785 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:10:57 EST <![CDATA[An act declaring what persons shall be deemed mulattoes (October 1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_declaring_what_persons_shall_be_deemed_mulattoes_October_1785 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:10:57 EST]]> /An_act_declaring_who_shall_not_bear_office_in_this_country_October_1705 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:07:33 EST <![CDATA[An act declaring who shall not bear office in this country (October 1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_declaring_who_shall_not_bear_office_in_this_country_October_1705 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:07:33 EST]]> /_The_Quakers_an_excerpt_from_A_Key_toUncle_Tom_s_Cabin_1896 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:46:39 EST <![CDATA["The Quakers"; an excerpt from A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin (1896)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Quakers_an_excerpt_from_A_Key_toUncle_Tom_s_Cabin_1896 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:46:39 EST]]> /_Tales_of_Oppression_by_Isaac_T_Hopper_National_Anti-Slavery_Standard_March_25_1841 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:40:05 EST <![CDATA["Tales of Oppression" by Isaac T. Hopper, National Anti-Slavery Standard (March 25, 1841)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Tales_of_Oppression_by_Isaac_T_Hopper_National_Anti-Slavery_Standard_March_25_1841 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:40:05 EST]]> /_An_act_for_suppressing_outlying_slaves_1691 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:31:10 EST <![CDATA["An act for suppressing outlying slaves" (1691)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_suppressing_outlying_slaves_1691 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:31:10 EST]]> /The_Abolition_of_Slavery_in_Virginia Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:59:54 EST <![CDATA[The Abolition of Slavery in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Abolition_of_Slavery_in_Virginia The abolition of slavery in Virginia occurred by 1865, with the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865) and the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The U.S. Census of 1860 reported that almost half a million Virginians lived in slavery; five years later they were all free. For these men, women, and children, the end of their enslavement was a momentous event that occurred at different times and places and under unique circumstances depending on where they were. Many freed themselves by escaping into areas, such as Fort Monroe or the grounds of Arlington House, controlled by the Union army. The Emancipation Proclamation declared all slaves in Virginia to be free but could only be enforced in those places controlled by the Union army. The proclamation excepted that part of Virginia that became West Virginia. Its Constitution of 1863 included a provision for the gradual abolition of slavery, but its legislature abolished slavery in February 1865. The Restored government of Virginia, which remained loyal to the Union during the war, also created a new constitution, this one in 1864, that abolished slavery. It effectively freed few people, however.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:59:54 EST]]>
/Fourteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:44:33 EST <![CDATA[Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fourteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified on July 9, 1868, defined citizenship and guaranteed the rights of citizens. It was the second of three amendments adopted during Reconstruction that profoundly altered American society, government, and politics. The Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished and prohibited slavery in the wake of the American Civil War (1861–1865), was ratified in December 1865, and the Fifteenth Amendment, which granted the vote to African American men, was ratified in February 1870. The Fourteenth Amendment made all native-born men and women citizens and guaranteed them equal protection under the law. It included provisions to protect men's right to vote while abridging the rights of former Confederates. The General Assembly of Virginia refused to ratify the amendment until ratification became a precondition of regaining representation in Congress. The assembly voted in favor of the amendment on October 8, 1869, more than a year after it had become part of the Constitution. In Ex Parte State of Virginia (1880), the U.S. Supreme Court cited the Fourteenth Amendment when ruling that a Danville judge did not have the right to exclude African American men from serving on juries.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:44:33 EST]]>
/Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Still_s_Underground_Rail_Road_Records_1886 Wed, 14 Oct 2015 15:49:07 EST <![CDATA[Arrivals from Virginia; an excerpt from Still's Underground Rail Road Records (1886)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Still_s_Underground_Rail_Road_Records_1886 Wed, 14 Oct 2015 15:49:07 EST]]> /Hunnicutt_James_W_1814-1880 Thu, 27 Aug 2015 17:10:40 EST <![CDATA[Hunnicutt, James W. (1814–1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hunnicutt_James_W_1814-1880 James W. Hunnicutt, a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868, saw his public career shift during the 1860s from a slavery supporter to a prominent Radical Republican to an ally of the Conservative Party. In 1860 Hunnicutt, a minister and newspaper publisher, voiced his concerns that secession would lead to the American Civil War (1861–1865), and would end slavery. He fled Fredericksburg for Philadelphia in 1862, already evolving into an advocate of African American rights. Settling in Richmond after the Civil War, his actions to help organize freedpeople earned him enemies in the white community. He won election to the Convention of 1867–1868 that wrote the state's new constitution but his political power soon declined because of increased scrutiny on his prewar support of white supremacy, disenchantment from blacks outside of Richmond, and estrangement from other party leaders. In 1869 he lost a congressional election as a True Republican, a moderate Republican-Conservative coalition, and retired to Stafford County where he died a decade later.
Thu, 27 Aug 2015 17:10:40 EST]]>
/Brooks_Lucy_Goode_1818-1900 Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:51:51 EST <![CDATA[Brooks, Lucy Goode (1818–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brooks_Lucy_Goode_1818-1900 Lucy Goode Brooks played the primary role in establishing the Friends' Asylum for Colored Orphans, an orphanage for African American children in Richmond, after the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born into slavery, she married Albert Royal Brooks, whose master allowed him to operate a livery stable and eating house. Although he eventually purchased his freedom and that of Lucy Brooks and several of their children, one daughter was sold by her owner to bondage in Tennessee. After Emancipation former slaves flocked to Richmond to look for missing family members. Having lost one of her own children to the slave trade, Lucy Brooks had a special concern for the plight of parentless children. She worked with the Ladies Sewing Circle for Charitable Work, a local Society of Friends meeting, and several black churches to create an orphanage. In March 1872 the General Assembly incorporated the Friends' Asylum for Colored Orphans, which remained in operation for almost sixty years. Brooks died in Richmond in 1900.
Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:51:51 EST]]>
/Bayne_Thomas_ca_1824-1888 Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:06:50 EST <![CDATA[Bayne, Thomas (ca. 1824–1888)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bayne_Thomas_ca_1824-1888 Thomas Bayne was a member of the Convention of 1867–1868 and a Republican leader during Reconstruction. Bayne was born enslaved and was known as Samuel Nixon. Literate and possessing a keen intellect, he became an assistant dentist while working at his owner's Norfolk dental practice. His relative freedom of movement allowed him to work on the Underground Railroad until he fled to Massachusetts in 1855. There he adopted Thomas Bayne as his new name and established his own dental practice in New Bedford. Returning to Norfolk by 1865, he began working for African American equal rights as a political activist and an itinerant preacher. In 1867 the city's voters elected him as one of their delegates to the convention called to rewrite the state constitution. There he became the most powerful black leader of the Republican Party's radical faction, arguing forcefully for integrated public schools and equal suffrage. Bayne sought a congressional seat in 1869, but a split among party candidates doomed him to defeat. He reduced his role in state politics but remained active in local elections into the 1880s.
Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:06:50 EST]]>
/Chapter_II_an_excerpt_from_Twelve_Years_a_Slave_1855 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:45:39 EST <![CDATA[Chapter II; an excerpt from Twelve Years a Slave (1855)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_II_an_excerpt_from_Twelve_Years_a_Slave_1855 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:45:39 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Morris_April_12_1786 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:38:19 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Robert Morris (April 12, 1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Morris_April_12_1786 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:38:19 EST]]> /_Abolitionism_New_York_Spectator_September_26_1842 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:35:41 EST <![CDATA["Abolitionism," New York Spectator (September 26, 1842)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Abolitionism_New_York_Spectator_September_26_1842 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:35:41 EST]]> /_More_Fugitive_Slaves_New_York_Daily_Times_May_14_1852 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:34:16 EST <![CDATA["More Fugitive Slaves," New York Daily Times (May 14, 1852)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_More_Fugitive_Slaves_New_York_Daily_Times_May_14_1852 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:34:16 EST]]> /_Fugitive_Slaves_in_Ohio_New_York_Daily_Times_September_7_1853 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:32:35 EST <![CDATA["Fugitive Slaves in Ohio," New York Daily Times (September 7, 1853)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Fugitive_Slaves_in_Ohio_New_York_Daily_Times_September_7_1853 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:32:35 EST]]> /_The_Albany_Forwarding_Trade_BostonEmancipator_and_Free_American_May_20_1843 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 15:27:25 EST <![CDATA["The Albany Forwarding Trade," Boston Emancipator and Free American (May 20, 1843)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Albany_Forwarding_Trade_BostonEmancipator_and_Free_American_May_20_1843 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 15:27:25 EST]]> /_Miraculous_Escape_Boston_Emancipator_and_Free_American_May_11_1843 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 15:24:43 EST <![CDATA["Miraculous Escape," Boston Emancipator and Free American (May 11, 1843)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Miraculous_Escape_Boston_Emancipator_and_Free_American_May_11_1843 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 15:24:43 EST]]> /The_Thomas_Hughes_Affair_an_excerpt_fromIsaac_T_Hopperby_L_Maria_Child_1854 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 12:35:01 EST <![CDATA[The Thomas Hughes Affair; an excerpt from Isaac T. Hopper by L. Maria Child (1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Thomas_Hughes_Affair_an_excerpt_fromIsaac_T_Hopperby_L_Maria_Child_1854 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 12:35:01 EST]]> /Chapter_VII_an_excerpt_from_the_Narrative_of_the_Life_of_Henry_Box_Brown_1851 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 12:29:43 EST <![CDATA[Chapter VII; an excerpt from the Narrative of the Life of Henry Box Brown (1851)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_VII_an_excerpt_from_the_Narrative_of_the_Life_of_Henry_Box_Brown_1851 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 12:29:43 EST]]> /Letter_from_Anthony_Whitting_to_George_Washington_January_16_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:37:14 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Anthony Whitting to George Washington (January 16, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Anthony_Whitting_to_George_Washington_January_16_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:37:14 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_December_23_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:34:10 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (December 23, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_December_23_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:34:10 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_January_20_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:28:10 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Anthony Whitting (January 20, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_January_20_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:28:10 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_May_19_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:26:18 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Anthony Whitting (May 19, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_May_19_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:26:18 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_March_30_1794 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:24:58 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (March 30, 1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_March_30_1794 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:24:58 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_January_26_1794 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:23:20 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (January 26, 1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_January_26_1794 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:23:20 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_December_23_1792 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:21:17 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Anthony Whitting (December 23, 1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Anthony_Whitting_December_23_1792 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:21:17 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_December_18_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:19:19 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (December 18, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_December_18_1793 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:19:19 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Laurens_July_10_1782 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:15:43 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Laurens (July 10, 1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Laurens_July_10_1782 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:15:43 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Hancock_December_31_1775 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:11:53 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Hancock (December 31, 1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Hancock_December_31_1775 Wed, 19 Aug 2015 20:11:53 EST]]> /Newspaper_Advertisement_for_Runaway_Slaves_George_Washington_August_20_1761 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:16:54 EST <![CDATA[Newspaper Advertisement for Runaway Slaves, George Washington (August 20, 1761)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Newspaper_Advertisement_for_Runaway_Slaves_George_Washington_August_20_1761 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:16:54 EST]]> /Enclosure_Washington_s_Plans_for_His_River_Union_and_Muddy_Hole_Farms_December_10_1799 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:12:10 EST <![CDATA[Enclosure: Washington's Plans for His River, Union, and Muddy Hole Farms (December 10, 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Enclosure_Washington_s_Plans_for_His_River_Union_and_Muddy_Hole_Farms_December_10_1799 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:12:10 EST]]> /George_Washington_s_Last_Will_and_Testament_July_9_1799 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:10:37 EST <![CDATA[George Washington's Last Will and Testament (July 9, 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_Washington_s_Last_Will_and_Testament_July_9_1799 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:10:37 EST]]> /Circular_to_William_Stuart_Hiland_Crow_and_Henry_McCoy_by_George_Washington_July_14_1793 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:50:24 EST <![CDATA[Circular to William Stuart, Hiland Crow, and Henry McCoy by George Washington (July 14, 1793)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Circular_to_William_Stuart_Hiland_Crow_and_Henry_McCoy_by_George_Washington_July_14_1793 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:50:24 EST]]> /Journals_of_the_Continental_Congress_March_29_1779 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:41:40 EST <![CDATA[Journals of the Continental Congress (March 29, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Journals_of_the_Continental_Congress_March_29_1779 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:41:40 EST]]> /Letter_from_James_Hill_to_George_Washington_August_30_1772 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:39:38 EST <![CDATA[Letter from James Hill to George Washington (August 30, 1772)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_James_Hill_to_George_Washington_August_30_1772 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:39:38 EST]]> /Letter_from_James_Hill_to_George_Washington_December_13_1772 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:36:46 EST <![CDATA[Letter from James Hill to George Washington (December 13, 1772)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_James_Hill_to_George_Washington_December_13_1772 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:36:46 EST]]> /Letter_from_Alexander_Hamilton_to_John_Jay_March_14_1779 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:32:26 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Alexander Hamilton to John Jay (March 14, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Alexander_Hamilton_to_John_Jay_March_14_1779 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:32:26 EST]]> /An_excerpt_from_the_diary_of_George_Washington_January_28-31_1760 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:25:49 EST <![CDATA[An excerpt from the diary of George Washington (January 28–31, 1760)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_excerpt_from_the_diary_of_George_Washington_January_28-31_1760 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:25:49 EST]]> /An_act_to_authorize_the_manumission_of_slaves_1782 Thu, 13 Aug 2015 14:25:19 EST <![CDATA[An act to authorize the manumission of slaves (1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_to_authorize_the_manumission_of_slaves_1782 Thu, 13 Aug 2015 14:25:19 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_Reminiscences_of_Levi_Coffin_1880 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 12:19:30 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from Reminiscences of Levi Coffin (1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_Reminiscences_of_Levi_Coffin_1880 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 12:19:30 EST]]> /_A_Caution_to_All_Travellers_to_Philadelphia_Virginia_Journal_and_Alexandria_Advertiser_March_30_1786 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:57:55 EST <![CDATA["A Caution to All Travellers to Philadelphia," Virginia Journal and Alexandria Advertiser (March 30, 1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Caution_to_All_Travellers_to_Philadelphia_Virginia_Journal_and_Alexandria_Advertiser_March_30_1786 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:57:55 EST]]> /Speech_by_William_B_Preston_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_16_1832 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:09:34 EST <![CDATA[Speech by William B. Preston to the House of Delegates (January 16, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_William_B_Preston_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_16_1832 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:09:34 EST]]> /Speech_by_William_H_Brodnax_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_19_1832 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:05:58 EST <![CDATA[Speech by William H. Brodnax to the House of Delegates (January 19, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_William_H_Brodnax_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_19_1832 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:05:58 EST]]> /Evans_Joseph_P_1835-1889 Wed, 08 Jul 2015 10:57:38 EST <![CDATA[Evans, Joseph P. (1835–1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Evans_Joseph_P_1835-1889 Wed, 08 Jul 2015 10:57:38 EST]]> /Speech_by_James_H_Gholson_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_12_1832 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:33:39 EST <![CDATA[Speech by James H. Gholson to the House of Delegates (January 12, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_James_H_Gholson_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_12_1832 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:33:39 EST]]> /American_Civil_War_and_Virginia_The Fri, 26 Jun 2015 14:08:21 EST <![CDATA[Civil War in Virginia, The American]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/American_Civil_War_and_Virginia_The The American Civil War was fought from 1861 until 1865. It began after Virginia and ten other states in the southern United States seceded from the Union following the election of Abraham Lincoln as U.S. president in 1860. Worried that Lincoln would interfere with slavery and citing states' rights as a justification, Southern leaders established the Confederate States of America with Jefferson Davis as its president and Richmond as its capital. After Confederates fired on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, the war moved to Virginia. Union forces made several failed attempts to capture Richmond, and Confederate general Robert E. Lee twice invaded the North, only to be defeated in battle. Most, but not all, Virginians supported the Confederacy. In 1863, Unionists in the western part of the state established West Virginia. On the home front, both white and African American families suffered food shortages or were forced to flee their homes. The Confederate government instituted a draft, or conscription law, and in some cases impressed, or confiscated, private property. By the time Lee surrendered in 1865, much of the state had been ravaged by war. But the end of fighting also meant emancipation, or freedom, for enslaved African Americans. In the years that followed, many white Virginians saw their fight for independence as the Lost Cause, while black Virginians struggled to overcome institutionalized white supremacy and earn full citizenship rights.
Fri, 26 Jun 2015 14:08:21 EST]]>
/_The_Richmond_Freedmen_from_theNew-York_Tribune_June_17_1865 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:18:24 EST <![CDATA["The Richmond Freedmen," New-York Tribune (June 17, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Richmond_Freedmen_from_theNew-York_Tribune_June_17_1865 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:18:24 EST]]> /_An_act_to..._legalize_the_Marriages_of_Colored_Persons_now_cohabiting_as_Husband_and_Wife_1866 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 13:58:02 EST <![CDATA["An act to … legalize the Marriages of Colored Persons now cohabiting as Husband and Wife" (1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_to..._legalize_the_Marriages_of_Colored_Persons_now_cohabiting_as_Husband_and_Wife_1866 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 13:58:02 EST]]> /_What_tyme_Indians_serve_1670 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 13:50:53 EST <![CDATA["What tyme Indians serve" (1670)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_What_tyme_Indians_serve_1670 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 13:50:53 EST]]> /Letter_to_Fields_Cook_and_the_Colored_State_Convention_1865 Mon, 15 Jun 2015 15:46:29 EST <![CDATA[Letter to Fields Cook and the Colored State Convention (1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_to_Fields_Cook_and_the_Colored_State_Convention_1865 Mon, 15 Jun 2015 15:46:29 EST]]> /Speech_by_Samuel_McDowell_Moore_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_11_1832 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 15:01:45 EST <![CDATA[Speech by Samuel McDowell Moore to the House of Delegates (January 11, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_Samuel_McDowell_Moore_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_11_1832 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 15:01:45 EST]]> /Petition_from_Women_of_Fluvanna_County_November_24_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:59:52 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Women of Fluvanna County (November 24, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Women_of_Fluvanna_County_November_24_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:59:52 EST]]> /Petition_from_Citizens_of_Hanover_County_December_11_and_14_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:58:11 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Citizens of Hanover County (December 11 and 14, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Citizens_of_Hanover_County_December_11_and_14_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:58:11 EST]]> /Petition_from_Inhabitants_of_Fauquier_County_December_7_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:56:46 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Inhabitants of Fauquier County (December 7, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Inhabitants_of_Fauquier_County_December_7_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:56:46 EST]]> /Loudoun_County_Anti-Slave_Resolution_December_30_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:54:40 EST <![CDATA[Loudoun County Anti-Slave Resolution (December 30, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Loudoun_County_Anti-Slave_Resolution_December_30_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:54:40 EST]]> /Petition_from_Citizens_of_Culpeper_County_December_9_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:52:51 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Citizens of Culpeper County (December 9, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Citizens_of_Culpeper_County_December_9_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:52:51 EST]]> /Excerpts_from_Governor_John_Floyd_s_Message_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:48:29 EST <![CDATA[Excerpts from Governor John Floyd's Message to the General Assembly (December 6, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpts_from_Governor_John_Floyd_s_Message_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:48:29 EST]]> /Petition_from_the_Society_of_Friends_Charles_City_County_December_14_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:45:52 EST <![CDATA[Petition from the Society of Friends, Charles City County (December 14, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_the_Society_of_Friends_Charles_City_County_December_14_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:45:52 EST]]> /Petition_from_Women_of_Augusta_County_January_19_1832 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:44:09 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Women of Augusta County (January 19, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Women_of_Augusta_County_January_19_1832 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:44:09 EST]]> /Petition_from_Inhabitants_of_Washington_County_December_17_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:41:50 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Inhabitants of Washington County (December 17, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Inhabitants_of_Washington_County_December_17_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:41:50 EST]]> /Petition_from_Citizens_of_Northampton_County_December_6_1831 Tue, 09 Jun 2015 14:18:43 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Citizens of Northampton County (December 6, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Citizens_of_Northampton_County_December_6_1831 Tue, 09 Jun 2015 14:18:43 EST]]> /Davis_William_Roscoe_d_ca_1904 Thu, 21 May 2015 17:33:03 EST <![CDATA[Davis, William Roscoe (d. ca. 1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_William_Roscoe_d_ca_1904 William Roscoe Davis was an important African American leader in Elizabeth City County (later the city of Hampton) during the American Civil War (1861­–1865), and served as doorkeeper for the Constitutional Convention of 1867­–1868. Born into slavery, Davis was noted for his intelligence and received permission to work as a boat operator. He spent a considerable amount of his money paying for a lawsuit to defend his wife's manumission, but a local judge refused to enforce the couple's legal victory. Davis was among the first slaves to find freedom at Fort Monroe. A Baptist exhorter before the conflict, he became an ordained minister by 1863. His charisma was so impressive that he became a paid orator who toured Northern states. Later in life he claimed credit for the creation of Hampton Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Hampton University), telling people that his request for a new teacher led to the arrival of the institution's founder, Samuel Chapman Armstrong. He remained a leader in the community and respected elder in his family, also serving as the Old Point Comfort lighthouse keeper and buying property in Hampton. He died in 1904.
Thu, 21 May 2015 17:33:03 EST]]>
/Browne_William_Washington_1849-1897 Wed, 20 May 2015 10:46:58 EST <![CDATA[Browne, William Washington (1849–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Browne_William_Washington_1849-1897 William Washington Browne was a slave, a Union solder during the American Civil War (1861–1865), a teacher, a Methodist minister, and the founder of Richmond's Grand Fountain of the United Order of True Reformers, an African American fraternal organization. As leader of the True Reformers, Browne strived to help members live productive lives without depending upon the white community. By establishing insurance that provided members with sick and death benefits and by encouraging members to purchase land and engage in practices of temperance and thrift, Browne believed that blacks in the post–Civil War South could thrive. Browne's enterprising mind helped lead the True Reformers in creating and organizing a bank which became the nation's first chartered black financial institution and a model that others, such as Maggie Lena Walker, would follow. Browne died in 1897 and the True Reformers initially continued to prosper, but the order collapsed in the wake of the scandalous failure of its bank in 1910.
Wed, 20 May 2015 10:46:58 EST]]>
/Dodson_Amos_A_1856-1888 Tue, 12 May 2015 17:32:55 EST <![CDATA[Dodson, Amos A. (1856–1888)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dodson_Amos_A_1856-1888 Amos A. Dodson served one term in the House of Delegates (1883–1884). Born into slavery in Mecklenburg County, Dodson after the American Civil War (1861–1865) began balancing a carpentry apprenticeship during the day and studying in his time away from work. He parlayed his education into a ten-year stint as a teacher beginning in 1872. Later he worked as a railroad clerk with the help of Readjuster Party leader William Mahone. Dodson prevailed in an intra-party struggle for the Readjuster nomination for the House of Delegates in 1883 and then won the general election. He did not seek reelection, though he remained active in politics. Dodson moved to Knoxville, Tennessee in 1886, entering the undertaking business. Known as an eloquent speaker, his public career ended with his death in 1888.
Tue, 12 May 2015 17:32:55 EST]]>
/Morgan_Peter_G_1817-1890 Tue, 12 May 2015 15:36:01 EST <![CDATA[Morgan, Peter G. (1817–1890)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_Peter_G_1817-1890 Peter G. Morgan represented Petersburg in the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868 and then in the House of Delegates for one term (1869–1871). Born enslaved, Morgan worked as a shoemaker, purchasing freedom for himself and then for his wife and children. After the American Civil War (1861–1865) he won election in 1867 as a Republican to the convention called to write a new state constitution, usually siding with the party's radical faction during the proceedings. After the convention Morgan represented Petersburg for a two-year term in the House of Delegates. He served three terms the Petersburg city council, where he helped oppose a scheme that would have given a local judge the power to appoint city officials. Committed to education, Morgan was a trustee for Saint Paul Normal and Industrial School (later Saint Paul's College), founded by his son-in-law, James Solomon Russell. Morgan died at Russell's home in Lawrenceville in 1890.
Tue, 12 May 2015 15:36:01 EST]]>
/_The_Appeal_from_Proceedings_of_the_Convention_of_the_Colored_People_of_VA_Held_in_the_City_of_Alexandria_1865 Mon, 11 May 2015 14:54:47 EST <![CDATA["The Appeal" from Proceedings of the Convention of the Colored People of VA., Held in the City of Alexandria (1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Appeal_from_Proceedings_of_the_Convention_of_the_Colored_People_of_VA_Held_in_the_City_of_Alexandria_1865 Mon, 11 May 2015 14:54:47 EST]]> /Interview_with_Allen_Wilson_July_16_1937 Mon, 11 May 2015 13:19:04 EST <![CDATA[Interview with Allen Wilson (July 16, 1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Interview_with_Allen_Wilson_July_16_1937 Mon, 11 May 2015 13:19:04 EST]]> /_The_Passing_of_John_Robinson_from_the_Richmond_Planet_January_25_1908 Mon, 11 May 2015 12:50:22 EST <![CDATA["The Passing of John Robinson" from the Richmond Planet (January 25, 1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Passing_of_John_Robinson_from_the_Richmond_Planet_January_25_1908 Mon, 11 May 2015 12:50:22 EST]]> /Perkins_Fountain_M_1816_or_1817-1896 Fri, 01 May 2015 08:36:14 EST <![CDATA[Perkins, Fountain M. (1816 or 1817–1896)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Perkins_Fountain_M_1816_or_1817-1896 Fountain M. Perkins was born into slavery and later served one term in the House of Delegates (1869–1871). An overseer on his owner's farm, by 1867 he was a preacher and had become a political figure. A local official with the Freedmen's Bureau considered him a prominent man in Louisa County. Perkins began speaking at political meetings and was considered a candidate for the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868, the first election in which Virginia's African American men could vote. In 1869 he won one of the county's two seats in the House of Delegates. He voted to ratify the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which the state was required to do before being readmitted to the United States. Perkins did not run for reelection in 1871 but stayed active in politics during the next two decades, attending local Republican meetings, sitting as an election judge, and serving on the state central committee. He acquired property and farmed, and then, in 1896, died of the effects of paralysis in Louisa County.
Fri, 01 May 2015 08:36:14 EST]]>
/Remarks_by_William_Williams_August_11_1865 Mon, 27 Apr 2015 14:56:12 EST <![CDATA[Remarks by William Williams (August 11, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Remarks_by_William_Williams_August_11_1865 Mon, 27 Apr 2015 14:56:12 EST]]> /_The_Sun_Do_Move_by_John_Jasper_1878 Fri, 17 Apr 2015 14:40:23 EST <![CDATA["The Sun Do Move" by John Jasper (1878)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Sun_Do_Move_by_John_Jasper_1878 Fri, 17 Apr 2015 14:40:23 EST]]> /Union_Occupation_of_Charlottesville_1865 Mon, 13 Apr 2015 09:19:46 EST <![CDATA[Union Occupation of Charlottesville (1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Union_Occupation_of_Charlottesville_1865 Union cavalry under the command of Philip H. Sheridan occupied Charlottesville and the University of Virginia from March 3 to March 6, 1865, a month before the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). During the previous summer and autumn, Union forces had battled and largely defeated Jubal A. Early's Confederate Army of the Valley. In February 1865, Sheridan's men rode south from Winchester with orders to destroy railroads and possibly take Lynchburg. They arrived in Charlottesville on March 3, and there were met by a delegation of town and university officials, who asked for protection. Union troopers burned a nearby woolen mills but, apart from widespread foraging and some looting, left the town and college intact. In the meantime, many of the area's African Americans, including at least one enslaved directly by the University of Virginia, used the Union occupation to escape their enslavement. Sheridan left Charlottesville on March 6. In the war's aftermath, institutions that were not destroyed, such as the University of Virginia, became especially important in the South, and the school's enrollment and prestige rose steadily. In 2001, a state historical highway marker commemorating the occupation was rewritten to avoid the term "surrender"; it later was reported missing.
Mon, 13 Apr 2015 09:19:46 EST]]>
/_Virginia_Republican_Convention_Full_Report_of_Proceedings_from_the_Wheeling_Daily_Intelligencer_May_3_1860 Mon, 30 Mar 2015 16:07:22 EST <![CDATA["Virginia Republican Convention: Full Report of Proceedings" from the Wheeling Daily Intelligencer (May 3, 1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Virginia_Republican_Convention_Full_Report_of_Proceedings_from_the_Wheeling_Daily_Intelligencer_May_3_1860 Mon, 30 Mar 2015 16:07:22 EST]]> /A_Dissertation_on_Slavery_With_a_Proposal_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_It_In_the_State_of_Virginia_1796 Wed, 04 Feb 2015 10:35:56 EST <![CDATA[A Dissertation on Slavery: With a Proposal for the Gradual Abolition of It, In the State of Virginia (1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Dissertation_on_Slavery_With_a_Proposal_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_It_In_the_State_of_Virginia_1796 A Dissertation on Slavery: With a Proposal for the Gradual Abolition of It, In the State of Virginia (1796), is an essay by St. George Tucker. When he submitted it to the General Assembly in 1796, Tucker was a law professor at the College of William and Mary and a judge on the bench of the General Court. In A Dissertation on Slavery, he discusses the history of slavery, the Virginia slave code, and the morality of slaveholding, and presents a plan for ending slavery. He wrestles with the tensions between the natural rights philosophy of the American Revolution (1775–1783) and the continued existence of slavery. Tucker's attempt to resolve this tension had little immediate effect—the House of Delegates tabled his proposal and Tucker believed that many of the assembly's members refused even to read it—but it did point to a society that somewhat resembled late nineteenth and early twentieth century Virginia. In his essay, Tucker proposed that enslaved African Americans be freed, but, for various reasons, should not enjoy the full rights and privileges of citizenship. Some historians have since pointed out that this circumstance actually came to pass, if not in precisely the manner that Tucker had prescribed.
Wed, 04 Feb 2015 10:35:56 EST]]>
/Dew_Thomas_R_1802-1846 Tue, 27 Jan 2015 16:41:45 EST <![CDATA[Dew, Thomas R. (1802–1846)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dew_Thomas_R_1802-1846 Thomas R. Dew spent a decade as president of the College of William and Mary (1836–1846), but is also known for his works supporting slavery and opposing protective tariffs. While a professor of political law at William and Mary, Dew achieved national prominence when he attacked the tariff of 1828. He backed free trade, believing export taxes hindered southern planters at the expense of northern manufacturers. He favored state banks over a national bank, fearing that the latter would provide the government with too much power over the economy. His commentary on Virginia's debate to end slavery in 1831–1832 showed him an ardent supporter of the institution, even opposing gradual emancipation because it would deprive the state of its wealth. Dew also argued that denying suffrage to women was appropriate because devotion to family hindered their capacity to understand politics. William and Mary's board named him its president in 1836. During his administration the college became an important wellspring of southern thought as sectional tension heightened. Dew died of bronchitis in 1846.
Tue, 27 Jan 2015 16:41:45 EST]]>
/Monticello Fri, 03 Oct 2014 15:06:46 EST <![CDATA[Monticello]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Monticello On land inherited from his father, Peter Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson established himself as a member of the Virginia planter elite at Monticello, his plantation in Albemarle County. Construction on the house began in 1769 and continued at intervals until 1809. It is a testament to Jefferson's interest in classical architecture and the importance of education in the Early Republic, and a statement about his position in society. The plantation began as a tobacco farm and shifted to wheat and grain cultivation in the 1790s, a decade that saw many changes to the landscape and the built environment of the approximately 105 enslaved people living there. Monticello ceased activity as a working plantation after Jefferson's death in 1826, passed through multiple owners, and was purchased by what is now the Thomas Jefferson Foundation in 1923. Open to the public today, Monticello is both a typical example of a piedmont Virginia plantation in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries and an idiosyncratic architectural essay by a man deeply influenced by the architecture of ancient Rome, Renaissance Italy, and contemporary France. The home has become an American icon, appearing on the reverse of the Jefferson nickel from 1938 to 2003 and from 2006 to the present, and hosting an annual Independence Day celebration and naturalization ceremony since 1963.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 15:06:46 EST]]>
/Aggie_Mary_fl_1728-1731 Thu, 07 Aug 2014 15:02:35 EST <![CDATA[Aggie, Mary (fl. 1728–1731)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Aggie_Mary_fl_1728-1731 Mary Aggie was a slave who became a principal in a court case that changed Virginia's statute law. Although unsuccessful in suing for her freedom in 1728, she demonstrated her belief in Christianity to the satisfaction of the presiding judge, Lieutenant Governor William Gooch. In 1730 she was convicted by the York County court of oyer and terminer of stealing from her owner, which ordinarily would have doomed her to death or severe corporal punishment. In 1731, however, Gooch had her case sent to the General Court, where he hoped she could secure the benefit of clergy, a privilege in English law dating back centuries in which literate persons could escape death or the severest penalties for first convictions on most capital offenses. Before a final verdict could be rendered, on May 6, 1731, Gooch and the governor's Council pardoned Aggie on the condition that she would be sold out of the colony. The General Assembly referred to Aggie's cases in passing a law on July 1, 1732, that allowed virtually all Virginians to plead benefit of clergy except in certain cases, a privilege that continued for another sixty years.
Thu, 07 Aug 2014 15:02:35 EST]]>
/Conway_Moncure_Daniel_1832-1907 Wed, 06 Aug 2014 17:02:36 EST <![CDATA[Conway, Moncure Daniel (1832–1907)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Conway_Moncure_Daniel_1832-1907 Moncure Conway was a Methodist minister, Unitarian minister, abolitionist, free thinker, and prolific writer who the historian John d'Entremont describes as "the most thoroughgoing white male radical produced by the antebellum South." Born into a prominent Virginia slaveholding family, he nevertheless became an outspoken critic of the South's "peculiar institution," anguishing over how to reconcile his background with his antislavery convictions in his younger years. He first openly allied himself with abolitionists in July 1854 in the wake of the capture in Boston, Massachusetts, of fugitive slave Anthony Burns, whom Conway claimed to have known in Virginia. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Conway accompanied thirty-one of his father's slaves, all of whom had escaped to Washington, D.C., on a harrowing train ride to freedom in southwestern Ohio. There he established what came to be known as the Conway Colony; many African Americans continue to live in the area and identify their ancestors as Virginia slaves. In addition, Conway traveled in high literary circles, authoring as many seventy published works, including popular book-length arguments against slavery and important biographies of Nathaniel Hawthorne and Thomas Paine.
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 17:02:36 EST]]>
/Blake_or_the_Huts_of_America_1859-1861 Wed, 06 Aug 2014 16:40:03 EST <![CDATA[Blake; or the Huts of America (1859–1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blake_or_the_Huts_of_America_1859-1861 Blake; or the Huts of America is a novel by Martin R. Delany that was serially published in the Anglo-African Magazine in 1859 and the Weekly Anglo-African in 1861 and 1862 (it was not published in complete book form until 1970). Delany was born free in 1812 in Charles Town, Virginia (later West Virginia). Giving a panoramic view of slave life in the nineteenth century, Delany's novel tells the story of Henry Blake, an escaped slave who travels throughout the southern United States and to Cuba in an effort to plan a large-scale slave insurrection. Written in part as a response to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 and the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), Blake's strong, militant, and revolutionary protagonist offers a counterexample to the seemingly docile Uncle Tom character popularized by Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852). Because the final installments of the novel have been lost, twenty-first-century readers may never know if Blake's planned revolution is successful; still, the novel offers an important nineteenth-century depiction of slavery and a potential way to end it.
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 16:40:03 EST]]>
/Delany_Martin_R_1812-1885 Wed, 06 Aug 2014 16:38:16 EST <![CDATA[Delany, Martin R. (1812–1885)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Delany_Martin_R_1812-1885 Martin R. Delany was an African American abolitionist, writer, editor, doctor, and politician. Born in Charles Town, Virginia (now West Virginia), he was the first black field officer in the United States Army, serving as a major during and after the American Civil War (1861–1865), and was among the first black nationalists. A fiercely independent thinker and wide-ranging writer, he coedited with Frederick Douglass the abolitionist newspaper North Star and later penned a manifesto calling for black emigration from the United States to Central America. He also authored Blake; or, The Huts of America, a serial publication about a fugitive slave who, in the tradition of Nat Turner, organizes insurrection. In his later life, Delany was a judge and an unsuccessful candidate for lieutenant governor of South Carolina. Despite all this, he remains relatively unknown. "His was a magnificent life," W. E. B. Du Bois wrote in 1936, "and yet, how many of us have heard of him?" Historians have tended to pigeonhole Delany's contributions, emphasizing his more radical views (which were celebrated in the 1970s), while giving less attention to the extraordinary complexity of his career.
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 16:38:16 EST]]>
/Lord_Dunmore_s_Proclamation_1775 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:48:57 EST <![CDATA[Lord Dunmore's Proclamation (1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lord_Dunmore_s_Proclamation_1775 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:48:57 EST]]> /Chapter_10_of_Travels_of_Four_Years_and_a_Half_in_the_United_States_of_America_by_John_Davis_1803 Mon, 28 Jul 2014 10:31:19 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 10 of Travels of Four Years and a Half in the United States of America by John Davis (1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_10_of_Travels_of_Four_Years_and_a_Half_in_the_United_States_of_America_by_John_Davis_1803 Mon, 28 Jul 2014 10:31:19 EST]]> /Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Short_Report_of_the_American_Journey_Which_Was_Made_from_the_2nd_of_October_of_Last_Year_to_the_First_of_December_of_this_Current_Year_1702_by_Franz_Louis_Michel_1702 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 11:30:16 EST <![CDATA[Arriving in Virginia; an excerpt from "Short Report of the American Journey, Which Was Made from the 2nd of October of Last Year to the First of December of this Current Year 1702" by Frantz Ludwig Michel (1702)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Short_Report_of_the_American_Journey_Which_Was_Made_from_the_2nd_of_October_of_Last_Year_to_the_First_of_December_of_this_Current_Year_1702_by_Franz_Louis_Michel_1702 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 11:30:16 EST]]> /_An_act_to_repeal_part_of_an_act_directing_the_trial_of_slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_negroes_mulattoes_or_indians_bond_or_free_1788 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:11:28 EST <![CDATA["An act to repeal part of an act, directing the trial of slaves committing capital crimes, and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them, and for the better government of negroes, mulattoes, or indians, bond or free" (1788)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_to_repeal_part_of_an_act_directing_the_trial_of_slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_negroes_mulattoes_or_indians_bond_or_free_1788 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:11:28 EST]]> /Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_August_13_1797 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:09:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from St. George Tucker to Jeremy Belknap (August 13, 1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_August_13_1797 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:09:35 EST]]> /Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_January_24_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:08:01 EST <![CDATA[Letter from St. George Tucker to Jeremy Belknap (January 24, 1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_January_24_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:08:01 EST]]> /Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_June_29_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:06:48 EST <![CDATA[Letter from St. George Tucker to Jeremy Belknap (June 29, 1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_June_29_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:06:48 EST]]> /Letter_from_James_Winthrop_to_Jeremy_Belknap_March_4_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:05:10 EST <![CDATA[Letter from James Winthrop to Jeremy Belknap (March 4, 1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_James_Winthrop_to_Jeremy_Belknap_March_4_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:05:10 EST]]> /Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_November_27_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:02:58 EST <![CDATA[Letter from St. George Tucker to Jeremy Belknap (November 27, 1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_November_27_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:02:58 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_St_George_Tucker_August_28_1797 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:01:26 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to St. George Tucker (August 28, 1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_St_George_Tucker_August_28_1797 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:01:26 EST]]> /_An_act_about_the_casuall_killing_of_slaves_1669 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 09:33:25 EST <![CDATA["An act about the casuall killing of slaves" (1669)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_about_the_casuall_killing_of_slaves_1669 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 09:33:25 EST]]> /Corprew_E_G_ca_1830-1881 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 13:25:50 EST <![CDATA[Corprew, E. G. (ca. 1830–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Corprew_E_G_ca_1830-1881 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 13:25:50 EST]]> /Coles_Edward_1786-1868 Thu, 17 Jul 2014 09:58:08 EST <![CDATA[Coles, Edward (1786–1868)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Coles_Edward_1786-1868 Edward Coles was the second governor of Illinois (1822–1826) and a lifelong opponent of slavery. Born in Albemarle County, he inherited a dozen slaves from his father and, against his family's wishes, decided to free them. But Coles was forced to delay his plans because of financial, moral, and practical difficulties. He served as secretary to U.S. president James Madison (1810–1815), traveling to the Northeast on behalf of the president in 1811 and acting as a special envoy to Russia in 1816. In 1814, Coles exchanged letters with Thomas Jefferson, encouraging the former president to support the gradual emancipation of slaves, but Jefferson refused. In 1817, Coles sold his Rockfish plantation to his brother and moved seventeen of his nineteen slaves west to Illinois, freeing them along the way. As governor of Illinois, he helped defeat a referendum aimed at calling a pro-slavery constitutional convention. He later moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he corresponded with Jefferson's grandson, Thomas Jefferson Randolph, convincing him to oppose slavery in the General Assembly's debate of the issue in 1831. Coles also encouraged Madison to free his slaves in his will, but the former president did not. He married Sally Logan Roberts in 1833 and the couple had three children. Coles died in Philadelphia in 1868.
Thu, 17 Jul 2014 09:58:08 EST]]>
/Fugitive_Slave_Laws Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:09:49 EST <![CDATA[Fugitive Slave Laws]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fugitive_Slave_Laws Fugitive slave laws provided slaveowners and their agents with the legal right to reclaim runaways from other jurisdictions. Those states or jurisdictions were required to deliver the fugitives. As early as 1643, the United Colonies of New England had required the return of runaways, and, after the American Revolution (1775–1783), the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 contained similar protections for slaveowners. The U.S. Constitution included a Fugitive Slave Clause, which was agreed to without dissent at the Constitutional Convention. Following a dispute between Pennsylvania and Virginia, Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, which clarified the processes by which slaveowners could claim their property and was designed to balance the competing interests of free and slave states. In 1823, the law was upheld by Massachusetts in a case regarding a Virginia runaway, and then upheld again by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 expanded the number of federal officials empowered to act in fugitive-slave cases, but by this time, public opinion, at least in antislavery hotbeds such as Boston, Massachusetts, had turned against such laws. Thus a captured Virginia slave named Shadrach Minkins was rescued in 1851 and spirited north to Canada, but in 1854, authorities foiled an attempted rescue of the Virginia runaway slave Anthony Burns. Compromise soon became impossible, and enforcement of the law effectively ended with the onset of the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:09:49 EST]]>
/Brown_John_1800-1859 Sun, 29 Jun 2014 07:20:47 EST <![CDATA[Brown, John (1800–1859)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_John_1800-1859 John Brown was a fervent abolitionist who was accused of massacring pro-slavery settlers in Kansas in 1856 and who, in 1859, led an unsuccessful raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia (in what is now West Virginia), in an attempt to start a slave insurrection. On October 16, 1859, Brown and his men occupied the federal arsenal in the northern Shenandoah Valley and were quickly surrounded by the combined forces of local militias and a detachment of United States marines led by Robert E. Lee and J. E. B. Stuart. After a thirty-six-hour shoot-out, Brown and his surviving men surrendered. At the insistence of Virginia governor Henry Wise, Brown was tried in state, not federal, court. At the end of a gripping trial held in Charles Town, he was found guilty of conspiracy, of inciting servile insurrection, and of treason against the state. He was hanged on December 2, 1859. Brown's raid (and the fact that five of his "soldiers" were African Americans) touched off a frenzy among Southern slave-owners and, in the estimation of many historians, set the nation on an irreversible course toward the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Sun, 29 Jun 2014 07:20:47 EST]]>
/Butler_Benjamin_F_1818-1893 Sat, 28 Jun 2014 17:40:30 EST <![CDATA[Butler, Benjamin F. (1818–1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Butler_Benjamin_F_1818-1893 Benjamin F. Butler was a controversial, self-aggrandizing, and colorful politician who served as a Union general during the American Civil War (1861–1865). A state senator in Massachusetts, Butler was a delegate to the 1860 Democratic National Convention, where he briefly supported Jefferson Davis. Always popular, he was nevertheless dogged by charges of corruption, abuse of power, and, when he accepted a general officer's commission from Abraham Lincoln in 1861, incompetence. Even his appearance inspired commentary. A Union staff officer penned in his diary how Butler cut "an astounding figure on a horse! Short, fat, shapeless; no neck, squinting, and very bald headed, and, above all, that singular, half defiant look." During the Civil War, Butler made substantial contributions to the Union war effort, including a policy that allowed the United States government to skirt the provisions of the Fugitive Slave Law by claiming that escaped slaves were "contraband of war." In this way, he was able to put African American refugees to work on fortifications and helped to pave the way for emancipation. He also served as a military administrator for occupied regions in Virginia and Louisiana—where he was particularly hated—before a lackluster performance as commander of the Army of the James during the Petersburg Campaign (1864–1865). After the war, Butler was elected governor of Massachusetts. He died in 1893.
Sat, 28 Jun 2014 17:40:30 EST]]>
/Daniel_Webster_Recommends_Paul_Jennings_June_23_1851 Fri, 20 Jun 2014 09:05:33 EST <![CDATA[Daniel Webster Recommends Paul Jennings (June 23, 1851)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Webster_Recommends_Paul_Jennings_June_23_1851 Fri, 20 Jun 2014 09:05:33 EST]]> /William_Breedlove_Application_for_Pardon_December_18_1863 Thu, 12 Jun 2014 11:43:04 EST <![CDATA[William Breedlove Application for Pardon (December 18, 1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/William_Breedlove_Application_for_Pardon_December_18_1863 Thu, 12 Jun 2014 11:43:04 EST]]> /Jamestown_Settlement_Early Fri, 30 May 2014 11:27:18 EST <![CDATA[Jamestown Settlement, Early]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jamestown_Settlement_Early The Jamestown settlement, established in 1607, was the seat of England's first permanent colony in North America. After the failure of the Roanoke colonies, investors in the Virginia Company of London were anxious to find profit farther to the north, and in April 1607 three ships of settlers arrived at the Chesapeake Bay. The enterprise, fraught with disease, dissension, and determined Indian resistance, was a miserable failure at first. "The adventurers who ventured their capital lost it," the historian Edmund S. Morgan has written. "Most of the settlers who ventured their lives lost them. And so did most of the Indians who came near them." John Smith mapped out much of the Bay and established (sometimes violent) relations with the Powhatan Indians there. During the winter of 1609–1610, the colony nearly starved. The resupply ship Sea Venture, carrying much of Virginia's new leadership, was thought lost at sea. When it finally arrived in May 1610, fewer than a hundred colonists still survived. Discipline at Jamestown did not match the urgency of the moment until Sir Thomas Dale's arrival in 1611 and his full implementation of the strict Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall. By year's end, Dale had founded an outside settlement at Henrico, near what became Richmond. The introduction of saleable tobacco soon after helped secure the colony's economy, and as political power expanded into the James River Valley, the influence of Jamestown waned.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:27:18 EST]]>
/The_Manumission_of_Lucy_Brooks_and_Her_Children_1862 Tue, 27 May 2014 11:31:01 EST <![CDATA[The Manumission of Lucy Brooks and Her Children (1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Manumission_of_Lucy_Brooks_and_Her_Children_1862 Tue, 27 May 2014 11:31:01 EST]]> /Runaway_Slaves_1642-1643 Mon, 05 May 2014 08:52:52 EST <![CDATA[Runaway Servants (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Runaway_Slaves_1642-1643 Mon, 05 May 2014 08:52:52 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_CIII_of_the_Code_of_1860 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:10:01 EST <![CDATA[Chapter CIII of the Code of Virginia (1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_CIII_of_the_Code_of_1860 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:10:01 EST]]> /Court_Ruling_on_Anthony_Johnson_and_His_Servant_1655 Mon, 10 Mar 2014 11:04:11 EST <![CDATA[Court Ruling on Anthony Johnson and His Servant (1655)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Court_Ruling_on_Anthony_Johnson_and_His_Servant_1655 Mon, 10 Mar 2014 11:04:11 EST]]> /Limber_Jim Sat, 08 Mar 2014 17:21:44 EST <![CDATA[Limber, Jim]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Limber_Jim "Jim Limber" or James Henry Brooks—his legal name and his life dates are uncertain—was a free, mixed-race child in the Confederate capital of Richmond during the American Civil War (1861–1865) who lived for slightly more than a year in the household of Confederate president Jefferson Davis. Contemporary accounts suggest that he enjoyed an intimate relationship with the Davis family, leading some modern observers to make unverified claims that he was "adopted" and effectively became a member of the family. In the beginning of the twenty-first century, the child has become a symbol of the Confederate first family's supposed liberality on racial issues.
Sat, 08 Mar 2014 17:21:44 EST]]>
/Minkins_Shadrach_d_1875 Mon, 03 Mar 2014 17:59:59 EST <![CDATA[Minkins, Shadrach (d. 1875)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Minkins_Shadrach_d_1875 Shadrach Minkins was an enslaved man who escaped from his owner in Norfolk in 1850, was arrested as a fugitive the following year in Boston, Massachusetts, and was rescued there by antislavery activists. Born into slavery, Minkins had various owners before being sold to John DeBree, a career naval officer, in 1849. He worked as a house servant for DeBree until making his escape in May 1850. Originally called Sherwood and then Shadrach, Minkins adopted the name Frederick in Boston, where he waited tables at an upscale restaurant. After passage of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, DeBree sent a slave catcher to Boston, and Minkins was arrested on February 15, 1851. Hundreds of antislavery activists gathered outside the courtroom where Minkins was being held, and a group of about twenty black men eventually broke through the doors and rescued Minkins, spiriting him through the streets of Boston and arranging for his journey to Canada. Minkins's escape became a national cause célèbre, with abolitionists rejoicing and the administration of President Millard Fillmore fuming. After arriving in Montreal, Minkins reverted to the name Shadrach and adopted the last name Minkins. He married an Irish woman, had four children, and ran a barbershop until his death in 1875.
Mon, 03 Mar 2014 17:59:59 EST]]>
/Nickson_John_fl_1687 Wed, 19 Feb 2014 16:54:44 EST <![CDATA[Nickson, John (fl. 1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Nickson_John_fl_1687 Wed, 19 Feb 2014 16:54:44 EST]]> /Thomas_Jefferson_s_Argument_in_Howell_v_Netherland_1770 Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:48:24 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Jefferson's Argument in Howell v. Netherland (1770)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Jefferson_s_Argument_in_Howell_v_Netherland_1770 Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:48:24 EST]]> /Tucker_George_1775-1861 Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, George (1775–1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_George_1775-1861 George Tucker was a lawyer, philosopher, economist, historian, novelist, politician, and teacher. Born in Bermuda and cousin to the famed jurist St. George Tucker, Tucker served in the House of Delegates (1815–1816) representing Pittsylvania County and won election to three terms in the United States House of Representatives (1819–1825) before, at the invitation of Thomas Jefferson, joining the faculty of the newly opened University of Virginia in Charlottesville. Tucker owned slaves but opposed slavery as a moral evil. During debate over the Missouri Compromise (1820), he argued that emancipation was impractical and that slavery would eventually die out. By the end of his life, his opposition to abolitionists had turned him into an apologist for the "peculiar institution." He was the author of a novel of the U.S. South that dramatized the evils of slavery, The Valley of Shenandoah (1824); two science fiction novels, including A Voyage to the Moon (1827); a biography of Jefferson (1837); a four-volume history of the United States (1856–1857); and numerous essays on aesthetics, metaphysics, causality, morality, economics, slavery, and the nature of progress. Tucker was married three times, including to relatives of William Byrd II and George Washington. He died in 1861 from injuries he sustained after being hit by a falling cotton bale.
Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST]]>
/Tiernan_Mary_Spear_1836-1891 Thu, 26 Dec 2013 18:23:16 EST <![CDATA[Tiernan, Mary Spear (1836–1891)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tiernan_Mary_Spear_1836-1891 Mary Spear Tiernan was a novelist, essayist, and occasional poet who wrote primarily about central Virginia before and during the American Civil War (1861–1865). She published three novels, as well as short stories, which appeared in Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Scribner's Magazine, Century Magazine, and the Southern Review, among others. Her fiction vividly depicted wartime Richmond , and her novel Homoselle (1881) was based on a Virginia slave revolt and can be distinguished for Tiernan's remarkable sympathy for African Americans.
Thu, 26 Dec 2013 18:23:16 EST]]>
/Washington_Booker_T_1856-1915 Mon, 23 Dec 2013 14:46:05 EST <![CDATA[Washington, Booker T. (1856–1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_Booker_T_1856-1915 Booker T. Washington was an author, educator, orator, philanthropist, and, from 1895 until his death in 1915, the United States' most famous African American. The tiny school he founded in Tuskegee, Alabama, in 1881 is now Tuskegee University, an institution that currently enrolls more than 3,000 students. The most famous of the several books he authored, coauthored, or edited during his lifetime, Up from Slavery (1901), has become a classic of American autobiography, drawing comparisons not only to earlier slave narratives but also to such texts as The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin.In the eyes of many of his contemporaries, Washington was an exemplary American citizen, "a public man second to no other American in importance," as the novelist William Dean Howells called him in 1901. When Washington became the first African American to receive an honorary degree from Harvard University in 1896, a Boston newspaper ranked him among "our national benefactors." When he became the first to dine at the White House in 1901, he did so at the invitation of U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, who would later call Washington "one of the most useful citizens of our land." Even his foremost critic, the African American writer and intellectual W.E.B. Du Bois, acknowledged Washington's status as both a racial and national leader, referring to him in 1903 as "the one recognized spokesman of his ten million fellows, and one of the most notable figures in a nation of seventy millions." Yet Washington also continues to inspire ambivalent and sometimes hostile reactions for having been an "accommodationist": one who, in order to gain a measure of economic success for African Americans in the former slave states, accepted segregation and refused to speak out loudly in favor of other forms of advancement, namely the pursuit of full legal, political, and social equality.
Mon, 23 Dec 2013 14:46:05 EST]]>
/Narratives_of_Henry_Box_Brown_The Mon, 16 Dec 2013 15:20:36 EST <![CDATA[Narratives of Henry Box Brown, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Narratives_of_Henry_Box_Brown_The The narratives of Henry Box Brown are two similarly titled works of nonfiction: Narrative of Henry Box Brown, published in Boston in 1849, and Narrative of the Life of Henry Box Brown, Written by Himself, published in Manchester, England, in 1851. Both books tell the story of Henry Brown, an enslaved man from Louisa County who escaped to freedom in March 1849 by having himself shipped in a box from Richmond to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Afterward, Brown moved to Boston and added the word Box to his name. He related his story at antislavery gatherings in New England, which is likely how he met the abolitionist Charles Stearns, who wrote and copublished the 1849 Narrative. The proceeds from the sale of that book helped fund a moving panorama called Henry Box Brown's Mirror of Slavery. Brown exhibited the panorama throughout New England until late in 1850, when he relocated to Great Britain to avoid the threat of re-enslavement under the Fugitive Slave Act. There he published the second Narrative in 1851. Although the second Narrative is subtitled "First English Edition," evidence suggests it was mostly written in Boston in 1850. The two books adhere to the same course of events, but diverge considerably in content and tone. The 1851 Narrative was not published in North America until 2002, when the Oxford University Press issued a reprint.
Mon, 16 Dec 2013 15:20:36 EST]]>
/Clark_Matt_ca_1844-after_1892 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:57:16 EST <![CDATA[Clark, Matt (ca. 1844–after 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clark_Matt_ca_1844-after_1892 Matt Clark represented Halifax County in the House of Delegates from 1874 to 1875. Born enslaved, by 1870 he had become a property owner and was literate. Three years later he won election as a Halifax County justice of the peace and as a member of the House of Delegates. Clark seldom spoke on the House floor and introduced only a few resolutions, including one that supported the improvement of living conditions at the Central Lunatic Asylum (later Central State Hospital) in Petersburg. A Republican, he and other African Americans became dissatisfied with the party's white leadership and attended a state convention that established the short-lived Laboring Men's Mechanics' Union Association. Clark did not seek reelection in 1875. His last known appearance in public records came in 1892 in a Halifax County personal property tax list.
Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:57:16 EST]]>
/Cook_Fields_ca_1817-1897 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:26:12 EST <![CDATA[Cook, Fields (ca. 1817–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cook_Fields_ca_1817-1897 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:26:12 EST]]> /Dabney_John_ca_1824-1900 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:22:46 EST <![CDATA[Dabney, John (ca. 1824–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dabney_John_ca_1824-1900 John Dabney was a renowned Richmond-based caterer through much of the nineteenth century. Dabney began acquiring his reputation while enslaved, even serving one of his famed mint juleps to the future Edward VII during the prince's 1860 visit to America. He was in the process of purchasing his own freedom when the American Civil War (1861–1865) and slavery ended. Known for his integrity, he could secure credit from banks, which he and his wife used to purchase several properties and open a restaurant. While outwardly conforming to the expectations of white society, he privately harbored no illusions about his clients' racism. Dabney inwardly experienced the "two-ness" that the sociologist W. E. B. Du Bois described in The Souls of Black Folk (1903), of being "an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings." Exemplifying his popularity, all four of Richmond's daily newspapers reported his death.
Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:22:46 EST]]>
/Editorial_in_the_Waverly_Watchman_March_18_1873 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:40:25 EST <![CDATA[Editorial in the Waverly Watchman (March 18, 1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Editorial_in_the_Waverly_Watchman_March_18_1873 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:40:25 EST]]> /_The_most_promising_work_an_excerpt_from_Exhibition_of_the_Royal_Academy_June_1_1861 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:07:21 EST <![CDATA["The most promising work"; an excerpt from "Exhibition of the Royal Academy" (June 1, 1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_most_promising_work_an_excerpt_from_Exhibition_of_the_Royal_Academy_June_1_1861 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:07:21 EST]]> /Butt_Martha_Haines_1833-1871 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 17:22:49 EST <![CDATA[Butt, Martha Haines (1833–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Butt_Martha_Haines_1833-1871 Martha Haines Butt was a novelist, poet, and essayist who in 1853 became one of five southern women to respond to Harriet Beecher Stowe's antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) with a novel of her own. Antifanaticism: A Tale of the South (1853) defended slavery as moral and Christian, but it never achieved the critical or popular success that Stowe or even the other rebuttals received. A Norfolk native, Butt continued to write, contributing to both regional and national magazines. She championed women's intellectual engagement but criticized efforts on behalf of women's rights, generally affirming the traditional role of women. Late in her life, however, she became involved in the woman suffrage movement and served as vice president of the Virginia State Woman Suffrage Association in 1870. Butt died of pneumonia a year later.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 17:22:49 EST]]>
/_A_strange_dream_this_day_an_excerpt_from_the_diary_of_Landon_Carter_1776A Wed, 14 Aug 2013 14:00:11 EST <![CDATA["A strange dream this day"; an excerpt from the diary of Landon Carter (1776–1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_strange_dream_this_day_an_excerpt_from_the_diary_of_Landon_Carter_1776A Wed, 14 Aug 2013 14:00:11 EST]]> /Letter_from_Eugene_Davis_to_Thomas_H_Key_November_1850 Tue, 06 Aug 2013 09:35:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Eugene Davis to Thomas H. Key (November 1850)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Eugene_Davis_to_Thomas_H_Key_November_1850 Tue, 06 Aug 2013 09:35:44 EST]]> /Brooks_Robert_Peel_1853-1882 Tue, 23 Jul 2013 14:09:58 EST <![CDATA[Brooks, Robert Peel (1853–1882)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brooks_Robert_Peel_1853-1882 Robert Peel Brooks was one of Richmond's first African American lawyers and a Republican Party leader. Born into slavery, he was manumitted in 1862 and graduated from Howard University's law school in 1875. While practicing law in Richmond he also edited the Richmond Virginia Star. Brooks became involved in politics and was elected secretary of the Republican State Central Committee in 1880. Initially siding with the Funders, who advocated full payment of the state's prewar debt, he came to support the Readjusters, who sought adjustment of the debt, because they promoted black political participation. He contracted typhoid fever in 1882 and died not long before his twenty-ninth birthday.
Tue, 23 Jul 2013 14:09:58 EST]]>
/Branch_Tazewell_1828-1925 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 16:29:29 EST <![CDATA[Branch, Tazewell (1828–1925)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Branch_Tazewell_1828-1925 Tazewell Branch was born enslaved in Prince Edward County and later served two terms in the House of Delegates. Learning to read and write, Branch worked as a shoemaker and was known for his intelligence. By 1873 he owned land in Farmville and sat on the town council. That same year he won a seat in the General Assembly. Branch, who was respected by African Americans and whites, won reelection two years later as a member of a coalition that included the moderate factions of Prince Edward County's Republicans and Conservatives. He dropped out of politics after his second term, and his income declined as mass-produced footwear undermined his shoemaking business. His biggest legacy might have come from his children, who became educated and led successful careers in teaching and medicine.
Thu, 18 Jul 2013 16:29:29 EST]]>
/Billy_fl_1770s-1780s Fri, 12 Jul 2013 12:26:46 EST <![CDATA[Billy (fl. 1770s–1780s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Billy_fl_1770s-1780s Billy was an enslaved African American who became a principal in a court case during the American Revolution (1775–1783). In 1781, the Prince William County Court indicted him for waging war against the state from a British armed ship. Despite his testimony that he had been forced to board the vessel against his will and had never taken up arms on behalf of the British, the court convicted Billy of treason and sentenced him to be hanged. Two dissenting judges argued to Governor Thomas Jefferson that a slave, being a noncitizen, could not commit treason. Billy received a gubernatorial reprieve, and the General Assembly pardoned him on June 14, 1781. What happened to him after that is not known. Billy made his mark on history because his trial forced white leaders to confront the logic of slavery. Excluded from the protections conferred by citizenship, he was ultimately shielded from execution because Virginia's law of treason could not logically apply to him.
Fri, 12 Jul 2013 12:26:46 EST]]>
/The_Life_and_Sufferings_of_Leonard_Black_a_Fugitive_from_Slavery_Written_by_Himself_1847 Fri, 12 Jul 2013 09:03:58 EST <![CDATA[The Life and Sufferings of Leonard Black, a Fugitive from Slavery. Written by Himself (1847)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Life_and_Sufferings_of_Leonard_Black_a_Fugitive_from_Slavery_Written_by_Himself_1847 Fri, 12 Jul 2013 09:03:58 EST]]> /Great_Awakening_in_Virginia_The Thu, 11 Jul 2013 14:20:03 EST <![CDATA[Great Awakening in Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Great_Awakening_in_Virginia_The The Great Awakening was the most significant cultural upheaval in colonial America. The term refers to a series of religious revivals that began early in the eighteenth century and led, eventually, to the disestablishment of the Church of England as the official church during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Triggered by the preaching of the Anglican itinerant George Whitefield, the Great Awakening began in New England and the Middle Colonies, where thousands converted to an evangelical faith centered on the experience of the "new birth" of salvation. It also featured intense, emotional scenes of penitential sinners and new converts being filled, as they saw it, with the Holy Spirit, with associated outcries, visions, dreams, and spirit journeys. The Great Awakening's effects in Virginia developed slowly, beginning early in the 1740s. By the 1760s, evangelical Presbyterians and Baptists were making major inroads among Virginians, and challenging the established church in the colony. Perhaps the most notable historical result of the Great Awakening in Virginia was the end of the state's establishment of religion, which was ultimately accomplished through the Act for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786). The cause of religious freedom was championed politically by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, but it depended on the popular support of legions of evangelicals, especially Baptists.
Thu, 11 Jul 2013 14:20:03 EST]]>
/Andros_Sir_Edmund_1637-ca_1714 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:28:06 EST <![CDATA[Andros, Sir Edmund (1637–ca. 1714)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Andros_Sir_Edmund_1637-ca_1714 Sir Edmund Andros served as governor of Virginia from 1692 until 1698. Born in London, Andros enjoyed ties to the family of Charles II, served in the army, was appointed governor of New York by the future James II in 1674 and in 1686 of the Dominion of New England. His stay in New England was unpopular enough that he ended up imprisoned before returning to England. During the Glorious Revolution (1688) he supported William of Orange, who appointed him governor of Virginia with the hopes that he would aid New York during King William's War (1689–1697) and raise the salaries of the Anglican clergy. Andros's efforts were hindered by the war's effect on the tobacco trade; when prices fell, so did the salaries of clergymen, who were paid in the crop. Forced to battle with the clergymen's leader, James Blair, Andros raised salaries some but not enough. In the meantime, he subtly extended royal power in Virginia, tying the colony's laws closer to England's. Just staying in power despite a host of political enemies, Andros left office due to poor health, leaving Virginia in 1699. He served as lieutenant governor of Guernsey before dying in England sometime around 1714.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:28:06 EST]]>
/_Civil_War_veteran_of_Portsmouth_Virginia_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 13:40:51 EST <![CDATA["Civil War veteran of Portsmouth, Virginia" (1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Civil_War_veteran_of_Portsmouth_Virginia_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 13:40:51 EST]]> /_Interview_of_Mrs_Marriah_Hines_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 13:24:22 EST <![CDATA["Interview of Mrs. Marriah Hines" (1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Interview_of_Mrs_Marriah_Hines_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 13:24:22 EST]]> /_Interview_of_Mrs_Minnie_Fulkes_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 13:09:05 EST <![CDATA["Interview of Mrs. Minnie Fulkes" (1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Interview_of_Mrs_Minnie_Fulkes_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 13:09:05 EST]]> /_Interview_of_Mrs_Georgina_Giwbs_ex-slave_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 12:56:48 EST <![CDATA["Interview of Mrs. Georgina Giwbs, ex-slave" (1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Interview_of_Mrs_Georgina_Giwbs_ex-slave_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 12:56:48 EST]]> /_Autobiography_of_Richard_Slaughter_1936 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 12:45:41 EST <![CDATA["Autobiography of Richard Slaughter" (1936)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Autobiography_of_Richard_Slaughter_1936 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 12:45:41 EST]]> /_Interview_of_Mr_Charles_Grandy_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 11:52:36 EST <![CDATA["Interview of Mr. Charles Grandy" (1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Interview_of_Mr_Charles_Grandy_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 11:52:36 EST]]> /_The_story_of_Charles_Crawley_ex_slave_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 11:49:49 EST <![CDATA["The story of Charles Crawley, ex slave" (1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_story_of_Charles_Crawley_ex_slave_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 11:49:49 EST]]> /_The_story_of_Uncle_Moble_Hopson_1936 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 11:40:22 EST <![CDATA["The story of 'Uncle' Moble Hopson" (1936)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_story_of_Uncle_Moble_Hopson_1936 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 11:40:22 EST]]> /_Interview_of_Mrs_Candis_Goodwin Wed, 26 Jun 2013 11:12:43 EST <![CDATA["Interview of Mrs. Candis Goodwin"]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Interview_of_Mrs_Candis_Goodwin Wed, 26 Jun 2013 11:12:43 EST]]> /_Negro_pioneer_teacher_of_Portsmouth_Virginia Wed, 26 Jun 2013 10:44:40 EST <![CDATA["Negro pioneer teacher of Portsmouth, Virginia"]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Negro_pioneer_teacher_of_Portsmouth_Virginia Wed, 26 Jun 2013 10:44:40 EST]]> /_Interview_of_Mrs_Fannie_Berry_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 10:36:14 EST <![CDATA["Interview of Mrs. Fannie Berry" (1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Interview_of_Mrs_Fannie_Berry_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 10:36:14 EST]]> /_Interview_of_Mrs_Della_Harris_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 10:31:07 EST <![CDATA["Interview of Mrs. Della Harris" (1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Interview_of_Mrs_Della_Harris_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 10:31:07 EST]]> /_Autobiography_of_Elizabeth_Sparks_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 10:25:48 EST <![CDATA["Autobiography of Elizabeth Sparks" (1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Autobiography_of_Elizabeth_Sparks_1937 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 10:25:48 EST]]> /_Folklore_material_from_Upper_Guinea_1938 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 10:12:14 EST <![CDATA["Folklore material from Upper Guinea" (1938)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Folklore_material_from_Upper_Guinea_1938 Wed, 26 Jun 2013 10:12:14 EST]]> /Blake_or_The_Huts_of_America_1859 Wed, 19 Jun 2013 15:43:05 EST <![CDATA["Blake; or, The Huts of America" (1859)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blake_or_The_Huts_of_America_1859 Wed, 19 Jun 2013 15:43:05 EST]]> /Negro_in_Virginia_The_1940 Thu, 13 Jun 2013 16:53:17 EST <![CDATA[Negro in Virginia, The (1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Negro_in_Virginia_The_1940 The Negro in Virginia, published in 1940, traces the political, economic, and social history of African Americans in Virginia from the arrival of the first Africans in 1619 through the American Revolution (1775–1783), the American Civil War (1861–1865), Reconstruction (1865–1877), and the rise of Jim Crow laws in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. One of a planned series of "racial studies" undertaken by the Works Progress Administration's Federal Writers' Project (FWP), the book was completed by the Virginia Writers' Project (VWP). Specifically, it was researched and written under the auspices of the VWP's Negro Studies Project and was published by the VWP. Relying on interviews with more than 300 former slaves, along with a wide-ranging review of the relevant literature and laborious primary research in courthouses and archives across the state, the book's twenty-nine chapters constitute a singular achievement for its time: an attempt to tell what its editor, Professor Roscoe E. Lewis of Hampton Institute, called the "story of the Negro" from an African American point of view.
Thu, 13 Jun 2013 16:53:17 EST]]>
/_Life_of_Isaac_Jefferson_of_Petersburg_Virginia_Blacksmith_by_Isaac_Jefferson_1847 Fri, 03 May 2013 09:49:59 EST <![CDATA["Life of Isaac Jefferson of Petersburg, Virginia, Blacksmith" by Isaac Jefferson (1847)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Life_of_Isaac_Jefferson_of_Petersburg_Virginia_Blacksmith_by_Isaac_Jefferson_1847 Fri, 03 May 2013 09:49:59 EST]]> /Chapter_15_Thirty_and_Nine_an_excerpt_from_The_Negro_in_Virginia_1969 Thu, 11 Apr 2013 15:41:30 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 15: "Thirty and Nine"; an excerpt from The Negro in Virginia (1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_15_Thirty_and_Nine_an_excerpt_from_The_Negro_in_Virginia_1969 Thu, 11 Apr 2013 15:41:30 EST]]> /_Henrietta_King_an_excerpt_from_Weevils_in_the_Wheat_1976 Thu, 11 Apr 2013 15:38:58 EST <![CDATA["Henrietta King"; an excerpt from Weevils in the Wheat (1976)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Henrietta_King_an_excerpt_from_Weevils_in_the_Wheat_1976 Thu, 11 Apr 2013 15:38:58 EST]]> /Query_XVIII_an_excerpt_from_Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1784 Thu, 11 Apr 2013 09:58:57 EST <![CDATA[Query XVIII; an excerpt from Notes on the State of Virginia by Thomas Jefferson (1784)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Query_XVIII_an_excerpt_from_Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1784 Thu, 11 Apr 2013 09:58:57 EST]]> /_Sketches_in_the_Free_and_Slave_States_of_America_by_Eyre_Crowe_September_27_1856 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 10:44:45 EST <![CDATA["Sketches in the Free and Slave States of America" by Eyre Crowe (September 27, 1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Sketches_in_the_Free_and_Slave_States_of_America_by_Eyre_Crowe_September_27_1856 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 10:44:45 EST]]> /Chapter_IV_an_excerpt_from_With_Thackeray_in_America_by_Eyre_Crowe_1893 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 10:25:48 EST <![CDATA[Chapter IV; an excerpt from With Thackeray in America by Eyre Crowe (1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_IV_an_excerpt_from_With_Thackeray_in_America_by_Eyre_Crowe_1893 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 10:25:48 EST]]> /_Sambo_and_the_Ass_by_Basil_L_Gildersleeve_April_5_1864 Wed, 27 Feb 2013 10:25:48 EST <![CDATA["Sambo and the Ass" by Basil L. Gildersleeve (April 5, 1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Sambo_and_the_Ass_by_Basil_L_Gildersleeve_April_5_1864 Wed, 27 Feb 2013 10:25:48 EST]]> /_Miscegenation_by_Basil_L_Gildersleeve_April_18_1864 Wed, 27 Feb 2013 10:12:03 EST <![CDATA["Miscegenation" by Basil L. Gildersleeve (April 18, 1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Miscegenation_by_Basil_L_Gildersleeve_April_18_1864 Wed, 27 Feb 2013 10:12:03 EST]]> /Dorm_Life_an_excerpt_fromHistory_of_the_University_of_Virginia_1819-1919by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1920-1922 Wed, 27 Feb 2013 09:56:27 EST <![CDATA[Dorm Life; an excerpt fromHistory of the University of Virginia, 1819–1919by Philip Alexander Bruce (1920–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dorm_Life_an_excerpt_fromHistory_of_the_University_of_Virginia_1819-1919by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1920-1922 Wed, 27 Feb 2013 09:56:27 EST]]> /Runaway_Slaves_and_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:53:29 EST <![CDATA[Runaway Slaves and Servants in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Runaway_Slaves_and_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Runaway slaves and indentured servants were a persistent problem for landowners in colonial Virginia. They fled from abusive masters, to take a break from work, or in search of family members from whom they had been separated. Some servants were lured away by neighbors attempting to steal labor. Early court cases reveal that whites and blacks sometimes ran off together but that punishments for the latter could be much harsher. As early as 1643, the General Assembly passed laws that established penalties for runaway slaves and servants, regulated their movement, identified multiple offenders (by branding them or cutting their hair), and provided rewards for their capture. In October 1669, the burgesses admitted that these laws "have hitherto in greate parte proved ineffectuall," as slaves and servants continued to brave wide rivers, often dangerous Indians, and the storm-tossed Chesapeake Bay. They fled mostly into Maryland but sometimes as far north as New Netherland and New England. In 1705 a sweeping new law allowed planters to discipline slaves to death or, in some cases, to kill runaways without penalty. Robert "King" Carter sought and received permission to dismember his runaways. Beginning in 1736, landowners advertised in the Virginia Gazette for their runaways; they describe more than 3,500 fugitives from 1736 until 1783. These advertisements affirmed a lingering desire for freedom on the part of slaves.
Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:53:29 EST]]>
/Slave_Ships_and_the_Middle_Passage Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:48:55 EST <![CDATA[Slave Ships and the Middle Passage]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Ships_and_the_Middle_Passage The slave ship was the means by which nearly 12.5 million enslaved Africans were transported from Africa to the Americas between 1500 and 1866. Leaving from its home port in Europe, a typical ship made its first passage to the west coast of Africa, trading goods for a full cargo of slaves—people who had been captured in war, convicted of petty crimes, or simply kidnapped. On the second, or "middle," passage, the captain sailed his cargo across the Atlantic Ocean to one or more ports in the New World, where he sold his slaves and purchased or loaded goods such as sugar, rum, and molasses. On the final passage, he returned home. The Portuguese dominated the early slave trade, but at its height, in the eighteenth century, British and American merchants helped bring millions of Africans to the Americas, a very small percentage of whom ended up in Virginia. About 15 percent of all Africans who made the voyage died, most from the accumulation of brutal treatment and inadequate care from the time of their enslavement in the interior of Africa. Others suffocated in the tightly packed holds, while some committed suicide, refused to eat, or revolted. Crew members, meanwhile, died at even higher rates, also mostly from disease. The victims of violence meted out by their officers, sailors in turn dispensed their own brand of terror to the Africans. For Africans who survived, the Middle Passage began with the separation from family and community and ended with a lifetime of enslavement.
Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:48:55 EST]]>
/Gloucester_County_Conspiracy_1663 Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:12:53 EST <![CDATA[Gloucester County Conspiracy (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gloucester_County_Conspiracy_1663 The Gloucester County Conspiracy, also known as the Servants' Plot or Birkenhead's Rebellion, was a plan by indentured servants to rise up against authorities in Gloucester County in 1663. Nine men—John Gunter, William Bell, Richard Darbishire, John Hayte, Thomas Jones, William Ball, William Poultney, William Bendell, and Thomas Collins—met in the woods and planned an operation whereby they would collect arms and ammunition and, with perhaps as many as thirty recruits, later march on the governor's mansion at Green Spring. There they would demand that Sir William Berkeley release them from their indentures. A servant named Birkenhead betrayed them, however, and a number were arrested and four hanged. After rewarding Birkenhead with his freedom and 5,000 pounds of tobacco, the General Assembly declared that the day of their planned insurrection be celebrated annually.
Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:12:53 EST]]>
/Known_World_The_2003 Tue, 15 Jan 2013 16:10:28 EST <![CDATA[Known World, The (2003)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Known_World_The_2003 The Known World (2003) is a novel by Edward P. Jones that centers on Henry Townsend, a free black slaveholder living in antebellum Virginia. Winner of the National Book Critics Circle Award for fiction in 2003 and the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 2004, the novel was lavishly praised by critics, with Kirkus Reviews calling it "a harrowing tale that scarcely ever raises its voice." The New York Times noted how racial lines in the book "are intriguingly tangled and not easily drawn." In addition, The Known World has been compared favorably with classic American novels about slavery such as Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), William Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom! (1936), and Toni Morrison's Beloved (1987). Jones's book is distinctive, however, for its focus on the historical reality of black slaveholders before the American Civil War (1861–1865). Although the author, who received a master of fine arts degree in creative writing from the University of Virginia in Charlottesville in 1981, has downplayed the role of his research, the reality of Henry Townsend adheres to the historical record. According to scholarship done in the 1920s by Carter G. Woodson, 12 percent of all free black heads of families in Virginia in 1830 owned slaves.
Tue, 15 Jan 2013 16:10:28 EST]]>
/General_Court_Responds_to_Runaway_Servants_and_Slaves_1640 Mon, 14 Jan 2013 16:21:46 EST <![CDATA[General Court Responds to Runaway Servants and Slaves (1640)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/General_Court_Responds_to_Runaway_Servants_and_Slaves_1640 Mon, 14 Jan 2013 16:21:46 EST]]> /_A_Report_of_a_Comittee_from_an_Assembly_Concerning_the_freedome_of_Elizabeth_Key_1656 Fri, 11 Jan 2013 09:34:02 EST <![CDATA["A Report of a Comittee from an Assembly Concerning the freedome of Elizabeth Key" (1656)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Report_of_a_Comittee_from_an_Assembly_Concerning_the_freedome_of_Elizabeth_Key_1656 Fri, 11 Jan 2013 09:34:02 EST]]> /_Description_of_the_Slave_Ship_Brookes_chapter_6_of_Liverpool_and_Slavery_by_a_Genuine_Dicky_Sam_1884 Thu, 10 Jan 2013 13:21:25 EST <![CDATA["Description of the Slave Ship 'Brookes'"; chapter 6 of Liverpool and Slavery by "a Genuine 'Dicky Sam'" (1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Description_of_the_Slave_Ship_Brookes_chapter_6_of_Liverpool_and_Slavery_by_a_Genuine_Dicky_Sam_1884 Thu, 10 Jan 2013 13:21:25 EST]]> /The_Ship_Thomas_chapter_7_of_Liverpool_and_Slavery_by_a_Genuine_Dicky_Sam_1884 Fri, 21 Dec 2012 12:20:49 EST <![CDATA[The Ship "Thomas"; chapter 7 of Liverpool and Slavery by "a Genuine 'Dicky Sam'" (1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Ship_Thomas_chapter_7_of_Liverpool_and_Slavery_by_a_Genuine_Dicky_Sam_1884 Fri, 21 Dec 2012 12:20:49 EST]]> /_Preface_an_excerpt_from_Antifanaticism_A_Tale_of_the_South_by_Martha_Haines_Butt_1853 Wed, 19 Dec 2012 15:17:09 EST <![CDATA["Preface"; an excerpt from Antifanaticism: A Tale of the South by Martha Haines Butt (1853)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Preface_an_excerpt_from_Antifanaticism_A_Tale_of_the_South_by_Martha_Haines_Butt_1853 Wed, 19 Dec 2012 15:17:09 EST]]> /Letter_from_Edward_Coles_to_Thomas_Jefferson_September_26_1814 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 14:49:46 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Edward Coles to Thomas Jefferson (September 26, 1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Edward_Coles_to_Thomas_Jefferson_September_26_1814 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 14:49:46 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Edward_Coles_August_25_1814 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 14:31:24 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Edward Coles (August 25, 1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Edward_Coles_August_25_1814 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 14:31:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_James_Monroe_to_Thomas_Jefferson_September_15_1800 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 13:30:36 EST <![CDATA[Letter from James Monroe to Thomas Jefferson (September 15, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_James_Monroe_to_Thomas_Jefferson_September_15_1800 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 13:30:36 EST]]> /Colonial_Williamsburg Thu, 06 Dec 2012 01:41:45 EST <![CDATA[Colonial Williamsburg]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colonial_Williamsburg Colonial Williamsburg is the restored and reconstructed historic area of Williamsburg, Virginia, a small city between the York and James rivers that was founded in 1632, designated capital of the English colony in 1698, and bestowed with a royal charter in 1722. It was a center of political activity before and during the American Revolution (1775–1783)—where George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Patrick Henry debated taxes, slavery, and the inalienable rights of men—and has since become the site of an ambitious restoration project launched in the 1930s and funded largely by the family of John D. Rockefeller Jr. With many of its historic structures rebuilt and with "interpreters" reenacting eighteenth-century life, Colonial Williamsburg has become a landmark in the history of the American preservation movement. More than that, though, the project serves as a self-conscious shrine of American ideals. The history and legacy of slavery, once downplayed at Williamsburg, is now dealt with openly—interpreters are both white and African American—but the focus remains on what the site's originators called "healthful" information about democracy, freedom, and representative government.
Thu, 06 Dec 2012 01:41:45 EST]]>
/_Mr_Jefferson_s_Servants_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:21:20 EST <![CDATA["Mr. Jefferson's Servants"; an excerpt from The Private Life of Thomas Jefferson by Hamilton W. Pierson (1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mr_Jefferson_s_Servants_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:21:20 EST]]> /Letter_from_Ellen_Wayles_Randolph_Coolidge_to_Joseph_Coolidge_October_24_1858 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:49:05 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge to Joseph Coolidge (October 24, 1858)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Ellen_Wayles_Randolph_Coolidge_to_Joseph_Coolidge_October_24_1858 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:49:05 EST]]> /Letter_from_Abigail_Adams_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_27_1787 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:36:01 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Abigail Adams to Thomas Jefferson (June 27, 1787)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Abigail_Adams_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_27_1787 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:36:01 EST]]> /Letter_from_Abigail_Adams_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_26_1787 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:34:21 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Abigail Adams to Thomas Jefferson (June 26, 1787)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Abigail_Adams_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_26_1787 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:34:21 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Nicholas_Lewis_April_12_1792 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:28:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Nicholas Lewis (April 12, 1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Nicholas_Lewis_April_12_1792 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:28:35 EST]]> /Lewis_Miller_s_Virginia_Slavery_Drawings Thu, 15 Nov 2012 17:29:17 EST <![CDATA[Lewis Miller's Virginia Slavery Drawings]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_Miller_s_Virginia_Slavery_Drawings Many of Lewis Miller's watercolor sketches depict enslaved people in Virginia. Historians have drawn heavily on these to inform their interpretations of bondage as practiced in the state during the years leading up to the American Civil War (1861–1865). Miller, who lived from 1796 until 1882, was a Pennsylvania native who worked as a carpenter and often visited his brother in Virginia. His watercolors and the texts that accompany them are rare, because few artists of his time bothered to depict or write about slaves. His pictures are also valued for their relative emotional detachment and credibility, for Miller fancied himself a recorder, not an agitator, activist, or commentator. He avoided shading his subjects with personal opinion in lieu of drawing and writing what he saw and heard. Yet no reportage is strictly neutral, and he was not immune to wishful thinking, stereotyping, and sentimentalizing. For these reasons, his pictures and texts are best understood within the context of his time, biography, personality, and artistic style. While it is usually impossible to say whether specific subjects were enslaved or free people, the specific contexts of Miller's sketches, combined with what historians know about Virginia's population and its large-scale agrarian economy in the antebellum period (1820–1860), suggest that most of the African American people depicted by Miller were, in fact, enslaved.
Thu, 15 Nov 2012 17:29:17 EST]]>
/_Our_massa_Jefferson_he_say_by_Anonymous_September_1_1802 Fri, 09 Nov 2012 11:39:50 EST <![CDATA["Our massa Jefferson he say" by Anonymous (September 1, 1802)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Our_massa_Jefferson_he_say_by_Anonymous_September_1_1802 Fri, 09 Nov 2012 11:39:50 EST]]> /Hemings-Jefferson_DNA_an_excerpt_from_Jefferson_Fathered_Slave_s_Last_Child_by_Eugene_A_Foster_et_al_November_5_1998 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 15:03:58 EST <![CDATA[Hemings-Jefferson DNA; an excerpt from "Jefferson Fathered Slave's Last Child" by Eugene A. Foster, et al. (November 5, 1998)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hemings-Jefferson_DNA_an_excerpt_from_Jefferson_Fathered_Slave_s_Last_Child_by_Eugene_A_Foster_et_al_November_5_1998 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 15:03:58 EST]]> /_Life_Among_the_Lowly_No_3_by_Israel_Jefferson_December_25_1873 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 10:23:17 EST <![CDATA["Life Among the Lowly, No. 3" by Israel Jefferson (December 25, 1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Life_Among_the_Lowly_No_3_by_Israel_Jefferson_December_25_1873 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 10:23:17 EST]]> /_Life_Among_the_Lowly_No_1_by_Madison_Hemings_March_13_1873 Thu, 01 Nov 2012 15:27:44 EST <![CDATA["Life Among the Lowly, No. 1" by Madison Hemings (March 13, 1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Life_Among_the_Lowly_No_1_by_Madison_Hemings_March_13_1873 Thu, 01 Nov 2012 15:27:44 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_Randolph_to_the_Pike_County_Republican_ca_1874 Mon, 22 Oct 2012 14:58:34 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson Randolph to the Pike County Republican (ca. 1874)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_Randolph_to_the_Pike_County_Republican_ca_1874 Mon, 22 Oct 2012 14:58:34 EST]]> /Testimony_in_the_Trial_of_Gabriel_October_6_1800 Wed, 03 Oct 2012 11:57:26 EST <![CDATA[Testimony in the Trial of Gabriel (October 6, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_in_the_Trial_of_Gabriel_October_6_1800 Wed, 03 Oct 2012 11:57:26 EST]]> /_To_the_New_York_Committee_for_the_Celebration_of_the_Birthday_of_Washington_by_Daniel_Webster_February_20_1851 Wed, 03 Oct 2012 09:21:25 EST <![CDATA["To the New York Committee for the Celebration of the Birthday of Washington" by Daniel Webster (February 20, 1851)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_To_the_New_York_Committee_for_the_Celebration_of_the_Birthday_of_Washington_by_Daniel_Webster_February_20_1851 Wed, 03 Oct 2012 09:21:25 EST]]> /_A_Proclamation_by_the_President_of_the_United_States_February_18_1851 Tue, 28 Aug 2012 13:09:50 EST <![CDATA["A Proclamation by the President of the United States" (February 18, 1851)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Proclamation_by_the_President_of_the_United_States_February_18_1851 Tue, 28 Aug 2012 13:09:50 EST]]> /Letter_from_A_Private_Citizen_to_James_Monroe_December_10-11_1800 Fri, 24 Aug 2012 10:38:32 EST <![CDATA[Letter from "A Private Citizen" to James Monroe (December 10–11, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_A_Private_Citizen_to_James_Monroe_December_10-11_1800 In this letter to James Monroe, dated December 10, 1800, and printed in the Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser the next day, "A Private Citizen" praises the governor's handling of Gabriel's Conspiracy. The writer goes on to claim that the potential for violence remains and that Virginia must address the problem, arguing against a gradual emancipation plan presented by St. George Tucker and instead providing his own blueprint for long-term white supremacy. Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 24 Aug 2012 10:38:32 EST]]>
/_Uncle_Gabriel Thu, 23 Aug 2012 11:38:29 EST <![CDATA["Uncle Gabriel"]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Uncle_Gabriel Thu, 23 Aug 2012 11:38:29 EST]]> /The_General_Assembly_Convenes_1619 Wed, 08 Aug 2012 12:47:35 EST <![CDATA[The General Assembly Convenes (1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_General_Assembly_Convenes_1619 In this excerpt from the Journals of the House of Burgesses, the assembly's's first meeting on July 30, 1619, is described, with Governor Sir George Yeardley, the governor's Council, and the burgesses meeting in unicameral session in the church at Jamestown. After the Reverend Richard Bucke said a prayer to open the session, the assembly ruled on two of its new members' standing. Some spelling has been updated and contractions expanded.
Wed, 08 Aug 2012 12:47:35 EST]]>
/John_Nickson_Runs_Away_1687 Fri, 03 Aug 2012 09:31:03 EST <![CDATA[John Nickson Runs Away (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_Nickson_Runs_Away_1687 Fri, 03 Aug 2012 09:31:03 EST]]> /_Act_directing_the_trial_of_Slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_Negros_Mulattos_and_Indians_bond_or_free_1723 Wed, 01 Aug 2012 12:54:19 EST <![CDATA["An Act directing the trial of Slaves, committing capital crimes; and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them; and for the better government of Negros, Mulattos, and Indians, bond or free" ]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Act_directing_the_trial_of_Slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_Negros_Mulattos_and_Indians_bond_or_free_1723 In "An Act directing the trial of Slaves, committing capital crimes; and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them; and for the better government of Negros, Mulattos, and Indians, bond or free," passed by the General Assembly in the session of May 1723, Virginia's colonial government establishes laws with regards to the punishment of slaves and the overall government of slaves, free blacks, and Indians.
Wed, 01 Aug 2012 12:54:19 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Edward_Coles_to_Thomas_Jefferson_July_31_1814 Wed, 01 Aug 2012 09:14:12 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Edward Coles to Thomas Jefferson (July 31, 1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Edward_Coles_to_Thomas_Jefferson_July_31_1814 Wed, 01 Aug 2012 09:14:12 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_amend_the_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:36:47 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to amend the act intituled, 'An act to reduce into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes'" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_amend_the_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:36:47 EST]]> /_An_ACT_concerning_patroles_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:32:11 EST <![CDATA["An ACT concerning patroles" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_concerning_patroles_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:32:11 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_establish_a_guard_in_the_city_of_Richmond_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:26:52 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to establish a guard in the city of Richmond" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_establish_a_guard_in_the_city_of_Richmond_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:26:52 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_empower_the_governor_to_transport_slaves_condemned_when_it_shall_be_deemed_expedient_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:20:42 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to empower the governor to transport slaves condemned, when it shall be deemed expedient" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_empower_the_governor_to_transport_slaves_condemned_when_it_shall_be_deemed_expedient_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:20:42 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_arm_the_militia_of_certain_towns_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:16:26 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to arm the militia of certain towns" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_arm_the_militia_of_certain_towns_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:16:26 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_purchase_Pharoah_and_Tom_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:11:20 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to purchase Pharoah and Tom" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_purchase_Pharoah_and_Tom_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:11:20 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_amend_the_several_laws_concerning_slaves_1806 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 12:38:21 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to amend the several laws concerning slaves" (1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_amend_the_several_laws_concerning_slaves_1806 The following legislation, "An ACT to amend the several laws concerning slaves," was passed by the General Assembly on January 25, 1806, and prohibits the importation of slaves to Virginia and requires that any freed slaves leave the state within twelve months.
Tue, 31 Jul 2012 12:38:21 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Mosby_Sheppard_to_James_Monroe_August_30_1800 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 15:59:08 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Mosby Sheppard to James Monroe (August 30, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Mosby_Sheppard_to_James_Monroe_August_30_1800 In this letter to James Monroe, Mosby Sheppard warns the governor of a planned insurrection that came to be known as Gabriel's Conspiracy. Two enslaved men owned by the Mosby family, Pharoah and Tom, had betrayed the conspiracy to Sheppard earlier in the day.
Tue, 17 Jul 2012 15:59:08 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_James_Monroe_September_20_1800 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 15:53:51 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to James Monroe (September 20, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_James_Monroe_September_20_1800 In this letter to Governor James Monroe, Thomas Jefferson offers his advice on how best to punish those slaves arrested in connection with Gabriel's Conspiracy.
Tue, 17 Jul 2012 15:53:51 EST]]>
/_An_act_concerning_Servants_and_Slaves_1705 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 10:28:39 EST <![CDATA["An act concerning Servants and Slaves" (1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_concerning_Servants_and_Slaves_1705 In "An act concerning Servants and Slaves," passed by the General Assembly in the session of October 1705, Virginia's colonial government collects old and establishes new laws with regards to indentured servants and slaves.
Tue, 17 Jul 2012 10:28:39 EST]]>
/_Gabriel_s_Defeat_September_17_1831 Mon, 16 Jul 2012 15:38:39 EST <![CDATA["Gabriel's Defeat" (September 17, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Gabriel_s_Defeat_September_17_1831 In "Gabriel's Defeat," published on September 17, 1831, the editors of the Liberator reprint a romanticized and inaccurate account of Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800) that first appeared in the Albany Evening Journal. The context of its publication was the more recent, more successful uprising led by Nat Turner in Southampton County earlier in the year.
Mon, 16 Jul 2012 15:38:39 EST]]>
/_Gabriel_s_Defeat_October_21_1831 Mon, 16 Jul 2012 14:49:02 EST <![CDATA["Gabriel's Defeat" (October 21, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Gabriel_s_Defeat_October_21_1831 In "Gabriel's Defeat," published on October 21, 1831, the editors of the Richmond Enquirer seek to correct the facts in an article of the same name published in the Albany Evening Journal. The subject is Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800), although the context was the more recent, more successful uprising led by Nat Turner in Southampton County earlier in the year.
Mon, 16 Jul 2012 14:49:02 EST]]>
/_Gabriel_s_Defeat_by_Thomas_Wentworth_Higginson_September_1862 Mon, 16 Jul 2012 14:39:30 EST <![CDATA["Gabriel's Defeat" by Thomas Wentworth Higginson (September 1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Gabriel_s_Defeat_by_Thomas_Wentworth_Higginson_September_1862 In "Gabriel's Defeat," published in the Atlantic Monthly in September 1862, the abolitionist minister Thomas Wentworth Higginson relates a history of Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800) drawn mostly from newspaper accounts. Writing in the midst of the American Civil War (1861–1865), he places the planned insurrection in the context of Nat Turner's Rebellion (1831) and John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry (1859).
Mon, 16 Jul 2012 14:39:30 EST]]>
/_20_and_odd_Negroes_an_excerpt_from_a_letter_from_John_Rolfe_to_Sir_Edwin_Sandys_1619_1620 Thu, 12 Jul 2012 14:19:22 EST <![CDATA["Twenty and odd Negroes"; an excerpt from a letter from John Rolfe to Sir Edwin Sandys (1619/1620)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_20_and_odd_Negroes_an_excerpt_from_a_letter_from_John_Rolfe_to_Sir_Edwin_Sandys_1619_1620 In this excerpt from a letter to Sir Edwin Sandys, treasurer of the Virginia Company of London, the Jamestown colonist John Rolfe describes events in the Virginia colony. These include the first meeting of the General Assembly, a murder trial, and a controversy involving the Indian-language interpreter Captain Henry Spelman. He also notes the arrival of "20. and odd Negroes," the first Africans in Virginia. In greater detail he recounts a visit to Jamestown by a Patawomeck elder Iopassus (Japazaws), who in 1613 had been responsible for delivering Rolfe's since-deceased wife Pocahontas into the hands of Captain Samuel Argall. Now Iopassus appeared to be engaging in diplomacy independent of Powhatan, Opechancanough, and the Indians of Tsenacomoco. The letter is dated "January 1619/1620," the two years reflecting both the Old (Julian) Calendar and the New (Gregorian) Calendar. Some spelling has been updated and contractions expanded.
Thu, 12 Jul 2012 14:19:22 EST]]>
/Twenty-Slave_Law Thu, 31 May 2012 16:37:11 EST <![CDATA[Twenty-Slave Law]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Twenty-Slave_Law The Twenty-Slave Law, passed by the Confederate Congress on October 11, 1862, during the American Civil War (1861–1865), created an exemption to military conscription for the owners of twenty or more slaves. The law was controversial in much of the South, where it served to exacerbate certain social rifts and led to claims by drafted soldiers that they were fighting a "rich man's war." The law did not generate as much opposition in Virginia, home to the Confederacy's largest population of slaves. Supporters viewed the law as essential in guarding against slave rebellion and in maintaining agriculture and industry and, therefore, the nation's ability to carry on the war effort. The Confederate Congress later amended the law to alleviate concerns, limiting the ability of plantation owners to evade military service.
Thu, 31 May 2012 16:37:11 EST]]>
/Letter_from_John_Pory_to_Sir_Dudley_Carleton_1619 Fri, 18 May 2012 16:51:13 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Pory to Sir Dudley Carleton (1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Pory_to_Sir_Dudley_Carleton_1619 In this letter to the English aristocrat Sir Dudley Carleton, John Pory describes events in the Virginia colony, including the arrival of two ships containing the colony's first Africans and the introduction of a saleable grade of tobacco. Some spelling has been updated.
Fri, 18 May 2012 16:51:13 EST]]>
/Parishes_and_Tithes_1643 Thu, 17 May 2012 13:26:28 EST <![CDATA[Parishes and Tithes (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Parishes_and_Tithes_1643 In its March 1643 session, the General Assembly repealed all former laws and passes a series of new laws that helped to clarify the intentions of its previous legislation. In this first act, the assembly explains the powers and obligations of the parish vestry and dictates taxes to be paid and the people—including enslaved African women—considered tithable, or eligible to be taxed. Some spelling has been modernized.
Thu, 17 May 2012 13:26:28 EST]]>
/_Of_Servants_and_Slaves_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 Tue, 15 May 2012 15:54:18 EST <![CDATA["Of Servants and Slaves in Virginia"; an excerpt from The History of Virginia by Robert Beverley (1722)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Of_Servants_and_Slaves_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 This excerpt from The History of Virginia by Robert Beverley Jr. encompasses all of Book Four, Chapter 10, in which the author describes the institutions of slavery and indentured servitude in Virginia. He defends the institutions from naysayers, paying special attention to the legal rights of servants. (He does not mention any such rights for slaves.) Beverley's History and Present State of Virginia was first published in 1705, but written earlier, before the institution of Virginia's slave code. This excerpt comes from Beverley's second, revised edition, published in 1722.
Tue, 15 May 2012 15:54:18 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_keeping_holy_the_13th_of_September_1663 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:41:44 EST <![CDATA["An act for keeping holy the 13th of September" (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_keeping_holy_the_13th_of_September_1663 In "An act for keeping holy the 13th of September," the General Assembly declares an annual holiday after a foiled attempt by servants in Gloucester County to rebel.
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:41:44 EST]]>
/_Their_devilish_plot_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 Mon, 14 May 2012 10:21:34 EST <![CDATA["Their devilish plot"; an excerpt from The History of Virginia by Robert Beverley (1722)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Their_devilish_plot_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 In this excerpt from The History of Virginia (1722)—an expansion of The History and Present State of Virginia (1705)—Robert Beverley Jr. describes the Gloucester County Conspiracy (1663), also known as the Servants' Plot and Birkenhead's Rebellion, in which a group of indentured servants planned a revolt in Gloucester County.
Mon, 14 May 2012 10:21:34 EST]]>
/Testimony_about_the_Gloucester_County_Conspiracy_1663 Mon, 14 May 2012 08:24:49 EST <![CDATA[Testimony about the Gloucester County Conspiracy (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_about_the_Gloucester_County_Conspiracy_1663 In these depositions, several indentured servants, captured in an attempt to rebel in Gloucester County, explain what their plan was and how it should have been executed. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 08:24:49 EST]]>
/Letter_the_Third_an_excerpt_from_Observations_on_a_Guinea_voyage_In_a_series_of_letters_addressed_to_the_Rev_Thomas_Clarkson_by_James_Field_Stanfield_1788 Mon, 23 Apr 2012 08:34:54 EST <![CDATA[Letter the Third; an excerpt from Observations on a Guinea voyage. In a series of letters addressed to the Rev. Thomas Clarkson by James Field Stanfield (1788)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_the_Third_an_excerpt_from_Observations_on_a_Guinea_voyage_In_a_series_of_letters_addressed_to_the_Rev_Thomas_Clarkson_by_James_Field_Stanfield_1788 In this excerpt from Observations on a Guinea voyage. In a series of letters addressed to the Rev. Thomas Clarkson (1788), published in London by the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade, the former slave-ship sailor James Field Stanfield explains why the trade was so difficult and deadly for men like him. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 23 Apr 2012 08:34:54 EST]]>
/Prisoners_of_Hope_1898 Fri, 20 Apr 2012 11:43:21 EST <![CDATA[Prisoners of Hope (1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Prisoners_of_Hope_1898 Prisoners of Hope (1898) is the first novel by the Virginia-born writer Mary Johnston. An action-adventure story and romance set in Gloucester County in 1663, the novel is based in part on the Gloucester County Conspiracy, a planned rebellion by indentured servants who intended to march to the home of Governor Sir William Berkeley and demand their freedom. The hero of Prisoners of Hope is Godfrey Landless, a convict laborer in Virginia who once fought for Oliver Cromwell. Landless takes charge in planning a servant rebellion, only to fall in love with his master's daughter, Patricia. When his plans are revealed, Landless is imprisoned, but eventually wins Patricia's love by saving her from a fictional band of Virginia Indians. Johnston portrays colonial Virginia much as Lost Cause writers and novelists painted the antebellum South: as an idyllic place where an enslaved African American might be viewed as "simply a good-humored, docile, happy-go-lucky, harmless animal." Critics from London to New York praised the novel when it was released, and Johnston went on to become a best-selling author; however, few scholars study her today.
Fri, 20 Apr 2012 11:43:21 EST]]>
/Slave_Ship_The_1924 Fri, 20 Apr 2012 10:58:17 EST <![CDATA[Slave Ship, The (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Ship_The_1924 The Slave Ship (1924) is the eighteenth novel by the Virginia-born writer Mary Johnston. Set in Scotland, Virginia, Africa, and Jamaica, the novel follows twelve years in the life of David Scott, who is captured at the Battle of Culloden in 1746 and then transported to Virginia as a convict laborer. After a daring escape, Scott finds refuge on the slave ship Janet. There he works his way up from clerk to captain, making numerous voyages to the Slave Coast of West Africa and participating in the infamous Middle Passage, during which millions of enslaved Africans were transported to the Americas. Johnston's novel reflects her own extensive research on the Atlantic slave trade and, at times, an impressive attention to detail. Nevertheless, Johnston consistently understates the horrors of the Middle Passage and especially of the captains and crews who violently oversaw their human cargoes. Reviews of The Slave Ship upon its release were generally positive. The New York Times, for instance, praised its evocative descriptions while worrying that Johnston's theme—that master and servant are both slaves—distracted from the brutal reality of African enslavement.
Fri, 20 Apr 2012 10:58:17 EST]]>
/_At_each_bite_an_Arm_an_excerpt_from_A_New_and_Accurate_Description_of_the_Coast_of_Guinea_by_William_Bosman_1705 Fri, 20 Apr 2012 10:05:05 EST <![CDATA["At each bite an Arm"; an excerpt from A New and Accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea by William Bosman (1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_At_each_bite_an_Arm_an_excerpt_from_A_New_and_Accurate_Description_of_the_Coast_of_Guinea_by_William_Bosman_1705 In this excerpt from A New and Accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea (1705), the Dutch merchant William Bosman describes various species to be found in the waters off the Gold Coast of Africa, or what is present-day Ghana. Bosman's "noordkapers" are right whales, and the "hayes" are sharks (from the Dutch haai for shark). Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 20 Apr 2012 10:05:05 EST]]>
/Mutiny_on_the_Ferrers_Galley_an_excerpt_from_A_new_account_of_some_parts_of_Guinea_and_the_slave-trade_by_William_Snelgrave_1734 Fri, 20 Apr 2012 09:57:43 EST <![CDATA[Mutiny on the Ferrers Galley; an excerpt from A new account of some parts of Guinea, and the slave-trade by William Snelgrave (1734)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mutiny_on_the_Ferrers_Galley_an_excerpt_from_A_new_account_of_some_parts_of_Guinea_and_the_slave-trade_by_William_Snelgrave_1734 In this excerpt from A new account of some parts of Guinea, and the slave-trade, published in London in 1734, the former slave-ship captain William Snelgrave tells of an insurrection by enslaved Africans aboard a slave ship in 1722. Unlike many accounts of the so-called Middle Passage, Snelgrave's book was not critical of the slave trade, and this account in particular suggests that a captain's kindness might precipitate rebellion. It also recalls one of the dubious justifications for slavery: that it saved African prisoners from certain death. Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 20 Apr 2012 09:57:43 EST]]>
/Letter_the_Fifth_an_excerpt_from_Observations_on_a_Guinea_voyage_In_a_series_of_letters_addressed_to_the_Rev_Thomas_Clarkson_by_James_Field_Stanfield_1788 Fri, 20 Apr 2012 09:47:52 EST <![CDATA[Letter the Fifth; an excerpt from Observations on a Guinea voyage. In a series of letters addressed to the Rev. Thomas Clarkson by James Field Stanfield (1788)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_the_Fifth_an_excerpt_from_Observations_on_a_Guinea_voyage_In_a_series_of_letters_addressed_to_the_Rev_Thomas_Clarkson_by_James_Field_Stanfield_1788 In this excerpt from Observations on a Guinea voyage. In a series of letters addressed to the Rev. Thomas Clarkson (1788), published in London by the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade, the former slave-ship sailor James Field Stanfield graphically describes his own disease-ridden ship as it sails on the Middle Passage. Stanfield references Alexander Falconbridge, who worked as a surgeon on several slave voyages before joining Clarkson's anti-slavery society. Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 20 Apr 2012 09:47:52 EST]]>
/_An_act_to_repeale_a_former_law_makeing_Indians_and_others_ffree_1682 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 16:28:16 EST <![CDATA["An act to repeale a former law makeing Indians and others ffree" (1682)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_to_repeale_a_former_law_makeing_Indians_and_others_ffree_1682 In "An act to repeale a former law makeing Indians and others ffree," passed by the General Assembly in the session of November 1682, Virginia's colonial government attempts to clarify the definitions of indentured servants and slaves.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 16:28:16 EST]]>
/_English_running_away_with_negroes_1660-1661 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 15:28:33 EST <![CDATA["English running away with negroes" (1661)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_English_running_away_with_negroes_1660-1661 In this act, "English running away with negroes," passed by the General Assembly in the session of March 1660/61 (Old Style), colonial Virginia's government responds to the problem of runaway indentured servants and slaves.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 15:28:33 EST]]>
/_Negro_women_not_exempted_from_tax_1668 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:57:53 EST <![CDATA["Negro women not exempted from tax" (1668)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Negro_women_not_exempted_from_tax_1668 In the act "Negro women not exempted from tax," passed by the General Assembly in the session of September 1668, colonial Virginia's government attempted to better define the conditions by which free and enslaved African Americans were taxed.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:57:53 EST]]>
/_Women_servants_whose_common_imployment_is_working_in_the_ground_to_be_accompted_tythable_1662 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:49:25 EST <![CDATA["Women servants whose common imployment is working in the ground to be accompted tythable" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Women_servants_whose_common_imployment_is_working_in_the_ground_to_be_accompted_tythable_1662 In the act "Women servants whose common imployment is working in the ground to be accompted tythable," passed by the General Assembly in the session of December 1662, Virginia's colonial government attempted to better define the conditions by which free and enslaved African Americans were taxed.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:49:25 EST]]>
/_An_act_declaring_that_baptisme_of_slaves_doth_not_exempt_them_from_bondage_1667 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:22:27 EST <![CDATA["An act declaring that baptisme of slaves doth not exempt them from bondage" (1667)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_declaring_that_baptisme_of_slaves_doth_not_exempt_them_from_bondage_1667 In "An act declaring that baptisme of slaves doth not exempt them from bondage," passed by the General Assembly in the session of September 1667, Virginia's colonial government attempted to better define the conditions by which people were enslaved or free.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:22:27 EST]]>
/Westmoreland_Slave_Plot_1687 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 09:11:38 EST <![CDATA[Westmoreland Slave Plot (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Westmoreland_Slave_Plot_1687 The Westmoreland slave plot of 1687 involved an alleged conspiracy uncovered by Nicholas Spencer, who claimed that the participants intended to kill whites and destroy property in the county and throughout Virginia. Preceded by the Gloucester County Conspiracy (1663) and Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), the Westmoreland plot was the first conspiracy in British North America not involving white supporters or participants. As such, it heightened planters' fear of their slaves, already expressed in a 1680 act that sought to prohibit slaves' ability to carry weapons, meet in public, or travel without permission. After Spencer's revelation, Virginia governor Francis Howard, baron Howard of Effingham, convened what perhaps was British America's first oyer and terminer court, a criminal panel subsequently used to try slave rebels. Effingham also issued a proclamation reiterating the language of the 1680 act, something his successor felt compelled to do again, in 1690. After another attempted rebellion in Westmoreland in 1688, the General Assembly, in 1691, passed legislation allowing colonists to kill any slave who resisted, ran away, or refused to surrender when so ordered. This and other laws suggest that in the time since the Servants' Plot, Virginians began to see the danger of servile revolt as coming primarily from enslaved African Americans.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 09:11:38 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_preventing_Negroes_Insurrections_1680 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:04:11 EST <![CDATA["An act for preventing Negroes Insurrections" (1680)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_preventing_Negroes_Insurrections_1680 On June 8, 1680, the General Assembly passed "An act for preventing Negroes Insurrections" in response to planters' concerns about rebellious slaves.
Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:04:11 EST]]>
/Phillip_Mongom_Accused_of_Stealing_Hogs_1659-1660 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 15:25:02 EST <![CDATA[Phillip Mongom Accused of Stealing Hogs (1660)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Phillip_Mongom_Accused_of_Stealing_Hogs_1659-1660 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 15:25:02 EST]]> /Proclamation_from_Governor_Nicholson_1690 Fri, 02 Mar 2012 16:38:21 EST <![CDATA[Proclamation from Governor Nicholson (1690)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Proclamation_from_Governor_Nicholson_1690 Fri, 02 Mar 2012 16:38:21 EST]]> /_Against_Runawayes_1669 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:59:51 EST <![CDATA["Against Runawayes" (1669)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Against_Runawayes_1669 In this act, "Against Runawayes," passed by the General Assembly in the session of October 1669, Virginia's colonial government responds to the problem of runaway indentured servants and slaves.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:59:51 EST]]>
/Denying_Free_Blacks_the_Right_to_Vote_1724_1735 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:56:21 EST <![CDATA[Denying Free Blacks the Right to Vote (1724, 1735)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Denying_Free_Blacks_the_Right_to_Vote_1724_1735 In this exchange of letters, the Board of Trade questions the appropriateness of a 1723 law in Virginia denying free blacks the right to vote. The Board's legal counsel, Richard West, raised his question in 1724, but the Board's secretary, Alured Popple, did not ask for an explanation until 1735, when he wrote to Virginia lieutenant governor William Gooch.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:56:21 EST]]>
/Governor_Effingham_Reveals_a_Planned_Slave_Insurrection_1687 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:11:45 EST <![CDATA[Governor Effingham Reveals a Planned Slave Insurrection (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Governor_Effingham_Reveals_a_Planned_Slave_Insurrection_1687 In the official record of the governor's Council for October 24, 1687, Virginia governor Francis Howard, baron Howard of Effingham, announces that Nicholas Spencer, the colony's secretary and a resident of Westmoreland County, had uncovered a conspiracy among the slaves there. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:11:45 EST]]>
/York_County_Conspiracy_1661 Thu, 09 Feb 2012 16:13:01 EST <![CDATA[York County Conspiracy (1661)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/York_County_Conspiracy_1661 The York County Conspiracy was a plan by indentured servants to rise up against authorities in York County in 1661. Led by Isaac Friend and William Clutton, the servants were angered by the lack of meat in their diet, but their conspiracy apparently was revealed before they could act. The county court warned Friend about his behavior and encouraged his overseer to watch him more carefully. Clutton was ordered arrested for delivering "seditious words & speeches," but the result of the county's legal action is not known.
Thu, 09 Feb 2012 16:13:01 EST]]>
/_Negro_womens_children_to_serve_according_to_the_condition_of_the_mother_1662 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:12:43 EST <![CDATA["Negro womens children to serve according to the condition of the mother" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Negro_womens_children_to_serve_according_to_the_condition_of_the_mother_1662 In the act "Negro womens children to serve according to the condition of the mother," passed by the General Assembly in the session of December 1662, Virginia's colonial government attempted to better define the conditions by which people were enslaved or free.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:12:43 EST]]>
/_An_act_prohibiting_servants_to_goe_abroad_without_a_lycense_1663 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:10:53 EST <![CDATA["An act prohibiting servants to goe abroad without a lycence" (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_prohibiting_servants_to_goe_abroad_without_a_lycense_1663 In "An act prohibiting servants to goe abroad without a lycense," passed by the General Assembly in the session of September 1663, Virginia's colonial government responds to the problem of runaway indentured servants and slaves.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:10:53 EST]]>
/_Letter_to_the_Inhabitants_of_Maryland_Virginia_North_and_South_Carolina_1740 Wed, 18 Jan 2012 09:17:45 EST <![CDATA["Letter to the Inhabitants of Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina" (1740)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Letter_to_the_Inhabitants_of_Maryland_Virginia_North_and_South_Carolina_1740 "Letter to the Inhabitants of Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina" by the Anglican priest George Whitefield was published in 1740 by Benjamin Franklin in Three Letters from the Reverend Mr. G. Whitefield. An important leader of the First Great Awakening, Whitefield used the occasion to address slave owners in the American South, including Virginia. He chastised them for mistreating their enslaved African Americans and for not attempting to convert them to Christianity. Rather than encourage slaves to run away, Whitefield argued, Christian views would make them better slaves. In the end, Whitefield himself owned a plantation and slaves in South Carolina, but his message of salvation for slaves became typical of white southern evangelicals.
Wed, 18 Jan 2012 09:17:45 EST]]>
/Sapphira_and_the_Slave_Girl_1940 Mon, 06 Jun 2011 14:19:05 EST <![CDATA[Sapphira and the Slave Girl (1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sapphira_and_the_Slave_Girl_1940 Sapphira and the Slave Girl (1940) is the last novel by Willa Cather and the Virginia-born writer's only book set entirely in the state. Based on an incident in Cather's own family, in which her maternal grandmother helped a slave escape in 1856, the novel details the complicated marriage of Henry and Sapphira Colbert, who operate a mill and small farm in Back Creek outside Winchester in the years before the American Civil War. Sapphira wrongly suspects that one of her slaves, Nancy, is in an intimate relationship with her husband, and manipulates those around her to exact revenge. Henry and the couple's daughter, Rachel, intervene by helping Nancy flee to Canada. At the time of its release, Sapphira and the Slave Girl was praised by the New York Times for examining "the question of slavery without any portentous fanfare," but in the years since, the book has not been widely read. Most critics have charged Sapphira with being racist and overly nostalgic, while a few have defended it as a brilliant inversion of old stereotypes and a coded exploration of sexual desire.
Mon, 06 Jun 2011 14:19:05 EST]]>
/United_States_Presidential_Election_of_1860 Tue, 05 Apr 2011 09:58:08 EST <![CDATA[United States Presidential Election of 1860]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/United_States_Presidential_Election_of_1860 The United States presidential election of 1860 was perhaps the most pivotal in American history. A year after John Brown's attempted slave revolt at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, the national debate over slavery had reached a boiling point, and several Southern states were threatening to secede should the Republican Party candidate, Abraham Lincoln, win. Along with its Upper South neighbors, Virginia struggled with both the perceived threat of Northern abolitionism and the fear that secession would trigger war. The four major candidates, meanwhile, reflected a political system in chaos. At its convention, the Democratic Party split into two factions, with the Northern Democrats nominating U.S. senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, a moderate on slavery, and the Southern Democrats nominating the U.S. vice president, John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky, on a proslavery, states' rights platform. After the demise of the Whig Party, many of its former members went to the Constitutional Union Party, which nominated John Bell of Tennessee and advocated compromise. The Republicans, who opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories, best exploited the circumstances, winning 180 electoral votes and 39.8 percent of the popular vote. Reflecting Virginia's moderation, however, the state was one of only three to favor Bell. In the end, Lincoln's election led directly to South Carolina's secession and the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Tue, 05 Apr 2011 09:58:08 EST]]>