Encyclopedia Virginia: Women's History http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Veney_Bethany_ca_1815 Wed, 13 Dec 2017 13:20:58 EST Veney, Bethany (ca. 1815­–1916) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Veney_Bethany_ca_1815 Wed, 13 Dec 2017 13:20:58 EST]]> /Rind_Clementina_d_1774 Mon, 27 Nov 2017 13:51:40 EST <![CDATA[Rind, Clementina (d. 1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rind_Clementina_d_1774 Clementina Rind was a public printer for Virginia and publisher from August 1773 to September 1774 of one of two Virginia Gazettes printedin Williamsburg. Born about 1740, she married the Maryland printer William Rind after 1762 and they moved to Williamsburg later in 1765 or early in 1766. There, in May 1766, William Rind established the Virginia Gazette in direct competition to a paper of the same name published by Alexander Purdie and John Dixon. He soon also became the colony's public printer, publishing all of the government's official documents. Rind died in 1773 and Clementina Rind took over the newspaper and won appointment to succeed her husband as public printer. She managed the business well and supplemented her income by printing other material, such as Thomas Jefferson's tract A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774). Although nonpartisan, her Virginia Gazette included news that suggested solidarity with the patriot cause in the years before the American Revolution (1775–1783). She died in Williamsburg in 1774.
Mon, 27 Nov 2017 13:51:40 EST]]>
/Colonial_Virginia Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST <![CDATA[Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colonial_Virginia The colonial period in Virginia began in 1607 with the landing of the first English settlers at Jamestown and ended in 1776 with the establishment of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although a thriving Indian society had existed for thousands of years before the English arrived, war with the European settlers and the introduction of new diseases for which the Indians had no resistance spelled disaster for it. The English colonists, meanwhile, just barely survived, suffering through summer droughts and winter starvation. Salvation came to the colony in the form of smoking tobacco, or what King James I called a "vile and stinking custom," when John Rolfe cultivated a variety of tobacco that sold well in England. In 1619, a General Assembly convened, bringing limited self-government to America. That same year brought the first slaves to Virginia. For most of the 1600s, white indentured servants worked the colony's tobacco fields, but by 1705 the Virginia colony had become a slave society. Nearly all power was in the hands of white male landowners, who ran the government and, by law, belonged to the Church of England. Women who married and worked at home were considered "good wives"; those who refused such "proper" roles were considered troublesome. And while Virginia's ruling men did not encourage women to be independent, they nevertheless fought for their own independence, taking full part in the American Revolution (1775–1783).
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST]]>
/Blackford_Mary_Berkeley_Minor_1802-1896 Tue, 08 Aug 2017 15:32:35 EST <![CDATA[Blackford, Mary Berkeley Minor (1802–1896)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blackford_Mary_Berkeley_Minor_1802-1896 Mary Berkeley Minor Blackford was an antislavery leader who founded a female auxiliary of the American Colonization Society in Fredericksburg. Born in Fredericksburg, she was unusually well educated by the time she married the attorney William Blackford in 1825. Together they were active in the Episcopal Church and she was a lifelong temperance advocate. Unlike her husband, Blackford saw colonization as the first step toward the abolition of slavery, and she became the most prominent female advocate of colonization in Virginia. In 1829 she founded the Fredericksburg and Falmouth Female Auxiliary to the American Colonization Society, raising hundreds of dollars and recruiting elite women such as Dolley Madison as life members. As public support for colonization and emancipation waned, she turned her efforts to promoting the education of women in Liberia. When she and her husband moved to Lynchburg in 1846, her work ended, although not her strong feelings about the cause. She became increasingly alienated from her family and opposed secession in 1861. She died in 1896.
Tue, 08 Aug 2017 15:32:35 EST]]>
/Foster_Kitty_ca_1790-1863 Fri, 28 Jul 2017 16:35:52 EST <![CDATA[Foster, Kitty (ca. 1790–1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Foster_Kitty_ca_1790-1863 Kitty Foster was a free African American woman who owned property just south of the University of Virginia, the site of which has been memorialized by the school. Born enslaved in Albemarle County, Foster was free by 1820 and renting land in an African American community near the university known as Canada. She purchased just more than two acres from a white merchant in 1833 and lived there until her death, washing clothes for students and faculty. In 1837, a university report accused her of holding firearms for students who were prohibited from carrying them on the university's grounds. Foster died in 1863 and was buried in a cemetery on her property. Archaeologists discovered the cemetery in 1993, and in 2011 the University of Virginia dedicated a memorial on the site.
Fri, 28 Jul 2017 16:35:52 EST]]>
/Madison_Dolley_1768-1849 Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:05:09 EST <![CDATA[Madison, Dolley (1768–1849)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Madison_Dolley_1768-1849 Dolley Madison was the wife of James Madison, the architect of the U.S. Constitution and fourth president of the United States (1809­–1817). She was the third woman to serve as what is now called "first lady," and her imprint as the national hostess defined the role until the more activist Eleanor Roosevelt broke Madison's ceremonial model. It was during her years in the White House that Madison gained her fame as a shrewd and graceful politician who could win the hearts of those who opposed her husband, and the greatest Washington hostess of the first quarter of the nineteenth century. She is also known for saving a portrait of George Washington during the War of 1812. After the end of James Madison's second term in the White House, the couple returned to live at their plantation, Montpelier, in Orange County, where they remained until James Madison died in 1836. From 1836 to 1844, Dolley Madison resided both in Washington, D.C., and at Montpelier, after which she spent the last five and a half years of her life in Washington. She was criticized by abolitionists for continuing to own slaves but remained a prominent national figure even while facing serious financial struggles. Along with Elizabeth Hamilton, the wife of Alexander Hamilton, she was the last surviving member of the founding generation, admired and esteemed for both her own contributions and those of her husband. She died in 1849 in Washington, where she was buried. Her remains were later moved to the Madison family cemetery at Montpelier.
Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:05:09 EST]]>
/Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Claypool_s_American_May_25_1796 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:45:55 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement for the Capture of Oney Judge, Claypoole's American (May 25, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Claypool_s_American_May_25_1796 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:45:55 EST]]> /Davis_Ann_Banks_1830-1907 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:05:24 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Ann Banks (1830–1907)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Ann_Banks_1830-1907 Ann Banks Davis was an enslaved woman who bore several children with the Richmond slave trader Hector Davis. Little is known of Ann Davis's early life. She likely was the daughter of an enslaved woman named Mathilda Banks and did not take the name Davis until later in life. By 1852 she was owned by Hector Davis and that year bore him the first of at least four children. The two never legally married and it is unlikely that, as Davis's property, she could have consented to their physical relationship. By 1860, Hector Davis had moved Ann and her children to Philadelphia, where they continued to live after his death in 1863. He left them substantial money in his will but the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865) rendered much of his inheritance worthless or unattainable. Davis died in 1907.
Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:05:24 EST]]>
/Hinton_Corinna_1835-1887 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:00:35 EST <![CDATA[Hinton, Corinna (1835–1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hinton_Corinna_1835-1887 Corinna Hinton was an enslaved woman who bore several children with the Richmond slave trader Silas Omohundro and helped him run his business. Little is known of Hinton's early life. By the time she was thirteen years old, she was owned by Omohundro and had given birth to the first of their seven children. The two never legally married and it is unlikely that, as Omohundro's property, Hinton could have consented to their physical relationship, although historians have varying interpretations. In addition to running the household, Hinton made clothes for slaves about to be sold and helped operate a boardinghouse. Omohundro died in 1864, freeing Hinton and acknowledging himself as the father of her children. She later went into business with a white journalist from Maine, Nathaniel Davidson. It is unclear whether the two married. Hinton died in 1887.
Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:00:35 EST]]>
/Harland_Marion_1830-1922 Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:52:17 EST <![CDATA[Harland, Marion (1830–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harland_Marion_1830-1922 Marion Harland was a writer of novels, short stories, biographies, travel narratives, cookbooks, and domestic manuals whose career stretched across seven decades of sectional conflict and great change in American life. Harland chronicled much of that change, penning novels that suggested her own divided loyalties between North and South before establishing herself as an expert and often a sly and sarcastic commentator on the domestic arts of homemaking.
Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:52:17 EST]]>
/Henderson_Helen_Timmons_1877-1925 Wed, 14 Jun 2017 16:18:52 EST <![CDATA[Henderson, Helen Timmons (1877–1925)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Henderson_Helen_Timmons_1877-1925 Helen Timmons Henderson, from the town of Council in Buchanan County, served in the Virginia House of Delegates (1924–1925), one of the first two women elected to that body (the other was Norfolk's Sarah Lee Fain). She died before having the opportunity to run for a second term.
Wed, 14 Jun 2017 16:18:52 EST]]>
/Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Philadelphia_Gazette_May_24_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 15:14:32 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement for the Capture of Oney Judge, Philadelphia Gazette (May 24, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Philadelphia_Gazette_May_24_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 15:14:32 EST]]> /_A_Slave_of_George_Washington_by_Benjamin_Chase_The_Liberator_January_1_1847 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:24:32 EST <![CDATA["A Slave of George Washington!" by Benjamin Chase, The Liberator (January 1, 1847)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Slave_of_George_Washington_by_Benjamin_Chase_The_Liberator_January_1_1847 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:24:32 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Lee_to_George_Washington_June_28_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 13:23:46 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Lee to George Washington (June 28, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Lee_to_George_Washington_June_28_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 13:23:46 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Burwell_Bassett_Jr_August_11_1799 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 09:47:34 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Burwell Bassett Jr. (August 11, 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Burwell_Bassett_Jr_August_11_1799 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 09:47:34 EST]]> /Judge_Oney_ca_1773-1848 Wed, 19 Apr 2017 16:51:23 EST <![CDATA[Judge, Oney (ca. 1773–1848)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judge_Oney_ca_1773-1848 Oney Judge was the enslaved personal attendant of Martha Custis Washington when she ran away from the President's House in Philadelphia in 1796. Born about 1773 at Mount Vernon, Judge began laboring in the mansion when she was ten years old. After George Washington was elected president in 1789, she accompanied the family to New York and then, when the federal capital moved, to Philadelphia. On May 21, 1796, she escaped from the president's mansion while the family ate dinner and boarded a ship for Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Washington's agents tracked her there, twice speaking with her, in 1796 and 1799, but failing to apprehend her. Judge married the free black sailor John Staines in 1797 and the couple had three children before his death in 1803. Oney Judge Staines lived the rest of her life in poverty. In 1845 and 1847 she gave interviews to abolitionist newspapers, recounting the story of her life with the Washington family and her escape from slavery. She died in Greenland, New Hampshire, in 1848.
Wed, 19 Apr 2017 16:51:23 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Joseph_Whipple_to_George_Washington_December_22_1796 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 12:07:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Joseph Whipple to George Washington (December 22, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Joseph_Whipple_to_George_Washington_December_22_1796 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 12:07:44 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Joseph_Whipple_November_28_1796 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 12:55:19 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Joseph Whipple (November 28, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Joseph_Whipple_November_28_1796 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 12:55:19 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Oliver_Wolcott_Jr_September_1_1796 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 12:19:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Oliver Wolcott Jr. (September 1, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Oliver_Wolcott_Jr_September_1_1796 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 12:19:35 EST]]> /Barrett_Kate_Waller_1858-1925 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:53:53 EST <![CDATA[Barrett, Kate Waller (1857–1925)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barrett_Kate_Waller_1858-1925 Kate Waller Barrett was a prominent physician, social reformer, humanitarian, and leader of the National Florence Crittenton Mission, a progressive organization established in 1883 to assist unmarried women and teenage girls who either had children or were trying to leave prostitution.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:53:53 EST]]>
/Barbour_Lucy_Johnson_1775-1860 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:34:28 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, Lucy Johnson (1775–1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_Lucy_Johnson_1775-1860 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:34:28 EST]]> /Bailey_Odessa_Pittard_1906-1994 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:27:24 EST <![CDATA[Bailey, Odessa Pittard (1906–1994)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bailey_Odessa_Pittard_1906-1994 Odessa Pittard Bailey was a civic leader in western Virginia. In 1944, after her appointment to the Roanoke Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court, she became the first woman in Virginia's history to hold a judicial post higher than justice of the peace or county trial justice. She helped found the Virginia Council of Juvenile Court Judges and served as its president from 1947 to 1948. After leaving the bench in 1948, she was appointed to several state commissions dealing with crime and social work. Bailey participated in Democratic Party politics, and as president of the Virginia Federation of Women's Clubs she lobbied for increased state funding to help disadvantaged children and the mentally ill. After her husband's death in 1957, Bailey ran a travel agency in Roanoke. She later moved to California, where she died in 1994.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:27:24 EST]]>
/Duncan_Pauline_Adelaide_Haislip_1888-1973 Fri, 03 Feb 2017 14:31:01 EST <![CDATA[Duncan, Pauline Haislip (1888–1973)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Duncan_Pauline_Adelaide_Haislip_1888-1973 Pauline Haislip Duncan served as one of Virginia's first female law enforcement officers. She was a charter member of the Organized Women Voters of Arlington County, which was among a number of local civic and political groups she joined after women received the right to vote. The organization pushed for a woman deputy in 1923, recommending Smith. She recorded her first criminal arrest the following year and served until 1943, surviving an attempt to remove her in 1927. Smith mostly worked on cases involving women and children, though she at times chased thieves and helped stop fights. She also aided the local Parent-Teacher Association and the Girl Scouts, helping earn her the nickname Aunt Polly. The Organized Women Voters of Arlington County honored her as its Woman of the Year in 1965.
Fri, 03 Feb 2017 14:31:01 EST]]>
/Custis_Mary_Lee_Fitzhugh_1788-1853 Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:38:31 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Mary Lee Fitzhugh (1788–1853)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_Mary_Lee_Fitzhugh_1788-1853 Mary Lee Fitzhugh Custis was an Episcopal lay leader whose efforts helped to revive Virginia's Episcopal church early in the nineteenth century. Custis's father, William Fitzhugh, served in the Continental Congress. Her husband, George Washington Parke Custis, was the stepgrandson of George Washington and well-known writer and orator. Their daughter, Mary Randolph Custis, married Robert E. Lee. Mary Custis lived at Arlington, a plantation in Alexandria County, and from there involved herself in raising funds for Episcopal schools and the American Colonization Society, which sought to free enslaved African Americans and send them to Africa. She and her daughter Mary also took an active role in the education of slaves. Custis died in 1853 and was buried at Arlington.
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:38:31 EST]]>
/Custis_Elizabeth_Parke_1776-1831 Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:31:30 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Elizabeth Parke (1776–1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_Elizabeth_Parke_1776-1831 Elizabeth Parke Custis was a social leader and the stepgranddaughter of George Washington. Born in Maryland, she lived with her mother in Alexandria after the death of her father in 1781. When her mother remarried in 1783, they moved to Hope Park, a country estate in Fairfax County, where Custis felt isolated and limited by the social restrictions imposed on women. Eccentric, intelligent, and sometimes difficult, Custis married the merchant Thomas Law in 1796, and the couple lived and entertained in Washington, D.C., until they separated in 1804. A divorce was finalized in 1811. Custis lived for a time on an estate outside Alexandria, which she called Mount Washington. Later in life she traveled between friends and relatives, collecting Washington family memorabilia. She died in 1831 and is buried at Mount Vernon.
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:31:30 EST]]>
/Custis_Eleanor_Nelly_Parke_1779-1852 Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:26:45 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Eleanor "Nelly" Parke (1779–1852)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_Eleanor_Nelly_Parke_1779-1852 Eleanor "Nelly" Parke Custis was the stepgranddaughter of George Washington and important preserver of the first president's legacy. Born in Maryland, she and her brother, George Washington Parke Custis, went to live at Mount Vernon after the death of her father in 1781. Nelly Custis was educated in New York and Philadelphia while Washington served as president and helped to entertain guests. In 1797 she married Washington's nephew, Lawrence Lewis, and the couple lived briefly at Mount Vernon. After Washington's death, they inherited about 2,000 acres of his estate and in 1805 built their own home, Woodlawn. Throughout her life Nelly Custis Lewis regarded herself as the keeper of George Washington's legacy, serving as an accurate purveyor of information about him and his life. She was instrumental in having a tomb erected at Mount Vernon in 1835. She died in 1852.
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:26:45 EST]]>
/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Elizabeth_Parke_Custis_September_14_1794 Mon, 12 Dec 2016 13:41:12 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Elizabeth Parke Custis (September 14, 1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Elizabeth_Parke_Custis_September_14_1794 Mon, 12 Dec 2016 13:41:12 EST]]> /Burwell_Lucy_1683-1716 Tue, 22 Nov 2016 16:12:20 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lucy (1683–1716)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lucy_1683-1716 Lucy Burwell is best known for rejecting the fervent and sometimes menacing courtship of Governor Sir Francis Nicholson. The teenaged daughter of a key Virginia family chose to marry Edmund Berkeley, twelve years her senior, instead of the forty-five-year-old governor. Humiliated by this rejection, Nicholson taunted and threatened the Burwells and their allies among Virginia's elite. These actions, along with his attempted reforms of the colony's politics, led to a petition against Nicholson. Queen Anne ultimately removed him from office. In exercising her prerogative to choose her own husband, Burwell became a symbol of Virginia's opposition to heavy-handed rule. She bore Berkeley at least five children before her death in 1716.
Tue, 22 Nov 2016 16:12:20 EST]]>
/Brent_Margaret_ca_1601-1671 Mon, 14 Nov 2016 08:50:44 EST <![CDATA[Brent, Margaret (ca. 1601–1671)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brent_Margaret_ca_1601-1671 Mon, 14 Nov 2016 08:50:44 EST]]> /Bland_Anna_Bennett_d_1687 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 16:58:28 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Anna Bennett (d. 1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Anna_Bennett_d_1687 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 16:58:28 EST]]> /Witchcraft_in_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 25 Oct 2016 12:11:32 EST <![CDATA[Witchcraft in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Witchcraft_in_Colonial_Virginia Witchcraft was a genuine concern for colonial Virginians. The colony's English settlers brought with them a strong belief in the devil's power and his presence in the New World. This belief was first manifested in the Jamestown colonists' early perceptions of the Virginia Indians, whom they believed to be devil worshippers. After 1622, some colonists began to accuse one another of practicing witchcraft. Though witchcraft cases in Virginia were less common and the sentences less severe than the more famous witch trials of Salem, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, evidence exists that about two dozen such trials took place in Virginia between 1626 and 1730. They ranged from civil defamation suits to criminal accusations. The most famous of these was the trial of Grace Sherwood of Princess Anne County, in which the judges determined her guilt by administering a water test. Records indicate that the last witchcraft trial in the mainland colonies took place in Virginia in 1730; five years later, Parliament repealed the Witchcraft Act of 1604, the statute under which British American colonists prosecuted accused witches. Since then, witchcraft has been largely forgotten as an aspect of life in colonial Virginia.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 12:11:32 EST]]>
/Campbell_Christiana_ca_1722-1792 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:24:05 EST <![CDATA[Campbell, Christiana (ca. 1723–1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Campbell_Christiana_ca_1722-1792 Christiana Campbell was a tavern-keeper in Williamsburg from 1755 until the late 1770s. Campbell, who was raised in Williamsburg, opened her tavern to support herself and her two daughters after her husband died in 1752. For more than twenty years she ran one of Williamsburg's most successful businesses. On the eve of the American Revolution (1775–1783), the colony's leaders periodically met at Campbell's tavern to discuss their connections with England and whether they should seek independence. Campbell evidently closed her tavern in the late 1770s, and, at some point after October 8, 1787, relocated to Fredericksburg, where she died in 1792.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:24:05 EST]]>
/Vobe_Jane_by_1733-1787 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:22:49 EST <![CDATA[Vobe, Jane (by 1733–1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Vobe_Jane_by_1733-1787 Jane Vobe operated taverns in Williamsburg (1751–1785) and in Manchester, in Chesterfield County (1786). Little is known of Vobe's life beyond what historians have gleaned from extant records, but her business was one of Williamsburg's most successful. In 1765 a French traveler recorded in his diary that Vobe's establishment was "where all the best people" stay; six years later, Vobe closed her tavern and opened another in 1772 in a different location in the Virginia capital. Politicians and military men often gathered at her tavern to discuss events related to the American Revolution (1775–1783). George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Nelson, and the Baron von Steuben were among her customers. After the Virginia capital moved to Richmond and the Revolution ended, Vobe relocated to Manchester, where she managed a tavern until her death, which was reported in 1786.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:22:49 EST]]>
/Lost_Cause_The Wed, 27 Jul 2016 09:17:55 EST <![CDATA[Lost Cause, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lost_Cause_The The Lost Cause is an interpretation of the American Civil War (1861–1865) that seeks to present the war, from the perspective of Confederates, in the best possible terms. Developed by white Southerners, many of them former Confederate generals, in a postwar climate of economic, racial, and social uncertainty, the Lost Cause created and romanticized the "Old South" and the Confederate war effort, often distorting history in the process. For this reason, many historians have labeled the Lost Cause a myth or a legend. It is certainly an important example of public memory, one in which nostalgia for the Confederate past is accompanied by a collective forgetting of the horrors of slavery. Providing a sense of relief to white Southerners who feared being dishonored by defeat, the Lost Cause was largely accepted in the years following the war by white Americans who found it to be a useful tool in reconciling North and South. The Lost Cause has lost much of its academic support but continues to be an important part of how the Civil War is commemorated in the South and remembered in American popular culture.
Wed, 27 Jul 2016 09:17:55 EST]]>
/Disfranchisement Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:55:25 EST <![CDATA[Disfranchisement]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Disfranchisement Disfranchisement (also called disenfranchisement) is the revocation of the right of suffrage. African American males voted in Virginia for the first time in October 1867, during Reconstruction (1865–1877), when the military governor of the state, John M. Schofield, ordered a referendum on whether to hold a convention to write a new state constitution and to elect delegates to serve in the convention. A majority of white Virginians disapproved of the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1870, which prohibited states from denying the vote to any man because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Ensuring that Virginia elections were set up to express the public opinion rather than suppress it was a task that took decades to complete. It was not until the abolition of the poll tax in the 1960s and adoption of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965 that black men and women registered and voted in appreciable numbers in Virginia outside a few urban precincts and that white men and women began to register and vote in significantly larger percentages than during the first half of the twentieth century.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:55:25 EST]]>
/Beazley_Roy_C_1902-1985 Fri, 01 Jul 2016 16:43:58 EST <![CDATA[Beazley, Roy C. (1902–1985)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beazley_Roy_C_1902-1985 Roy C. Beazley directed nursing education in various positions at the University of Virginia from 1946 until 1969, and was the first woman at the university to be named professor emerita. Born in Orange County and named for her uncle, Beazley began her career as a teacher but after suffering a serious illness she became interested in nursing. She attended the hospital nursing school at the University of Virginia and, with the exception of a degree earned at Columbia University in 1953, remained in Charlottesville for the rest of her career. She directed the evolution of the nursing education program into the School of Nursing and served as president of the Virginia State Board of Examiners of Nurses from 1959 to 1961. She retired from teaching in 1969 and died in 1985. Later that year she was posthumously awarded the University of Virginia's Distinguished Nursing Alumnae Award.
Fri, 01 Jul 2016 16:43:58 EST]]>
/Boyle_Sarah_Patton_1906-1994 Mon, 09 May 2016 12:46:07 EST <![CDATA[Boyle, Sarah-Patton (1906–1994)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boyle_Sarah_Patton_1906-1994 Sarah-Patton Boyle was one of Virginia's most prominent white civil rights activists during the 1950s and 1960s and author of the widely acclaimed autobiography The Desegregated Heart: A Virginian's Stand in Time of Transition (1962). Her desegregation efforts began in 1950 when she wrote to Gregory Swanson welcoming him as the University of Virginia's first black law student. Through her experience with Swanson, her views on desegregation evolved from being a proponent of gradual desegregation to a leading and often controversial white voice for immediate desegregation in public schools and in higher education. Her 1955 article for the Saturday Evening Post, titled "Southerners Will Like Integration," prompted a fierce backlash that included having a cross burned in her Charlottesville yard. Boyle did not moderate her views, however, and worked closely with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), earning praise from Martin Luther King Jr., Lillian Smith, and others, as well as numerous awards and a measure of national fame. The intensity of her political involvement triggered a deep depression, however, and she eventually became disillusioned with the civil rights movement, retiring from activism in 1967. In 1983, she authored a memoir that contemplated her experience dealing with age discrimination.
Mon, 09 May 2016 12:46:07 EST]]>
/Richmond_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 22 Mar 2016 09:31:03 EST <![CDATA[Richmond during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Richmond_During_the_Civil_War Richmond, Virginia, was the capital of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865). It also served as the capital of Virginia, although when the city was about to fall to Union armies in April 1865, the state government, including the governor and General Assembly, moved to Lynchburg for five days. Besides being the political home of the Confederacy, Richmond was a center of rail and industry, military hospitals, and prisoner-of-war camps and prisons, including Belle Isle and Libby Prison. It boasted a diversified economy that included grain milling and iron manufacturing, with the keystone of the local economy being the massive Tredegar ironworks. From the start of war, Confederate citizens flocked to the capital seeking safety and jobs, leading to periodic civil unrest, manifested most notably in the Bread Riot of April 1863. Because of its economic and political importance as well as its location near the United States capital, Richmond became the focus for most of the military campaigns in the war's Eastern Theater. In a sense, its success—especially in mobilizing, outfitting, and feeding the Confederate armies—predestined it to near-destruction in 1865. Just as ironic, that destruction was largely caused by Confederates, although images of the city's ruins have become iconic representations of the cost of war.
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 09:31:03 EST]]>
/Clark_Adèle_1882-1983 Thu, 10 Mar 2016 11:31:57 EST <![CDATA[Clark, Adèle (1882–1983)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clark_Adèle_1882-1983 Adèle Clark was a founding member of the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia, the chair of the Virginia League of Women Voters (1921–1925, 1929–1944), the social director of women at the College of William and Mary (1926), a New Deal–era field worker, and an accomplished artist and arts advocate. A native of Alabama, Clark attended schools in Richmond and later studied art in New York. She taught art in Richmond and established a training studio, while also working as a political activist. In 1909, she helped to found the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia and when women won the right to vote in 1920, she worked to educate women voters and to influence Congress and the General Assembly on issues of special interest to women. During the Great Depression, she served as the state director of the Federal Art Project (1936–1942). In her later years, Clark spoke for the desegregation of public schools and against the poll tax. She opposed the proposed Equal Rights Amendment in 1973. Clark died in Richmond in 1983.
Thu, 10 Mar 2016 11:31:57 EST]]>
/Carter_Maybelle_1909-1978 Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:46:19 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Maybelle (1909–1978)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Maybelle_1909-1978 Maybelle Carter was a member of the Carter Family, a trio that helped to pioneer what became known as country music. Born in Scott County, in Southwest Virginia, she grew up playing music and learning traditional Appalachian songs and tunes. She also developed a distinctive style of guitar playing that combined rhythmic chords and thumb-plucked melody that was dubbed the "Carter lick." With her first cousin Sara Carter and Carter's husband, A. P. Carter, Maybelle Carter formed the Carter Family, recording for the first time at the Bristol Sessions of 1927. The group made nearly 300 records in a career that lasted until the early 1940s, and for several years they performed on ultrahigh-frequency border radio. These broadcasts could be heard across North America and helped make the group nationally famous. After the Carter Family disbanded in 1943, Maybelle Carter continued to perform with her three daughters, as Mother Maybelle and the Carter Sisters. She joined the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville, Tennessee, and later toured with Johnny Cash, her daughter June Carter's third husband. Later in life Carter continued to perform and appear on television and came to be known as the Mother of Country Music. She died in 1978.
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:46:19 EST]]>
/Cash_June_Carter_1929-2003 Thu, 18 Feb 2016 17:09:39 EST <![CDATA[Cash, June Carter (1929–2003)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cash_June_Carter_1929-2003 June Carter Cash was a country and folk singer and the wife of Johnny Cash. Born in southwestern Virginia, she was the daughter of Maybelle Carter, who with her first cousin Sara Carter and Carter's husband, A. P. Carter, performed with the pioneering country group the Carter Family. June Carter and her two sisters began singing with the group on the radio in 1939 and later as part of Mother Maybelle and the Carter Sisters. Carter often supplemented her music with large doses of humor, drawing on broad caricatures of her rural upbringing. Her satirical version of "Baby, It's Cold Outside," recorded in 1949 with the duo Homer and Jethro, reached No. 9 on the country chart. The next year Carter joined the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville, Tennessee, and late in 1961, along with her family, accompanied the country star Johnny Cash on tour. Although both were married, Cash and Carter soon became romantically linked and were married in 1968. They won two Grammy Awards for their performances together: for "Jackson" in 1968 and "If I Were a Carpenter" in 1970. Both suffered from drug addiction, and while their marriage and careers suffered at times, they remained together. In 2000, Carter Cash won a Grammy Award for her second solo album, Press On. She died in May 2003 and her husband followed in September of that year.
Thu, 18 Feb 2016 17:09:39 EST]]>
/Munford_Mary-Cooke_Branch_1865-1938 Fri, 29 Jan 2016 10:41:20 EST <![CDATA[Munford, Mary-Cooke Branch (1865–1938)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Munford_Mary-Cooke_Branch_1865-1938 Mary-Cooke Branch Munford was an advocate of woman suffrage, interracial cooperation, education, health, and labor reforms. Armed with a pedigree that connected her to some of the wealthiest families of Virginia, she threw herself into such "unfeminine" pursuits as education reform and civil rights. She helped to found the Richmond Education Association, was the first woman to serve on the city's school board, was a member of the University of Virginia's board of visitors, and was the first woman to serve on the College of William and Mary's board of visitors. Munford also served on the board of the National Urban League, was a founding member of the Virginia Inter-Racial League, and became a trustee at the historically black Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee.
Fri, 29 Jan 2016 10:41:20 EST]]>
/Speech_by_John_C_Underwood_January_16_1868 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:51:04 EST <![CDATA[Speech by John C. Underwood (January 16, 1868)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_John_C_Underwood_January_16_1868 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:51:04 EST]]> /Bowser_Mary_Richards_fl_1846-1867 Fri, 08 Jan 2016 17:33:03 EST <![CDATA[Bowser, Mary Richards (fl. 1846–1867)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowser_Mary_Richards_fl_1846-1867 Fri, 08 Jan 2016 17:33:03 EST]]> /Southern_Claims_Commission_in_Virginia_The Fri, 18 Dec 2015 09:34:32 EST <![CDATA[Southern Claims Commission in Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Southern_Claims_Commission_in_Virginia_The The Southern Claims Commission was created by Congress on March 3, 1871, to compensate southern Unionists for property appropriated by the Union army during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Although claims for reimbursement had been made since early in the war, many in Congress had resisted authorizing their payment. They feared fraud and dismissed the sincerity of Unionism in the South. Once former Confederate states began to be readmitted to the Union, however, pressure mounted and the law passed. The act required the president to appoint three commissioners to "receive, examine, and consider the justice and validity" of claims for "stores and supplies" taken by the Union army in the Confederate states. The commissioners reported their decisions on each claim to Congress for approval and appropriation. Because the Union presence was so extensive in the state, Virginians submitted 3,197 claims, the second largest number after Tennessee. The claims from Virginia suggest the wide diversity of Unionism in the state during the war. White men often expressed their loyalty by opposing secession, while African Americans sought freedom from slavery and women worked within their traditional gender roles to assist the Union war effort. Over time, the Southern Claims Commission lost support and was seen as divisive. It finished its work in 1880.
Fri, 18 Dec 2015 09:34:32 EST]]>
/Underwood_John_C_1809-1873 Sun, 13 Dec 2015 13:03:45 EST <![CDATA[Underwood, John C. (1809–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Underwood_John_C_1809-1873 John C. Underwood was one of the most conspicuous antislavery activists in Virginia during the 1850s, one of the first members of the Republican Party in Virginia, a federal judge from 1863 to 1873, and the president of the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868. Born in New York, Underwood practiced law before moving to Virginia. There his condemnations of slavery were such that his wife, a cousin of the future Confederate general Thomas J. Jackson, worried for his safety. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), President Abraham Lincoln appointed Underwood a federal judge for the eastern district of Virginia. His actions on the bench often appeared to be politically motivated and included repeated efforts to confiscate the estates of Confederates in order to destroy slavery and apply what he called "retributive justice." After the war, he admitted that he could pack a jury, if necessary, to convict the former Confederate president, Jefferson Davis, of treason. He also publicly endorsed African American suffrage and full citizenship rights for freedpeople. Toward that end, he served as president of the constitutional convention that met in 1867–1868, during which he argued, unsuccessfully, that women, too, should be granted full suffrage rights. Underwood remained on the bench in his later years, earning a reputation as an outspoken radical and one who was often contemptuous of his critics. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1873.
Sun, 13 Dec 2015 13:03:45 EST]]>
/Pocahontas_d_1617 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:38:59 EST <![CDATA[Pocahontas (d. 1617)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pocahontas_d_1617 Pocahontas was the daughter of Powhatan, paramount chief of an alliance of Virginia Indians in Tidewater Virginia. An iconic figure in American history, Pocahontas is largely known for saving the life of the Jamestown colonist John Smith and then romancing him—although both events are unlikely to be true. She did meet Smith several times, sometimes serving as Powhatan's silent figurehead and a symbolic liaison between the chief and the English colonists; she was not, however, a "princess" or a diplomat in any modern sense. Sometime around 1610, she married an Indian named Kocoum, and in 1613 she was captured by the English and confined at Jamestown, where she converted to Christianity and married the colonist John Rolfe. The marriage, approved by Powhatan, brought an end to the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614) and set the stage for Pocahontas's visit to London in 1616. At the request of the Virginia Company of London, she met both King James I and the bishop of London, after which she reunited briefly with Smith. Early in her return voyage to Virginia, she became ill and died at Gravesend in March 1617. In the centuries since, Pocahontas's life has slipped into myth, serving to represent Virginia's early claim to be the foundation-place of America. Many elite Virginians, meanwhile, have tenuously claimed her as a relative, even leading to a "Pocahontas clause" in the Racial Integrity Act of 1924.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:38:59 EST]]>
/Lee_Mary_Anna_Randolph_Custis_1807-1873 Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:30:05 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Mary Randolph Custis (1807–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Mary_Anna_Randolph_Custis_1807-1873 Mary Randolph Custis Lee was an artist, author, and early antislavery activist. The great-granddaughter of Martha Washington, she enjoyed virtually unequalled social status throughout her life. Tutored in history and philosophy, she became acquainted with the early republic's leaders, who visited her father's estate, Arlington. Following her mother's lead, she fought slavery, and helped to ease the lives of her own family's slaves. Her uncle's death in 1830 prompted a religious awakening, and marriage the next year to Robert E. Lee put her in the position of being an army wife, a somewhat uncomfortable role for someone of her background. She followed her husband to his various outposts, sketching her travels and becoming an artist of some note. While her connection to Lee did not immediately augment her social standing, when he led the Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War (1861–1865), she was accorded further deference. Mary Custis Lee had not supported secession, but she was a devoted Confederate, her grace under pressure making her a symbol of quiet strength in wartime Richmond. At the end of her life, she was embittered by the Union occupation of her beloved Arlington and felt betrayed by her family's former slaves. She died in 1873.
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:30:05 EST]]>
/Women_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:26:51 EST <![CDATA[Women during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Women_During_the_Civil_War Although women were not permitted to bear arms on the battlefront, they made invaluable contributions to and were deeply affected by the American Civil War (1861–1865). This was particularly true of women living in Virginia, since they witnessed more battles than did the women of any other state engaged in the conflict. The removal of hundreds of thousands of men from their homes, farms, and businesses necessitated the vastly increased participation of women, both black and white, in areas that they had been previously discouraged, if not forbidden, from pursuing. Differences of race and class, however, sometimes sharply divided their views and experiences. Some devoted everything they had to the service of the Confederacy, while others openly rebelled against it. The end of the war brought the collapse of both the Confederate government and slave society, and while freedom created a new commonality between the races and between women and men, it challenged them to redefine themselves and their society. In the words of diarist Lucy Buck from Front Royal, "We shall never any of us be the same as we have been."
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:26:51 EST]]>
/Mourning_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:23:53 EST <![CDATA[Mourning during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mourning_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:23:53 EST]]> /Pickett_LaSalle_Corbell_1843-1931 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:35:25 EST <![CDATA[Pickett, LaSalle Corbell (1843–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pickett_LaSalle_Corbell_1843-1931 LaSalle Corbell Pickett was a prolific author and lecturer, and the third wife of George E. Pickett, the Confederate general best known for his participation in the doomed frontal assault known as Pickett's Charge during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After her husband's death in 1875, she traveled the country to promote a highly romanticized version of his life and military career that was generally at odds with the historical record. George Pickett emerged from the war with a strained relationship with Robert E. Lee—whom he partly blamed for the destruction of his division at Gettysburg (1863)—and accused of war crimes. But in his wife's history, Pickett and His Men (1899), this not-always-competent soldier was transformed into the ideal Lost Cause hero, "gallant and graceful as a knight of chivalry riding to a tournament." This image largely stuck in the American consciousness, leaving historians to spend much of the next century attempting to separate Pickett from his myth.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:35:25 EST]]>
/Spencer_Anne_1882-1975 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:31:13 EST <![CDATA[Spencer, Anne (1882–1975)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Spencer_Anne_1882-1975 Anne Spencer was a poet, a civil rights activist, a teacher, a librarian, and a gardener. While fewer than thirty of her poems were published in her lifetime, she was an important figure of the black literary movement of the 1920s—the Harlem Renaissance—and only the second African American poet to be included in the Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry (1973). Noted for iambic verse preoccupied with biblical and mythological themes, Spencer found fans in such Harlem heavyweights as James Weldon Johnson, who commented on her "economy of phrase and compression of thought." In addition to her writing, Spencer helped to found the Lynchburg chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). She was also an avid gardener and hosted a salon at her Lynchburg garden, which attracted prominent figures of the Harlem Renaissance. Her former residence is now a museum that is open to the public.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:31:13 EST]]>
/Stuart_Flora_Cooke_1836-1923 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:25:10 EST <![CDATA[Stuart, Flora Cooke (1836–1923)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Stuart_Flora_Cooke_1836-1923 Flora Cooke Stuart was the wife of Confederate general J. E. B. Stuart and the daughter of Union general Philip St. George Cooke. She met Stuart, a dashing subordinate of her father, while living in the Kansas Territory in the 1850s, and after marrying, the two settled in Virginia. Secession, however, split their family, with Cooke, a respected cavalryman, remaining in the United States Army and Stuart eventually becoming chief of cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia. "He will regret it but once & that will be continually," Stuart said of his father-in-law's decision; he even renamed his and Flora's months'-old son, Philip St. George Cooke Stuart, after himself, James Ewell Brown Stuart Jr. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Flora Stuart spent as much time as possible in camp with her husband, and chafed at the generous attention he received from admiring women in Virginia and across the South. When Stuart died after being wounded at the Battle of Yellow Tavern (1864), she donned mourning garb and wore it for the remaining fifty-nine years of her life. During that time, she served as headmistress of a women's school in Staunton that was subsequently named for her. She later moved to Norfolk, where she died in 1923.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:25:10 EST]]>
/Woman_Suffrage_in_Virginia Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:03:36 EST <![CDATA[Woman Suffrage in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Woman_Suffrage_in_Virginia The woman suffrage movement, which sought voting rights for women, began in Virginia as early as 1870. In 1909, its most vocal supporters organized around the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia, which joined with national groups in an effort to change state and local laws and pass an amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The Nineteenth Amendment, which gave women the right to vote, was passed in Congress in 1919 and ratified by the states a year later. Virginia, however, delayed its ratification until 1952. By then, women had been voting and, slowly, winning elected office in the state for more than 30 years.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:03:36 EST]]>
/Howell_Henry_E_1920-1997 Thu, 08 Oct 2015 17:10:21 EST <![CDATA[Howell, Henry E. (1920–1997)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Howell_Henry_E_1920-1997 Henry E. Howell served in the House of Delegates (1960–1962, 1964–1965) and the Senate of Virginia (1966–1971), representing the Norfolk area. He was lieutenant governor of Virginia from 1971 to 1974. Howell ran unsuccessfully for governor three times, losing in the Democratic runoff primary in 1969 and in the general elections of 1973 and 1977. Howell was a harsh critic of Virginia's conservative Democratic political organization headed by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. Howell's principal achievements were as a member of the General Assembly and as an attorney representing clients in federal courts and before the Virginia State Corporation Commission. Howell was an avowed populist, a champion of the ordinary citizen against big economic interests and their political allies. He challenged the poll tax and represented plaintiffs seeking greater representation for urban areas in the General Assembly. Howell also sued the governor to stop the commonwealth from deducting the amount of federal appropriations to "impacted area" school systems from the State's aid to those school systems. Howell's consumer advocacy included numerous rate cases that resulted in rebates from automobile insurance, electric power, and telephone companies. Howell campaigned for Democratic candidates in his later years and died in 1997.
Thu, 08 Oct 2015 17:10:21 EST]]>
/Equal_Suffrage_League_of_Virginia_1909-1920 Thu, 03 Sep 2015 15:02:54 EST <![CDATA[Equal Suffrage League of Virginia (1909–1920)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Equal_Suffrage_League_of_Virginia_1909-1920 The Equal Suffrage League of Virginia was an organization of white women dedicated to securing for women the right to vote. Aligned with the national woman suffrage movement, the league worked for more than ten years lobbying the public and the General Assembly alike, until its efforts paid off when three-fourths of the United States state legislatures ratified the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920. The league failed, however, to persuade the Virginia General Assembly, which did not vote to ratify until 1952.
Thu, 03 Sep 2015 15:02:54 EST]]>
/Brooks_Lucy_Goode_1818-1900 Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:51:51 EST <![CDATA[Brooks, Lucy Goode (1818–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brooks_Lucy_Goode_1818-1900 Lucy Goode Brooks played the primary role in establishing the Friends' Asylum for Colored Orphans, an orphanage for African American children in Richmond, after the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born into slavery, she married Albert Royal Brooks, whose master allowed him to operate a livery stable and eating house. Although he eventually purchased his freedom and that of Lucy Brooks and several of their children, one daughter was sold by her owner to bondage in Tennessee. After Emancipation former slaves flocked to Richmond to look for missing family members. Having lost one of her own children to the slave trade, Lucy Brooks had a special concern for the plight of parentless children. She worked with the Ladies Sewing Circle for Charitable Work, a local Society of Friends meeting, and several black churches to create an orphanage. In March 1872 the General Assembly incorporated the Friends' Asylum for Colored Orphans, which remained in operation for almost sixty years. Brooks died in Richmond in 1900.
Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:51:51 EST]]>
/American_Civil_War_and_Virginia_The Fri, 26 Jun 2015 14:08:21 EST <![CDATA[Civil War in Virginia, The American]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/American_Civil_War_and_Virginia_The The American Civil War was fought from 1861 until 1865. It began after Virginia and ten other states in the southern United States seceded from the Union following the election of Abraham Lincoln as U.S. president in 1860. Worried that Lincoln would interfere with slavery and citing states' rights as a justification, Southern leaders established the Confederate States of America with Jefferson Davis as its president and Richmond as its capital. After Confederates fired on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, the war moved to Virginia. Union forces made several failed attempts to capture Richmond, and Confederate general Robert E. Lee twice invaded the North, only to be defeated in battle. Most, but not all, Virginians supported the Confederacy. In 1863, Unionists in the western part of the state established West Virginia. On the home front, both white and African American families suffered food shortages or were forced to flee their homes. The Confederate government instituted a draft, or conscription law, and in some cases impressed, or confiscated, private property. By the time Lee surrendered in 1865, much of the state had been ravaged by war. But the end of fighting also meant emancipation, or freedom, for enslaved African Americans. In the years that followed, many white Virginians saw their fight for independence as the Lost Cause, while black Virginians struggled to overcome institutionalized white supremacy and earn full citizenship rights.
Fri, 26 Jun 2015 14:08:21 EST]]>
/An_ACT_to_define_feeble-mindedness_1916 Wed, 20 May 2015 10:51:15 EST <![CDATA[An ACT to define feeble-mindedness (1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_to_define_feeble-mindedness_1916 Wed, 20 May 2015 10:51:15 EST]]> /Cox_Lucy_Ann_White_d_December_17_1891 Tue, 10 Mar 2015 13:39:07 EST <![CDATA[Cox, Lucy Ann White (d. 1891)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cox_Lucy_Ann_White_d_December_17_1891 Lucy Ann White Cox was a vivandière, or daughter of the regiment, during the American Civil War (1861–1865). In 1862 Cox married James A. Cox, a member of Company A of the 30th Virginia Infantry Regiment. She joined his unit in an unofficial capacity, and acted as a cook, laundress, nurse, and general helpmate for the men in Company A for nearly the duration of the war. The 30th Virginia fought most notably in the 1862 Maryland Campaign and at the Battle of Fredericksburg (1862) and during the Petersburg Campaign in 1864. Although few specific details are known about Cox's life, the celebration of her wartime service after her death earned her recognition from many Confederate memorialists. Confederate Veterans and Sons of Confederate Veterans participated in her funeral in 1891. Later, Cox was specifically cited in an 1894 speech calling for the erection of a monument in Richmond to the women of the Confederacy, and the Fredericksburg chapter of the Order of Southern Gray, a Virginia women's Civil War preservation organization, bears her name.
Tue, 10 Mar 2015 13:39:07 EST]]>
/Addison_Lucy_1861-1937 Tue, 10 Feb 2015 10:16:50 EST <![CDATA[Addison, Lucy (1861–1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Addison_Lucy_1861-1937 Lucy Addison was a teacher and elementary school principal in Roanoke who was largely responsible for bringing high school–level education to the city's African Americans. Born enslaved in Fauquier County, she earned a teaching diploma in Philadelphia. Addison taught briefly in Loudoun County before moving to Roanoke in 1887. She served briefly as an interim principal at the city's First Ward Colored School before resuming her regular teaching duties. In 1918 she became principal of the Harrison School. Although the school offered classes only up to grade eight, Addison campaigned for a secondary-school curriculum, steadily adding advanced classes. The State Board of Education accredited Harrison as a high school in 1924. Addison retired from the position after the 1926–1927 school year, and the city named the school after her in 1928. It was Roanoke's first public building named after one of its own citizens. Addison, who never married, died in 1937 in Washington, D.C.
Tue, 10 Feb 2015 10:16:50 EST]]>
/Jones_Sarah_Garland_Boyd_1866-1905 Mon, 26 Jan 2015 14:14:32 EST <![CDATA[Jones, Sarah Garland Boyd (1866–1905)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jones_Sarah_Garland_Boyd_1866-1905 Sarah Garland Boyd Jones became the first African American woman to pass the Virginia Medical Examining Board's examination. Jones grew up among Richmond's black elite and became a teacher upon graduating from Richmond Colored Normal School. She entered Howard University's medical school in 1890 and earned her medical degree three years later. Jones established a successful practice in Richmond. She and her physician husband helped create a medical association for Virginia's African American doctors, and the pair opened their own small hospital. In 1922, the Sarah G. Jones Memorial Hospital, Medical College and Training School for Nurses (later Richmond Community Hospital) was named in her honor.
Mon, 26 Jan 2015 14:14:32 EST]]>
/Adair_Cornelia_Storrs_1884-1962 Thu, 15 Jan 2015 09:39:05 EST <![CDATA[Adair, Cornelia Storrs (1884–1962)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Adair_Cornelia_Storrs_1884-1962 Cornelia Storrs Adair served as president of the National Education Association (NEA), a teachers' union, from 1927 to 1928, the first classroom teacher to be elected to that position. A native of West Virginia, she attended school in Richmond and began her teaching career there in 1904. She taught at various elementary schools, received a degree from the College of William and Mary (1923) and served as principal of Richmond's Franklin Elementary School from 1931 until her retirement in 1954. In 1934, Adair became the first woman awarded William and Mary's Alumni Medallion. Adair attributed her passion for education to her aunt of the same name, one of the pioneer public school teachers in Richmond. Always active in union work, Adair was a longtime member of the Virginia Education Association and the Teachers' Co-operative Association. In addition to presiding over the NEA, she served as president of the National League of Teachers Associations (1919) and the National League of Classroom Teachers (1927). A traditionalist in the classroom, Adair supported universal education, arts education, and education for the physically disabled. Adair died in Charlottesville in 1962. The next year William and Mary opened the Cornelia Storrs Adair Gymnasium (later Adair Hall).
Thu, 15 Jan 2015 09:39:05 EST]]>
/Diary_of_Sarah_A_G_Strickler_March_2-10_1865 Sat, 20 Dec 2014 14:46:55 EST <![CDATA[Diary of Sarah A. G. Strickler (March 2–10, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Diary_of_Sarah_A_G_Strickler_March_2-10_1865 Sat, 20 Dec 2014 14:46:55 EST]]> /Byrd_Mary_Willing_1740-1814 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:35:12 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, Mary Willing (1740–1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Mary_Willing_1740-1814 Mary Willing Byrd was the wife of William Byrd III and, after his death, the inheritor and protector of the Byrd family estate of Westover, in Charles City County. Born in Philadelphia and the goddaughter of Benjamin Franklin, she married Byrd in 1761; he was then serving in the French and Indian War (1754–1763). During the American Revolution (1775–1783), William Byrd, in debt and accused of loyalty to the British, committed suicide. Mary Willing Byrd spent much of the war settling his massive debts and attempting to stay on the right side of both British and American forces. Although charged by the Americans in 1781 with trading with the enemy, she was never tried. Byrd died in March 1814, still in control of Westover.
Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:35:12 EST]]>
/Cline_Patsy_1932-1963 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:13:11 EST <![CDATA[Cline, Patsy (1932–1963)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cline_Patsy_1932-1963 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:13:11 EST]]> /Morgan_v_Virginia Mon, 20 Oct 2014 14:38:24 EST <![CDATA[Morgan v. Virginia (1946)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_v_Virginia In Morgan v. Virginia, decided on June 3, 1946, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down a Virginia law requiring racial segregation on commercial interstate buses as a violation of the commerce clause of the U.S. Constitution. The appellant, Irene Morgan, was riding a Greyhound bus from Hayes Store, in Gloucester County, to Baltimore, Maryland, in 1944 when she was arrested and convicted in Saluda for refusing to give up her seat to a white person. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) filed appeals on her behalf, and after the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals ruled against Morgan in 1945, the U.S. Supreme Court heard her arguments. The case came near the end of a string of decisions, dating back to 1878, in which various courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court, had found that the commerce clause did not support state laws that regulated commercial interstate passenger travel. Morgan v. Virginia was not a typical civil rights case in that it did not comment on a state's right to segregate whites from blacks. Still, Morgan's refusal to give up her seat foreshadowed Rosa Parks's more famous action a decade later and marked an early and important victory in the civil rights movement.
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 14:38:24 EST]]>
/Randolph_Martha_Jefferson_1772-1836 Fri, 03 Oct 2014 16:42:43 EST <![CDATA[Randolph, Martha Jefferson (1772–1836)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Randolph_Martha_Jefferson_1772-1836 Martha Jefferson Randolph was the daughter of Thomas Jefferson and the wife of Thomas Mann Randolph, who served as governor of Virginia from 1819 to 1822. She grew up at Monticello and spent time in Williamsburg, Richmond, and Philadelphia before accompanying her widowed father to Paris, France, where she attended the Abbaye Royale de Panthemont, a prestigious convent school. After she returned to Virginia, she married and bore twelve children, eleven of whom survived to adulthood. Although she was the daughter of a president, the wife of a governor, and arguably the most highly educated woman in Virginia, Randolph's life was in many ways representative. Widely admired for her intelligence, sociability, and conversational skills, she was an exemplar of genteel white womanhood who was said to possess a "perfect temper" and who immersed herself in the trials and joys of marriage, motherhood, and plantation life. Randolph and her children lived mainly at Monticello, although her husband owned the nearby plantation Edgehill. Occasionally during her father's presidency, and throughout his retirement, she acted as hostess. Her presence reinforced Jefferson's image as a devoted family man with a stable domestic life, though fulfilling this role in her father's life may have exacerbated her already strained marriage. Both father and husband struggled and ultimately failed to remain solvent. After their deaths in 1826 and 1828, respectively, Randolph lived with her married children. She died at Edgehill on October 10, 1836.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 16:42:43 EST]]>
/Valentine_Lila_Meade_1865-1921 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 12:45:16 EST <![CDATA[Valentine, Lila Meade (1865–1921)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Valentine_Lila_Meade_1865-1921 Lila Meade Valentine was a suffragist, education reformer, and public-health advocate. During her abbreviated life, she played a vital role in creating and running organizations that improved the health-care and public school systems of her native city of Richmond. Valentine also became an ardent supporter of woman suffrage early in the 1900s, cofounding the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia and serving as an active member of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. A talented organizer and an eloquent speaker, Valentine led efforts on behalf of suffrage that came to fruition in 1920, when the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified, giving women the right to vote.
Mon, 15 Sep 2014 12:45:16 EST]]>
/Fain_Sarah_Lee_1888-1962 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 09:27:06 EST <![CDATA[Fain, Sarah Lee (1888–1962)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fain_Sarah_Lee_1888-1962 Sarah Lee Fain was one of the first two women elected to serve in the Virginia General Assembly following ratification in 1920 of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which gave American women the right to vote. When she took her seat as a delegate from Norfolk in January 1924, Fain and her legislative colleague Helen Timmons Henderson, of Buchanan County, became pioneers whose presence in the Virginia State Capitol signaled the start of women's full participation in the political life of the state. Virginia changed slowly, however, and six more decades would pass before women served in the state's legislature in appreciable numbers.
Mon, 15 Sep 2014 09:27:06 EST]]>
/Bowser_Rosa_L_Dixon_1855-1931 Wed, 03 Sep 2014 14:06:55 EST <![CDATA[Bowser, Rosa L. Dixon (1855–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowser_Rosa_L_Dixon_1855-1931 Rosa L. Dixon Bowser, educator and civic leader, played a key role in implementing reforms that affected Virginia's African Americans. Bowser was most likely born enslaved. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), she moved to Richmond with her family and enrolled in public school, where she showed remarkable intelligence. She went on to become a teacher in Richmond's public schools. Her efforts on behalf of educators helped create Virginia's first professional African American teacher's association, and she later served as its president. Throughout her teaching career Bowser, like her contemporaries Janie Porter Barrett and Maggie Lena Walker, worked for societal improvement. She played a major role in African American reform organizations, industrial schools for black children, groups supporting universal woman suffrage, and associations publicly opposed to lynching and racial segregation. The first branch of the Richmond public library to be opened for African Americans was named for Bowser in 1925. She died of complications from diabetes in 1931 at her home in Richmond.
Wed, 03 Sep 2014 14:06:55 EST]]>
/Charity_Ruth_LaCountess_Harvey_Wood_1924-1996 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 16:09:13 EST <![CDATA[Charity, Ruth LaCountess Harvey Wood (1924–1996)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Charity_Ruth_LaCountess_Harvey_Wood_1924-1996 Ruth LaCountess Harvey Wood Charity was a civil rights activist and defense attorney in Danville. Nonviolent demonstrations emerging from the Danville Movement in June 1963 resulted in a violent response from authorities and hundreds of arrests. Charity and a few local attorneys defended protesters through complicated state and federal appeals from 1964 until 1973. Danville's voters elected her to the city council in 1970, becoming the first African American woman to sit on the body. From 1972 to 1980, she was one of four Virginia members of the Democratic National Committee. Charity lost her law license in 1984 when she was convicted of embezzling from two clients' estates. In 1985 she moved to Alexandria and worked for the Fairfax Human Rights Commission. Charity died in Greenbelt, Maryland, in 1996.
Thu, 14 Aug 2014 16:09:13 EST]]>
/Cooper_Esther_Georgia_Irving_1881-1970 Fri, 08 Aug 2014 16:14:34 EST <![CDATA[Cooper, Esther Georgia Irving (1881–1970)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooper_Esther_Georgia_Irving_1881-1970 Fri, 08 Aug 2014 16:14:34 EST]]> /Aggie_Mary_fl_1728-1731 Thu, 07 Aug 2014 15:02:35 EST <![CDATA[Aggie, Mary (fl. 1728–1731)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Aggie_Mary_fl_1728-1731 Mary Aggie was a slave who became a principal in a court case that changed Virginia's statute law. Although unsuccessful in suing for her freedom in 1728, she demonstrated her belief in Christianity to the satisfaction of the presiding judge, Lieutenant Governor William Gooch. In 1730 she was convicted by the York County court of oyer and terminer of stealing from her owner, which ordinarily would have doomed her to death or severe corporal punishment. In 1731, however, Gooch had her case sent to the General Court, where he hoped she could secure the benefit of clergy, a privilege in English law dating back centuries in which literate persons could escape death or the severest penalties for first convictions on most capital offenses. Before a final verdict could be rendered, on May 6, 1731, Gooch and the governor's Council pardoned Aggie on the condition that she would be sold out of the colony. The General Assembly referred to Aggie's cases in passing a law on July 1, 1732, that allowed virtually all Virginians to plead benefit of clergy except in certain cases, a privilege that continued for another sixty years.
Thu, 07 Aug 2014 15:02:35 EST]]>
/Adams_Pauline_1874-1957 Thu, 07 Aug 2014 13:38:36 EST <![CDATA[Adams, Pauline (1874–1957)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Adams_Pauline_1874-1957 Pauline Adams was an Irish-born suffrage activist who took an extraordinarily active role in her community for a woman at that time. Born in 1874, Adams arrived in the United States during the 1890s. She married a physician in 1898 and they soon settled in Norfolk. There, she served as president of the Norfolk League, a National American Woman Suffrage Association affiliate. Her militant approach to securing suffrage alienated many other women in the area. Although she supported the United States' entry into World War I (1914–1917) and sold War Bonds, she was arrested and jailed at the Occoquan Workhouse after waving suffrage banners in front of President Woodrow Wilson during a selective service parade. After the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, Adams became a lawyer and remained active in politics. She died in 1957.
Thu, 07 Aug 2014 13:38:36 EST]]>
/Downes_Elizabeth_James_Morris_1886-1968 Wed, 06 Aug 2014 17:13:35 EST <![CDATA[Downes, Elizabeth James Morris (1886–1968)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Downes_Elizabeth_James_Morris_1886-1968 Elizabeth James Morris Downes was a leader among Virginia's Baptist women for much of the twentieth century. Downes rose to prominence in 1910 when she became superintendent for the Eastern Shore's chapters of the Women's Missionary Union (WMU), a position she held until she became president of the the state organization in 1931. Though her presidency of the WMU of Virginia took place during the Great Depression, the association continued to fund missions and created the Interracial Department to improve African American education. Her term as president ended in 1934. Downes then became state chair of the Margaret Fund, which provided scholarship aid to children of Baptist missionaries, from 1935 until her retirement in 1950.
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 17:13:35 EST]]>
/Agnew_Ella_Graham_1871-1958 Sat, 02 Aug 2014 11:59:13 EST <![CDATA[Agnew, Ella G. (1871–1958)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Agnew_Ella_Graham_1871-1958 Ella G. Agnew was a prominent educator and social worker who advanced employment opportunities for women early in the 1900s long before there was a woman's liberation movement. She served as the first president of the Virginia Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs and worked in the national office of the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA). During the Great Depression, Agnew directed women's relief activities in Virginia.
Sat, 02 Aug 2014 11:59:13 EST]]>
/Fay_Lydia_Mary_ca_1804-1878 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 15:09:23 EST <![CDATA[Fay, Lydia Mary (ca. 1804–1878)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fay_Lydia_Mary_ca_1804-1878 Lydia Mary Fay was an educator who supervised an Episcopal mission school in Shanghai almost continuously from 1851 until her death in 1878. Between 1839 and 1850, when she volunteered to go to China, Fay worked as a governess and educator in Virginia and New York. Her mission work was inspired by Bishop William Meade and Rector Charles Backus Dana of Alexandria's Christ Episcopal Church, which she attended while living in Fairfax County. Fay became so proficient in Chinese that she supervised the translation of texts into English and taught composition courses in both languages. The year after Fay's death, the school merged with another Episcopal boarding school in Shanghai to form Saint John's College.
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 15:09:23 EST]]>
/Will_of_Mary_Willing_Byrd_December_1813 Mon, 21 Jul 2014 13:51:09 EST <![CDATA[Will of Mary Willing Byrd (December 1813)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Will_of_Mary_Willing_Byrd_December_1813 Mon, 21 Jul 2014 13:51:09 EST]]> /Boyd_Belle_1844-1900 Sun, 29 Jun 2014 13:09:55 EST <![CDATA[Boyd, Belle (1844–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boyd_Belle_1844-1900 Belle Boyd was one of the most famous Confederate spies during the American Civil War (1861–1865), repeatedly and under dangerous circumstances managing to relay information on Union troop strengths and movements to Confederate commanders in the field. According to Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, the intelligence she provided helped the general to win victories in the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1862. Authorities suspected her of being a spy almost from the start, and the Union imprisoned her multiple times, but Boyd was a master of manipulation. Her ability to exploit a soldier's sense of chivalry and the Victorian male's natural deference to "ladies" became legendary and may help explain why so many of the war's best spies were women. In 1864, she fled to London, England, where she married one of her captors and later penned a memoir, Belle Boyd in Camp and in Prison (1865), that detailed her exploits and attracted international attention.
Sun, 29 Jun 2014 13:09:55 EST]]>
/Byrne_Leslie_1946- Sun, 15 Jun 2014 10:10:47 EST <![CDATA[Byrne, Leslie (1946– )]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrne_Leslie_1946- Leslie Byrne was the first woman elected to the U.S. Congress from Virginia, serving as a Democrat for one term, from January 3, 1993, until January 3, 1995. Byrne emerged as a skilled fund-raiser and hard-nosed campaigner, but her tenure in Congress was marked by Democratic defeats over health care issues and her own sometimes difficult relationships with fellow representatives. In addition to her term in Congress, Byrne served in the House of Delegates (1986–1992) and the Senate of Virginia (2000–2003). She also served as the White House Director of Consumer Affairs under U.S. president Bill Clinton.
Sun, 15 Jun 2014 10:10:47 EST]]>
/_Recruiting_Women_to_Come_to_Virginia_Excerpts_from_the_Records_of_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_1619_1621 Fri, 06 Jun 2014 15:30:14 EST <![CDATA[Recruiting Women to Come to Virginia; excerpts from the Records of the Virginia Company of London (1619, 1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Recruiting_Women_to_Come_to_Virginia_Excerpts_from_the_Records_of_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_1619_1621 Fri, 06 Jun 2014 15:30:14 EST]]> /Smith_Howard_Worth_1883-1976 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 13:28:44 EST <![CDATA[Smith, Howard Worth (1883–1976)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_Howard_Worth_1883-1976 Howard W. Smith, a Virginia Democratic congressman, was one of America's most powerful politicians from the New Deal to the Great Society. A master obstructionist who chaired the House Rules Committee, he used his power to fight the liberal agendas of presidential administrations from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Lyndon B. Johnson. He was particularly concerned about the influence of Communists and wrote the Alien Registration Act of 1940, legislation that eventually paved the way for government targeting of radicals during the Cold War. He also saw Communism at the heart of the civil rights movement and attempted to kill the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by introducing an amendment to include women under its provisions. Ironically, this helped the measure pass and stands as an important part of Smith's legacy.
Thu, 05 Jun 2014 13:28:44 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_the_reliefe_of_such_loyall_persons_as_have_suffered_losse_by_the_late_rebels_1677 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 14:53:27 EST <![CDATA[An act for the releife of such loyall persons as have suffered losse by the late rebels (1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_the_reliefe_of_such_loyall_persons_as_have_suffered_losse_by_the_late_rebels_1677 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 14:53:27 EST]]> /The_Humble_Petition_of_Sarah_Drummond_1677 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 11:18:09 EST <![CDATA[The Humble Petition of Sarah Drummond (1677)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Humble_Petition_of_Sarah_Drummond_1677 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 11:18:09 EST]]> /Davis_Varina_1826-1906 Mon, 02 Jun 2014 17:46:42 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Varina (1826–1906)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Varina_1826-1906 Varina Howell Davis was the second wife of Confederate president Jefferson Davis and the First Lady of the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865). She was manifestly ill-suited for this role because of her family background, education, personality, physical appearance, and her fifteen-year antebellum residence in Washington, D.C. (She once declared that the worst years of her life were spent in the Confederate capital at Richmond while the happiest were in Washington.) A native of the urban South, she always preferred the city to the country, and after her husband died in 1889, she moved to New York, where she resided until her death in 1906.
Mon, 02 Jun 2014 17:46:42 EST]]>
/Ann_fl_1706-1712 Fri, 30 May 2014 14:26:22 EST <![CDATA[Ann (fl. 1706–1712)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ann_fl_1706-1712 Ann was a Pamunkey chief and a successor to the most famous Pamunkey queen, Cockacoeske, who led the Pamunkey for thirty years until her death in 1686. Cockacoeske was succeeded by an unidentified niece, perhaps the leader whose mark and the name "Mrs. Betty, the Queen," appear on a petition requesting the confirmation of a sale of Pamunkey land to English subjects that was submitted to the General Court on October 22, 1701. Sparse documentation and the Powhatan Indians' practice of changing their names on important occasions have led to confusion in identifying the principal leaders of the Pamunkey. It has been conjectured that the niece who succeeded Cockacoeske, Mrs. Betty, and Ann were the same woman and that she changed her name to Ann after Queen Anne ascended the English throne in 1702. In the few records that bear the mark of Ann, she fought for the rights of her people. For example, eighteenth-century petitions that she and the great men of the Pamunkey submitted to the colonial government request that squatters on Indian land be removed, that ownership of tribal lands be confirmed, and that the annual tribute be reduced. Ann likely died about 1723.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:26:22 EST]]>
/Cockacoeske_d_by_July_1_1686 Fri, 30 May 2014 13:08:48 EST <![CDATA[Cockacoeske (d. by July 1, 1686)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cockacoeske_d_by_July_1_1686 Cockacoeske, also known as Cockacoeweske, was a Pamunkey chief, and a descendant of Opechancanough, brother of the paramount chief Powhatan. After the death of her husband, Totopotomoy, chief of the Pamunkey from about 1649 until 1656, Cockacoeske became queen of the Pamunkey. In 1676, a few months before the outbreak of Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), the insurrection's leader, Nathaniel Bacon, and his followers attacked the Pamunkey, took captives, and killed some of Cockacoeske's people. That summer she appeared before a committee of burgesses and governor's Council members in Jamestown to discuss the number of warriors she could provide to defend the colony against frontier tribes. She gave a speech reminding the colonists of Pamunkey warriors killed while fighting alongside the colonists. In February 1677 she asked the General Assembly for the release of Pamunkey who had been taken captive and for the restoration of Pamunkey property. An astute politician, Cockacoeske signed the Treaty of Middle Plantation on May 29, 1677, reuniting under her authority several tribes that had not been under Powhatan domination since 1646. Cockacoeske ruled the Pamunkey until her death in 1686.
Fri, 30 May 2014 13:08:48 EST]]>
/Ford_Antonia_1838-1871 Tue, 27 May 2014 07:47:32 EST <![CDATA[Ford, Antonia (1838–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ford_Antonia_1838-1871 Antonia Ford was a Confederate spy during the American Civil War (1861–1865), credited with providing the military information gathered from her Fairfax Court House home during the First Battle of Manassas (1861) and in the two years following. In October 1861, Confederate cavalry general J. E. B. Stuart issued an order declaring her an honorary aide-de-camp. The document was used against Ford in 1863, however, when she was accused of spying for John Singleton Mosby, whose partisan rangers famously captured the Union general Edwin H. Stoughton in his headquarters. Mosby later denied that Ford ever spied for him. After several months in prison, Ford was released and married one of her captors, Union major Joseph C. Willard. Ford stopped spying, Willard resigned from the army, and they returned to managing the Willard Hotel in Washington, D.C., and had three children.
Tue, 27 May 2014 07:47:32 EST]]>
/Gibson_Irene_Langhorne_1873-1956 Sun, 25 May 2014 10:23:37 EST <![CDATA[Gibson, Irene Langhorne (1873–1956)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gibson_Irene_Langhorne_1873-1956 Irene Langhorne Gibson, a native of Danville, Virginia, chaired the Child Planning and Adoption Committee of New York's State Charities Association for twenty-five years. She founded the New York branch of the Southern Women's Educational Alliance, was a member of the Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children, and helped found and was a director of the Protestant Big Sisters, on whose board she served for many years. Though she was a politically active and influential spokeswoman throughout her life, she may best be known as the incarnation of the Progressive Era's model "New Woman"—the "Gibson Girl," a social and fashion template created and popularized by her famous illustrator husband, Charles Dana Gibson.
Sun, 25 May 2014 10:23:37 EST]]>
/_Miss_Mary_Johnston_A_Suffrage_Worker_June_11_1911 Mon, 12 May 2014 09:23:32 EST <![CDATA["Miss Mary Johnston: A Suffrage Worker" (June 11, 1911)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Miss_Mary_Johnston_A_Suffrage_Worker_June_11_1911 Mon, 12 May 2014 09:23:32 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Mallory_to_A_S_Priddy_November_5_1917 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:42:09 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Mallory to A. S. Priddy (November 5, 1917)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Mallory_to_A_S_Priddy_November_5_1917 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:42:09 EST]]> /Chapter_46B_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:37:48 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 46B of the Code of Virginia § 1095h–m (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_46B_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:37:48 EST]]> /Notice_of_Appeal_October_3_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:51:24 EST <![CDATA[Notice of Appeal (October 3, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Notice_of_Appeal_October_3_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:51:24 EST]]> /Petition_to_Commit_Carrie_Buck_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:48:29 EST <![CDATA[Petition to Commit Carrie Buck (January 23, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_to_Commit_Carrie_Buck_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:48:29 EST]]> /Carrie_Buck_Committed_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:19:50 EST <![CDATA[Carrie Buck Committed (January 23, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carrie_Buck_Committed_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:19:50 EST]]> /Petition_to_Sterilize_Carrie_Buck_September_10_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:15:28 EST <![CDATA[Petition to Sterilize Carrie Buck (September 10, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_to_Sterilize_Carrie_Buck_September_10_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:15:28 EST]]> /Carrie_Buck_Adjudged_Feeble-minded_or_Epileptic_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:11:58 EST <![CDATA[Carrie Buck Adjudged "Feeble-minded or Epileptic" (January 23, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carrie_Buck_Adjudged_Feeble-minded_or_Epileptic_January_23_1924 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:11:58 EST]]> /Judgment_Against_Carrie_Buck_April_13_1925 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:08:44 EST <![CDATA[Judgment Against Carrie Buck (April 13, 1925)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judgment_Against_Carrie_Buck_April_13_1925 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 11:08:44 EST]]> /_A_Feminist_Novel_Miss_Johnston_s_Hagar_a_Tale_and_a_Theory_by_Helen_Bullis_November_2_1913 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 08:37:39 EST <![CDATA["A Feminist Novel: Miss Johnston's 'Hagar' a Tale and a Theory" by Helen Bullis (November 2, 1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Feminist_Novel_Miss_Johnston_s_Hagar_a_Tale_and_a_Theory_by_Helen_Bullis_November_2_1913 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 08:37:39 EST]]> /Dinwiddie_Emily_Wayland_1879-1949 Wed, 02 Apr 2014 17:01:14 EST <![CDATA[Dinwiddie, Emily Wayland (1879–1949)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dinwiddie_Emily_Wayland_1879-1949 Emily Wayland Dinwiddie was a social worker and reformer. Born in Virginia, she helped to professionalize and systematize social work. She drew on her experience as a tenement inspector in New York, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh to write handbooks, manuals, and forms. In her reports Dinwiddie placed an emphasis on maintaining high standards of public health and sanitation in city tenements. In 1918 she joined the American Red Cross in France, and continued to work for the organization until 1922. Five years later Dinwiddie became director of the Children's Bureau at the Virginia State Board of Public Welfare. She also took a leave of absence to write Virginia State Hospitals for Mental Patients (1934), a comprehensive report of the state's public mental hospitals. Dinwiddie moved to Kansas in 1934 to work for the Emergency Relief Administration. She retired from public service in 1938 and died in Virginia in 1949.
Wed, 02 Apr 2014 17:01:14 EST]]>
/Johnston_Mary_1870-1936 Thu, 20 Mar 2014 15:00:33 EST <![CDATA[Johnston, Mary (1870–1936)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Johnston_Mary_1870-1936 Mary Johnston was a novelist, suffragist, and social advocate, as well as the first woman to top best-seller lists in the twentieth century. Born in Botetourt County to a businessman and Confederate veteran, she was largely self-educated. After the death of her mother and during a financial downturn, she began writing in order to help support her family. It worked. Johnston's second and most famous novel, To Have and to Hold (1900), broke existing publishing records by selling 60,000 copies in advance and more than 135,000 copies during its first week of publication. A romantic tale of colonial Virginia, the book proved to be the biggest popular success between the publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852 and Gone with the Wind in 1936. Two novels of the American Civil War (1861–1865) ran her afoul of some prominent southerners, including Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's widow, while her increased interest in mysticism puzzled readers and led to a critical and popular decline. Still, Johnston's social activism may be of more lasting importance than her literary output. She was an early member of the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia, using her reputation as a "southern lady" to the movement's full advantage. And in 1923, she wrote the influential short story "Nemesis," depicting the horrors of lynching. Johnston, who never married, died at her home in Bath County in 1936.
Thu, 20 Mar 2014 15:00:33 EST]]>
/Magill_Mary_Tucker_1830-1899 Sat, 08 Mar 2014 16:36:38 EST <![CDATA[Magill, Mary Tucker (1830–1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Magill_Mary_Tucker_1830-1899 Mary Tucker Magill was a Virginia educator and author whose work portrays the generation of Virginians who endured the hardships of defeat following the American Civil War (1861–1865) and looked ahead to the next century by embracing innovative ideas on health and well-being. Magill wrote two conservative textbooks on Virginia history and a forward-thinking manual of exercises for women. She was also a novelist and short-story writer whose fiction, like her historicism, depicted an idealized version of plantation life in the Old South.
Sat, 08 Mar 2014 16:36:38 EST]]>
/Mason_Lucy_Randolph_1882-1959 Thu, 06 Mar 2014 07:48:45 EST <![CDATA[Mason, Lucy Randolph (1882–1959)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mason_Lucy_Randolph_1882-1959 Lucy Randolph Mason was a social liberal and prominent labor activist who took advantage of a genteel southern pedigree in order to promote the aggressive Congress of Industrial Organizations throughout the South from the 1930s to the 1950s.
Thu, 06 Mar 2014 07:48:45 EST]]>
/Van_Lew_Elizabeth_L_1818-1900 Mon, 24 Feb 2014 15:10:06 EST <![CDATA[Van Lew, Elizabeth L. (1818–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Van_Lew_Elizabeth_L_1818-1900 Elizabeth Van Lew was a Richmond Unionist and abolitionist who spied for the United States government during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Leading a network of a dozen or so white and African American women and men, she relayed information on Confederate operations to Union generals and assisted in the care and sometimes escape of Union prisoners of war being held in the Confederate capital. Van Lew, who worked with invisible ink and coded messages, has been called "the most skilled, innovative, and successful" of all Civil War–era spies. While some historians have claimed that she was open about her Unionist politics, deflecting suspicion by behaving as if she were mentally ill, others have argued that these "Crazy Bet" stories are a myth. After the war, Van Lew served as postmaster of Richmond during the administration of U.S. president Ulysses S. Grant, one of the generals to whom she had once fed information.
Mon, 24 Feb 2014 15:10:06 EST]]>
/Roberts_Ruby_Altizer_1907-2004 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 10:19:21 EST <![CDATA[Roberts, Ruby Altizer (1907–2004)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Roberts_Ruby_Altizer_1907-2004 Ruby Altizer Roberts is the author of two collections of poetry, three memoirs, a children's book, and a genealogy. She was named Virginia's first female poet laureate in 1950 and, until 1994, was the only woman to have held the post. In addition, Roberts edited the poetry journal The Lyric from 1952 until 1977. In 1961 she received an honorary doctor of humanities degree from the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, and in 1992, the General Assembly designated her Poet Laureate Emerita of Virginia.
Sun, 05 Jan 2014 10:19:21 EST]]>
/Seawell_Molly_Elliot_1860-1916 Wed, 01 Jan 2014 16:58:02 EST <![CDATA[Seawell, Molly Elliot (1860–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Seawell_Molly_Elliot_1860-1916 Molly Elliot Seawell was the author of forty books, including regional fiction, romances, books for boys (primarily nautical stories), and nonfiction. She also penned political columns for newspapers in Washington, D.C., and New York. Socially conservative, she opposed the growing woman suffrage movement, and her consistent depictions of African Americans as servants and slaves—while acceptable to and endorsed by much of her white readership at that time—reflected her belief that blacks were inferior and peripheral members of society. Despite her social views, critics often described her books, many of which were reviewed in the New York Times, as "sweet" or "wholesome." Though her books boasted vividly drawn characters, they did not pursue the themes and styles of literary realism that characterized the more progressive literary trends of her time. Seawell, however, remained a single woman and worked as a prolific writer who supported her household by her various publications.
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 16:58:02 EST]]>
/Sherwood_Grace_ca_1660-1740 Wed, 01 Jan 2014 16:10:48 EST <![CDATA[Sherwood, Grace (ca. 1660–1740)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sherwood_Grace_ca_1660-1740 Grace Sherwood was the defendant in colonial Virginia's most notorious witch trial, which took place in Princess Anne County in 1706. Sherwood was rumored to be a witch as early as 1698, when she and her husband sued their neighbors for defamation and slander. They lost their cases, and in 1705 another neighbor pressed criminal charges of witchcraft against Grace Sherwood. She was subjected to a water test in which the accused is bound, thrown into a body of water (in this case, the Lynnhaven River), and found guilty if he or she floats. Sherwood floated, but instead of sentencing her to death, the justices jailed her and ordered a re-trial. Whether a second trial occurred is not known. By 1714, Sherwood had been released from prison and returned to her home in Pungo, where she died in 1740.
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 16:10:48 EST]]>
/Thompson_Ida_Mae_1866-1947 Fri, 27 Dec 2013 06:42:46 EST <![CDATA[Thompson, Ida Mae (1866–1947)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thompson_Ida_Mae_1866-1947 Ida Mae Thompson was an important figure in Virginia's woman suffrage movement, not for her political work but for her recordkeeping. First as a member of the Equal Suffrage League, the organization that led the effort to win women the right to vote, and then as a member of the League of Women Voters, Thompson collected and preserved the movement's history.
Fri, 27 Dec 2013 06:42:46 EST]]>
/Women_in_Colonial_Virginia Thu, 21 Nov 2013 17:57:52 EST <![CDATA[Women in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Women_in_Colonial_Virginia The record of women in colonial Virginia begins with Native Americans and gradually includes European and African women. The experiences of these women differed widely depending on their ethnicity, their status, and the gender roles defined by their culture. In the colony's early years, survival, not tradition, influenced the roles of men and women, whether white or black, free or unfree. Planters' wives, indentured servants, and slaves labored in the tobacco fields alongside one another, while an unmarried woman with land could engage in business the same way a man might. As Jamestown grew from a fortified outpost into the capital of a permanent colony, colonists began to envision a stable society based on the patriarchal system they had known in England, where men held authority over their wives, children, and other dependents. But the uneven sex ratio, the scattered nature of settlement, the high mortality rate, and frequent remarriages made the transfer of such ideas difficult, if not impossible. Historians agree that a society with less emphasis on gender roles gradually ceded to the traditional patriarchal system, but the exact timing of this change is not entirely clear. By the mid-seventeenth century, the colony's lawmakers began to use ideas about gender and race to codify two distinct roles for Virginia women: the so-called good wife, typically free and white, who performed domestic work in her home and raised her children; and the agricultural laborer, typically enslaved and black. By the end of the seventeenth century, members of the planter elite had separated themselves from the rest of Virginia's residents with their landed wealth, enslaved laborers, and wives who managed their homes. Although middling women (women of moderate means) continued to work alongside their husbands in the fields and operate taverns and other businesses well into the eighteenth century, all classes of women became relegated to the private sphere while their husbands increasingly dominated the public world. By the end of the colonial period, women, whether rich or poor, urban or rural, were expected to skillfully manage a household and provide an example for their children—acts that bolstered patriarchal authority in colonial Virginia.
Thu, 21 Nov 2013 17:57:52 EST]]>
/Dyer_Carrie_Victoria_1839-1921 Sat, 19 Oct 2013 12:18:15 EST <![CDATA[Dyer, Carrie Victoria (1839–1921)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dyer_Carrie_Victoria_1839-1921 Carrie Victoria Dyer was a key founder of Hartshorn Memorial College, an African American Baptist women's college in Richmond that later merged with Virginia Union University. Dyer, who spent her early years in Michigan and Vermont, initially taught black students in Providence, Rhode Island, and Nashville. She and Hartshorn co-founder Lyman Beecher Tefft believed female students were better served by single-sex education, which led to the establishment of the new institution. The college opened in 1883 with Dyer as principal and second in command to Tefft, who served as its president. Dyer also acted as an instructor and spent twenty-nine years as the treasurer of the Rachel Hartshorn Education and Missionary Society. She took over Hartshorn's day-to-day operations for the 1905–1906 term while Tefft was ill. Dyer became dean in 1912 and served for two academic years before she gave up the position to teach one final session. In 1926 money bequeathed by Dyer's estate to the Woman's National Baptist Convention Auxiliary of the National Baptist Convention, U.S.A., was used to establish the Carrie V. Dyer Memorial Hospital in Monrovia, Liberia.
Sat, 19 Oct 2013 12:18:15 EST]]>
/Butt_Martha_Haines_1833-1871 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 17:22:49 EST <![CDATA[Butt, Martha Haines (1833–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Butt_Martha_Haines_1833-1871 Martha Haines Butt was a novelist, poet, and essayist who in 1853 became one of five southern women to respond to Harriet Beecher Stowe's antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) with a novel of her own. Antifanaticism: A Tale of the South (1853) defended slavery as moral and Christian, but it never achieved the critical or popular success that Stowe or even the other rebuttals received. A Norfolk native, Butt continued to write, contributing to both regional and national magazines. She championed women's intellectual engagement but criticized efforts on behalf of women's rights, generally affirming the traditional role of women. Late in her life, however, she became involved in the woman suffrage movement and served as vice president of the Virginia State Woman Suffrage Association in 1870. Butt died of pneumonia a year later.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 17:22:49 EST]]>
/Dean_Jennie_Serepta_1848-1913 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:50:25 EST <![CDATA[Dean, Jennie Serepta (1848–1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dean_Jennie_Serepta_1848-1913 Jennie Serepta Dean founded the Manassas Industrial School for Colored Youth. A former slave, Dean attended schools in Fairfax County and Washington, D.C., and in 1878 began to establish a series of Sunday schools. She was a skilled fund-raiser, securing money from African American and white donors in Virginia and in northern cities to support her plan to open a school that would teach skilled trades to young African Americans. The Manassas Industrial School for Colored Youth opened in 1894 after nearly six years of fundraising. Dean served on the school's board of directors and executive committee. She died in 1913.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:50:25 EST]]>
/Cooper_Susannah_Sanders_d_after_9_June_1751 Wed, 11 Sep 2013 10:44:05 EST <![CDATA[Cooper, Susannah Sanders (d. after June 9, 1751)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooper_Susannah_Sanders_d_after_9_June_1751 Wed, 11 Sep 2013 10:44:05 EST]]> /Berkeley_Frances_Culpeper_Stephens_b_ap_1634-ca_1695 Fri, 23 Aug 2013 14:21:15 EST <![CDATA[Berkeley, Frances Culpeper Stephens (1634–ca. 1695)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Berkeley_Frances_Culpeper_Stephens_b_ap_1634-ca_1695 Frances Culpeper Stephens Berkeley, best known as Lady Frances Berkeley, was the wife of Sir William Berkeley, the long-serving governor of the Virginia colony and whose authority was challenged so dramatically by his wife's relative Nathaniel Bacon. After arriving in Virginia with her parents about 1650, Frances Culpeper first married Captain Samuel Stephens, who became governor of the Albemarle settlements in present-day North Carolina. Upon Stephens's death, his wife inherited his large estate and soon married the Virginia governor, taking up residence at his estate, Green Spring, and vigorously supporting him during Bacon's Rebellion during the summer of 1676. Lady Berkeley pleaded her husband's case before King Charles II in 1676 but when she returned to Virginia the next year, it was with Governor Berkeley's replacement, Herbert Jeffreys. After Berkeley's death in 1677, Lady Berkeley became a leader of the so-called Green Spring faction, a powerful political group often at odds with the new governor. She married the colony's treasurer Philip Ludwell, but by the 1680s, her political influence had waned, despite Ludwell's service as deputy governor of North Carolina and South Carolina. Lady Berkeley died about 1695.
Fri, 23 Aug 2013 14:21:15 EST]]>
/Chalmers_Anna_Maria_Mead_1809-1891 Wed, 21 Aug 2013 13:16:26 EST <![CDATA[Chalmers, Anna Maria Mead (1809–1891)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chalmers_Anna_Maria_Mead_1809-1891 Anna Maria Mead Chalmers was a writer and educator. She authored numerous children's books in the 1830s, later wrote short works of fiction and devotion, and contributed to the Boston Home Journal, the New York Churchman, the New York Tribune, and the Southern Literary Messenger. In 1841, she opened a Richmond boarding and day school for girls, called Mrs. Mead's School, and served as principal for twelve years. The rigorous curriculum was comparable to the best available education for boys in Virginia. Chalmers was married three times, and she outlived all three husbands and three out of four of her children. She settled in Halifax County with her third husband in 1856, and there she raised money and taught at Sunday schools for freedpeople that she established. In addition, in 1877 she formed the Southern Churchman Cot fund to support beds for poor children at Retreat for the Sick, a Richmond hospital. She died in Albemarle County in 1891.
Wed, 21 Aug 2013 13:16:26 EST]]>
/Blaikley_Catherine_Kaidyee_ca_1695-ca_1771 Fri, 09 Aug 2013 11:39:10 EST <![CDATA[Blaikley, Catherine Kaidyee (ca. 1695–1771)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blaikley_Catherine_Kaidyee_ca_1695-ca_1771 Catherine Kaidyee Blaikley was a midwife who, during the mid-eighteenth century in Virginia, purportedly delivered as many as three thousand babies. Probably born in York County, Blaikley married a watchmaker who, when he died in 1736, left her a substantial estate, including land in Henrico County, a mill in Brunswick County, and a lot in Williamsburg. Catherine Blaikley maintained her relatively high standard of living by becoming a midwife in Williamsburg in 1739. By the time of her death in 1771, male midwives also were delivering babies, a process that led to male physicians gradually replacing female midwives.
Fri, 09 Aug 2013 11:39:10 EST]]>
/Brock_Sarah_Ann_1831-1911 Tue, 23 Jul 2013 11:28:10 EST <![CDATA[Brock, Sarah Ann (1831–1911)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brock_Sarah_Ann_1831-1911 Sarah Ann Brock, a writer who often published under the pseudonym Virginia Madison, published numerous editorials, historical articles, reviews, essays, letters, travel sketches, short stories, biographies, and translations in her career. She is best known for her memoir of life in Richmond during the American Civil War (1861–1865), Richmond During the War: Four Years of Personal Observation (1867). Published anonymously, the book, which is still in print, offers intelligent analysis and detailed description of the Confederate capital in wartime. In addition, Brock edited a collection of southern poetry about the war, in which she contributed verse about Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. Brock also published a novel, Kenneth, My King (1873) modeled after Charlotte Brontë's 1847 novel Jane Eyre; however, it was poorly reviewed, and after Brock married in 1882, her literary output diminished. She died in 1911.
Tue, 23 Jul 2013 11:28:10 EST]]>
/_Women_Causing_Scandalous_Suites_to_be_Ducked_1662 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 11:18:51 EST <![CDATA["Women Causing Scandalous Suites to be Ducked" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Women_Causing_Scandalous_Suites_to_be_Ducked_1662 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 11:18:51 EST]]> /Civil_War_Widows Tue, 04 Dec 2012 08:27:09 EST <![CDATA[Civil War Widows]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Civil_War_Widows Civil War widows in Virginia are defined as women married to Confederate soldiers who died during the American Civil War (1861–1865). The numbers of these women are difficult to determine—historians estimate between 4,000 and 6,000—but their characteristics are clearer. They were relatively young and their marriages had been relatively brief; if they had children, they were still too young to be of help in supporting the family. About half of all widows remarried during or after the conflict, with the youngest ones the most likely to do so; however, because of the war's toll on young men, they were substantially more likely to marry men who were much older or younger than themselves. Few of these women worked, but beginning in 1888, some were eligible for a state pension that provided the minimal support of $30 per year.
Tue, 04 Dec 2012 08:27:09 EST]]>
/Parishes_and_Tithes_1643 Thu, 17 May 2012 13:26:28 EST <![CDATA[Parishes and Tithes (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Parishes_and_Tithes_1643 In its March 1643 session, the General Assembly repealed all former laws and passes a series of new laws that helped to clarify the intentions of its previous legislation. In this first act, the assembly explains the powers and obligations of the parish vestry and dictates taxes to be paid and the people—including enslaved African women—considered tithable, or eligible to be taxed. Some spelling has been modernized.
Thu, 17 May 2012 13:26:28 EST]]>
/_Concerning_secret_Marriages_1657-1658 Mon, 14 May 2012 10:55:50 EST <![CDATA["Concerning secret Marriages" (1658)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Concerning_secret_Marriages_1657-1658 In this law, "Concerning secret Marriages," passed in its 1658 session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants having children and marrying. For masters, this resulted in a loss of the women servants' labor, for which the law attempted to provide compensation. The act revises one passed during the 1643 session. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 10:55:50 EST]]>
/Law_Regulating_Marriage_of_Indentured_Servants_1642-1643 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:55:12 EST <![CDATA[Law Regulating Marriage of Indentured Servants (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Law_Regulating_Marriage_of_Indentured_Servants_1642-1643 In this law, passed in the session of March 2, 1642/43 (Old Style), the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants having children and marrying. For masters, this resulted in a loss of the women servants' labor, for which the law attempted to provide compensation. The law was revised during the 1657/58 session.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:55:12 EST]]>
/General_Court_Hears_Case_on_Witchcraft_1626 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 13:10:20 EST <![CDATA[General Court Hears Case on Witchcraft (1626)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/General_Court_Hears_Case_on_Witchcraft_1626 The following is a transcript of the proceedings of the General Court, meeting in Jamestown on September 11, 1626. The court heard evidence against Joan Wright of Surry County, who was accused by her neighbors of practicing witchcraft. She was acquitted in, perhaps, the earliest allegation of witchcraft on record against an English settler in North America. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 13:10:20 EST]]>
/_Women_servants_gott_with_child_by_their_masters_after_their_time_expired_to_be_sold_by_the_Churchwardens_for_two_yeares_for_the_good_of_the_parish_1662 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:18:39 EST <![CDATA["Women servants gott with child by their masters after their time expired to be sold by the Churchwardens for two yeares for the good of the parish" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Women_servants_gott_with_child_by_their_masters_after_their_time_expired_to_be_sold_by_the_Churchwardens_for_two_yeares_for_the_good_of_the_parish_1662 In this law, "Women servants gott with child by their masters after their time expired to be sold by the Churchwardens for two yeares for the good of the parish," passed in its December 1662 session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants having children by their masters.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:18:39 EST]]>
/_Against_ffornication_1661-1662 Thu, 29 Mar 2012 16:38:05 EST <![CDATA["Against ffornication" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Against_ffornication_1661-1662 In this law, "Against ffornication," passed in its March 1662 session, the General Assembly addressed the problem of indentured servants having sex that produced pregnancies that, in turn, cost masters money and labor.
Thu, 29 Mar 2012 16:38:05 EST]]>
/The_Deaths_of_Elizabeth_Abbott_and_Elias_Hinton_1624 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:18:53 EST <![CDATA[The Deaths of Elizabeth Abbott and Elias Hinton (1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Deaths_of_Elizabeth_Abbott_and_Elias_Hinton_1624 In these depositions, delivered to the General Court on October 10, 1624, various indentured servants, masters, and other witnesses testify about the deaths of two servants—Elizabeth Abbott and Elias Hinton—at the hand of their master and mistress, John and Alice Proctor. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Wed, 28 Mar 2012 10:18:53 EST]]>
/Ladies_Memorial_Associations Thu, 08 Mar 2012 15:56:38 EST <![CDATA[Ladies' Memorial Associations]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ladies_Memorial_Associations Ladies' Memorial Associations were locally organized groups of southern white women who, following the American Civil War (1861–1865), tracked down the scattered remains of Confederate soldiers and reinterred them in Confederate cemeteries. Following Robert E. Lee's surrender in April 1865, more than 260,000 Confederate war dead were buried throughout the South, a majority of them in Virginia. Most of these soldiers would not be returned home; instead, they eventually would be placed in Confederate cemeteries. But these cities of the dead were not to be furnished by the federal or state governments; neither were they to be organized by Confederate veterans. Instead, the associations created Confederate cemeteries, which served as final resting places for approximately 80 percent of the fallen soldiers.
Thu, 08 Mar 2012 15:56:38 EST]]>
/_An_Acte_against_Conjuration_Witchcrafte_and_dealing_with_evill_and_wicked_Spirits_1604 Fri, 24 Feb 2012 11:03:26 EST <![CDATA["An Acte against Conjuration Witchcrafte and dealing with evill and wicked Spirits" (1604)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Acte_against_Conjuration_Witchcrafte_and_dealing_with_evill_and_wicked_Spirits_1604 In this act, "An Acte against Conjuration Witchcrafte and dealing with evill and wicked Spirits," passed by Parliament in the session that began on March 19, 1603, and ended July 7, 1604, the English government, not for the first time, outlawed witchcraft. It was the this law, however, that authorities used to prosecute accused witches in Virginia. Some contractions have been expanded. The last witchcraft trial in the mainland colonies took place in 1730, and Parliament repealed the law in 1736. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Fri, 24 Feb 2012 11:03:26 EST]]>
/The_Case_of_Grace_Sherwood_1706 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:52:25 EST <![CDATA[The Case of Grace Sherwood (1706)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Case_of_Grace_Sherwood_1706 The following is a transcript of the proceedings of the Princess Anne County Court as it hears the case, in 1706, of Grace Sherwood on the charge of witchcraft. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded. The case is heard first in the county court, then in the General Court, and finally is removed back to the county court. There is the suggestion that it was once more heard by the General Court, but the courts records for that period are missing. Whatever the case, Sherwood is known to have survived her legal ordeal. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:52:25 EST]]>
/Bread_Riot_Richmond Fri, 10 Feb 2012 09:12:46 EST <![CDATA[Bread Riot, Richmond]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bread_Riot_Richmond The Richmond Bread Riot, which took place in the Confederate capital of Richmond on April 2, 1863, was the largest and most destructive in a series of civil disturbances throughout the South during the third spring of the American Civil War (1861–1865). By 1863, the Confederate economy was showing signs of serious strain. Congress's passage of an Impressment Act, as well as a tax law deemed "confiscatory," led to hoarding and speculation, and spiraling inflation took its toll, especially on people living in the Confederacy's urban areas. When a group of hungry Richmond women took their complaints to Virginia governor John L. Letcher, he refused to see them. Their anger turned into a street march and attacks on commercial establishments. Only when troops were deployed and authorities threatened to fire on the mob did the rioters disperse. More than sixty men and women were arrested and tried, while the city stepped up its efforts to relieve the suffering of the poor and hungry.
Fri, 10 Feb 2012 09:12:46 EST]]>
/United_Daughters_of_the_Confederacy Thu, 02 Feb 2012 09:59:22 EST <![CDATA[United Daughters of the Confederacy]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/United_Daughters_of_the_Confederacy The United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) was formed in 1894 to protect and perpetuate Confederate memory following the American Civil War (1861–1865). According to the group's founding documents, it sought "to fulfill the duties of sacred charity to the survivors of the war and those dependent upon them … to perpetuate the memory of our Confederate heroes and the glorious cause for which they fought." Through chapters in Virginia and other southern states (and even a handful in the North), members directed most of their efforts toward raising funds for Confederate monuments, sponsoring Memorial Day parades, caring for indigent Confederate widows, sponsoring essay contests and fellowships for southern students, and maintaining Confederate museums and relic collections. The context of these efforts was the Lost Cause interpretation of the Civil War, which emphasized states' rights and secession over slavery as causes of the war and was often used to further the goals of white supremacists in the twentieth century. The organization continues to perform memorial work, its national headquarters located in the former Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia.
Thu, 02 Feb 2012 09:59:22 EST]]>
/Civil_Rights_Act_of_1964 Tue, 31 Jan 2012 14:15:46 EST <![CDATA[Civil Rights Act of 1964]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Civil_Rights_Act_of_1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a landmark piece of national legislation, not only for the civil rights movement but for the emerging women's movement of the 1960s. It officially outlawed discrimination in public accommodations and employment and established the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights and the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission to enforce those provisions. In contrast to earlier civil rights measures, it included a ban on employment discrimination on the basis of gender, as well as race, color, and religion, making it the most comprehensive civil rights bill in American history and giving the revived women's movement new legal—and moral—weight. Yet, in an ironic twist, the legislation banned gender discrimination only because of the efforts of Howard W. Smith, U.S. representative from Virginia, a leader of the Conservative Coalition in Congress, and an opponent of civil rights. His tireless attempts to defeat the bill—including adding "sex" as grounds for illegal discrimination, which he believed would guarantee the bill's failure—resulted in a more expansive bill passing.
Tue, 31 Jan 2012 14:15:46 EST]]>
/Sapphira_and_the_Slave_Girl_1940 Mon, 06 Jun 2011 14:19:05 EST <![CDATA[Sapphira and the Slave Girl (1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sapphira_and_the_Slave_Girl_1940 Sapphira and the Slave Girl (1940) is the last novel by Willa Cather and the Virginia-born writer's only book set entirely in the state. Based on an incident in Cather's own family, in which her maternal grandmother helped a slave escape in 1856, the novel details the complicated marriage of Henry and Sapphira Colbert, who operate a mill and small farm in Back Creek outside Winchester in the years before the American Civil War. Sapphira wrongly suspects that one of her slaves, Nancy, is in an intimate relationship with her husband, and manipulates those around her to exact revenge. Henry and the couple's daughter, Rachel, intervene by helping Nancy flee to Canada. At the time of its release, Sapphira and the Slave Girl was praised by the New York Times for examining "the question of slavery without any portentous fanfare," but in the years since, the book has not been widely read. Most critics have charged Sapphira with being racist and overly nostalgic, while a few have defended it as a brilliant inversion of old stereotypes and a coded exploration of sexual desire.
Mon, 06 Jun 2011 14:19:05 EST]]>
/Cooperative_Education_Association Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:03:39 EST <![CDATA[Cooperative Education Association]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooperative_Education_Association The Cooperative Education Association was organized in 1904 to advocate for public education reform in Virginia. The group was part of the larger, national Progressive movement, which generally pushed for workers' rights, women's rights, and more efficient government. The cooperative saw itself representing all citizens of Virginia, "whether living in the city or the country, whether white or black," and was an outgrowth of the Richmond Education Association, founded in 1900 by Lila Meade Valentine and dedicated to education reform. The idea behind the cooperative was to extend the group's successes in Richmond to the rest of the state.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:03:39 EST]]>
/Burial_of_LatanAC._The Thu, 31 Mar 2011 13:32:59 EST <![CDATA[Burial of Latané, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burial_of_LatanAC._The The Burial of Latané was one of the most famous Lost Cause images of the American Civil War (1861–1865). Painted by Virginian William D. Washington in Richmond in 1864, the work shows white women, slaves, and children performing the burial service of a cavalry officer killed during J. E. B. Stuart's famous ride around Union general George B. McClellan's army during the Peninsula Campaign in 1862. The incident first inspired a poem and then the painting, which became a powerful symbol of Confederate women's devotion to the Confederate cause.
Thu, 31 Mar 2011 13:32:59 EST]]>