Encyclopedia Virginia: African American History http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Veney_Bethany_ca_1815 Wed, 13 Dec 2017 13:20:58 EST Veney, Bethany (ca. 1815­–1916) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Veney_Bethany_ca_1815 Wed, 13 Dec 2017 13:20:58 EST]]> /Stratford_Hall Tue, 21 Nov 2017 14:25:40 EST <![CDATA[Stratford Hall]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Stratford_Hall Stratford Hall is a 1,500-acre plantation located in Westmoreland County on the Potomac River. The politician and planter Thomas Lee purchased the land for Stratford in 1717; although no records exist to indicate when the house was built, construction likely began in 1738 and was completed sometime in the 1740s. The plantation was home to two signers of the Declaration of Independence—Richard Henry Lee and Francis Lightfoot Lee—and was the birthplace of the Confederate general Robert E. Lee. Thomas Lee's descendants lived at Stratford until the 1820s, when Henry Lee IV sold the plantation to cover his debts. Since 1929, the Robert E. Lee Memorial Association, or RELMA, has owned Stratford Hall.
Tue, 21 Nov 2017 14:25:40 EST]]>
/Burns_Anthony_The_Trial_of_1854 Tue, 14 Nov 2017 11:24:50 EST <![CDATA[Burns, Anthony, The Trial of (1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burns_Anthony_The_Trial_of_1854 The trial of Anthony Burns, a fugitive slave from Virginia, occurred in Boston, Massachusetts, during the spring of 1854. Hired out in Richmond, Burns had saved money and stowed away on a ship to Boston, where he worked in a clothing store. A letter home to his brother unintentionally revealed his location, and when it was intercepted, Burns's owner, Charles F. Suttle, traveled north and claimed Burns under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Approved as part of the Compromise of 1850, the law was designed to strengthen federal protections for southerners attempting recover slaves who had fled to free states. Members of the Boston Vigilance Committee, a group of antislavery activists who were committed to resisting the law, made an attempt to free Burns from custody. The rescue effort was unsuccessful, and a guard was killed in the process. In the trial, Burns's lawyers argued that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional and that Burns was not actually the man whom Suttle claimed to own. On June 1, 1854, Judge Edward Greely Loring ruled against Burns, who was afterward transported to Norfolk, Virginia, on a U.S. Revenue Cutter. Antislavery activists later purchased his freedom, and he became a minister, dying in Canada in 1862. None of those responsible for the guard's death was convicted, and many southerners believed that, in spite of the Fugitive Slave Act's successful enforcement, the Burns affair proved that northerners could not be trusted to fulfill their constitutional obligations.
Tue, 14 Nov 2017 11:24:50 EST]]>
/Ashe_Arthur_1943-1993 Thu, 09 Nov 2017 10:46:41 EST <![CDATA[Ashe, Arthur (1943–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ashe_Arthur_1943-1993 Arthur Ashe was a professional tennis player, broadcaster, author, and activist. Known for his on-court grace and low-key demeanor, he was the first black men's tennis champion at the U.S. Open and Wimbledon, the first African American to play for and captain the U.S. Davis Cup team, and the first black man inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame. Yet it was and remains Ashe's legacy outside of professional tennis for which he is most noted. He was the first and only African American to have a statue of his likeness erected on Richmond's historic Monument Avenue and one of the most prominent athletes of any race to die from AIDS.
Thu, 09 Nov 2017 10:46:41 EST]]>
/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_July_4-7_1840 Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:53:53 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Board of Visitors Minutes (July 4–7, 1840)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_July_4-7_1840 Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:53:53 EST]]> /Free_Blacks_in_Colonial_Virginia Thu, 26 Oct 2017 09:18:09 EST <![CDATA[Free Blacks in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Free_Blacks_in_Colonial_Virginia Thu, 26 Oct 2017 09:18:09 EST]]> /Billy_Billy_or_Blind_ca_1805-1855 Mon, 16 Oct 2017 16:43:17 EST <![CDATA[Billy or Blind Billy (ca. 1805–1855)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Billy_Billy_or_Blind_ca_1805-1855 Mon, 16 Oct 2017 16:43:17 EST]]> /Harris_Joseph_D_c_1833-1884 Wed, 11 Oct 2017 10:02:51 EST <![CDATA[Harris, J. D. (ca. 1833–1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harris_Joseph_D_c_1833-1884 J. D. Harris, a free-born physician, ran as the lieutenant gubernatorial candidate for the Republican Party's radical faction in the election of 1869. Harris entered public life late in the 1850s, advocating African American repatriation to the Caribbean. His interest in tropical diseases led him into medicine, and he became a doctor in 1864. Harris's medical work for the U.S. Army settled him in Virginia. Politically active and known for his intelligence, he received the Republicans' nomination for lieutenant governor in the first statewide election under the Constitution of 1869. His multiracial background played a role in splitting the party that year. A breakaway group known as the True Republicans received the tacit support of the Conservative Party and carried the election. Harris remained active in medicine and civil rights, living in South Carolina and Virginia, until a mental breakdown in 1876. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1884.
Wed, 11 Oct 2017 10:02:51 EST]]>
/Brown_Abram_d_1840 Mon, 09 Oct 2017 15:10:39 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Abram (d. 1840)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Abram_d_1840 Abram Brown was a Baptist lay leader in Charles City County who helped found Elam Baptist Church in 1818. Born free, Brown farmed on land he inherited from his father and was wealthy compared to most African Americans of his day. He joined a Baptist church in Petersburg but soon after established a separate church on his Charles City County land and took a leadership role in his local religious community. In 1818 he transferred the land to the church, thus taking credit as founder of Elam Baptist Church. Little else is known about Brown's life. He had at least eight children, many of whom, along with their own children and grandchildren, played important roles in the African American community of Charles City County. Brown died in 1840.
Mon, 09 Oct 2017 15:10:39 EST]]>
/Abrams_Joseph_1791-1854 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:23:30 EST <![CDATA[Abrams, Joseph (1791–1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Abrams_Joseph_1791-1854 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:23:30 EST]]> /Colson_William_1805-1835 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 15:48:48 EST <![CDATA[Colson, William (1805–1835)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colson_William_1805-1835 William Colson was a merchant who helped establish Roberts, Colson, and Company, one of the first African American transatlantic shipping companies. Born in Petersburg the son of a free black barber, he was probably self-educated. His partnership with Joseph Jenkins Roberts, another free black businessman, began during or before 1829. They acquired a schooner and began to trade between the United States and Liberia, where Roberts moved. The business did well and Colson lived well in Petersburg. In 1835 he visited Liberia to acquaint himself with the business there and to serve a year as a missionary. Not long after arriving, however, he became ill and died.
Wed, 06 Sep 2017 15:48:48 EST]]>
/John_Mitchell_Jr_1863-1929 Tue, 29 Aug 2017 09:22:20 EST <![CDATA[Mitchell, John Jr. (1863–1929)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_Mitchell_Jr_1863-1929 John Mitchell Jr. was a prominent newspaper editor, politician, banker, and civil rights activist. Born enslaved near Richmond, Mitchell attended the Richmond Colored Normal School and taught for a year before he and other black teachers were fired by a new Democratic school board. He then went into journalism, in 1884 becoming editor of the Richmond Planet, an African American weekly newspaper. Mitchell used the Planet to promote civil rights, racial justice, and racial pride. As an editor and an activist, he became a key figure in the antilynching movement and played an instrumental role in organizing the Richmond streetcar boycott of 1904. Mitchell's bold protest against racial injustice, which at times included calls to take up arms in self-defense, earned him his reputation as "the Fighting Editor." In addition to his work on the Richmond Planet, Mitchell served on the Richmond city council from 1888 to 1896 before founding the Mechanics Savings Bank in 1901. His work at the bank brought him more into the political and social mainstream but after its collapse in 1922 led him to be convicted on charges of fraud and theft. The conviction was later overturned but left him destitute. When the state Republican Party excluded most black delegates from its convention, Mitchell unsuccessfully ran for governor on a "Lily Black" ticket. He remained editor of the Richmond Planet until his death in 1929.
Tue, 29 Aug 2017 09:22:20 EST]]>
/Bowser_James_b_ca_1730 Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:29:01 EST <![CDATA[Bowser, James (b. ca. 1730)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowser_James_b_ca_1730 James Bowser was a Continental army soldier during the American Revolution (1775–1783), one of about 5,000 African Americans to serve in the Patriots' army or navy. Born in Nansemond County, Bowser probably first joined the army in 1778 or 1779, fighting in Pennsylvania and then Virginia. He likely was present at the siege of Yorktown. There were two James Bowsers from Virginia, probably related, who fought during the war and distinguishing their lives has become difficult. Bowser was fifty-three when he left the army, and the date and place of his death are unknown.
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:29:01 EST]]>
/Virginia_Slavery_Debate_of_1831-1832_The Fri, 25 Aug 2017 11:29:50 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Slavery Debate of 1831–1832, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Slavery_Debate_of_1831-1832_The The Virginia slavery debate occurred in the House of Delegates during its 1831–1832 session and was prompted by a slave insurrection in August 1831 led by Nat Turner. In the months that followed, about forty petitions, signed by more than 2,000 Virginians, urged the General Assembly to engage the problems associated with slavery. Some petitions called for outright emancipation, others for colonization. Many focused on removing from the state free blacks, who were widely seen as a nefarious influence. The House established a select committee, and when the debate finally spilled over into the full body, in mid-January 1832, it focused on two resolutions. One, made by William O. Goode, called for the rejection of all petitions calling for emancipation. Another, made by Thomas Jefferson Randolph, asked the committee to prepare an emancipation plan to go before the state's voters. By taking up these questions, the House, in effect, considered whether to free Virginia's slaves. After vigorous debate, members declined to pass such a law, deciding instead that they "should await a more definite development of public opinion." In fact, pro-slavery, anti-abolitionist opinion hardened in Virginia in the years that followed, buttressed by arguments previewed in the House. Randolph believed that even having such an open debate should be considered a victory, while others lamented how divided the state was on the crucial question of slavery.
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 11:29:50 EST]]>
/Colonial_Virginia Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST <![CDATA[Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colonial_Virginia The colonial period in Virginia began in 1607 with the landing of the first English settlers at Jamestown and ended in 1776 with the establishment of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although a thriving Indian society had existed for thousands of years before the English arrived, war with the European settlers and the introduction of new diseases for which the Indians had no resistance spelled disaster for it. The English colonists, meanwhile, just barely survived, suffering through summer droughts and winter starvation. Salvation came to the colony in the form of smoking tobacco, or what King James I called a "vile and stinking custom," when John Rolfe cultivated a variety of tobacco that sold well in England. In 1619, a General Assembly convened, bringing limited self-government to America. That same year brought the first slaves to Virginia. For most of the 1600s, white indentured servants worked the colony's tobacco fields, but by 1705 the Virginia colony had become a slave society. Nearly all power was in the hands of white male landowners, who ran the government and, by law, belonged to the Church of England. Women who married and worked at home were considered "good wives"; those who refused such "proper" roles were considered troublesome. And while Virginia's ruling men did not encourage women to be independent, they nevertheless fought for their own independence, taking full part in the American Revolution (1775–1783).
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST]]>
/Tait_Bacon_1796-1871 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:47:41 EST <![CDATA[Tait, Bacon (1796–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tait_Bacon_1796-1871 Bacon Tait was one of the most successful Richmond slave traders and jail operators in the years leading up to the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born near Lynchburg, he served briefly during the War of 1812 and spent time working in Richmond before relocating there permanently by 1828. In that year he made his first significant transaction in slaves, selling thirty-seven in New Orleans and entering into a year-long, unsuccessful partnership with two other men. About the same time Tait began what would be a longstanding business relationship with Thomas Boudar that included the buying and selling of slaves and the operation of a so-called jail for the confinement of enslaved men, women, and children awaiting sale. Tait probably first built the facility that came to be known as Lumpkin's Jail before constructing an even bigger one on the corner of Fifteenth and Cary streets. Although his business was not widely considered to be a respectable one, Tait served four terms on the Richmond City Council (1847–1851). Between 1843 and 1848 he fathered four children, including twins, with Courtney Fountain, a free black woman, and in 1851 Tait and Fountain moved to Salem, Massachusetts. He lived in Richmond during the Civil War and his wealth survived the war intact. He died in 1871.
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:47:41 EST]]>
/Washington_John_M_1838-1918 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:37:52 EST <![CDATA[Washington, John M. (1838–1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_John_M_1838-1918 John M. Washington was a slave in Fredericksburg who escaped to freedom during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and later wrote a narrative of his life entitled Memorys of the Past. Born in Fredericksburg, Washington spent his earliest years on an Orange County plantation where his mother had been hired out as a field laborer. Upon their return to Fredericksburg, Washington served as his owner's personal slave, remaining in that role even when his mother was hired out to a school principal in Staunton. In 1860, Washington labored in a Fredericksburg tobacco factory and then spent the next year as a waiter in Richmond. When Union troops occupied Fredericksburg in April 1862, he was tending bar in that city's Shakespeare Hotel and used the opportunity to escape to Union lines. Washington worked at the headquarters of Union general Rufus King until Union troops abandoned the city on August 31. He escaped to Washington, D.C., and was eventually joined there by his wife and newborn son, his mother, and her husband. Washington worked as a painter after the war and was active in the Baptist church. He wrote his narrative in 1873 and died at the Massachusetts home of one of his sons in 1918.
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:37:52 EST]]>
/Foster_Kitty_ca_1790-1863 Fri, 28 Jul 2017 16:35:52 EST <![CDATA[Foster, Kitty (ca. 1790–1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Foster_Kitty_ca_1790-1863 Kitty Foster was a free African American woman who owned property just south of the University of Virginia, the site of which has been memorialized by the school. Born enslaved in Albemarle County, Foster was free by 1820 and renting land in an African American community near the university known as Canada. She purchased just more than two acres from a white merchant in 1833 and lived there until her death, washing clothes for students and faculty. In 1837, a university report accused her of holding firearms for students who were prohibited from carrying them on the university's grounds. Foster died in 1863 and was buried in a cemetery on her property. Archaeologists discovered the cemetery in 1993, and in 2011 the University of Virginia dedicated a memorial on the site.
Fri, 28 Jul 2017 16:35:52 EST]]>
/Washington_George_and_Slavery Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:50:15 EST <![CDATA[Washington, George and Slavery]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_George_and_Slavery George Washington owned enslaved people from age eleven until his death, when his will promised his slaves freedom. His actions and private statements suggest a long evolution in his stance on slavery, based on experience and a possible awakening of conscience. Born in 1732, Washington came of age in a time when large-scale tobacco planting, carried out by enslaved labor, dominated the economy and society of colonial Virginia. Washington made no official public statements on slavery or emancipation as a Virginia legislator, as a military officer, or as president of the United States. As a young man he acted as most of his slaveholding peers did—making full and lawful use of slave labor, buying and selling slaves, and even raffling off a debtor's slaves, including children, to recoup a loan. His marriage brought many slaves under his control, but he did not legally own these "dower" slaves. After the American Revolution (1775–1783) his private statements became more in line with abolitionist goals than with the economic and political positions of his Virginia peers, until he reached the point, around 1789, when his "regret" over slavery grew so strong that he eventually rewrote his will with provisions to free slaves. Washington was the only southern Founding Father to free all his slaves.
Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:50:15 EST]]>
/Maggie_Lena_Walker_1864-1934 Thu, 13 Jul 2017 09:16:46 EST <![CDATA[Walker, Maggie Lena (1864–1934)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Maggie_Lena_Walker_1864-1934 Maggie Lena Walker was an African American entrepreneur and civic leader who broke traditional gender and discriminatory laws by becoming the first woman—white or black—to establish and become president of a bank in the United States—the Saint Luke Penny Savings Bank in Richmond. As of 2010, when it was known as Consolidated Bank and Trust Company, it was the oldest continually African American–operated bank in the United States. In her role as grand secretary of the Independent Order of Saint Luke, Walker also was indispensable in organizing a variety of enterprises that advanced the African American community while expanding the public role of women. Although as an African American woman in the post–Civil War South she faced social, economic, and political barriers in her life and business ventures, Walker, by encouraging investment and collective action, achieved tangible improvements for African Americans.
Thu, 13 Jul 2017 09:16:46 EST]]>
/Slave_Literacy_and_Education_in_Virginia Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:59:20 EST <![CDATA[Slave Literacy and Education in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Literacy_and_Education_in_Virginia Many enslaved African Americans in Virginia learned to read and write, either on their own or at the behest of their masters. As many as 5 percent of slaves may have been literate by the start of the American Revolution (1775–1783), their educations often tied to religious instruction. Many slaveholders viewed Christian teaching as their duty, and converts to the Church of England were required to be literate enough to read a catechism. The Anglican bishop Edmund Gibson and the minister Dr. Thomas Bray both promoted slave education in America with the Associates of Dr. Bray founding a number of schools, including in Williamsburg and Fredericksburg. Virginia law never explicitly prohibited the education of slaves, but in the years after Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800), the General Assembly made it more difficult. Elite whites worried that slaves who could read and write could travel through white society more easily and be exposed to ideas of freedom, making them more inclined to rebel. The gathering of slaves for the purpose of education was prohibited, so individuals stole away to learn on their own, often at great personal risk. During the antebellum period, the percentage of literate slaves had doubled to 10 percent. The laws became even stricter after Nat Turner's Revolt in 1831—Turner was a literate preacher—but during and after the American Civil War (1861–1865) freedpeople quickly established their own schools. Literacy rates rose to 30 percent and then, by 1910, to as high as 70 percent.
Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:59:20 EST]]>
/Advertisement_by_Lewis_A_Collier_Richmond_Enquirer_August_23_1833 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:22:54 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement by Lewis A. Collier, Richmond Enquirer (August 23, 1833)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_by_Lewis_A_Collier_Richmond_Enquirer_August_23_1833 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:22:54 EST]]> /_Private_Jails_The_Liberator_December_27_1834 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:21:13 EST <![CDATA["Private Jails," The Liberator (December 27, 1834)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Private_Jails_The_Liberator_December_27_1834 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:21:13 EST]]> /_Mysteries_of_a_Shamble_New-York_Tribune_July_15_1861 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:15:46 EST <![CDATA["Mysteries of a Shamble," New-York Tribune (July 15, 1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mysteries_of_a_Shamble_New-York_Tribune_July_15_1861 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:15:46 EST]]> /VIRGINIA_In_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_MARCH_16_1798 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:00:11 EST <![CDATA[VIRGINIA: In the High Court of Chancery, MARCH 16, 1798.]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/VIRGINIA_In_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_MARCH_16_1798 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:00:11 EST]]> /_An_Act_to_Explain_and_Amend_an_Act_Entitled_An_Act_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_Slavery_March_29_1788 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:53:24 EST <![CDATA["An Act to Explain and Amend an Act Entitled 'An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery'" (March 29, 1788)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_to_Explain_and_Amend_an_Act_Entitled_An_Act_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_Slavery_March_29_1788 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:53:24 EST]]> /Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Claypool_s_American_May_25_1796 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:45:55 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement for the Capture of Oney Judge, Claypoole's American (May 25, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Claypool_s_American_May_25_1796 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:45:55 EST]]> /Hinton_Corinna_1835-1887 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:00:35 EST <![CDATA[Hinton, Corinna (1835–1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hinton_Corinna_1835-1887 Corinna Hinton was an enslaved woman who bore several children with the Richmond slave trader Silas Omohundro and helped him run his business. Little is known of Hinton's early life. By the time she was thirteen years old, she was owned by Omohundro and had given birth to the first of their seven children. The two never legally married and it is unlikely that, as Omohundro's property, Hinton could have consented to their physical relationship, although historians have varying interpretations. In addition to running the household, Hinton made clothes for slaves about to be sold and helped operate a boardinghouse. Omohundro died in 1864, freeing Hinton and acknowledging himself as the father of her children. She later went into business with a white journalist from Maine, Nathaniel Davidson. It is unclear whether the two married. Hinton died in 1887.
Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:00:35 EST]]>
/Virginia_s_First_Africans Wed, 05 Jul 2017 09:45:01 EST <![CDATA[Africans, Virginia's First]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_s_First_Africans Virginia's first Africans arrived at Point Comfort, on the James River, late in August 1619. There, "20. and odd Negroes" from the English ship White Lion were sold in exchange for food and some were transported to Jamestown, where they were sold again, likely into slavery. Historians have long believed these Africans to have come to Virginia from the Caribbean, but Spanish records suggest they had been captured in a Spanish-controlled area of West Central Africa. They probably were Kimbundu-speaking people, and many of them may have had at least some knowledge of Catholicism. While aboard the São João Bautista bound for Mexico, they were stolen by the White Lion and another English ship, the Treasurer. Once in Virginia, they were dispersed throughout the colony. The number of Virginia's Africans increased to thirty-two by 1620, but then dropped sharply by 1624, likely because of the effects of disease and the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632). Evidence suggests that many were baptized and took Christian names, and some, like Anthony and Mary Johnson, won their freedom and bought land. By 1628, after a shipload of about 100 Angolans was sold in Virginia, the Africans' population jumped dramatically.
Wed, 05 Jul 2017 09:45:01 EST]]>
/Slave_Trade_Eyre_Crowe_s_Images_of_the Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:17:22 EST <![CDATA[Slave Trade, Eyre Crowe's Images of the]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Trade_Eyre_Crowe_s_Images_of_the English painter Eyre Crowe's images of the American slave trade include a series of sketches later published as wood engravings and, in two instances, turned into oil paintings that depict the domestic trade in enslaved African Americans just before the American Civil War (1861–1865). These images provide some of the only eyewitness visual renderings of the slave trade in Richmond, the largest slave-trading center in the Upper South. An act of Congress had abolished the international slave trade in the United States effective 1808, but a domestic trade accounted for the sale of millions of slaves from the Upper South to the Deep South, where the cotton boom led to a near-bottomless market for enslaved labor. The process of trafficking slaves, which Crowe's images helped to illuminate and publicize, included auction houses, auction blocks, so-called slave jails, and transportation either on foot or by train. Crowe was visiting Richmond in 1853 as the secretary of British novelist William Makepeace Thackeray, who was on a lecture tour, when he witnessed and sketched a slave auction on Wall Street, down the hill from downtown Richmond. His sketching nearly caused him to be removed from the auction house. Later, he also witnessed and depicted slaves being taken to a railroad depot. Two paintings made from his sketches, After the Sale: Slaves Going South from Richmond and Slaves Waiting for Sale, Richmond, Virginia, were exhibited in Great Britain in 1854 and 1861 respectively. Together with Crowe's other images, these paintings played an important role in spreading antislavery awareness in both Britain and in America.
Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:17:22 EST]]>
/Farmville_Protests_of_1963 Fri, 16 Jun 2017 11:45:10 EST <![CDATA[Farmville Protests of 1963]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farmville_Protests_of_1963 The Farmville civil rights demonstrations began late in July 1963, when the Reverend L. Francis Griffin organized a direct-action campaign to, as he told reporters, "protest closed schools, delay in the courts, and segregation in its totality." Public schools in Prince Edward County and its county seat, Farmville, had been closed since June 1959, when county officials refused to levy taxes to operate schools rather than follow federal court orders to desegregate. The state government had abandoned its policy of Massive Resistance, but Prince Edward County remained steadfast and became the only place in the nation without public education. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Allen v. County School Board of Prince Edward County and later Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County had petitioned the federal judiciary to open the schools, but the case moved glacially through the courts. African Americans in Prince Edward County faced a variety of additional obstacles, such as discriminatory hiring practices and de facto and de jure segregation. The two-month direct action campaign Griffin launched that summer included picketing along Main Street, sit-ins, kneel-ins, try-ins, and economic boycotts. The protests ended in September 1963, after the formation of the Prince Edward Free School Association, a nonprofit organization that established and maintained an integrated school system in Prince Edward County until 1964, when the U.S. Supreme Court ordered the county to reopen its public schools. The Farmville protests did not end the county's racial discrimination, but they helped set the community on a path to change.
Fri, 16 Jun 2017 11:45:10 EST]]>
/PLEASANTS_against_PLEASANTS_Nov_r_Term_1798 Fri, 09 Jun 2017 12:00:07 EST <![CDATA[PLEASANTS against PLEASANTS. Nov'r. Term 1798.]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/PLEASANTS_against_PLEASANTS_Nov_r_Term_1798 Fri, 09 Jun 2017 12:00:07 EST]]> /Martin_Henry_1826-1915 Mon, 15 May 2017 17:18:33 EST <![CDATA[Martin, Henry (1826–1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Martin_Henry_1826-1915 Henry Martin was the head janitor and bell-ringer at the University of Virginia from at least 1868 until his retirement in 1909. Born enslaved at Monticello, he was purchased by the Carr family and before the American Civil War (1861–1865) labored at a boardinghouse on what came to be known as Carr's Hill, near the University of Virginia. During the war he tended the wounded at the military hospital in Charlottesville. In 1866 he was hired by the university to haul coal and by 1868 was working as the head janitor and bell-ringer. He worked at the school for more than four decades, becoming a well-known figure there but one who was treated in the context of the Lost Cause archetype of the faithful servant. He died in 1915.
Mon, 15 May 2017 17:18:33 EST]]>
/Black_Confederates Mon, 15 May 2017 08:02:57 EST <![CDATA[Black Confederates]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Confederates Black Confederates is a term often used to describe both enslaved and free African Americans who filled a number of different positions in support of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Most often this assistance was coerced rather than offered voluntarily. Male slaves were either hired out by their owners or impressed to work in various departments of the Confederate army. Free black men were also routinely impressed or otherwise forced to perform manual labor for the army. The government's use of black labor, whether free or slave, followed patterns established during the antebellum period, when county governments routinely engaged the service of black men to help maintain local roads and other public property. While large numbers of black men thus accompanied every Confederate army on the march or in camp, those men would not have been considered soldiers. Only a few black men were ever accepted into Confederate service as soldiers, and none did any significant fighting. Through most of the war, the Confederate government's official policies toward black men maintained that those men were laborers, not soldiers; changes to that policy in March 1865 came too late to make any difference to Confederate prospects for victory. Those changes were also accompanied by widespread debate indicating that a significant minority of white Southerners opposed any change to the institution of slavery, even if that change might help bring about a Confederate victory.
Mon, 15 May 2017 08:02:57 EST]]>
/Blind_Billy_Death_Notice_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_April_23_1855 Fri, 05 May 2017 11:41:18 EST <![CDATA[Blind Billy Death Notice, Richmond Daily Dispatch (April 23, 1855)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blind_Billy_Death_Notice_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_April_23_1855 Fri, 05 May 2017 11:41:18 EST]]> /Deed_of_Gift_Robert_Carter_III_s Fri, 05 May 2017 11:35:46 EST <![CDATA[Deed of Gift, Robert Carter III's]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Deed_of_Gift_Robert_Carter_III_s Robert Carter III's Deed of Gift was a legal document, signed on August 1, 1791, and presented in Northumberland District Court on September 5, that set out provisions to free 452 enslaved men and woman. By the time those provisions were fulfilled, more than three decades later, between 500 and 600 were freed, probably the largest emancipation by an individual in the United States before 1860. Carter was a member of one of the wealthiest families in Virginia and inherited hundreds of slaves. Perhaps because of a religious conversion, he turned against slavery during and after the American Revolution (1775–1783). His plan to free his own slaves was carefully designed to conform to state law and to be gradual. Adults would be freed in small groups each year based on their age, children would be freed when they became adults, and the elderly would be allowed to independently farm on Carter's Nomony Hall estate for the remainder of their lives. In 1793, Carter moved to Baltimore, leaving the process in the hands of the Baptist minister Benjamin Dawson. He later sold his remaining slaves to Dawson. After Carter's death in 1804, Carter's heirs sued the minister to stop the manumissions but lost an 1808 ruling by the Virginia Court of Appeals. The scholar Andrew Levy has noted that Carter's Deed of Gift has not simply been forgotten but actively ignored. Perhaps in response to his complaint, a roadside marker dedicated to the deed was erected in Northumberland County in 2016.
Fri, 05 May 2017 11:35:46 EST]]>
/_Henry_Martin_by_David_Marvel_Reynolds_Culbreth_The_University_of_Virginia_Memories_of_Her_Student-Life_and_Professors_1908 Fri, 05 May 2017 10:32:47 EST <![CDATA["Henry Martin" by David M. R. Culbreth, The University of Virginia: Memories of Her Student-Life and Professors (1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Henry_Martin_by_David_Marvel_Reynolds_Culbreth_The_University_of_Virginia_Memories_of_Her_Student-Life_and_Professors_1908 Fri, 05 May 2017 10:32:47 EST]]> /_Funeral_of_Henry_Martin_Daily_Progress_October_9_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:45:39 EST <![CDATA["Funeral of Henry Martin," Charlottesville Daily Progress (October 9, 1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Funeral_of_Henry_Martin_Daily_Progress_October_9_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:45:39 EST]]> /_Henry_Martin_1826-1915_by_John_S_Patton_Alumni_Bulletin_January_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:28:25 EST <![CDATA["Henry Martin, 1826–1915" by John S. Patton, Alumni Bulletin (October 1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Henry_Martin_1826-1915_by_John_S_Patton_Alumni_Bulletin_January_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:28:25 EST]]> /_Uncle_Henry_Bell-Ringer_A_Dramatic_Monologue_Cork_and_Curls_1914 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:18:15 EST <![CDATA["Uncle Henry: Bell-Ringer, A Dramatic Monologue," Corks and Curls (1914)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Uncle_Henry_Bell-Ringer_A_Dramatic_Monologue_Cork_and_Curls_1914 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:18:15 EST]]> /Robert_Carter_III_s_Deed_of_Gift_August_1_1791 Wed, 03 May 2017 10:47:14 EST <![CDATA[Robert Carter III's Deed of Gift (August 1, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robert_Carter_III_s_Deed_of_Gift_August_1_1791 Wed, 03 May 2017 10:47:14 EST]]> /Ferdinando_Fairfax_Plan_for_liberating_the_negroes_within_the_united_states_December_1_1790 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 14:06:44 EST <![CDATA[Ferdinando Fairfax, "Plan for liberating the negroes within the united states" (December 1, 1790)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ferdinando_Fairfax_Plan_for_liberating_the_negroes_within_the_united_states_December_1_1790 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 14:06:44 EST]]> /Virginia_Gazette_and_General_Advertiser_September_28_1791 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 09:30:52 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser (September 28, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Gazette_and_General_Advertiser_September_28_1791 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 09:30:52 EST]]> /_Funeral_Procession_Richmond_Dispatch_June_7_1854 Thu, 27 Apr 2017 12:52:55 EST <![CDATA["Funeral Procession," Richmond Dispatch (June 7, 1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Funeral_Procession_Richmond_Dispatch_June_7_1854 Thu, 27 Apr 2017 12:52:55 EST]]> /Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Philadelphia_Gazette_May_24_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 15:14:32 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement for the Capture of Oney Judge, Philadelphia Gazette (May 24, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Philadelphia_Gazette_May_24_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 15:14:32 EST]]> /_Washington_s_Runaway_Slave_The_Liberator_August_22_1845 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:48:40 EST <![CDATA["Washington's Runaway Slave," The Liberator (August 22, 1845)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Washington_s_Runaway_Slave_The_Liberator_August_22_1845 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:48:40 EST]]> /_A_Slave_of_George_Washington_by_Benjamin_Chase_The_Liberator_January_1_1847 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:24:32 EST <![CDATA["A Slave of George Washington!" by Benjamin Chase, The Liberator (January 1, 1847)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Slave_of_George_Washington_by_Benjamin_Chase_The_Liberator_January_1_1847 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:24:32 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Lee_to_George_Washington_June_28_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 13:23:46 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Lee to George Washington (June 28, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Lee_to_George_Washington_June_28_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 13:23:46 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Burwell_Bassett_Jr_August_11_1799 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 09:47:34 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Burwell Bassett Jr. (August 11, 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Burwell_Bassett_Jr_August_11_1799 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 09:47:34 EST]]> /Judge_Oney_ca_1773-1848 Wed, 19 Apr 2017 16:51:23 EST <![CDATA[Judge, Oney (ca. 1773–1848)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judge_Oney_ca_1773-1848 Oney Judge was the enslaved personal attendant of Martha Custis Washington when she ran away from the President's House in Philadelphia in 1796. Born about 1773 at Mount Vernon, Judge began laboring in the mansion when she was ten years old. After George Washington was elected president in 1789, she accompanied the family to New York and then, when the federal capital moved, to Philadelphia. On May 21, 1796, she escaped from the president's mansion while the family ate dinner and boarded a ship for Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Washington's agents tracked her there, twice speaking with her, in 1796 and 1799, but failing to apprehend her. Judge married the free black sailor John Staines in 1797 and the couple had three children before his death in 1803. Oney Judge Staines lived the rest of her life in poverty. In 1845 and 1847 she gave interviews to abolitionist newspapers, recounting the story of her life with the Washington family and her escape from slavery. She died in Greenland, New Hampshire, in 1848.
Wed, 19 Apr 2017 16:51:23 EST]]>
/Brown_Henry_Box_ca_1815 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 14:23:44 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Henry Box (1815 or 1816–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Henry_Box_ca_1815 Henry Box Brown was an abolitionist lecturer and performer. Born a slave in Louisa County, he worked in a Richmond tobacco factory and lived in a rented house. Then, in 1848, his wife, who was owned by another master and who was pregnant with their fourth child, was sold away to North Carolina, along with their children. Brown resolved to escape from slavery and enlisted the help of a free black and a white slaveowner, who conspired to ship him in a box to Philadelphia. In March 1849 the package was accepted there by a leader of the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. As a free man, Brown lectured across New England on the evils of slavery and participated in the publication of the Narrative of Henry Box Brown (1849). In 1850, a moving panorama, Henry Box Brown's Mirror of Slavery, opened in Boston. That same year, Brown, worried that he might be re-enslaved, moved to England, where he lectured, presented his panorama, and performed as a hypnotist. In 1875, he returned to the United States with his wife and daughter Annie and performed as a magician. Brown died in Toronto on June 15, 1897. He stands as a powerful symbol of the Underground Railroad and enslaved African Americans' thirst for freedom.
Fri, 14 Apr 2017 14:23:44 EST]]>
/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Tobias_Lear_April_12_1791 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 13:02:31 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Tobias Lear (April 12, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Tobias_Lear_April_12_1791 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 13:02:31 EST]]> /Letter_from_Joseph_Whipple_to_George_Washington_December_22_1796 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 12:07:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Joseph Whipple to George Washington (December 22, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Joseph_Whipple_to_George_Washington_December_22_1796 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 12:07:44 EST]]> /_An_ACT_concerning_descendants_of_indians_and_other_persons_of_mixed_blood_not_being_free_negroes_or_mulattoes_February_25_1833 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 11:39:11 EST <![CDATA["An ACT concerning descendants of indians and other persons of mixed blood, not being free negroes or mulattoes" (February 25, 1833)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_concerning_descendants_of_indians_and_other_persons_of_mixed_blood_not_being_free_negroes_or_mulattoes_February_25_1833 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 11:39:11 EST]]> /Cary_Lott_ca_1780-1828 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:41:35 EST <![CDATA[Cary, Lott (ca. 1780–1828)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cary_Lott_ca_1780-1828 Lott Cary was a Baptist minister and one of the first American settlers of Liberia. Born enslaved about 1780, he labored in Richmond tobacco warehouses before purchasing his own freedom by about 1813. He bought land in Henrico County, married, and became a popular lay preacher. In 1815 Cary helped found the Richmond African Baptist Missionary Society and after the establishment of the American Colonization Society a year later, prepared to immigrate with other free blacks to Liberia, in West Africa. He arrived there in 1821 and helped to settle what became the town of Monrovia in 1824. Demonstrating a wide range of leadership skills, he tended the sick, organized a native labor force, established a joint stock company, and helped extend the settlement's territory. He was twice elected vice agent of Liberia, in 1826 and 1827, and president of the Monrovia Baptist Missionary Society. He assumed leadership of Monrovia in 1828 but died later that year in an accidental gunpowder explosion. After his death, Cary became something of a folk hero, becoming even more eloquent and pious than he had been in life.
Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:41:35 EST]]>
/Colored_Farmers_Alliance_and_Cooperative_Union_of_Virginia_The Thu, 13 Apr 2017 14:53:13 EST <![CDATA[Colored Farmers' Alliance and Cooperative Union of Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Farmers_Alliance_and_Cooperative_Union_of_Virginia_The Thu, 13 Apr 2017 14:53:13 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Joseph_Whipple_November_28_1796 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 12:55:19 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Joseph Whipple (November 28, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Joseph_Whipple_November_28_1796 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 12:55:19 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Oliver_Wolcott_Jr_September_1_1796 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 12:19:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Oliver Wolcott Jr. (September 1, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Oliver_Wolcott_Jr_September_1_1796 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 12:19:35 EST]]> /Barrett_Gilbert_Hunt_the_City_Blacksmith_by_Philip_1859 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 10:41:13 EST <![CDATA[Gilbert Hunt, the City Blacksmith by Philip Barrett (1859)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barrett_Gilbert_Hunt_the_City_Blacksmith_by_Philip_1859 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 10:41:13 EST]]> /Hunt_Gilbert_ca_1780-1863 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 17:05:28 EST <![CDATA[Hunt, Gilbert (ca. 1780–1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hunt_Gilbert_ca_1780-1863 Gilbert Hunt was an African American blacksmith in Richmond who became known in the city for his aid during two fires: the Richmond Theatre fire in 1811 and the Virginia State Penitentiary fire in 1823. Born enslaved in King William County, Hunt trained as a blacksmith in Richmond and remained there most of the rest of his life. After the Richmond Theatre caught fire on December 26, 1811, he ran to the scene and, with the help of Dr. James D. McCaw, helped to rescue as many as a dozen women. He performed a similar feat of courage on August 8, 1823, during the penitentiary fire. Hunt purchased his freedom and in 1829 immigrated to the West African colony of Liberia, where he stayed only eight months. After returning to Richmond, he resumed blacksmithing and served as an outspoken, sometimes-controversial deacon in the First African Baptist Church. In 1848 he helped form the Union Burial Ground Society. In 1859, a Richmond author published a biography of Hunt, largely in the elderly blacksmith's own words, but portraying him as impoverished and meek, a depiction at odds with the historical record. Hunt died in 1863.
Wed, 05 Apr 2017 17:05:28 EST]]>
/Batte_Archibald_d_by_April_12_1830 Fri, 31 Mar 2017 15:05:46 EST <![CDATA[Batte, Archibald (d. by April 12, 1830)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Batte_Archibald_d_by_April_12_1830 Fri, 31 Mar 2017 15:05:46 EST]]> /Godwyn_Preface_and_Introduction_from_The_Negro_s_and_Indians_Advocate_by_Morgan_1680 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:18:01 EST <![CDATA[Godwyn, Preface and Introduction from The Negro's and Indians Advocate by Morgan (1680)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Godwyn_Preface_and_Introduction_from_The_Negro_s_and_Indians_Advocate_by_Morgan_1680 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:18:01 EST]]> /_A_Colored_Hero_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_November_30_1858 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:14:50 EST <![CDATA["A Colored Hero," Richmond Daily Dispatch (November 30, 1858)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Colored_Hero_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_November_30_1858 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:14:50 EST]]> /_Death_of_Gilbert_Hunt_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_April_27_1863 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:13:14 EST <![CDATA["Death of Gilbert Hunt," Richmond Daily Dispatch (April 27, 1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Death_of_Gilbert_Hunt_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_April_27_1863 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:13:14 EST]]> /Johnson_Excerpts_from_Twenty-Eight_Years_a_Slave_by_Thomas_L_1909 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:11:03 EST <![CDATA[Johnson, Excerpts from Twenty-Eight Years a Slave by Thomas L. (1909)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Johnson_Excerpts_from_Twenty-Eight_Years_a_Slave_by_Thomas_L_1909 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:11:03 EST]]> /Refugees_During_the_Civil_War Mon, 27 Mar 2017 11:37:54 EST <![CDATA[Refugees during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Refugees_During_the_Civil_War Virginia possessed the largest number of the estimated 200,000 Southerners who fled their homes during the American Civil War (1861–1865). There were three broad classes of refugees in Virginia during the war—slaves, white Unionists and other dissidents, and Confederates—although historians have tended to focus only on Confederates. These three groups shared some of the same dislocations, but their experiences of the war differed dramatically. White and black Unionists and dissidents who fled to Union lines contributed to the Northern war effort. Confederates, in contrast, bitterly resented the Union invaders, but the hardships of refugee life exacerbated feelings of war weariness. This, combined with social divisions inside Virginia, factored into Confederate defeat.
Mon, 27 Mar 2017 11:37:54 EST]]>
/Constitution_of_the_Union_Burial_Ground_Society_January_23_1848 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 12:12:11 EST <![CDATA[Constitution of the Union Burial Ground Society (January 23, 1848)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Constitution_of_the_Union_Burial_Ground_Society_January_23_1848 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 12:12:11 EST]]> /An_ACT_providing_for_the_voluntary_enslavement_of_the_free_negroes_of_the_commonwealth_February_18_1856 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:44:38 EST <![CDATA[An ACT providing for the voluntary enslavement of the free negroes of the commonwealth (February 18, 1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_providing_for_the_voluntary_enslavement_of_the_free_negroes_of_the_commonwealth_February_18_1856 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:44:38 EST]]> /An_ACT_for_the_Voluntary_Enslavement_of_Free_Negroes_without_compensation_to_the_Commonwealth_March_28_1861 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:29:53 EST <![CDATA[An ACT for the Voluntary Enslavement of Free Negroes, without compensation to the Commonwealth (March 28, 1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_for_the_Voluntary_Enslavement_of_Free_Negroes_without_compensation_to_the_Commonwealth_March_28_1861 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:29:53 EST]]> /Advertisements_Virginia_Gazette_September_8_1774 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:32:51 EST <![CDATA[Advertisements, Virginia Gazette (September 8, 1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisements_Virginia_Gazette_September_8_1774 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:32:51 EST]]> /An_ACT_to_amend_and_explain_an_act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_4_1805 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:18:44 EST <![CDATA[An ACT to amend and explain an act further declaring what shall be deemed unlawful meetings of slaves (January 4, 1805)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_to_amend_and_explain_an_act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_4_1805 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:18:44 EST]]> /An_act_to_amend_an_act_entitled_quot_an_act_reducing_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_quot_1832 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:58:34 EST <![CDATA[An act to amend an act entitled, "an act reducing into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes, and for other purposes" (1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_to_amend_an_act_entitled_quot_an_act_reducing_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_quot_1832 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:58:34 EST]]> /An_Act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_24_1804 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:47:39 EST <![CDATA[An Act further declaring what shall be deemed unlawful meetings of slaves (January 24, 1804)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_24_1804 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:47:39 EST]]> /An_ACT_more_effectually_to_restrain_the_practice_of_negroes_going_at_large_January_25_1803 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:44:45 EST <![CDATA[An ACT more effectually to restrain the practice of negroes going at large (January 25, 1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_more_effectually_to_restrain_the_practice_of_negroes_going_at_large_January_25_1803 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:44:45 EST]]> /An_Act_to_amend_the_act_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_April_7_1831 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:50:19 EST <![CDATA[An Act to amend the act concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes (April 7, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_amend_the_act_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_April_7_1831 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:50:19 EST]]> /Arlington_House Wed, 15 Mar 2017 10:25:18 EST <![CDATA[Arlington House]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arlington_House Arlington House, also known as the Lee-Custis Mansion, overlooks Washington, D.C., from a rise across the Potomac River in Arlington, Virginia. Constructed between 1802 and 1818, it was one of the earliest and boldest expressions of the Greek Revival architectural style in America. Arlington House claims special historical significance through its association with the Washington and Custis families, and particularly with Robert E. Lee. After his family's departure in 1861 at the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865), Arlington House became a Union army facility. In 1863 the United States government established a Freedmen's Village on the property that was intended to serve as a model community for African Americans freed by the 1862 abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia and the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation. Its location, meanwhile, was a striking reminder that Arlington had once been a slave labor–based plantation. In 1864 the federal government officially appropriated the grounds and there established Arlington National Cemetery, which continues to serve as a final resting place for members of the United States armed forces.
Wed, 15 Mar 2017 10:25:18 EST]]>
/_Letter_from_Virginia_Slaves_to_Bishop_Edmund_Gibson_August_4_September_8_1723 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:53:23 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Virginia Slaves to Bishop Edmund Gibson (August 4, September 8, 1723)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Letter_from_Virginia_Slaves_to_Bishop_Edmund_Gibson_August_4_September_8_1723 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:53:23 EST]]> /Black_Baptists_in_Virginia_1865-1902 Fri, 03 Mar 2017 14:03:30 EST <![CDATA[Black Baptists in Virginia (1865–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Baptists_in_Virginia_1865-1902 Most religious African Americans after the American Civil War (1861–1865) belonged to Baptist churches. Even prior to the abolition of slavery, Baptists, black and white, came closer to the principle of the equality of all believers than many other religious bodies. Even white Baptists recognized in principle the idea that African Americans were full members of the church, though whites generally did not consent to the ordination of their black counterparts. Once free, African American Baptists became even more assertive in forming churches and organizing independent local and state associations. These groups gave a platform to African American views of the world, from the theological to the political, and an avenue by which connections could be made both domestically and abroad. For instance, black Baptists in Virginia sought educational and humanitarian support from white Baptists in the North while at the same time, in part through the Baptist Foreign Mission Convention, created in 1880, establishing missions in West Africa. This strategy eventually caused a rift between those black Baptists (so-called independents) who balked at asking white Baptists for help, and others (so-called cooperationists) who argued that they should rise above racial differences. Taking advantage of their numbers and influence, Baptist groups also lobbied hard for black civil rights. And for a time black men voted and regularly held office in Virginia. But by 1902, and the ratification of a new state constitution, such rights were effectively eliminated. In the difficult years to come, Virginia's black Baptists relied on their now well-established institutions to pursue their social and political interests.
Fri, 03 Mar 2017 14:03:30 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Rev_Jonathan_Boucher_to_Rev_John_Waring_March_9_1767 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:31:13 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. Jonathan Boucher to Rev. John Waring (March 9, 1767)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_Jonathan_Boucher_to_Rev_John_Waring_March_9_1767 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:31:13 EST]]> /Associates_of_Dr_Bray Mon, 20 Feb 2017 17:26:26 EST <![CDATA[Associates of Dr. Bray]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Associates_of_Dr_Bray The Associates of Dr. Bray was a philanthropic group founded in 1724 by the English clergyman Thomas Bray to educate enslaved African Americans in the British North American colonies. Educated at Oxford, Bray founded two groups—the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (1699) and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (1701)—charged with spreading literacy and Christianity throughout England and America. A friend's bequest led to the establishment of the Associates of Dr. Bray, dedicated to the religious education of enslaved African Americans in particular. After briefly merging with a group intent on founding a convict colony in Georgia, the Associates concentrated on their primary function. Missions to Georgia and South Carolina failed, but in 1757 Benjamin Franklin suggested that a school be established in Philadelphia. When that succeeded, Franklin recommended that Bray schools be opened in New York; Newport, Rhode Island; and Williamsburg, Virginia. The Williamsburg school operated from 1760 to 1774; it employed a single teacher and was overseen by a number of people, including successive presidents of the College of William and Mary. A similar school opened in Fredericksburg in 1765 and closed five years later due to low enrollment and hostility from local slaveholders. By the second year of the American Revolution (1775–1783), all the Bray schools had closed.
Mon, 20 Feb 2017 17:26:26 EST]]>
/Freedmen_s_Education_in_Virginia_1861-1870 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 13:51:40 EST <![CDATA[Freedmen's Education in Virginia, 1861–1870]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Freedmen_s_Education_in_Virginia_1861-1870 Virginia's freed slaves sought education for themselves and their children at the earliest opportunity. Shortly after the American Civil War (1861–1865) began in Virginia, African Americans established and taught in schools for Virginia's freed people. An African American Virginian created the first black secondary school in the state. More than one-third of the teachers at Virginia's first black schools between 1861 and the end of Reconstruction were African American, and black teachers taught far longer in freedmen's schools in Virginia than white teachers, northern or southern. Not only were African Americans the first to teach in primary schools for Virginia's freed people, they also founded and staffed the first secondary school in the state for free blacks. Northern aid societies like the American Missionary Association sent teachers, books, and other educational support to Virginia's early black schools, and the federal government provided building material for schools and transportation for northern teachers through the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, popularly known as the Freedmen's Bureau. Many historians have portrayed freedmen's education as a northern white benevolent effort, a white gift to the black South. Although many northern teachers braved remarkably aggressive circumstances in their service, evidence suggests that black education in Virginia, as elsewhere in the South, was a product of the freed people's own initiative and determination, temporarily supported by northern benevolence and federal aid.
Mon, 06 Feb 2017 13:51:40 EST]]>
/Carter_Willis_M_1852-1902 Thu, 02 Feb 2017 16:18:36 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Willis M. (1852–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Willis_M_1852-1902 Willis M. Carter was an educator and editor who, by the end of the nineteenth century, had become one of Virginia's best-known African Americans. Born into slavery in Albemarle County, he worked as a laborer and a waiter after the American Civil War (1861–1865). In 1874 he moved to Washington, D.C., and received a teaching degree in 1881. Carter then moved to Staunton, where he spent the rest of his life. He served as principal of the West End School there for fifteen years and as president of the August County Teachers' Association. Following the Danville Riot in November 1883 he led a group of African Americans that considered leaving Virginia. He also served as editor and president of the black newspaper the Southern Tribune, published in Staunton. (He changed the paper's name to the Staunton Tribune in 1893.) In 1901 he participated in protests against the new constitutional convention called to disfranchise African Americans. He died in Staunton in 1902.
Thu, 02 Feb 2017 16:18:36 EST]]>
/Custis_Mary_Lee_Fitzhugh_1788-1853 Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:38:31 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Mary Lee Fitzhugh (1788–1853)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_Mary_Lee_Fitzhugh_1788-1853 Mary Lee Fitzhugh Custis was an Episcopal lay leader whose efforts helped to revive Virginia's Episcopal church early in the nineteenth century. Custis's father, William Fitzhugh, served in the Continental Congress. Her husband, George Washington Parke Custis, was the stepgrandson of George Washington and well-known writer and orator. Their daughter, Mary Randolph Custis, married Robert E. Lee. Mary Custis lived at Arlington, a plantation in Alexandria County, and from there involved herself in raising funds for Episcopal schools and the American Colonization Society, which sought to free enslaved African Americans and send them to Africa. She and her daughter Mary also took an active role in the education of slaves. Custis died in 1853 and was buried at Arlington.
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:38:31 EST]]>
/Ruffin_Robert_D_1842-1916 Mon, 09 Jan 2017 17:17:17 EST <![CDATA[Ruffin, R. D. (1842–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ruffin_Robert_D_1842-1916 R. D. Ruffin was a lawyer, sheriff, and member of the House of Delegates (1875–1876) who achieved financial success in real estate. Born enslaved, he faced controversy throughout his long public life. In 1874 voters in Alexandria (later Arlington) County elected him sheriff, possibly the first African American to hold the position in state history, but he resigned as pressure mounted over his residency. The following year he won election to represent Dinwiddie County in the House of Delegates. He survived a challenge to his election from his opponent, who claimed that Ruffin was not a resident of the county, and he introduced three bills that died in committee. His tenure is most notable for his being expelled from the assembly in 1876 when the overwhelming majority of delegates believed Ruffin stole money from the first door keeper. Ruffin, a lawyer who engaged in real estate, rose from slave to owner of lands reportedly worth millions of dollars. His financial climb was matched by a large number of lawsuits and arrests. To what degree his troubles stemmed from wrongdoing or a cutthroat political climate is unknown. In his later years, he moved to Chicago, Illinois, where he died in 1916.
Mon, 09 Jan 2017 17:17:17 EST]]>
/Franklin_A_Q_1852-1924 Tue, 20 Dec 2016 16:21:37 EST <![CDATA[Franklin, A. Q. (1852–1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Franklin_A_Q_1852-1924 A. Q. Franklin, educator and member of the House of Delegates (1889–1890). Born in Richmond to a former slave who had freed himself and possibly a white mother who taught him to read and write, Franklin worked as a laborer and then, Charles City County, a schoolteacher. He served as the county's commissioner of revenue for many years and helped establish Bull Field Academy, a school for African Americans. In 1889 Franklin won election to the House of Delegates as a Republican, one of only three African Americans elected in 1889. They were the last black candidates to win election to the General Assembly until 1967. In 1908 he began raising funds for an African American high school (later Charles City County High School), which prompted the closure of Bull Field Academy in 1911. According to at least one historian, Franklin's efforts produced an unusually high number of college-educated African Americans from Charles City County. He died in 1924.
Tue, 20 Dec 2016 16:21:37 EST]]>
/United_States_Colored_Troops_The Tue, 20 Dec 2016 08:37:35 EST <![CDATA[United States Colored Troops, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/United_States_Colored_Troops_The The United States Colored Troops (USCT) was a branch of the United States Army founded in 1863 to recruit, organize, and oversee the service of African American soldiers during the American Civil War (1861–1865). USCT regiments consisted of black enlisted men led in almost all cases by white officers. By the end of the Civil War, more than 185,000 men had served in the USCT, including more than 178,000 black soldiers and approximately 7,000 white officers. At least 5,723 black soldiers were mustered into service in Virginia, although Virginia-born and -raised black troops—especially former slaves who may have fled from the state or been sold to other parts of the Confederacy—likely joined in other locations. The administration of President Abraham Lincoln initially did not approve of black soldiers, and used them only as laborers. As the war dragged on, however, attitudes began to change, and the Final Emancipation Proclamation (1863) provided for the enlistment of African Americans. Once in uniform, the men of the USCT saw action in every major theater of the war, with five Virginians being awarded a Medal of Honor. In addition to making significant contributions to the war effort, they were also subjected to racially motivated atrocities. At war's end, many black veterans continued to serve in the South during Reconstruction (1865–1877) while others became leaders in their communities.
Tue, 20 Dec 2016 08:37:35 EST]]>
/Danville_Civil_Rights_Demonstrations_of_1963 Wed, 07 Dec 2016 09:56:15 EST <![CDATA[Danville Civil Rights Demonstrations of 1963]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Danville_Civil_Rights_Demonstrations_of_1963 The Danville civil rights demonstrations began peacefully late in May 1963 when local civil rights leaders organized demonstrations, sit-ins, and marches to protest segregation in all spheres, but especially in municipal government, employment, and public facilities. As protests accelerated, however, white authorities responded early in June with tough legal stratagems and violence, attacking demonstrators with clubs and fire hoses. Martin Luther King Jr.'s Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) all sent state and national leaders to Danville to assist the African American protesters, but to little avail. The legal resistance displayed by authorities—injunctions, ordinances, and court procedures condemned by the U.S. Justice Department—proved so effective and unyielding that protests were stymied, resulting in few immediate gains for African Americans.
Wed, 07 Dec 2016 09:56:15 EST]]>
/African_American_Legislators_in_Virginia_1867-1899 Thu, 17 Nov 2016 15:34:27 EST <![CDATA[African American Legislators in Virginia (1867–1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/African_American_Legislators_in_Virginia_1867-1899 Thu, 17 Nov 2016 15:34:27 EST]]> /Dawson_John_M_1829-1913 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 08:26:41 EST <![CDATA[Dawson, John M. (1829–1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dawson_John_M_1829-1913 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 08:26:41 EST]]> /Edwards_Ballard_T_ca_1828-1881 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 07:54:28 EST <![CDATA[Edwards, Ballard T. (ca. 1828–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edwards_Ballard_T_ca_1828-1881 Ballard T. Edwards represented Chesterfield and Powhatan counties for one term in the House of Delegates (1869–1871). Born free in Manchester (later annexed by Richmond), he became a skilled laborer, owned property, and played a key role in his church. By 1867 Edwards had become involved with Republican Party politics. Two years later he won a seat in the House of Delegates in racially polarized voting. Edwards actively looked out for the rights of freedpeople, though the Conservative Party quashed measures that included safeguarding payment for workers, integrating transportation, and outlawing the Vagrancy Act of 1866. Defeated in his reelection attempt, Edwards remained an active civic figure in his final years. He also worked as a brick mason and plasterer. He died at his Manchester home in 1881.
Thu, 10 Nov 2016 07:54:28 EST]]>
/Paige_R_G_L_1846-1904 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 11:02:00 EST <![CDATA[Paige, R. G. L. (1846–1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Paige_R_G_L_1846-1904 R. G. L. Paige was a Republican member of the House of Delegates (1871–1875, 1879–1882) and possibly the first African American lawyer in Norfolk and one of the first in Virginia. Born into slavery in the city of Norfolk, Paige escaped to Philadelphia about 1857 and eventually settled in Boston. After the American Civil War (1861–1865) and the abolition of slavery, he returned to Norfolk. There he purchased the local African American burial ground (later Mount Olive Cemetery) and in 1871 won election to the House of Delegates. In the General Assembly Paige lobbied for civil rights, served as a delegate to the Republican National Convention, and won a patronage appointment as an assistant clerk at the Norfolk customs house. In 1880 he delivered a speech against lynching that was widely reprinted, but no legislation resulted. That same year he threatened to, but in the end did not, sue a Richmond theater company that refused to seat him. From 1882 to 1885 he served as secretary of the curators of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute. In 1882 he helped pass legislation chartering the Virginia Building and Savings Association and became a founding member of its board of directors. Paige died in 1904.
Wed, 09 Nov 2016 11:02:00 EST]]>
/Norton_Robert_d_by_October_17_1898 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:58:57 EST <![CDATA[Norton, Robert (d. by October 17, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Norton_Robert_d_by_October_17_1898 Robert Norton, one of three brothers elected to the General Assembly, served in the House of Delegates (1869–1882) and chaired the Committee on Labor and the Poor during the 1881–1882 session. Norton and his brother Daniel M. Norton escaped slavery in the mid-1850s. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), Robert Norton settled in Yorktown and carved out a power base by leading the fraternal society Lone Star. He won his first election to the House of Delegates in 1869, serving all but one term through 1883. The rise of the Readjuster Party late in the 1870s enhanced Norton's influence, and he gained notice for seconding party leader William Mahone's nomination for the U.S. Senate. Norton sat as a delegate to Republican and Readjuster national and state conventions, and campaigned unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives in 1874. Norton lost his bid for renomination to the House of Delegates in 1883. He was named to the board of visitors of the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Virginia State University) in 1885 and held a gubernatorial appointment as a curator of the fund for Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University). Norton died by 1898.
Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:58:57 EST]]>
/Nickens_Armistead_S_1836-1906 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:55:04 EST <![CDATA[Nickens, Armistead S. (1836–1906)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Nickens_Armistead_S_1836-1906 Armistead S. Nickens represented Lancaster County in the House of Delegates for two terms (1871–1875). Born into a free family, Nickens became prosperous enough by the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865) that the local agent of the Freedmen's Bureau listed him as a respectable citizen capable of holding public office. Nickens won his first term in 1871, becoming the first African American elected official in county history. He gained a second term in 1873 by a scant twenty-nine votes. After his term in the assembly Nickens received an appointment as a special collector of delinquent taxes in Lancaster County. A landowner, according to local tradition Nickens advocated a bridge across the Rappahannock River that would connect Tappahannock and Richmond County. He died at home in 1906.
Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:55:04 EST]]>
/Fields_James_A_1844-1903 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:30:26 EST <![CDATA[Fields, James A. (1844–1903)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fields_James_A_1844-1903 James A. Fields, who was born enslaved and became a successful lawyer, served one term in the House of Delegates (1889–1890). A brutal beating prompted Fields to escape his Hanover County bondage, and he settled in the Hampton area during the American Civil War (1861–1865). He enrolled in Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute's first class in 1869 and graduated two years later. In 1882 Fields received his law degree from Howard University and began to practice law in Warwick County (later Newport News). Five years later the area's voters elected him as commonwealth's attorney, and in 1889 he won his seat in the General Assembly. By 1900 he paid taxes on at least twenty-five properties in Newport News and Elizabeth City County. Fields died of Bright's disease in 1903. His late-Victorian Italianate residence in Newport News was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2002.
Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:30:26 EST]]>
/Evans_William_D_ca_1831-1900 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:14:01 EST <![CDATA[Evans, William D. (ca. 1831–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Evans_William_D_ca_1831-1900 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:14:01 EST]]> /Connor_Miles_d_1893 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 09:41:22 EST <![CDATA[Connor, Miles (d. 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Connor_Miles_d_1893 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 09:41:22 EST]]> /Coleman_Asa_d_after_February_24_1893 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 09:36:10 EST <![CDATA[Coleman, Asa (d. after February 24, 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Coleman_Asa_d_after_February_24_1893 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 09:36:10 EST]]> /Carter_Peter_Jacob_1845-1886 Tue, 08 Nov 2016 11:48:44 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Peter Jacob (1845–1886)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Peter_Jacob_1845-1886 Peter Jacob Carter, a member of the House of Delegates (1871–1878), was the Eastern Shore's predominant African American politician in the decades following the American Civil War. Born in Northampton County, Carter escaped from slavery and then served for more than two years with the U.S. Colored Infantry. In 1871 he won election as a Republican to the House of Delegates representing Northampton County. He was reelected three more times, and his eight-year tenure was one of the longest among nineteenth-century African American members of the General Assembly. Carter was a Funder Republican—that is, he supported the aggressive repayment of Virginia's antebellum debts—a rare position for an African American politician. Conservatives gerrymandered Carter out of his district ahead of the 1879 elections, and he lost his bid for a seat in the Senate of Virginia. He retained much of his political power, dispensing federal patronage and chairing the state's delegation to the Republican National Convention in 1880. He left the party to join William Mahone's Readjusters, a Republican-allied coalition that sought to readjust Virginia's payment of its antebellum debt. Carter was rewarded for his support by being elected doorkeeper of the Senate of Virginia in 1881 and appointed rector of Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Virginia State University) in 1883. He died in 1886, probably of appendicitis.
Tue, 08 Nov 2016 11:48:44 EST]]>
/Lynching_in_Virginia Mon, 07 Nov 2016 10:09:49 EST <![CDATA[Lynching in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lynching_in_Virginia Lynching involves the extralegal punishment of perceived wrongdoing by a mob. Lynching became pervasive in the American South late in the nineteenth century and, at its height, from 1880 to 1930, killed at least eighty-six men in Virginia, all but fifteen of them African Americans. Many historians believe the term can be traced to Charles Lynch, a Bedford County militia colonel during the American Revolution (1775–1783) who punished captured Loyalists outside the law. Although a regular feature of the Revolution, mob violence spiked during the 1830s in response to immigration and tensions over slavery. In the South, meanwhile, slavery had long encouraged violence against African Americans, implicating even non-slaveholding whites who were often called upon to search for escaped slaves. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), these two traditions—mob violence and violence against African Americans—joined to create an epidemic of lynchings that killed probably as many as 4,000 people from 1880 until the mid-twentieth century; the large majority of those victims were African Americans living in the South. White Virginians, who lynched the fewest number of people of any southern state, justified the practice by demonizing African Americans and arguing that the courts provided insufficient protection against their supposed criminal tendencies. Blacks and whites understood lynching as a means of enforcing white supremacy. Vocal black critics, such as the editor John Mitchell Jr., encouraged armed defense but were ignored by white lawmakers. In the 1920s, after a rash of mob violence, Virginia passed the South's first antilynching law, although no white person was ever convicted under the legislation.
Mon, 07 Nov 2016 10:09:49 EST]]>
/_quot_The_Lynching_of_Negroes_quot_chapter_4_of_The_Negro_The_Southerner_apos_s_Problem_by_Thomas_Nelson_Page_1904 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:13:47 EST <![CDATA["The Lynching of Negroes"; chapter 4 of The Negro: The Southerner's Problem by Thomas Nelson Page (1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Lynching_of_Negroes_quot_chapter_4_of_The_Negro_The_Southerner_apos_s_Problem_by_Thomas_Nelson_Page_1904 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:13:47 EST]]> /Toler_Burwell_ca_1822-1880 Wed, 02 Nov 2016 14:47:35 EST <![CDATA[Toler, Burwell (ca. 1822–1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Toler_Burwell_ca_1822-1880 Wed, 02 Nov 2016 14:47:35 EST]]> /_quot_The_Negro_and_the_Criminal_Law_quot_chapter_6_of_The_Plantation_Negro_as_Freeman_by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1889 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:47:42 EST <![CDATA["The Negro and the Criminal Law"; chapter 6 of The Plantation Negro as Freeman by Philip Alexander Bruce (1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Negro_and_the_Criminal_Law_quot_chapter_6_of_The_Plantation_Negro_as_Freeman_by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1889 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:47:42 EST]]> /_quot_The_Perpetuation_of_Our_Political_Institutions_quot_by_Abraham_Lincoln_January_27_1838 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:30:47 EST <![CDATA["The Perpetuation of Our Political Institutions" by Abraham Lincoln (January 27, 1838)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Perpetuation_of_Our_Political_Institutions_quot_by_Abraham_Lincoln_January_27_1838 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:30:47 EST]]> /Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_Refugee_gt_1856 Fri, 28 Oct 2016 10:59:11 EST <![CDATA[Arrivals from Virginia; an excerpt from The Refugee (1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_Refugee_gt_1856 Fri, 28 Oct 2016 10:59:11 EST]]> /Sound_in_Jefferson_s_Virginia Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:13:42 EST <![CDATA[Sound in Jefferson's Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sound_in_Jefferson_s_Virginia Sound in Thomas Jefferson's Virginia included natural, man-made, and melodic noises. The areas surrounding Monticello, the Albemarle County estate of Jefferson, and the city of Charlottesville, reverberated with thunder, cicadas, bells, work songs, fiddles, and drums. Nearby taverns, parlors, dances, and political rallies resonated with the sounds of crowd noises, toasts, songs, military salutes, fireworks, and shouts. Jefferson's world was as noisy as any small town of its time, filled with the sounds of nature (especially cicadas), Western art music, political music, and the sounds of the enslaved. In taverns, patrons sang drinking songs and patriotic tunes. In parlors, young women performed with keyboards and lutes. At dances, men played fiddles, and in the military, they participated in fife and drum corps. In slave quarters, enslaved men and women, though regularly ignored, sang spirituals and played fiddles and drums, sometimes to communicate with one another.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:13:42 EST]]>
/Southern_Horrors_Lynch_Law_in_All_Its_Phases_by_Ida_B_Wells_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:13:35 EST <![CDATA[Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases by Ida B. Wells (1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Southern_Horrors_Lynch_Law_in_All_Its_Phases_by_Ida_B_Wells_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:13:35 EST]]> /_quot_Lynch_Law_Again_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_February_19_1880 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:12:38 EST <![CDATA["Lynch Law, Again," Richmond Dispatch (February 19, 1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Lynch_Law_Again_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_February_19_1880 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:12:38 EST]]> /_quot_Page_Wallace_apos_s_Crime_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_February_3_1880 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:11:47 EST <![CDATA["Page Wallace's Crime," Richmond Dispatch (February 3, 1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Page_Wallace_apos_s_Crime_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_February_3_1880 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:11:47 EST]]> /_quot_Richlands_apos_Lynching_quot_Clinch_Valley_News_February_3_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:10:00 EST <![CDATA["Richlands' Lynching," Clinch Valley News (February 3, 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Richlands_apos_Lynching_quot_Clinch_Valley_News_February_3_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:10:00 EST]]> /U_S_Senate_Resolution_39_June_13_2005 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:08:50 EST <![CDATA[U.S. Senate Resolution 39 (June 13, 2005)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/U_S_Senate_Resolution_39_June_13_2005 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:08:50 EST]]> /Virginia_Mob_New-York_Spectator_August_20_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:07:52 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Mob, New-York Spectator (August 20, 1835)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Mob_New-York_Spectator_August_20_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:07:52 EST]]> /_quot_Peace_and_Quiet_quot_Roanoke_Times_September_22_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:06:01 EST <![CDATA["Peace and Quiet," Roanoke Times (September 22, 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Peace_and_Quiet_quot_Roanoke_Times_September_22_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:06:01 EST]]> /_quot_The_Execution_Yesterday_quot_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_October_22_1864 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:05:01 EST <![CDATA["The Execution Yesterday," Richmond Daily Dispatch (October 22, 1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Execution_Yesterday_quot_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_October_22_1864 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:05:01 EST]]> /_quot_Rev_Dr_Hatcher_apos_s_Surprising_Assertions_quot_Richmond_Planet_June_23_1894 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:02:59 EST <![CDATA["Rev. Dr. Hatcher's Surprising Assertions," Richmond Planet (June 23, 1894)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Rev_Dr_Hatcher_apos_s_Surprising_Assertions_quot_Richmond_Planet_June_23_1894 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:02:59 EST]]> /_quot_Judge_Lynch_and_His_Victims_quot_Richmond_Planet_January_18_1902 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:01:17 EST <![CDATA["Judge Lynch and His Victims," Richmond Planet (January 18, 1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Judge_Lynch_and_His_Victims_quot_Richmond_Planet_January_18_1902 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:01:17 EST]]> /_quot_Lynch_Law_quot_excerpt_from_Governor_Philip_W_McKinney_apos_s_Address_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:57 EST <![CDATA["Lynch Law"; excerpt from Governor Philip W. McKinney's Address to the General Assembly (December 6, 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Lynch_Law_quot_excerpt_from_Governor_Philip_W_McKinney_apos_s_Address_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:57 EST]]> /_quot_Horrible_Tragedy_quot_Raleigh_Register_and_North-Carolina_Gazette_May_24_1836 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:00 EST <![CDATA["Horrible Tragedy," Raleigh Register and North-Carolina Gazette (May 24, 1836)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Horrible_Tragedy_quot_Raleigh_Register_and_North-Carolina_Gazette_May_24_1836 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:00 EST]]> /_quot_Hanged_by_a_Mob_quot_Alexandria_Gazette_April_23_1897 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:57:39 EST <![CDATA["Hanged by a Mob," Alexandria Gazette (April 23, 1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Hanged_by_a_Mob_quot_Alexandria_Gazette_April_23_1897 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:57:39 EST]]> /_quot_The_Lynchers_Were_Convicted_quot_Richmond_Planet_July_8_1899 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:56:43 EST <![CDATA["The Lynchers Were Convicted," Richmond Planet (July 8, 1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Lynchers_Were_Convicted_quot_Richmond_Planet_July_8_1899 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:56:43 EST]]> /_quot_Viewed_by_a_Thousand_People_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_13_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:55:21 EST <![CDATA["Viewed by a Thousand People," Roanoke Times (February 13, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Viewed_by_a_Thousand_People_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_13_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:55:21 EST]]> /_quot_Judge_Lynch_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_12_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:53:57 EST <![CDATA["Judge Lynch!," Roanoke Times (February 12, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Judge_Lynch_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_12_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:53:57 EST]]> /_quot_The_Police_Force_Wakes_Up_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_11_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:52:53 EST <![CDATA["The Police Force Wakes Up," Roanoke Times (February 11, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Police_Force_Wakes_Up_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_11_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:52:53 EST]]> /_quot_Brutal_Attempt_of_a_Negro_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_10_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST <![CDATA["Brutal Attempt of a Negro," Roanoke Times (February 10, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Brutal_Attempt_of_a_Negro_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_10_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST]]> /_quot_Lynch_Law_and_Barbarism_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_August_3_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:50:49 EST <![CDATA["Lynch Law and Barbarism," Richmond Dispatch (August 3, 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Lynch_Law_and_Barbarism_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_August_3_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:50:49 EST]]> /_quot_The_Clifton_Forge_Tragedy_quot_Roanoke_Times_October_20_1891 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:49:43 EST <![CDATA["The Clifton Forge Tragedy," Roanoke Times (October 20, 1891)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Clifton_Forge_Tragedy_quot_Roanoke_Times_October_20_1891 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:49:43 EST]]> /_They_Hanged_Him_Richmond_Dispatch_November_9_1889 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:48:08 EST <![CDATA["They Hanged Him," Richmond Dispatch (November 9, 1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_They_Hanged_Him_Richmond_Dispatch_November_9_1889 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:48:08 EST]]> /Slave_Housing_in_Virginia Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:15:07 EST <![CDATA[Slave Housing in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Housing_in_Virginia Slave housing in Virginia varied widely depending on the context: whether it was rural or urban, whether it was on an elite plantation or a small farm, and even whether it was located close to or far from the slaveholder's main house. Many of the first Africans who came to Virginia lived in barracks-style housing and other, less-than-permanent accommodations. As the enslaved population grew, however, houses were designed and constructed specifically for black laborers and, in particular, those living in family units. Most slave quarters were constructed of wood, and many were log and earthfast structures with no foundations. Those located closest to elite plantation houses were generally better built, with wooden frames and masonry chimneys and foundations. Separate one or two-room structures, designed to accommodate one- or two-family units, were the most popular house type, although many enslaved laborers slept where they worked—in kitchens, laundries, and stables. Slaves who were hired out in cities sometimes resided in separate "shanty towns." Few intact slave quarters exist in the twenty-first century—likely fewer than 300—and most of those are relatively large and well-built.
Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:15:07 EST]]>
/_On_the_Beauty_and_Fertility_of_America_chapter_14_of_A_Huguenot_Exile_in_Virginia_by_Durand_de_Dauphine_1687 Tue, 20 Sep 2016 11:31:17 EST <![CDATA["On the Beauty and Fertility of America"; chapter 14 of A Huguenot Exile in Virginia by Durand de Dauphiné (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_On_the_Beauty_and_Fertility_of_America_chapter_14_of_A_Huguenot_Exile_in_Virginia_by_Durand_de_Dauphine_1687 Tue, 20 Sep 2016 11:31:17 EST]]> /The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_Thomas_R_Gray_1832 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:21:31 EST <![CDATA[The Confessions of Nat Turner by Thomas R. Gray (1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_Thomas_R_Gray_1832 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:21:31 EST]]> /The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_William_Styron_1967 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:03:45 EST <![CDATA[Confessions of Nat Turner, The (1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_William_Styron_1967 The Confessions of Nat Turner, a novel by William Styron, was published in 1967 and won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1968. The title character is based on the historical Nat Turner, a slave preacher and self-styled prophet who, in August 1831, led the only successful slave revolt in Virginia's history, which in just twelve hours left fifty-five white people in Southampton County dead. (A slave named Gabriel conspired to revolt in 1800, but his plans were discovered before he could carry them out.) The historical Nat Turner, in turn, is largely the product of "The Confessions of Nat Turner, as fully and voluntarily made to Thomas R. Gray," a pamphlet published shortly after Turner's trial and execution in November 1831. Although it played a crucial role in shaping perceptions of the event around the central figure of Turner, the pamphlet itself only reached a small portion of the reading public. The story awaited the Virginia-born Styron, who translated the historical record into a popular medium that commanded the full attention of the reading public and the national media. Despite its awards, however, that attention was not always positive. Published at the height of the Black Power movement and after a long summer of race riots in the United States, Styron's novel was labeled by some civil rights activists as racist, especially because of the author's depiction of Turner lusting after white women, one of whom he eventually kills.
Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:03:45 EST]]>
/_The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_1831 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 13:58:52 EST <![CDATA["Confessions of Nat Turner, The" (1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_1831 The Confessions of Nat Turner, the leader of the late insurrection in Southampton, Va., as fully and voluntarily made to Thomas R. Gray" is a pamphlet published shortly after the trial and execution of Nat Turner in November 1831. The previous August, Turner, a slave preacher and self-styled prophet, had led the only successful slave revolt in Virginia's history, leaving fifty-five white people in Southampton County, Virginia, dead, the slaveholding South convulsed with panic, and the myth of the contented slave in tatters. His confessions, dictated from Turner's jail cell to a Southampton lawyer, have provided historians with a crucial perspective missing from an earlier planned uprising, by Gabriel (also sometimes known as Gabriel Prosser) in 1800, as well as fodder for debate over the veracity of Turner's account. Meanwhile, the book arguably is one of two American literary classics to come from the revolt, the other being The Confessions of Nat Turner, the Pulitzer Prize–winning novel by Virginia-native William Styron, published at the height of the Black Power movement in September 1967. Each of these texts has demonstrated the power of print media to shape popular perceptions of historical fact, even as each raised critical questions of accuracy, authenticity, and community control over historical interpretations of the past.
Wed, 14 Sep 2016 13:58:52 EST]]>
/Rosenwald_Schools Tue, 13 Sep 2016 13:47:27 EST <![CDATA[Rosenwald Schools]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rosenwald_Schools Rosenwald schools were educational facilities built with the assistance of the Rosenwald rural school building program, an initiative to narrow racial schooling gaps in the South by constructing better, more-accessible schools for African Americans. They are called Rosenwald schools because they were partially funded by grants from the Rosenwald Fund, a foundation established by Julius Rosenwald, an Illinois businessman and philanthropist. Between 1912 and 1932, the program helped produce 5,357 new educational facilities for African Americans across fifteen southern states, providing almost 700,000 African American children in rural, isolated communities with state-of-the-art facilities at a time when little to no public money was put toward black education. In Virginia, the initiative helped fund 382 schools and support buildings in seventy-nine counties. Most of these buildings remained in operation until Virginia was forced to comply with the United States Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), which outlawed racial segregation in public schools. In 2002, the National Trust for Historic Preservation placed all surviving Rosenwald schools on its list of America's most endangered historic sites.
Tue, 13 Sep 2016 13:47:27 EST]]>
/Taylor_James_T_S_1840-1918 Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:59:29 EST <![CDATA[Taylor, James T. S. (1840–1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Taylor_James_T_S_1840-1918 Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:59:29 EST]]> /Lee_Robert_E_in_Memory Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:56:01 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Robert E. in Memory]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Robert_E_in_Memory Robert E. Lee, a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and president of Washington College in Lexington until his death in 1870, is one of the most revered figures in American history. Lee's place in history is complicated, however, and the way that he has been remembered has changed over time. During his own life, Lee modeled himself after the courtly and self-controlled George Washington and cultivated a sense of himself as a character in a drama and a prisoner of fate. After his death, Lee was less likely to be branded a traitor; instead, he became a symbol of the Lost Cause interpretation of the war, transformed into a crucial agent of sectional reconciliation. The Civil War, according to the Lost Cause, was not about slavery but about states' rights and, ultimately, the honor and bravery of white soldiers on both sides. In this regard, Lee served the needs of not just the Confederacy or of the South, but of all America. The civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s encouraged historians to engage a broader social and political canvas when writing about Lee, and this has led some scholars to challenge traditional conclusions about Lee's significance and meaning. Like Washington, Lee is the seminal figure in a transformational moment, but of a different sort. He is the symbol of a vision that failed, and yet also the redeemer of a cause that has lived a long and often tragic afterlife.
Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:56:01 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_14_1765 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (September 14, 1765)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_14_1765 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_October_31_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:14 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (October 31, 1768)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_October_31_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:14 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_February_1_1772 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:50:27 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (February 1, 1772)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_February_1_1772 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:50:27 EST]]> /Letter_from_Rev_James_Marye_Jr_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_25_1764 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:49:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. James Marye Jr. to Rev. John Waring (September 25, 1764)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_James_Marye_Jr_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_25_1764 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:49:44 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_November_17_1774 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:48:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert Carter Nicholas to Rev. John Waring (November 17, 1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_November_17_1774 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:48:35 EST]]> /Letter_from_Rev_John_Waring_to_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_April_20_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:47:17 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. John Waring to Robert Carter Nicholas (April 20, 1768)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_John_Waring_to_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_April_20_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:47:17 EST]]> /Farrar_Joseph_E_1830-1892 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 17:13:59 EST <![CDATA[Farrar, Joseph E. (1830–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farrar_Joseph_E_1830-1892 Joseph E. Farrar was a Richmond builder and civic leader in the decades after the American Civil War (1861–1865). Farrar was born free and held a respected position as a contractor before the abolition of slavery, but he needed a gubernatorial pardon to escape being sold into slavery after being convicted of receiving stolen property. He began his civic involvement less than a month after the fall of Richmond, helping organize the Colored Men's Equal Rights League. Farrar and other leaders established the Virginia Home Building Fund and Loan Association to assist African Americans in purchasing their own homes. He also received contracts from the Freedmen's Bureau to work on school buildings in Richmond. Farrar held leadership positions in a series of Baptist and educational organizations and served on Richmond's common council as a member of the Knights of Labor's reform faction. He remained active in the community until his 1892 death in Richmond.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 17:13:59 EST]]>
/Pamphlet_Gowan_fl_1779-1807 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:27:56 EST <![CDATA[Pamphlet, Gowan (fl. 1779–1807)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pamphlet_Gowan_fl_1779-1807 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:27:56 EST]]> /Conference_with_President_Andrew_Johnson_June_16_1865 Mon, 29 Aug 2016 10:21:29 EST <![CDATA[Conference with President Andrew Johnson (June 16, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Conference_with_President_Andrew_Johnson_June_16_1865 Five prominent African American men from Richmond met with President Andrew Johnson in the White House, in Washington, D.C., on June 16, 1865. Led by Fields Cook, a former slave and a Baptist minister, they complained about "the wrongs, as we conceive them to be, by which we are sorely oppressed." The men explained that, with the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865) and the abolition of slavery in Virginia, they were now at the mercy of former masters and a law code not equipped to deal with the new circumstances. They articulated several specific grievances: their inability to employ African American ministers in their churches; their lack of full civil rights in Richmond; and the conduct of the U.S. Army and of the civilian government under Governor Francis H. Pierpont and Mayor Joseph Mayo. Although Johnson did not make a formal response to the complaints, he informed the petitioners of changes of civil and military leadership in Richmond that eased their concerns.
Mon, 29 Aug 2016 10:21:29 EST]]>
/Cohabitation_Act_of_1866 Thu, 18 Aug 2016 15:05:24 EST <![CDATA[Cohabitation Act of 1866]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cohabitation_Act_of_1866 The Cohabitation Act of 1866, passed by the General Assembly on February 27, 1866, legalized the marriages of formerly enslaved people in Virginia and declared their children to be legitimate. Because slave marriages were neither legally recognized nor protected, Governor Francis H. Pierpont recommended that the General Assembly of the Restored government of Virginia, which had remained loyal to the United States during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and had abolished slavery, pass a law to legalize and protect their existing marriages. With the end of the war, the Restored government's jurisdiction extended across the state, and in 1866 the General Assembly in Richmond passed the law legitimizing such marriages and the children who resulted from them.
Thu, 18 Aug 2016 15:05:24 EST]]>
/Johnson_Henry_1842-1922 Thu, 18 Aug 2016 14:59:51 EST <![CDATA[Johnson, Henry (1842–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Johnson_Henry_1842-1922 Thu, 18 Aug 2016 14:59:51 EST]]> /Anderson_Peyton_E_ca_1857-1950 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:24:09 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, Peyton E. (ca. 1857–1950)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_Peyton_E_ca_1857-1950 Peyton E. Anderson was a minister and the first African American superintendent of Prince Edward County's rural black schools. Born enslaved near Farmville, after the American Civil War (1861–1865) he committed himself to getting an education and studied ministry at Richmond Theological Institute. He became the superintendent of schools for African Americans in Prince Edward County, where he oversaw the construction of twenty-three rural schoolhouses and developed a curriculum centered on industrial education. For twenty-five years he was also principal of the Virso School, in Prince Edward County. One county superintendent described him as the most versatile schoolteacher he had ever seen. During his career in education, Anderson served as pastor of New Bethel and Shiloh churches, and at his death in 1950 was pastor of Mount Zion Baptist Church.
Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:24:09 EST]]>
/Cole_George_William_d_after_June_10_1880 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:15:41 EST <![CDATA[Cole, George William (d. after June 10, 1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cole_George_William_d_after_June_10_1880 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:15:41 EST]]> /Robinson_John_1825_or_1826-1908 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:11:45 EST <![CDATA[Robinson, John (1825 or 1826–1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robinson_John_1825_or_1826-1908 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:11:45 EST]]> /Christian_James_S_1918-1982 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:06:39 EST <![CDATA[Christian, James S. (1918–1982)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Christian_James_S_1918-1982 James S. Christian represented the city of Richmond in the House of Delegates from 1978 until his death in 1982. A veteran of World War II (1939–1945), he was the first African American from Richmond to report for flight training at the Tuskegee Army Air Base in Alabama. Christian also served in the Korean War (1950–1953). A postal worker for many years, he took accounting courses and opened a bookkeeping business in Richmond's Jackson Ward neighborhood in 1963. Nearly a decade later he joined the city's planning commission and was named its chair in 1976. The next year he won election to the House of Delegates, going on to serve three consecutive terms. A highly successful delegate, Christian was expected to become the House's second African American committee chair of the twentieth century. Instead, he died of bone cancer in 1982.
Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:06:39 EST]]>
/Lipscomb_James_F_1830-1893 Tue, 02 Aug 2016 15:08:39 EST <![CDATA[Lipscomb, James F. (1830–1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lipscomb_James_F_1830-1893 James F. Lipscomb represented Cumberland County in the House of Delegates from 1869 until 1877. Born free in Cumberland, Lipscomb became a landholder after the American Civil War (1861–1865) and in 1869 he won a seat in the General Assembly, the second election in which African Americans could vote in Virginia. Affiliated with the radical wing of the Republican Party and reelected three times, Lipscomb lost his attempt for a fifth term in 1877. He was likely related to John Robinson, who represented Cumberland County in the Convention of 1867–1868 and in the Senate of Virginia. Lipscomb, primarily a farmer, possessed one of the largest African American–owned houses in the county. He also opened a store that stayed in his family until it closed in 1971.
Tue, 02 Aug 2016 15:08:39 EST]]>
/Lost_Cause_The Wed, 27 Jul 2016 09:17:55 EST <![CDATA[Lost Cause, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lost_Cause_The The Lost Cause is an interpretation of the American Civil War (1861–1865) that seeks to present the war, from the perspective of Confederates, in the best possible terms. Developed by white Southerners, many of them former Confederate generals, in a postwar climate of economic, racial, and social uncertainty, the Lost Cause created and romanticized the "Old South" and the Confederate war effort, often distorting history in the process. For this reason, many historians have labeled the Lost Cause a myth or a legend. It is certainly an important example of public memory, one in which nostalgia for the Confederate past is accompanied by a collective forgetting of the horrors of slavery. Providing a sense of relief to white Southerners who feared being dishonored by defeat, the Lost Cause was largely accepted in the years following the war by white Americans who found it to be a useful tool in reconciling North and South. The Lost Cause has lost much of its academic support but continues to be an important part of how the Civil War is commemorated in the South and remembered in American popular culture.
Wed, 27 Jul 2016 09:17:55 EST]]>
/Edwards_Thomas_J_Tommy_1922-1969 Tue, 26 Jul 2016 17:31:28 EST <![CDATA[Edwards, Tommy (1922–1969)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edwards_Thomas_J_Tommy_1922-1969 Tommy Edwards was a singer and songwriter best known for his 1958 chart-topping single "It's All in the Game." Edwards showed musical promise early, hosting a Richmond radio show in his teens. By 1943 he was writing songs in New York and scored a hit with "That Chick's Too Young to Fry." Edwards began a recording career that peaked in 1958 with "It's All in the Game." The runaway hit led to a series of charting singles over the next two years and appearances on national television shows. His career declined as his balladeer style fell out of favor with musical trends. His signature song remains a classic years after his death and has been included in many music compilations.
Tue, 26 Jul 2016 17:31:28 EST]]>
/Public_School_System_in_Virginia_Establishment_of_the Tue, 26 Jul 2016 13:50:18 EST <![CDATA[Public School System in Virginia, Establishment of the]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Public_School_System_in_Virginia_Establishment_of_the The first statewide system of free public schools in Virginia was established in 1870 after the ratification of a new constitution and was one of the most important and enduring accomplishments of Reconstruction. Prior to the American Civil War (1861–1865), education had been reserved mostly for elite white families; no southern states had public school systems and in Virginia the education of free and enslaved African Americans had been discouraged and, in some forms, made illegal. After the abolition of slavery, the federal Freedmen's Bureau established the first statewide system of schools, but only for African Americans; other, biracial systems were set up, but only in Petersburg, Richmond, and Norfolk. The new constitution created a new statewide system that, in spite of protests by African American members of the General Assembly, segregated black and white students. The first state superintendent, William Henry Ruffner, set about building the system's infrastructure—creating more than 2,800 schools and hiring about 3,000 teachers by August 1871—and building political support for its funding. In debates over how to pay off Virginia's large antebellum debt some politicians advocated reducing funding for public schools, although the system became more stable when the biracial Readjuster Party took over government in 1881, appointed R. R. Farr superintendent, and increased appropriations. By the turn of the century, public schools had attained broad social and political support.
Tue, 26 Jul 2016 13:50:18 EST]]>
/Lyons_Isaiah_L_1843-1871 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 15:11:45 EST <![CDATA[Lyons, Isaiah L. (1843–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lyons_Isaiah_L_1843-1871 Isaiah L. Lyons served in the Senate of Virginia (1869–1871) and was one of the first African American members of the General Assembly. Born in New Jersey, Lyons was raised in Brooklyn, New York, and worked as a clerk. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served in Virginia with the United States Colored Troops, finally settling in Hampton. In 1869 Lyons, who by then worked as a druggist, won election to the Senate by handily defeating a white candidate, Martin McDevitt. He then became the only African American member to vote against ratifying the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution. Although in the minority, Lyons reasoned that the assembly itself was illegitimate because most of its white members could not take the required oath stating they had been loyal to the United States during the war. He also voted against a provision that required racial segregation in the state's new public schools but eventually supported the bill. Lyons died at his home in Hampton in 1871 from the effects of illnesses acquired during the war.
Mon, 25 Jul 2016 15:11:45 EST]]>
/Mahone_William_1826-1895 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:02:29 EST <![CDATA[Mahone, William (1826–1895)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mahone_William_1826-1895 William Mahone was a Confederate general, Virginia senator (1863–1865), railroad tycoon, U.S. senator (1881–1887), and leader of the short-lived Readjuster Party. Known by his nickname, "Little Billy," Mahone was, in the words of a contemporary, "short in stature, spare almost to emaciation, with [a] long beard, and keen, restless eyes." He attended the Virginia Military Institute on scholarship, worked as a railroad engineer, and eventually became president of the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he distinguished himself at the Battle of the Crater (1864), leading a successful counterattack that also involved the massacre of surrendered black troops. After the war, Mahone founded the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio Railroad, which, before it failed, served his business interests in Norfolk and Southside Virginia. In 1881, he was elected to the United States Senate as a member of the Readjuster Party, an unlikely coalition of poor whites and African Americans interested in repudiating a portion of the massive state debt and, in so doing, restoring social services such as free public education. One of the most successful biracial political coalitions in the New South, the Readjusters held power until 1886, when Mahone lost his Senate seat. A gubernatorial bid in 1889 failed, and Mahone died in Washington, D.C., in 1895.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:02:29 EST]]>
/Republican_Party_in_Virginia_During_the_Nineteenth_Century Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:00:28 EST <![CDATA[The Republican Party of Virginia in the Nineteenth Century]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Republican_Party_in_Virginia_During_the_Nineteenth_Century The Republican Party of Virginia was founded in 1856 and by the end of the century had become, with the Democratic Party, one of the state's two main political parties. Most of its earliest members lived in western Virginia. While not necessarily opposing slavery itself, these Republicans opposed both its expansion into the western territories and the political and economic advantages it bestowed on Piedmont and Tidewater Virginians. They also opposed secession in 1861. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), most of antebellum Virginia's Republicans lived in West Virginia. The few who were left had been Unionists but were now divided on questions such as African American civil rights and whether to allow former Confederates back into government. Newly enfranchised African Americans also flocked to the party. In 1869, a coalition of Conservative Party members and moderate Republicans—in opposition to radical Republicans—won all statewide offices. In 1881, 300 African American Republicans met in Petersburg and voted to endorse the Readjuster Party, formed in support of lowering, or "readjusting," the state debt in order to protect services such as free public schools. This alliance gave Readjusters control of the General Assembly, the governorship, and a seat in the U.S. Senate. In an environment of racial tensions, and just days after the Danville Riot of 1883, the Democratic Party (formerly the Conservatives) swept to power. No Republican won statewide office again until 1969.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:00:28 EST]]>
/Disfranchisement Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:55:25 EST <![CDATA[Disfranchisement]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Disfranchisement Disfranchisement (also called disenfranchisement) is the revocation of the right of suffrage. African American males voted in Virginia for the first time in October 1867, during Reconstruction (1865–1877), when the military governor of the state, John M. Schofield, ordered a referendum on whether to hold a convention to write a new state constitution and to elect delegates to serve in the convention. A majority of white Virginians disapproved of the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1870, which prohibited states from denying the vote to any man because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Ensuring that Virginia elections were set up to express the public opinion rather than suppress it was a task that took decades to complete. It was not until the abolition of the poll tax in the 1960s and adoption of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965 that black men and women registered and voted in appreciable numbers in Virginia outside a few urban precincts and that white men and women began to register and vote in significantly larger percentages than during the first half of the twentieth century.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:55:25 EST]]>
/Davis_Henry_Jackson_1882-1947 Fri, 08 Jul 2016 15:25:38 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Jackson (1882–1947)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Henry_Jackson_1882-1947 Jackson Davis was an educator, educational advisor, and foundation director who served as an important intermediary between African American schools in the South and philanthropic foundations in the North. Throughout his career, he specialized in education in the South, interracial issues, and educational development in the Belgian Congo and Liberia. As a field agent for the General Education Board, Davis worked on behalf of better relations and understanding between whites and African Americans and pioneered the development and promotion of regional centers of education in the South. Davis's relatively moderate position on race relations, however, did not extend to desegregation of public schools.
Fri, 08 Jul 2016 15:25:38 EST]]>
/Langston_John_Mercer_1829-1897 Fri, 08 Jul 2016 13:14:58 EST <![CDATA[Langston, John Mercer (1829–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Langston_John_Mercer_1829-1897 John Mercer Langston served as Virginia's first African American member of Congress (1890–1891) and as the first president of Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Virginia State University). The son of a white Louisa County planter and the woman he freed, Langston grew up in Ohio, where, as an attorney and local office holder, he helped recruit African American troops during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After the war, his involvement with the Freedmen's Bureau as inspector of schools brought him back to Virginia. In 1870 Langston became dean of Howard University's law school and served as acting president of the university from 1873 until 1875. In 1885, the Virginia State Board of Education named Langston president of the new Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute. The new school grew under his leadership, but the Democrat-packed board of visitors did not renew his contract two years later. In 1888 he sought the Republican nomination for Congress, but party leader William Mahone engineered his defeat. Langston ran an independent campaign in which a Democrat was named the winner. Langston disputed the election results, however, and eventually Congress seated him for the final months of his term. He lost reelection and returned to Washington, D.C., where he published an autobiography. He died in Washington in 1897.
Fri, 08 Jul 2016 13:14:58 EST]]>
/Lumpkin_s_Jail Thu, 26 May 2016 22:36:09 EST <![CDATA[Lumpkin's Jail]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lumpkin_s_Jail Lumpkin's Jail was a slave-trading complex located on Wall Street, in the Shockoe Bottom district of Richmond, which operated from the 1830s until the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). The slave-trader Bacon Tait owned the property first, followed by Lewis A. Collier, who built the so-called jail, which confined enslaved African Americans prior to their sale. Robert Lumpkin purchased the property in 1844 and used the facility to pursue his own slave-trading business, accommodating his clients in a boardinghouse on the premises. Lumpkin also charged slave dealers and owners a daily fee for holding their slaves. Anthony Burns, a runaway slave returned to Richmond under the Fugitive Slave Law, was housed at Lumpkin's for four months under appalling conditions. Lumpkin died in 1866, and his widow, a formerly enslaved woman named Mary, leased the property to a Baptist minister who founded the Colver Institute, a religious school for emancipated African Americans, and held classes in the former jail building. The school eventually became Virginia Union University. The jail was demolished by 1876 and large industrial buildings later occupied the site. Its history was largely forgotten until 2005, when archaeologists began the first phase of an investigation that eventually found evidence of the complex, including the original jail building buried nearly fifteen feet beneath the modern ground level. The archaeological remains were subsequently reburied, and the Lumpkin's Jail site is commemorated as one of seventeen places on the Richmond Slave Trail.
Thu, 26 May 2016 22:36:09 EST]]>
/Ruffner_William_H_1824-1908 Fri, 29 Apr 2016 15:56:36 EST <![CDATA[Ruffner, William Henry (1824–1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ruffner_William_H_1824-1908 William Henry Ruffner was the designer and first superintendent of Virginia's public school system and later served as principal of the State Female Normal School (later Longwood University). Born in Lexington and a graduate of Washington College (later Washington and Lee University), he spent the years before the American Civil War (1861–1865) as a Presbyterian minister and farmer in Rockingham County. Ruffner owned slaves, and he advocated the gradual emancipation and colonization of the state's African Americans. He raised funds for the American Colonization Society. After the Constitution of 1869 mandated the creation of public schools, the General Assembly elected Ruffner the state's first superintendent of public instruction. During his twelve-year tenure Ruffner gave Virginia's public school system a lasting foundation and as he defended the system from vigorous opposition and the shortfalls generated by the state's crippling debt. In 1884 he became principal of the new State Female Normal School, where he served for three years. Ruffner spent his later years teaching geology, writing about the history of Washington and Lee University, and advocating the school system he helped create. He died at his daughter's home in Asheville, North Carolina, in 1908.
Fri, 29 Apr 2016 15:56:36 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_and_His_Family Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:04:45 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and His Family]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_His_Family Thomas Jefferson regularly commented on the importance of family. In 1789 he wrote to his brother Randolph that "no society is so precious as that of one's own family" and—in another letter, to Francis Willis—that he longed for domestic tranquility within the "bosom" of his family. Jefferson was raised at Shadwell, his father's Albemarle County plantation, with nine siblings. The absence of extant letters between Jefferson and his parents has led some historians to suggest a frosty relationship, but his letters to siblings suggest that the family was, in fact, close and loving. Jefferson married Martha Wayles Skelton in 1772, and by all accounts the two were very much in love. Of their six children, only two—Martha and Mary (later Maria)—survived to adulthood. The elder Martha Jefferson died a few months after giving birth in 1782, and Jefferson's daughters, and later his grandchildren, became the focus of his domestic life. While president in 1802, his family life attracted public attention when the Richmond journalist James Thomson Callender accused him of fathering children with his slave—and his wife's likely half-sister—Sally Hemings. Many historians now accept that Jefferson fathered Hemings's six children. His later years were marked by family strife, including a feud between his two sons-in-law and alcohol-fueled violence perpetrated by the husband of one of his granddaughters. Debts also accumulated, but Jefferson maintained his home at Monticello as a refuge for family, and they surrounded him there on his death in 1826.
Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:04:45 EST]]>
/Gabriel_s_Conspiracy_1800 Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:02:35 EST <![CDATA[Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gabriel_s_Conspiracy_1800 Gabriel's Conspiracy was a plan by enslaved African American men to attack Richmond and destroy slavery in Virginia. Although thwarted, it remains one of the half-dozen most important insurrection plots in the history of North American slavery. Named after an enslaved blacksmith who emerged as the most significant leader of the plot, Gabriel's Conspiracy originated during the spring and summer of 1800 in a Henrico County neighborhood north of Richmond and extended primarily across Hanover County into Caroline County and south toward Petersburg. Two slave men betrayed the plot just hours before a torrential rainstorm prevented the conspirators from gathering on the night of August 30, 1800. In response, Virginia authorities arrested and prosecuted more than seventy enslaved men for insurrection and conspiracy. Twenty-six of those found guilty were hanged and eight more were transported, or sold outside of the state, while another suspected conspirator committed suicide before his arraignment. A small number of free blacks were also implicated and one was prosecuted. The alleged involvement of two Frenchmen in the plot provided fodder for Federalist attacks on Thomas Jefferson's candidacy for the presidency that year. The aborted uprising also provoked refinements in the state's slave laws at the next meeting of the General Assembly, including the adoption of transportation as an alternative to capital punishment for some slave offenders and calls for an end to private manumissions and for the deportation of free blacks.
Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:02:35 EST]]>
/Thomas_s_Administrator_v_Bettie_Thomas_Lewis_June_16_1892 Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:13:59 EST <![CDATA[Thomas's Administrator v. Bettie Thomas Lewis (June 16, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_s_Administrator_v_Bettie_Thomas_Lewis_June_16_1892 Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:13:59 EST]]> /_Bettie_Thomas-Lewis_from_the_Richmond_Times_June_19_1892 Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:04:57 EST <![CDATA["Bettie Thomas-Lewis" from the Richmond Times (June 19, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Bettie_Thomas-Lewis_from_the_Richmond_Times_June_19_1892 Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:04:57 EST]]> /Allen_Joseph_ca_1836-after_1905 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:54:57 EST <![CDATA[Allen, Joseph (ca. 1836–after 1905)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allen_Joseph_ca_1836-after_1905 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:54:57 EST]]> /Archaeology_at_Mount_Vernon Fri, 01 Apr 2016 08:27:02 EST <![CDATA[Mount Vernon, Archaeology at]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Archaeology_at_Mount_Vernon Archaeology at Mount Vernon, the Fairfax County plantation home of George Washington, began in the 1930s and has continued over the subsequent decades. As part of research and renovation efforts undertaken by the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, excavations have sought to uncover evidence of daily life on the property during the eighteenth century. In 1987, the association, which has owned and operated the estate since 1860, hired a full-time archaeologist. Since then, archaeological digs at the Mansion House Farm have taken place at the main slave quarter, known as the House for Families, and the blacksmith shop (1987–1990), the fruit garden and nursery (1988–1991), the South Grove trash dump, or midden (1990–1993), the dung repository (1992–1994), and the Upper Garden (2005–2010). Extensive work has also been conducted at the distillery, located near the outlying gristmill (1999–2005). These investigations have turned up a rich array of artifacts and other kinds of evidence attesting to the lives of the Washington family and their enslaved laborers, including the size and nature of structures in which they lived and worked, the tools they manufactured and used, and the foods they ate.
Fri, 01 Apr 2016 08:27:02 EST]]>
/Flemings_L_R_d_1937 Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:26:19 EST <![CDATA[Flemings, L. R. (d. 1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Flemings_L_R_d_1937 L. R. Flemings was an African American justice of the peace in Lancaster County from about 1887 until 1937; records are not complete, but it is possible he served in office continuously during these years. Whatever the case, he likely was the longest-serving black public official in Virginia's history prior to the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Born free in that county sometime between 1857 and 1861, Flemings was a storekeeper when he first won election as justice of the peace. He served four-year terms in the majority-black county for at least thirty-two years despite widespread efforts in Virginia to disfranchise African American men, especially after passage of the Constitution of 1902. In 1912, Flemings was named registrar of vital statistics in Lancaster County, serving for more than a decade. He also served as a coroner, a member of the county grand jury, and a delegate to the Republican Party state convention in 1896. Flemings died in Lancaster County in 1937.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:26:19 EST]]>
/Burns_Anthony_1834-1862 Mon, 21 Mar 2016 09:26:59 EST <![CDATA[Burns, Anthony (1834–1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burns_Anthony_1834-1862 Anthony Burns was a fugitive slave from Virginia who, while living in Boston in 1854, became the principal in a famous court case brought in an effort to extradite him back to the South. Born in Stafford County, Burns was the property of the merchant Charles F. Suttle, who later hired him out to William Brent, of Falmouth. In 1854, Burns escaped slavery and traveled to Boston, where he wrote a letter back to one of his brothers. Intercepted by Suttle, the letter revealed Burns's whereabouts, and Suttle and Brent themselves traveled to Boston and claimed Burns under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. The subsequent rendition trial sparked the interest of antislavery activists, and an attempt at freeing Burns by force killed a federal marshal. Burns eventually lost his case and was sold to a man in North Carolina. Boston activists later purchased his freedom, however, and he attended school in Ohio and lectured on his experiences. He ended up in Canada, where he died in 1862 from health problems related to his post-trial confinement.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 09:26:59 EST]]>
/Lafayette_James_ca_1748-1830 Thu, 10 Mar 2016 16:57:07 EST <![CDATA[Lafayette, James (ca. 1748–1830)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lafayette_James_ca_1748-1830 James Lafayette was a spy during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Born a slave about 1748, he was a body servant for his owner, William Armistead, of New Kent County, in the spring of 1781. At the time, Armistead served as state commissary of military supplies, and his position allowed Lafayette—then known only by his first name—access to the front lines of war. Lafayette's race made it easy for him to pass between lines, and he began serving as a double agent, spying for the Americans while pretending to spy for the British. After the war, the marquis de Lafayette attested in writing to James Lafayette's service, and the former spy petitioned the General Assembly for his freedom, which was granted in 1787. Around this time he took the surname Lafayette. Late in 1818 Lafayette petitioned for and won a military pension. He lived on forty acres of land he purchased in New Kent County, traveling to Richmond twice a year to collect his pension. He reportedly greeted the marquis de Lafayette on the Frenchman's tour of Virginia in 1824. James Lafayette died in Baltimore in 1830.
Thu, 10 Mar 2016 16:57:07 EST]]>
/Blackwell_James_Heyward_ca_1864-1931 Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:37:03 EST <![CDATA[Blackwell, James H. (ca. 1864–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blackwell_James_Heyward_ca_1864-1931 James H. Blackwell served as a principal of and helped develop the high school curriculum for Manchester's first African American school. Blackwell was raised in the city (later annexed by Richmond) and worked under the tutelage of Anthony Binga, a prominent pastor. He was one of three teachers selected when Binga was named principal of the school, and Blackwell ultimately succeeded his mentor. After Richmond absorbed Manchester in 1910, city rules stipulated that no African American could serve as principal. Blackwell also helped create two financial service companies, though they met with limited success. He died in 1931. In 1951 the school where he taught was named for him, and in turn the institution gave its name to the Richmond neighborhood of Blackwell.
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:37:03 EST]]>
/Brodnax_William_H_ca_1786-1834 Thu, 25 Feb 2016 15:53:08 EST <![CDATA[Brodnax, William H. (ca. 1786–1834)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brodnax_William_H_ca_1786-1834 William H. Brodnax was a member of the House of Delegates (1818–1819, 1830–1833) and of the Virginia constitutional convention of 1829. A native of Brunswick County, he studied and then practiced law in Petersburg and lived on a 1,600-acre plantation in Dinwiddie County. During the constitutional convention, he supported policies that extended white male suffrage while retaining most political advantages enjoyed by eastern Virginians over their western counterparts. As a brigadier general of the state militia, he led the welcoming escort of the marquis de Lafayette in 1824 and, in 1831, commanded the forces that put down Nat Turner's Rebellion. During the debate on slavery in the ensuing session of the General Assembly, he chaired a select committee and proposed a plan to colonize the state's free and enslaved African Americans. A member of the Whig Party and a supporter of states' rights, he died of cholera in 1834.
Thu, 25 Feb 2016 15:53:08 EST]]>
/Cottrell_Sally_d_1875 Wed, 10 Feb 2016 13:44:56 EST <![CDATA[Cole, Sally Cottrell (d. 1875)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cottrell_Sally_d_1875 Sally Cottrell was an enslaved maid and seamstress. Born sometime around 1800, she served as a maid to Ellen Wayles Randolph at Monticello from 1809 until 1824, after which Randolph married and moved to Boston. Cottrell was then hired out to a University of Virginia professor, who later purchased her with the intention of freeing her. It is unclear whether Cottrell was ever officially freed, but by early 1828 she was working on her own as a seamstress. She was baptized in Charlottesville in 1841, married in 1846, and died in 1875. She had no children.
Wed, 10 Feb 2016 13:44:56 EST]]>
/Slave_Clothing_and_Adornment_in_Virginia Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:22:03 EST <![CDATA[Slave Clothing and Adornment in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Clothing_and_Adornment_in_Virginia Slave clothing and adornment varied across time and across Virginia. In West Africa, where many American slaves originated, clothing was minimal, and even that was generally stripped from newly enslaved people just prior to the Middle Passage. In Virginia, slaves were outfitted with European clothing they often found to be constricting and uncomfortable. The fabrics used for construction tended to be inferior, with their owners using whatever was most cost-effective. Homespun Virginia cloth and imported osnaburg fabric (made from flax and hemp) were common in the eighteenth century. By the nineteenth century, with the rise of cotton production, blends such as jean cloth became more common and allowed owners to provide slaves clothing that was untailored and ready-made. The most common practice was to distribute clothes in twice-a-year allotments, with liveried (uniformed) and domestic slaves receiving higher-quality clothing than field slaves, who wore the plainest and coarsest clothing. Children wore simple gowns. Boys transitioned to breeches, or short pants, and then to long pants and girls wore adult dresses when they began to menstruate. Plain leather shoes and sometimes hats were also included in allotments, while women, reflecting West African traditions, sometimes wore cloth head wraps. To aid in running away, some slaves stole better clothes while others saved money and purchased or, in some instances, earned better attire.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:22:03 EST]]>
/Jennings_Paul_1799-1874 Wed, 03 Feb 2016 08:16:04 EST <![CDATA[Jennings, Paul (1799–1874)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jennings_Paul_1799-1874 Paul Jennings is the author of A Colored Man's Reminiscences of James Madison (1865), a memoir about his service as an enslaved footman in the White House. Born at the Madison plantation, Montpelier, Jennings lived in the president's house during James Madison's two terms as president and, in his narrative, recounts his role in rescuing Gilbert Stuart's 1796 portrait of George Washington before the arrival of British soldiers during the War of 1812. His version of these events gives Dolley Madison a less prominent role than most subsequent histories. Jennings served James Madison until the former president's death in 1836, after which Jennings lived at Dolley Madison's in Washington, D.C. For a time he worked in the White House again, for President James K. Polk. Madison sold Jennings in 1846, and six months later, Senator Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, purchased and freed Jennings, who then went to work for Webster. In 1848, Jennings was involved in the Pearl incident, a plot to smuggle seventy-seven slaves to freedom aboard the schooner Pearl. The plot was betrayed and the slaves captured, but the authorities never learned of Jennings's involvement. In January 1863, while working for the federal Department of the Interior, Jennings published his memoir in a magazine with the help of John Brooks Russell, a clerk in his office. The Reminiscences were privately published in book form in 1865. Jennings married three times and fathered five children. He died at his home in Washington, D.C., in 1874.
Wed, 03 Feb 2016 08:16:04 EST]]>
/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_October_4-5_1824 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:11:23 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Board of Visitors Minutes (October 4–5, 1824)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_October_4-5_1824 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:11:23 EST]]> /Slavery_at_the_University_of_Virginia Tue, 02 Feb 2016 10:55:46 EST <![CDATA[Slavery at the University of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slavery_at_the_University_of_Virginia The University of Virginia utilized the labor of enslaved African Americans from the earliest days of its construction, in 1817, until the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). Most of the university's first enslaved laborers were rented from local landowners and worked alongside whites and free blacks in performing all the tasks associated with building what the school's founder, Thomas Jefferson, called the Academical Village. In March 1825, the first students arrived and African Americans transitioned to working in the pavilions, hotels, and the Rotunda; maintaining classrooms, laboratories, and the library; ringing the bell; and serving the daily needs of students and faculty. While faculty were allowed to bring personal slaves on Grounds, as the university campus was called, students were not—a reflection, perhaps, of Jefferson's view that slavery raised the young in habits of tyranny. Students nevertheless tended to treat the university's slaves poorly, at times even attacking them. The university's response to such behavior was inconsistent. Although the men who founded the university were ambivalent about slavery, over time students and faculty alike tended to take a harder line in favor of the institution. When the slaves were freed in 1865, the faculty was not, as a group, inclined to help them. The university hired many of its former slaves to work their previous jobs but never articulated a formal policy regarding the newly freed men and women.
Tue, 02 Feb 2016 10:55:46 EST]]>
/Dillard_James_Hardy_1856-1940 Wed, 20 Jan 2016 09:54:09 EST <![CDATA[Dillard, J. H. (1856–1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dillard_James_Hardy_1856-1940 J. H. Dillard was an educator and reformer who, early in the twentieth century, became the best-known and most-active white proponents of improved educational opportunities for African Americans in the South. Born either in Southampton County or Nansemond County, he studied law before becoming a teacher. In 1894, he became a dean at Tulane University, in New Orleans. In 1908, he was elected president of the board of the Anna T. Jeanes Foundation, established to help the education of African Americans in the South by paying teacher salaries and investing in buildings and equipment. He returned to Virginia in 1913, working for the Jeanes Fund and as the president of the John F. Slater Fund, which had a similar mission, until he resigned both positions in 1931. By this time, the South had 305 so-called Jeanes teachers in fourteen states, with Virginia claiming more teachers than any other state. Dillard engaged in other work on behalf of interracial cooperation, establishing the University Commission on Southern Race Questions in 1912. In 1930, two historically black universities in New Orleans combined to form Dillard University, named in his honor. Dillard died at his home in Charlottesville in 1940.
Wed, 20 Jan 2016 09:54:09 EST]]>
/Davis_Noah_1804-1867 Tue, 12 Jan 2016 11:47:08 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Noah (1804–1867)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Noah_1804-1867 Noah Davis was a Baptist minister and author of an emancipation narrative, A Narrative of the Life of Rev. Noah Davis, a Colored Man, published in 1859. Born into slavery in Madison County, Davis learned farming and carpentry and joined the Baptist church in Fredericksburg, which elected him a deacon. In 1847, white Baptists paid for Davis's freedom (he had already raised some of the money) and hired him as a missionary to African Americans in Baltimore. The next year he established the Second Colored Baptist Church in that city and over the next decade raised the money to free his family, who were in danger of being sold. His memoir was published in part to earn funds for that effort. In 1863, Davis attended the American Baptist Missionary Convention in Washington, D.C., and there met with President Abraham Lincoln, requesting he be allowed to preach to African American troops. In 1866, his church united with another, and Davis died the next year, in Baltimore.
Tue, 12 Jan 2016 11:47:08 EST]]>
/Speech_by_John_C_Underwood_January_16_1868 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:51:04 EST <![CDATA[Speech by John C. Underwood (January 16, 1868)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_John_C_Underwood_January_16_1868 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:51:04 EST]]> /Letter_from_John_C_Underwood_in_the_New_York_Times_January_6_1857 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:45:59 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John C. Underwood in the New York Times (January 6, 1857)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_C_Underwood_in_the_New_York_Times_January_6_1857 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:45:59 EST]]> /Depositions_for_the_Claim_of_William_James_March_20_1872 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 11:30:49 EST <![CDATA[Depositions for the Claim of William James (March 20, 1872)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Depositions_for_the_Claim_of_William_James_March_20_1872 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 11:30:49 EST]]> /Depositions_for_the_Claim_of_Benjamin_Summers_February_6_1872 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 11:29:00 EST <![CDATA[Depositions for the Claim of Benjamin Summers (February 6, 1872)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Depositions_for_the_Claim_of_Benjamin_Summers_February_6_1872 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 11:29:00 EST]]> /Bowser_Mary_Richards_fl_1846-1867 Fri, 08 Jan 2016 17:33:03 EST <![CDATA[Bowser, Mary Richards (fl. 1846–1867)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowser_Mary_Richards_fl_1846-1867 Fri, 08 Jan 2016 17:33:03 EST]]> /_Hard_Times_in_the_Sixth_Virginia_RichmondPlanet_December_24_1898 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:18:39 EST <![CDATA["Hard Times in the Sixth Virginia," Richmond Planet (December 24, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Hard_Times_in_the_Sixth_Virginia_RichmondPlanet_December_24_1898 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:18:39 EST]]> /_Negro_Officers_Richmond_Dispatch_June_5_1898 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 15:48:42 EST <![CDATA["Negro Officers," Richmond Dispatch (June 5, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Negro_Officers_Richmond_Dispatch_June_5_1898 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 15:48:42 EST]]> /_At_Work_for_the_Prizes_Washington_Post_May_27_1887 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 15:40:38 EST <![CDATA["At Work for the Prizes," Washington Post (May 27, 1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_At_Work_for_the_Prizes_Washington_Post_May_27_1887 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 15:40:38 EST]]> /Southern_Claims_Commission_in_Virginia_The Fri, 18 Dec 2015 09:34:32 EST <![CDATA[Southern Claims Commission in Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Southern_Claims_Commission_in_Virginia_The The Southern Claims Commission was created by Congress on March 3, 1871, to compensate southern Unionists for property appropriated by the Union army during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Although claims for reimbursement had been made since early in the war, many in Congress had resisted authorizing their payment. They feared fraud and dismissed the sincerity of Unionism in the South. Once former Confederate states began to be readmitted to the Union, however, pressure mounted and the law passed. The act required the president to appoint three commissioners to "receive, examine, and consider the justice and validity" of claims for "stores and supplies" taken by the Union army in the Confederate states. The commissioners reported their decisions on each claim to Congress for approval and appropriation. Because the Union presence was so extensive in the state, Virginians submitted 3,197 claims, the second largest number after Tennessee. The claims from Virginia suggest the wide diversity of Unionism in the state during the war. White men often expressed their loyalty by opposing secession, while African Americans sought freedom from slavery and women worked within their traditional gender roles to assist the Union war effort. Over time, the Southern Claims Commission lost support and was seen as divisive. It finished its work in 1880.
Fri, 18 Dec 2015 09:34:32 EST]]>
/Ex_Parte_Virginia_1880 Fri, 18 Dec 2015 09:10:43 EST <![CDATA[Ex Parte Virginia (1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ex_Parte_Virginia_1880 In Ex Parte Virginia, decided on March 1, 1880, the U.S. Supreme Court confirmed congressional authority to enforce African Americans' rights to serve on juries in state courts. The case began when a Pittsylvania County judge named James D. Coles was indicted in a U.S. district court for violating the federal Civil Rights Act of 1875 by excluding black men from juries. Ex Parte Virginia was handed down on the same day as two other important decisions: Strauder v. West Virginia, which declared that states could not limit jury service to white men, and Virginia v. Rives, which prohibited federal courts from claiming jurisdiction over a state case when the state court excluded African Americans from the jury. In Ex Parte Virginia, the Supreme Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which guarantees citizens equal protection under the law, authorized Congress to require that states not exclude African Americans from juries. In these three related cases, the Supreme Court broadly interpreted the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments and declared that their purpose was to prohibit states from limiting the civil rights of African American citizens or treating them in a different or inferior manner from white citizens. Following the ruling, many state judges found other means to exclude African Americans from jury service.
Fri, 18 Dec 2015 09:10:43 EST]]>
/African_American_Militia_Units_in_Virginia_1870-1899 Mon, 14 Dec 2015 16:21:37 EST <![CDATA[African American Militia Units in Virginia (1870–1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/African_American_Militia_Units_in_Virginia_1870-1899 African American militia units served as part of the Virginia state militia, the Virginia Volunteers, from 1872 until 1899. Although the General Assembly had long prohibited the arming of both enslaved and free blacks, African Americans still fought in all American wars from the French and Indian War (1754–1763) to the American Civil War (1861–1865). The first black militia unit to form in Virginia after the Civil War was the Attucks Guard, in Richmond. Established in 1870, the group joined the Virginia Volunteers two years later. By 1884, there were nineteen black companies, composed mostly of laboring men who sought recreational opportunities and social advancement. Faced with the high cost of membership—men provided their own uniforms—and poor discipline, membership dwindled to just eight companies by 1895. Between 1886 and 1895, black companies were called up five times, including in 1887, when Governor Fitzhugh Lee became the only southern governor to activate an all-black militia unit to help suppress a violent longshoremen's strike. During the Spanish-American War (1898), Virginia raised the all-black 6th Virginia Volunteers and contributed about a third of the men of the all-black 10th U.S. Volunteers, or so-called Immunes, a regiment of soldiers believed to be resistant to tropical diseases. The men of both regiments challenged the racist treatment they received while stationed in the Deep South, and the negative publicity that resulted led the governor to leave black companies out of the reconstituted Virginia Volunteers beginning in 1899.
Mon, 14 Dec 2015 16:21:37 EST]]>
/_Frivolous_Reasons_Richmond_Planet_June_11_1898 Mon, 14 Dec 2015 14:25:33 EST <![CDATA["Frivolous Reasons," Richmond Planet (June 11, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Frivolous_Reasons_Richmond_Planet_June_11_1898 Mon, 14 Dec 2015 14:25:33 EST]]> /Underwood_John_C_1809-1873 Sun, 13 Dec 2015 13:03:45 EST <![CDATA[Underwood, John C. (1809–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Underwood_John_C_1809-1873 John C. Underwood was one of the most conspicuous antislavery activists in Virginia during the 1850s, one of the first members of the Republican Party in Virginia, a federal judge from 1863 to 1873, and the president of the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868. Born in New York, Underwood practiced law before moving to Virginia. There his condemnations of slavery were such that his wife, a cousin of the future Confederate general Thomas J. Jackson, worried for his safety. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), President Abraham Lincoln appointed Underwood a federal judge for the eastern district of Virginia. His actions on the bench often appeared to be politically motivated and included repeated efforts to confiscate the estates of Confederates in order to destroy slavery and apply what he called "retributive justice." After the war, he admitted that he could pack a jury, if necessary, to convict the former Confederate president, Jefferson Davis, of treason. He also publicly endorsed African American suffrage and full citizenship rights for freedpeople. Toward that end, he served as president of the constitutional convention that met in 1867–1868, during which he argued, unsuccessfully, that women, too, should be granted full suffrage rights. Underwood remained on the bench in his later years, earning a reputation as an outspoken radical and one who was often contemptuous of his critics. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1873.
Sun, 13 Dec 2015 13:03:45 EST]]>
/Underground_Railroad_in_Virginia Thu, 10 Dec 2015 13:57:57 EST <![CDATA[Underground Railroad in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Underground_Railroad_in_Virginia The Underground Railroad in Virginia was a series of secret networks, often working independently of one another and manned by both free blacks and whites, designed to help enslaved African Americans escape to the North and to Canada. Such networks were less necessary in the earliest days of slavery in Virginia because runaways tended to stay relatively close to home. Only after the American Revolution (1775–1783), when northern states outlawed slavery and a new domestic trade began to send thousands of enslaved men, women, and children into the Deep South, did fugitive slaves cross state lines in great numbers. Federal fugitive slave laws in 1793 and 1850 made such escapes more difficult but they also led to the development of the Underground Railroad, a term that had gained popular currency by the 1840s. Quakers in Philadelphia, New York, and North Carolina, burning with antislavery zeal, aided kidnapped African Americans and fugitive slaves and, in concert with free blacks and even some slaves, began to develop networks by which to smuggle them to freedom. With the largest slave population, Virginia also had among the greatest number of fugitives. They left mostly by sea, with some remaining in the North and others joining black communities in Canada. While it remains up for debate exactly how many escaped, slaveholders regularly complained of financial losses. Only the abolition of slavery ended the Underground Railroad's work.
Thu, 10 Dec 2015 13:57:57 EST]]>
/Teamoh_George_1818-after_1887 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:34:53 EST <![CDATA[Teamoh, George (1818–after 1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Teamoh_George_1818-after_1887 George Teamoh represented Portsmouth and Norfolk County at the Convention of 1867–1868 and in the Senate of Virginia (1869–1871). Born enslaved, Teamoh secretly learned to read in his youth and worked in Portsmouth's shipyards. After his wife was sold, one of his owners helped him escape from a ship. Teamoh returned to Virginia after the American Civil War (1861–1865), and he quickly became involved in local politics and labor issues. He won election to the Convention called to create a new state constitution, and then served a term in the General Assembly's upper house. Republican Party infighting cost him his political career. He returned to the Norfolk shipyards and died sometime after 1887. His autobiography, God Made Man, Man Made the Slave, was published in 1990.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:34:53 EST]]>
/_Griffin_Men_Did_Their_Duty_in_Checking_Drunken_Negroes_Atlanta_Constitution_March_10_1899 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:15:49 EST <![CDATA["Griffin Men Did Their Duty in Checking Drunken Negroes," Atlanta Constitution (March 10, 1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Griffin_Men_Did_Their_Duty_in_Checking_Drunken_Negroes_Atlanta_Constitution_March_10_1899 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:15:49 EST]]> /_The_Griffin_Episode_Atlanta_Constitution_March_19_1899 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 14:28:17 EST <![CDATA["The Griffin Episode," Atlanta Constitution (March 19, 1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Griffin_Episode_Atlanta_Constitution_March_19_1899 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 14:28:17 EST]]> /Charlottesville_During_the_Civil_War Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:20:34 EST <![CDATA[Charlottesville during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Charlottesville_During_the_Civil_War Charlottesville provided the Confederate war effort with swords, uniforms, and artificial limbs during the American Civil War (1861–1865). It was also home to a 500-bed military hospital that employed hundreds of the town's residents, cared for more than 22,000 patients, and was superintended by Dr. J. L. Cabell, a professor of medicine at the nearby University of Virginia. In the summer of 1861, the 19th Virginia Infantry Regiment was organized, recruiting most of its members from Charlottesville and Albemarle County. The unit served with the Army of Northern Virginia all the way through to the Appomattox Campaign (1865), including at Pickett's Charge (1863), where it lost 60 percent of its men. African Americans, both enslaved and free, who composed a majority of the town and county's population, were the subject of heightened white fears of violence, their movements controlled by a curfew. In 1863, black members of the biracial First Baptist Church established the Charlottesville African Church. Although the war's fighting stayed mostly to the east and west, a raid led by Union general George A. Custer was stopped just north of the city in the spring of 1864. Early the next year, town leaders surrendered Charlottesville to Custer, preventing the community's destruction.
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:20:34 EST]]>
/Petersburg_Convention_of_March_14_1881 Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:37:55 EST <![CDATA[Petersburg Convention of March 14, 1881]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petersburg_Convention_of_March_14_1881 On March 14, 1881, almost 300 African American men representing Republicans in a majority of the cities and counties of Virginia met in convention in Petersburg. The purpose of the convention was to decide whether their party should cooperate with or endorse the new Readjuster Party in the important 1881 general election, in which the voters would elect a new General Assembly and a new governor. By day's end, most delegates agreed to a statement of principles that endorsed supporting Virginia's Readjusters while remaining loyal to the national Republican Party. The convention marked an important turning point in the state's political history. With African American support, the Readjusters won majorities in the House of Delegates and the Senate of Virginia and were able to pass reform laws, refinance the debt, and increase funding for public schools.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:37:55 EST]]>
/Racial_Integrity_Laws_of_the_1920s Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:27:31 EST <![CDATA[Racial Integrity Laws (1924–1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Racial_Integrity_Laws_of_the_1920s Racial integrity laws were passed by the General Assembly to protect "whiteness" against what many Virginians perceived to be the negative effects of race-mixing. They included the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which prohibited interracial marriage and defined as white a person "who has no trace whatsoever of any blood other than Caucasian"; the Public Assemblages Act of 1926, which required all public meeting spaces to be strictly segregated; and a third act, passed in 1930, that defined as black a person who has even a trace of African American ancestry. This way of defining whiteness as a kind of purity in bloodline became known as the "one drop rule." These laws arrived at a time when a pseudo-science of white superiority called eugenics gained support by groups like the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, which argued that the mixing of whites, African Americans, and Virginia Indians could cause great societal harm, despite the fact that the races had been intermixed since European settlement. From his position as the state registrar of vital statistics, Walter A. Plecker micromanaged the racial classifications of Virginians, often worrying that blacks were attempting to pass as white. Virginia Indians were particularly incensed by the laws, and by Plecker in particular, because the state seemed intent on removing any legal recognition of Indian identity in favor of the broader category "colored." After one failed try, lawmakers largely achieved this goal in 1930, drawing negative reaction from the black press. The Racial Integrity Act remained on the books until 1967, when the U.S. Supreme Court, in Loving v. Virginia, found its prohibition of interracial marriage to be unconstitutional. In 2001, the General Assembly denounced the act, and eugenics, as racist.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:27:31 EST]]>
/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:59:11 EST <![CDATA[Daniels, Edward D. (1828–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Edward D. Daniels was an agricultural reformer, newspaper editor, and an active member of the Republican Party. The Massachusetts-born Daniels worked as a geologist in Wisconsin, helped mount expeditions to establish abolitionist colonies in Kansas, served in the U.S. Army, and was involved in manufacturing in the Midwest before settling in Virginia in 1868, at his doctor's recommendation. That same year he bought Gunston Hall, the onetime home of George Mason, and tried to transform the plantation into a cooperative community of independent farmers and artisans. He hired African American laborers, instructed them in scientific farming techniques, and paid them relatively high wages. The venture was not profitable, however, and he sold the property in 1891, retaining a small piece of land for himself. Daniels extended his ambitions for reform into politics: he edited and published the Richmond Evening State Journal in support of the Republican Party, twice ran for office (and was twice defeated), and supported the nascent Readjusters. Daniels's financial troubles often thwarted his reform efforts, but a primary school for black children that he helped found survived into the 1920s. He died at his farm near Gunston Hall in 1916 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:59:11 EST]]>
/Corbin_Percy_Casino_1888-1952 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:52:19 EST <![CDATA[Corbin, Percy C. (1888–1952)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Corbin_Percy_Casino_1888-1952 Percy C. Corbin was a civil rights activist. A lawsuit he filed on behalf of his son, Corbin et al. v. County School Board of Pulaski County, Virginia, et al. (1950), led to one of only six successful lawsuits supported by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in its legal campaign to equalize school facilities before Brown v. Board of Education (1954). A Texas native and physician, Corbin established his practice in the town of Pulaski, where he helped combat an influenza outbreak in 1918 and attracted both black and white clients. Corbin fought to equalize school facilities and was active in the local black community. He died in 1952.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:52:19 EST]]>
/Copeland_Walter_Scott_1856-1928 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:50:49 EST <![CDATA[Copeland, Walter S. (1856–1928)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Copeland_Walter_Scott_1856-1928 Walter S. Copeland owned or co-owned important newspapers across Virginia including the Danville Register, Richmond Evening Leader, Roanoke Times, and Newport News Daily Press. Held in high esteem by his journalistic peers, he served four terms as president of the Virginia Press Association. Copeland supported Progressive reforms to improve welfare and education programs for poor whites, which he viewed as necessary for social order. He opposed the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s and supported what later became Hampton University. Yet Copeland became a strong backer of harsh segregation laws in his later years. He joined forces with John Powell, founder of the Anglo-Saxon Clubs, and supported the 1924 Virginia Act to Preserve Racial Integrity. Two years later Copeland and his newspapers crusaded for what became the Massenburg Bill, the strongest segregation law in the United States.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:50:49 EST]]>
/Butt_Israel_LaFayette_1848-1916 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:30:20 EST <![CDATA[Butt, Israel L. (1848–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Butt_Israel_LaFayette_1848-1916 Israel L. Butt played a key role in expanding and overseeing the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Virginia during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Born in Norfolk County, Butt escaped slavery and joined the Union army, where he learned to read and underwent a religious experience. He was ordained in 1881 and graduated with a theology degree from what later became Hampton University. Butt ministered and oversaw different districts of the denomination. Through his work, he became a school principal and served as a trustee or board member of educational institutions in Virginia, North Carolina, and Ohio. Butt researched and wrote History of African Methodism in Virginia, or Four Decades in the Old Dominion, which was published in 1908.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:30:20 EST]]>
/Brown_Thomas_Henry_1864-1952 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:20:21 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Thomas H. (1864–1952)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Thomas_Henry_1864-1952 Thomas H. Brown was a civic leader of African American communities in Petersburg and Hopewell. A child laborer, Brown worked his way up the social and financial ladder by joining civic associations and learning the undertaker's trade. In 1893, he organized the People's Memorial Cemetery Association to save Petersburg's African American cemetery from deteriorating conditions and a possible foreclosure. Brown opened a funeral home in Hopewell about 1916 and remained involved with the locality during its World War I boom years. He was a civic leader in Petersburg and across the state for the rest of his life, continuing his involvement with the cemetery. The burial ground fell into disrepair after his death in 1952 but was revived after Petersburg took possession of it in 1986. Four years later People's Memorial Cemetery formally opened as a city-owned historic site.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:20:21 EST]]>
/Brown_Edward_Wellington_d_1929 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:18:00 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Edward W. (d. 1929)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Edward_Wellington_d_1929 Edward W. Brown was a politician, editor, and minister. Born into slavery, he became his church's clerk at age twelve and later taught school in Prince George County. Brown was among the last successful African American politicians in the nineteenth century, serving as the county's commissioner of revenue from 1887 to 1895. He moved to Richmond the year after he left office, where he worked for the Grand Fountain United Order of True Reformers, a fraternal beneficiary organization. Eventually becoming editor of its weekly newspaper, the Reformer, Brown promoted the order's various enterprises while condemning the new segregation laws. The organization's finances collapsed in 1910, causing the removal of its officers. Brown became a Baptist preacher, but left the ministry in the mid-1920s to join his son's real estate and insurance agency in Norfolk. He died in 1929.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:18:00 EST]]>
/Brooks_Albert_Royal_c_1817-1881 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:13:41 EST <![CDATA[Brooks, Albert R. (c. 1817–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brooks_Albert_Royal_c_1817-1881 Albert R. Brooks was a Richmond businessman who thrived before the American Civil War (1861–1865) despite his enslavement. In the antebellum years Brooks took advantage of the common though illegal practice of earning wages for his work, which he then invested in an eating house and a prosperous hack and livery stable. Between 1862 and 1865 Brooks managed to purchase his freedom, his wife's, and that of most of their children. After the war Brooks became a community leader. He helped halt the revival of slavery-era pass laws that governed African American movement in the city and sat on the racially mixed jury that considered Jefferson Davis's treason charges. He was also active in the state's nascent Republican Party. Brooks retreated from political activity in 1868, possibly worried that his white customers would boycott his businesses, but continued to support universal suffrage, equal justice, public education, black uplift, and civil rights. Brooks died in 1881 and is probably buried in Richmond's Union Mechanics Cemetery.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:13:41 EST]]>
/Bragg_George_Freeman_1863-1940 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:02:48 EST <![CDATA[Bragg, George F. (1863–1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bragg_George_Freeman_1863-1940 George F. Bragg was born into slavery and later became a journalist and Episcopal minister. Dismissed from divinity school, he began his public career working for Readjuster leader William Mahone and establishing the weekly Petersburg Lancet. Bragg left politics in 1884 after divisiveness within the Readjuster Party. He returned to the seminary in 1885 and a few years later took over a struggling Norfolk congregation. Within five years he turned it into a self-supporting church. In 1888 he was ordained a priest at Saint Luke's Episcopal Church in Norfolk, making him only the twelfth black Episcopal priest in the United States. Bragg moved to Baltimore, Maryland, in 1891 where he revived another church, edited a monthly newspaper, the Church Advocate, and wrote books and pamphlets. He died in Baltimore in 1940.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:02:48 EST]]>
/Bland_James_William_D_1844-1870 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:52:25 EST <![CDATA[Bland, J. W. D. (1844–1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_James_William_D_1844-1870 J. W. D. Bland was a highly respected African American politician during his brief career. Born free and educated, voters in Appomattox and Prince Edward counties elected him one of their delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868. He served on three major committees and reached out to conservative whites by opposing test oaths and disfranchisement for former Confederates. He was elected to the Senate of Virginia in 1869, where he became a conciliatory figure in a racially volatile era. Focusing on education, he sponsored a successful bill that established Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University). The next year Bland was among a large crowd attending a session of the Supreme Court of Appeals in the State Capitol. The floor collapsed, killing him and about sixty other observers.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:52:25 EST]]>
/Bland_Edward_David_1848-1927 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:49:12 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Edward D. (1848–1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Edward_David_1848-1927 Edward D. Bland served three terms in the House of Delegates and played a role in maintaining the volatile coalition between the Republicans and Readjusters. Bland was born a slave and eventually settled in Prince George County as a shoemaker. Known for his speaking, he became involved in local Republican politics. He advocated the alliance between his party and the Readjusters, and he ran for the General Assembly in 1879 with nomination of the former and de facto backing of the latter. The unwieldy partnership dominated Virginia politics for four years, and Bland won reelection in 1881 and again in 1883 even though a white supremacy campaign helped cause the Readjusters to collapse. He declined reelection for a fourth term, but remained a Republican organizer in the area. He died on his farm in Prince George County in 1927. In 1954, a housing project in Hopewell was named in his honor.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:49:12 EST]]>
/Black_Aline_Elizabeth_1906-1974 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:30:56 EST <![CDATA[Black, Aline E. (1906–1974)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Aline_Elizabeth_1906-1974 Aline E. Black was a teacher known primarily as a principal in a civil rights court case. A graduate of what became Virginia State University, Black began teaching science in Norfolk city schools in 1924. As an African American, she received a substantially smaller salary than a comparably qualified white teacher. In 1939 she agreed to be the plaintiff in a lawsuit filed in Norfolk to challenge this double standard. The school board fired Black in retaliation for her suit, but another plaintiff continued the case and in 1940 the United States Supreme Court upheld a lower court's ruling that teacher salaries were protected by the Fourteenth Amendment. Black was rehired by the school board in 1941. She continued to teach in Norfolk until her retirement in 1973; she died a year later.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:30:56 EST]]>
/Banks_William_Lester_1911-1986 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:27:31 EST <![CDATA[Banks, W. Lester (1911–1986)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Banks_William_Lester_1911-1986 W. Lester Banks was a civil rights activist. Born in Lunenburg County, Banks served as a school principal in Halifax and Charles City counties before seeing action in the Pacific during World War II (1939–1945). Embarking on a long career to combat segregation in 1943, Banks became the first executive secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's Virginia State Conference in 1947. Working behind the scenes, Banks played a significant role in the desegregation of Virginia schools and other public facilities. He retired in 1976 and the following year moved to California, where he died in 1986.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:27:31 EST]]>
/Atwell_Joseph_Sandiford_1831-1881 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:20:50 EST <![CDATA[Atwell, Joseph S. (1831–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Atwell_Joseph_Sandiford_1831-1881 Joseph S. Atwell was the first black Episcopal priest in the Diocese of Virginia. The Barbados-born Atwell graduated from the Philadelphia Divinity School in 1866. The following year the Diocese of Kentucky named him its first black deacon. In 1868 the Virginia Episcopal Church's governing body recruited Atwell to preside over Saint Stephen's Church in Petersburg, ordaining him a priest the following year. Though he helped his church grow in size and wealth, he chafed under restrictions that put his ministry under the Committee on Colored Congregations. In 1873 he left Virginia for Saint Stephen's Church of Savannah, Georgia, and eventually took over historic Saint Philip's Church in New York City. He died there in 1881.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:20:50 EST]]>
/Aiken_Archibald_Murphey_1888-1971 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:14:40 EST <![CDATA[Aiken, Archibald M. (1888–1971)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Aiken_Archibald_Murphey_1888-1971 Archibald M. Aiken was a lawyer and judge of the Danville Corporation Court who opposed desegregation. During the Danville civil rights protests of 1963 Aiken gained national notoriety after confronting the demonstrators and issuing an injunction to ban most forms of public protest in the city. He convened a special grand jury, which indicted three protest leaders for conspiring to incite "the colored population of the State to acts of violence and war against the white population." Controversial, stubborn, and outspoken, Aiken continued to fight against integration throughout the 1960s. He died of a heart attack in 1971.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:14:40 EST]]>
/Indentured_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Wed, 28 Oct 2015 15:08:38 EST <![CDATA[Indentured Servants in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indentured_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Indentured servants were men and women who signed a contract (also known as an indenture or a covenant) by which they agreed to work for a certain number of years in exchange for transportation to Virginia and, once they arrived, food, clothing, and shelter. Adults usually served for four to seven years and children sometimes for much longer, with most working in the colony's tobacco fields. With a long history in England, indentured servitude became, during most of the seventeenth century, the primary means by which Virginia planters filled their nearly inexhaustible need for labor. At first, the Virginia Company of London paid to transport servants across the Atlantic, but with the institution of the headright system in 1618, the company enticed planters and merchants to incur the cost with the promise of land. As a result, servants flooded into the colony, where they were greeted by deadly diseases and often-harsh conditions that killed a majority of newcomers and left the rest to the mercy of sometimes-cruel masters. The General Assembly passed laws regulating contract terms, as well as the behavior and treatment of servants. Besides benefiting masters with long indentures, these laws limited servant rights while still allowing servants to present any complaints in court. By the end of the seventeenth century, the number of new servants in Virginia had dwindled, and the colony's labor needs were largely met by enslaved Africans.
Wed, 28 Oct 2015 15:08:38 EST]]>
/Labor_in_Virginia_During_the_Twentieth_Century Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:46:12 EST <![CDATA[Labor in Virginia during the Twentieth Century]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Labor_in_Virginia_During_the_Twentieth_Century The history of labor in Virginia during the twentieth century reflects both the ever-changing nature of the workplace and the endurance of Virginians' long-held ideas about race, culture, and work. These powerful forces profoundly affected the choices and fortunes of workingmen and -women, black and white. They influenced hiring, wages, and seniority. They shaped the organization and evolution of companies and labor unions alike. And, like Virginia, they changed as the twenty-first century approached. One idea proved especially durable. It was the belief that the necessary maintenance of the social, political, and economic status quo depended on a combination of unorganized, low-wage labor and racial segregation, if not outright white supremacy. Employee and employer alike often embraced this antiunion, pro-apartheid approach to the age of industrialization and it shaped the development of the southern workforce. In Virginia, the vestiges of that ideology survived for most of the twentieth century.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:46:12 EST]]>
/Virginia_Soldiers_Confederate_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:30:42 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Soldiers (Confederate) during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Soldiers_Confederate_During_the_Civil_War Approximately 155,000 Virginia men served in Confederate forces during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Another 32,000 served in Union forces; most of these came from the counties that today comprise the state of West Virginia, while a number of West Virginia troops were recruited from the neighboring states of Ohio and Pennsylvania. The total number of men eligible for military service in the state was 224,000. When those areas of Union-controlled Virginia are subtracted, the total drops to 174,000, making the enlistment rate in Confederate Virginia 89 percent. This represents a remarkable mobilization of resources and demonstrates how the Civil War represented an all-consuming experience for those who lived through it. Virginia sent more men to fight for the Confederacy than did any other state. Though Virginia soldiers served in all branches and participated in all theaters of war, a significant majority of them fought within the boundaries of their own state.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:30:42 EST]]>
/Unionism_in_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:29:09 EST <![CDATA[Unionism in Virginia during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Unionism_in_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War Unionists in Virginia supported the United States government during the secession crisis, the American Civil War (1861–1865), or both. Representing a minority of white Virginians and an overwhelming majority of both free and enslaved African Americans, Unionists articulated their beliefs through a range of actions. Some explicitly supported the ideals of the Union; others defined their Unionism as a rejection of slavery. Many Virginians feared the economic consequences of secession, while African Americans saw Unionism as an opportunity for personal liberty. Just prior to the war, Unionism had been particularly strong in Virginia, but by the time the question of secession was put to a referendum, Unionist influence had declined sharply. Most Unionists lived in the state's western counties, although their antipathy to secession had less to do with slavery than with the undemocratic political advantages enjoyed by slave owners. Unionists flourished in Union-occupied areas of Northern Virginia and fought guerrilla actions in Southwest Virginia. Ethnicity and religion played an important role in formulating Unionist or anti-Confederate actions, with pacifist Germans sometimes refusing to serve in the Confederate armed forces. In Richmond, Unionists formed a spy network, and across the state slaves deprived the Confederacy of critical labor by running away. All of these efforts contributed to the eventual Confederate defeat.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:29:09 EST]]>
/Family_Life_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:51:29 EST <![CDATA[Family Life during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Family_Life_During_the_Civil_War Family life in Virginia and across the South suffered devastating effects during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Few households, whether slave or free, or located in the Tidewater, Piedmont, or mountainous Southwest, could remain insulated from a war fought on their lands and in their towns. Many families were uprooted as they witnessed the destruction of their homes and landholdings. Most profoundly, all families dealt with the ordeal of separation. The war pulled white families apart in unprecedented ways, as a large proportion of men enlisted and fully one in five white men who fought for the Confederacy died. And while the chaos of war similarly dispersed the state's large population of African Americans, it also offered a chance for those families to overcome the longstanding separations wrought by slavery.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:51:29 EST]]>
/Free_Blacks_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:44:32 EST <![CDATA[Free Blacks during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Free_Blacks_During_the_Civil_War Free blacks in Virginia numbered 58,042 on the eve of the American Civil War (1861–1865), or about 44 percent of the future Confederacy's free black population. Of the slave states, only Maryland had a larger population, with 83,942. Free blacks were concentrated in Virginia's cities. According to the 1860 census, the greatest number, 3,244, resided in Petersburg, followed by Richmond with 2,576, Alexandria with 1,415, and Norfolk with 1,046. Free blacks included men and women of African descent who were born free or who gained their freedom before the war through manumission. Virginia officially required freed slaves to leave the state after 1806, but many remained in violation of the law. Of course, many more African Americans became free during the war, escaping the fighting as refugees or claiming legal freedom through the Emancipation Proclamation (1863). Although Confederate propagandists insisted that free blacks would support the Confederate cause, their service was often rendered only by the threat of violence. In the meantime, concerns about their loyalty combined with their disproportionate wartime suffering contributed to Virginia's internal divisions and exposed the weaknesses of Confederate ideology.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:44:32 EST]]>
/Fort_Monroe_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:43:17 EST <![CDATA[Fort Monroe during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fort_Monroe_During_the_Civil_War Fort Monroe is a military installation located in Hampton Roads, Virginia, on the Peninsula overlooking the Chesapeake Bay. It was the only federal military installation in the Upper South to remain under United States control throughout the American Civil War (1861–1865). Early in the war, the fort became an outpost of freedom within the Confederacy when Union commanders used it to house refugee slaves. The fort also headquartered the Union Department of Virginia and North Carolina, and several significant military campaigns and combined operations were launched from the installation. Most notably, it served as the staging area for Union major general George B. McClellan's ill-fated Peninsula Campaign of 1862. After the war, the fort served as a destination for another brand of fugitive. Following his capture in May 1865 until his bail bond was accepted two years later, Confederate president Jefferson Davis was imprisoned at Fort Monroe.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:43:17 EST]]>
/Women_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:26:51 EST <![CDATA[Women during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Women_During_the_Civil_War Although women were not permitted to bear arms on the battlefront, they made invaluable contributions to and were deeply affected by the American Civil War (1861–1865). This was particularly true of women living in Virginia, since they witnessed more battles than did the women of any other state engaged in the conflict. The removal of hundreds of thousands of men from their homes, farms, and businesses necessitated the vastly increased participation of women, both black and white, in areas that they had been previously discouraged, if not forbidden, from pursuing. Differences of race and class, however, sometimes sharply divided their views and experiences. Some devoted everything they had to the service of the Confederacy, while others openly rebelled against it. The end of the war brought the collapse of both the Confederate government and slave society, and while freedom created a new commonality between the races and between women and men, it challenged them to redefine themselves and their society. In the words of diarist Lucy Buck from Front Royal, "We shall never any of us be the same as we have been."
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:26:51 EST]]>
/Saltville_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:25:47 EST <![CDATA[Saltville during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Saltville_During_the_Civil_War Saltville is a small town that lies mostly in Smyth County in southwestern Virginia, between the Holston River and the Tennessee and Virginia Railroad. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Saltville was of strategic importance for two reasons: the railroad provided an important link between the eastern and western theaters of the war, and the town's salt mines were crucial in supplying provisions for the Confederate army. As such, Saltville was the target of numerous Union raids. It was also the site of a battle on October 2, 1864, when outnumbered Confederate cavalry troops repulsed the advance of Union troops, including members of the 5th U.S. Colored Cavalry, under the command of General Stephen G. Burbridge. The next day, according to some accounts, Confederate soldiers killed a number of the wounded black troopers, who were being held as prisoners of war at nearby Emory and Henry College. The notorious and still-disputed incident is known as the "Saltville Massacre."
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:25:47 EST]]>
/Slavery_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:20:10 EST <![CDATA[Slavery during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slavery_During_the_Civil_War Virginia had the largest population of enslaved African Americans of any state in the Confederacy, and those slaves responded to the American Civil War (1861–1865) in a variety of ways. Some volunteered to assist the Confederate war effort, while many others were forced to support the Confederacy, working on farms and in factories and households throughout Virginia. Thousands escaped to the Union army's lines, earning their freedom and forcing the United States to develop a uniform policy regarding emancipation. Others remained on their home plantations and farms but took advantage of the war to gain some measure of autonomy for their families. Slaves' wartime actions most often exhibited their strong desire for freedom, and even those who chose not to escape frequently welcomed the Union army as liberators.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:20:10 EST]]>
/Great_Migration_The Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:53:32 EST <![CDATA[Great Migration, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Great_Migration_The The Great Migration refers to the relocation of hundreds of thousands of African Americans from the rural areas of the South to urban areas in the North during the years between 1915 and 1930. Although many of those who left the rural South migrated to southern urban areas, most migrants moved to cities in the North. It was the largest movement northward and into cities that had occurred among African Americans to that point in history. The United States' entrance into World War I in 1917 played an important role in this movement, as the demand for additional labor grew in war-related industries at the same time that white workers were siphoned off to serve in the armed forces. Immigration also slowed dramatically, removing another source of labor for American industry. African American labor was one of the key alternative sources sought by these industries to enable them to respond to the growing demand for war-related goods. Industrial jobs that had not been previously available to African Americans now became accessible in greater quantity and variety. This flood of African American migrants dramatically changed the demography of many cities in both the North and South, as the percentage of African American residents exploded. Cities like New York; Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Chicago, Illinois, saw their African American populations grow by 50 percent or more during this period. This population surge placed great pressure on the municipal services and housing supply of these cities. It created growing tension between residents as they competed for places to live and for jobs, particularly after the war ended. As a consequence, the Great Migration pushed issues of race more to the forefront in the North. It also heightened these issues for the South as concern increased about the loss of workers in rural areas and the presence of growing African American populations in some of its cities. The movement added greater impact to a statement made by the African American intellectual W. E. B. Du Bois, who posited in 1903 that one of the critical issues of the twentieth century would be the question of the color line.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:53:32 EST]]>
/Spencer_Anne_1882-1975 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:31:13 EST <![CDATA[Spencer, Anne (1882–1975)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Spencer_Anne_1882-1975 Anne Spencer was a poet, a civil rights activist, a teacher, a librarian, and a gardener. While fewer than thirty of her poems were published in her lifetime, she was an important figure of the black literary movement of the 1920s—the Harlem Renaissance—and only the second African American poet to be included in the Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry (1973). Noted for iambic verse preoccupied with biblical and mythological themes, Spencer found fans in such Harlem heavyweights as James Weldon Johnson, who commented on her "economy of phrase and compression of thought." In addition to her writing, Spencer helped to found the Lynchburg chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). She was also an avid gardener and hosted a salon at her Lynchburg garden, which attracted prominent figures of the Harlem Renaissance. Her former residence is now a museum that is open to the public.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:31:13 EST]]>
/Jamestown_Ter-Centennial_Exposition_of_1907 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:18:18 EST <![CDATA[Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition of 1907]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jamestown_Ter-Centennial_Exposition_of_1907 The Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition, marking the three hundredth anniversary of the founding of Jamestown and the Virginia colony by settlers from England, was held in Norfolk, Virginia, from April 26 to November 30, 1907. The event was one in a series of large fairs and expositions held across the United States, beginning with the 1893 World's Columbian Exhibition in Chicago, which commemorated the four hundredth anniversary of Christopher Columbus's landing in America. Such events were designed as international showcases for arts and technology and were often linked to important anniversaries in order to highlight the notion of historical "progress." More than its predecessors, the Jamestown exhibition emphasized athletics and military prowess, the latter drawing some protests. Among many dignitaries who visited the exposition were U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, the author Mark Twain, the educator Booker T. Washington, representatives from more than twenty nations abroad, and a number of foreign naval ships. Although the exhibition on African Americans was considered to be particularly successful, the event in general was a financial fiasco, plagued by poor management, overly ambitious plans, insufficient resources, and tight deadlines. The naval display, however, was impressive enough that in 1917 the exposition's site became home to Naval Air Station Hampton Roads (later Naval Station Norfolk).
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:18:18 EST]]>
/Benga_Ota_ca_1883-1916 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:14:22 EST <![CDATA[Benga, Ota (ca. 1883–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Benga_Ota_ca_1883-1916 Ota Benga was a Pygmy from the Congo who traveled to the United States several times as an adult before finally settling in Lynchburg, Virginia. After his wife and two children were killed and he was sold into slavery, Benga's freedom was purchased by the Presbyterian missionary Samuel P. Verner. The two became friends, and Benga is believed to be the first African Pygmy to reside permanently in the United States. After appearing at the Saint Louis World's Fair in 1904, Benga spent three weeks exhibited in a cage with apes at the Bronx Zoo in New York City, upsetting Benga and causing a public outcry. He spent three years in a Brooklyn, New York, orphanage before relocating to Lynchburg to attend the Virginia Theological Seminary and College. In Lynchburg, he befriended the seminary's president, his wife, and their kids, as well as the poet Anne Spencer. Benga's attempts at assimilation ultimately failed, however, and he committed suicide on March 20, 1916. He was nearly forgotten until 1992, when the publication of a definitive biography brought him international attention and renewed popularity. For many, Benga personifies the shameful exploitation of African people by European colonial powers, as well as the historical use of science and anthropology to support racism and ethnocentrism.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:14:22 EST]]>
/Grand_Fountain_of_the_United_Order_of_True_Reformers Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:10:06 EST <![CDATA[Grand Fountain of the United Order of True Reformers]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Grand_Fountain_of_the_United_Order_of_True_Reformers The Grand Fountain of the United Order of True Reformers was an African American fraternal organization that became the largest and most successful black business enterprise in the United States between 1881 and 1910. William Washington Browne founded and organized the Grand Fountain in Richmond in January 1881. A former slave, veteran of the Union army during the American Civil War (1861–1865), teacher, and Methodist minister, Browne created the Grand Fountain with a renewed purpose and energy out of the languishing Grand United Order of True Reformers, which began in the 1870s in Alabama and Kentucky. Where the original order taught temperance and provided members with sick and death benefits, Browne's vision expanded into an enterprise that cultivated a growing black middle class by offering services that included a savings bank, a real estate company, a retirement home, and a youth and children's division that taught discipline, thrift, and business skills. Although the Grand Fountain operated until 1934, it was never the same after 1910, when an embezzlement scandal and a number of large loan defaults caused the bank to close its doors. Despite the organization's downfall, the order left a powerful legacy because it provided employment and business opportunities to African Americans and helped to establish community leaders and business networks amidst a period of Jim Crow laws and strict racial segregation in Virginia.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:10:06 EST]]>
/Loving_v_Virginia_1967 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 14:22:25 EST <![CDATA[Loving v. Virginia (1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Loving_v_Virginia_1967 In Loving v. Virginia, decided on June 12, 1967, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously struck down Virginia's law prohibiting interracial marriages as a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. The appellants, Richard and Mildred Loving, of Caroline County, had married in Washington, D.C., in June 1958 and then returned to Virginia, where they were arrested. After pleading guilty, they were forced to leave the state. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed motions and appeals on their behalf beginning in 1963, and after the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals ruled against the Lovings in 1966, the U.S. Supreme Court heard their arguments. The case came after nearly 300 years of legislation in Virginia regulating interracial marriage and carefully defining which citizens could legally claim to be white. Two U.S. Supreme Court cases, Pace v. Alabama (1883) and Maynard v. Hill (1888), upheld the constitutionality of such laws. In 1924, the Act to Preserve Racial Integrity banned interracial marriage in Virginia while defining a white person as someone who had no discernible nonwhite ancestry. It was this law that the U.S. Supreme Court ruling said denied Virginians' "fundamental freedom" to marry. Loving v. Virginia is a landmark case, both in the history of race relations in the United States and in the ongoing political and cultural dispute over the proper definition of marriage.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 14:22:25 EST]]>
/When_Marriages_No_Void_for_Want_of_Authority_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:43:45 EST <![CDATA[When Marriages Not Void for Want of Authority (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/When_Marriages_No_Void_for_Want_of_Authority_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:43:45 EST]]> /Person_Performing_Ceremony_of_Marriage_Between_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:41:57 EST <![CDATA[Person Performing Ceremony of Marriage Between; How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Person_Performing_Ceremony_of_Marriage_Between_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:41:57 EST]]> /Celebrating_Marriage_without_License_or_etc_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:40:33 EST <![CDATA[Celebrating Marriage without License, or, etc.; How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Celebrating_Marriage_without_License_or_etc_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:40:33 EST]]> /Marriage_of_White_Person_with_Colored_Person_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:38:35 EST <![CDATA[Marriage of White Person with Colored Person, How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Marriage_of_White_Person_with_Colored_Person_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:38:35 EST]]> /Marriage_within_Prohibited_Degrees_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:36:42 EST <![CDATA[Marriage within Prohibited Degrees, How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Marriage_within_Prohibited_Degrees_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:36:42 EST]]> /_An_ACT_providing_additional_protection_for_the_slave_property_of_citizens_of_this_commonwealth_1856 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:34:33 EST <![CDATA["An ACT providing additional protection for the slave property of citizens of this commonwealth" (1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_providing_additional_protection_for_the_slave_property_of_citizens_of_this_commonwealth_1856 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:34:33 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_amend_an_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_1795 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:29:48 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to amend an act, intituled, 'An act to reduce into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes, and for other purposes'" (1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_amend_an_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_1795 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:29:48 EST]]> /Preservation_of_Racial_Integrity_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:24:27 EST <![CDATA[Preservation of Racial Integrity (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Preservation_of_Racial_Integrity_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:24:27 EST]]> /General_Provisions_as_to_Slaves_1860 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:14:52 EST <![CDATA[General Provisions as to Slaves (1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/General_Provisions_as_to_Slaves_1860 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:14:52 EST]]> /An_act_declaring_what_persons_shall_be_deemed_mulattoes_October_1785 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:10:57 EST <![CDATA[An act declaring what persons shall be deemed mulattoes (October 1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_declaring_what_persons_shall_be_deemed_mulattoes_October_1785 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:10:57 EST]]> /An_act_declaring_who_shall_not_bear_office_in_this_country_October_1705 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:07:33 EST <![CDATA[An act declaring who shall not bear office in this country (October 1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_declaring_who_shall_not_bear_office_in_this_country_October_1705 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:07:33 EST]]> /Surnames_by_Counties_and_Cities_of_Mixed_Negroid_Virginia_Families_Striving_to_Pass_as_Indian_or_White_by_Walter_A_Plecker_ca_1943 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:04:19 EST <![CDATA[Surnames, by Counties and Cities, of Mixed Negroid Virginia Families Striving to Pass as "Indian" or White by Walter A. Plecker (ca. 1943)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Surnames_by_Counties_and_Cities_of_Mixed_Negroid_Virginia_Families_Striving_to_Pass_as_Indian_or_White_by_Walter_A_Plecker_ca_1943 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:04:19 EST]]> /Letter_from_Walter_A_Plecker_to_Turner_McDowell_September_27_1937 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:01:10 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Walter A. Plecker to Turner McDowell (September 27, 1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Walter_A_Plecker_to_Turner_McDowell_September_27_1937 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:01:10 EST]]> /Letter_from_Walter_A_Plecker_to_Local_Registrars_et_al_December_1943 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:51:21 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Walter A. Plecker to Local Registrars, et al. (December 1943)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Walter_A_Plecker_to_Local_Registrars_et_al_December_1943 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:51:21 EST]]> /_The_Quakers_an_excerpt_from_A_Key_toUncle_Tom_s_Cabin_1896 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:46:39 EST <![CDATA["The Quakers"; an excerpt from A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin (1896)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Quakers_an_excerpt_from_A_Key_toUncle_Tom_s_Cabin_1896 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:46:39 EST]]> /_Tales_of_Oppression_by_Isaac_T_Hopper_National_Anti-Slavery_Standard_March_25_1841 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:40:05 EST <![CDATA["Tales of Oppression" by Isaac T. Hopper, National Anti-Slavery Standard (March 25, 1841)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Tales_of_Oppression_by_Isaac_T_Hopper_National_Anti-Slavery_Standard_March_25_1841 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:40:05 EST]]> /_An_act_for_suppressing_outlying_slaves_1691 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:31:10 EST <![CDATA["An act for suppressing outlying slaves" (1691)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_suppressing_outlying_slaves_1691 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:31:10 EST]]> /A_Black_Indentured_Servant_Sues_for_His_Freedom_1675 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:25:33 EST <![CDATA[A Black Indentured Servant Sues for His Freedom (1675)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Black_Indentured_Servant_Sues_for_His_Freedom_1675 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:25:33 EST]]> /Woman_Suffrage_in_Virginia Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:03:36 EST <![CDATA[Woman Suffrage in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Woman_Suffrage_in_Virginia The woman suffrage movement, which sought voting rights for women, began in Virginia as early as 1870. In 1909, its most vocal supporters organized around the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia, which joined with national groups in an effort to change state and local laws and pass an amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The Nineteenth Amendment, which gave women the right to vote, was passed in Congress in 1919 and ratified by the states a year later. Virginia, however, delayed its ratification until 1952. By then, women had been voting and, slowly, winning elected office in the state for more than 30 years.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:03:36 EST]]>
/The_Abolition_of_Slavery_in_Virginia Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:59:54 EST <![CDATA[The Abolition of Slavery in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Abolition_of_Slavery_in_Virginia The abolition of slavery in Virginia occurred by 1865, with the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865) and the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The U.S. Census of 1860 reported that almost half a million Virginians lived in slavery; five years later they were all free. For these men, women, and children, the end of their enslavement was a momentous event that occurred at different times and places and under unique circumstances depending on where they were. Many freed themselves by escaping into areas, such as Fort Monroe or the grounds of Arlington House, controlled by the Union army. The Emancipation Proclamation declared all slaves in Virginia to be free but could only be enforced in those places controlled by the Union army. The proclamation excepted that part of Virginia that became West Virginia. Its Constitution of 1863 included a provision for the gradual abolition of slavery, but its legislature abolished slavery in February 1865. The Restored government of Virginia, which remained loyal to the Union during the war, also created a new constitution, this one in 1864, that abolished slavery. It effectively freed few people, however.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:59:54 EST]]>
/Fifteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:47:32 EST <![CDATA[Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fifteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution The Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified on February 3, 1870, and granted the right to vote to African American men. It was the third of three amendments adopted during Reconstruction that profoundly altered American society, government, and politics. The Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished and prohibited slavery in the wake of the American Civil War (1861–1865), was ratified in December 1865, and the Fourteenth Amendment, which defined citizenship and guaranteed the rights of citizens, was ratified in July 1868. Specifically, the Fifteenth Amendment prevented the federal and state governments from using race or former servitude as an excuse not to allow its citizens to vote. At the time of the amendment's ratification in 1870, African Americans had already legally voted in Virginia, but during the next generation, with the use of a poll tax and other methods, that right would be chipped away. In 1901–1902, delegates to the state constitutional convention openly debated the best way to disfranchise blacks while not technically violating the Fifteenth Amendment. They largely succeeded and black voting rights were not fully restored until the 1960s.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:47:32 EST]]>
/Fourteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:44:33 EST <![CDATA[Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fourteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified on July 9, 1868, defined citizenship and guaranteed the rights of citizens. It was the second of three amendments adopted during Reconstruction that profoundly altered American society, government, and politics. The Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished and prohibited slavery in the wake of the American Civil War (1861–1865), was ratified in December 1865, and the Fifteenth Amendment, which granted the vote to African American men, was ratified in February 1870. The Fourteenth Amendment made all native-born men and women citizens and guaranteed them equal protection under the law. It included provisions to protect men's right to vote while abridging the rights of former Confederates. The General Assembly of Virginia refused to ratify the amendment until ratification became a precondition of regaining representation in Congress. The assembly voted in favor of the amendment on October 8, 1869, more than a year after it had become part of the Constitution. In Ex Parte State of Virginia (1880), the U.S. Supreme Court cited the Fourteenth Amendment when ruling that a Danville judge did not have the right to exclude African American men from serving on juries.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:44:33 EST]]>
/African_Americans_and_Politics_in_Virginia_1865-1902 Wed, 21 Oct 2015 13:19:27 EST <![CDATA[African Americans and Politics in Virginia (1865–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/African_Americans_and_Politics_in_Virginia_1865-1902 African Americans were deeply involved in Virginia politics from the American Civil War (1861–1865) until the first years of the twentieth century. Prior to 1865, Virginia law had restricted the vote to adult white men. With the abolition of slavery, African American men began to lobby for their full rights as citizens. In Norfolk, in May 1865, they even cast votes for the first time, although local electoral boards refused to count them. The first election in which black men voted and those votes were counted was for delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868, to which they elected two dozen of their own. Beginning in 1869, African Americans began to be elected to the General Assembly, mostly as Republicans and later as members of the biracial Readjuster Party. Some black politicians were more radical than others, but they generally advocated black civil rights, access to free public schools, and a refinancing of the state's large antebellum debt. Although records are scarce to document the fact, African American women were probably active behind the scenes, particularly in campaigns supporting public schools. Formal black participation in Virginia politics after the Civil War may have peaked in 1881, when the Readjusters swept statewide offices and took control of both houses of the assembly. In 1888, John Mercer Langston even won a contested election for House of Representatives, becoming the first African American from Virginia to serve in Congress and the only one prior to 1993. In the years that followed, however, white supremacist Democrats asserted control again, passing various laws to reduce black suffrage, which culminated in the Constitution of 1902 and a 50 percent reduction in the state's voters. African Americans largely did not participate again in formal state politics until after World War II (1939–1945).
Wed, 21 Oct 2015 13:19:27 EST]]>
/Black_Baptist_Convention Mon, 19 Oct 2015 09:15:08 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Baptist State Convention]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Baptist_Convention Mon, 19 Oct 2015 09:15:08 EST]]> /Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Still_s_Underground_Rail_Road_Records_1886 Wed, 14 Oct 2015 15:49:07 EST <![CDATA[Arrivals from Virginia; an excerpt from Still's Underground Rail Road Records (1886)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Still_s_Underground_Rail_Road_Records_1886 Wed, 14 Oct 2015 15:49:07 EST]]> /Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1930 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 13:06:19 EST <![CDATA[Colored Persons and Indians Defined (1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1930 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 13:06:19 EST]]> /Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1887 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 12:49:51 EST <![CDATA[Colored Persons and Indians Defined (1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1887 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 12:49:51 EST]]> /Separation_of_Races_1926 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 12:46:22 EST <![CDATA[Separation of Races (1926)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Separation_of_Races_1926 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 12:46:22 EST]]> /Atha_Sorrells_v_A_T_Shields_Clerk_Petition_for_Mandamus_November_14_1924 Tue, 22 Sep 2015 12:15:59 EST <![CDATA[Atha Sorrells v. A. T. Shields, Clerk, Petition for Mandamus (November 14, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Atha_Sorrells_v_A_T_Shields_Clerk_Petition_for_Mandamus_November_14_1924 Tue, 22 Sep 2015 12:15:59 EST]]> /Bowler_John_Andrew_1862-1935 Mon, 14 Sep 2015 09:51:57 EST <![CDATA[Bowler, J. Andrew (1862–1935)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowler_John_Andrew_1862-1935 J. Andrew Bowler helped organize the first school for African Americans on Richmond's Church Hill and then served on its faculty for more than fifty years. The son of an enslaved woman, Bowler demonstrated unusual intelligence in his childhood and after the war worked to pay for his education at what later became Virginia Union University. After a brief sojourn in New York, he returned to Richmond and helped establish George Mason Elementary School. He spent years as its highest ranking African American faculty member. Bowler, a religious man, was ordained a minister in 1901 and served as pastor of Mount Olivet Baptist Church. Thirteen years after his death, Richmond's school board opened J. Andrew Bowler School.
Mon, 14 Sep 2015 09:51:57 EST]]>
/Equal_Suffrage_League_of_Virginia_1909-1920 Thu, 03 Sep 2015 15:02:54 EST <![CDATA[Equal Suffrage League of Virginia (1909–1920)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Equal_Suffrage_League_of_Virginia_1909-1920 The Equal Suffrage League of Virginia was an organization of white women dedicated to securing for women the right to vote. Aligned with the national woman suffrage movement, the league worked for more than ten years lobbying the public and the General Assembly alike, until its efforts paid off when three-fourths of the United States state legislatures ratified the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920. The league failed, however, to persuade the Virginia General Assembly, which did not vote to ratify until 1952.
Thu, 03 Sep 2015 15:02:54 EST]]>
/Thomas_s_Administrator_v_Bettie_Thomas_Lewis_1892 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 14:20:13 EST <![CDATA[Thomas's Administrator v. Bettie Thomas Lewis (1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_s_Administrator_v_Bettie_Thomas_Lewis_1892 In Thomas's Administrator v. Bettie Thomas Lewis, decided on June 16, 1892, the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals upheld a decision by the Richmond City Court of Chancery to honor the deathbed wishes of William A. Thomas. Evidence suggested that Thomas, a white man, desired that his property be inherited by his daughter, Bettie Thomas Lewis, whose mother had been one of Thomas's former slaves. Thomas did not leave a will, and the administrators of his estate, which was valued at about $225,000, challenged the inheritance. They argued that too few witnesses testified to Thomas's intent and that their testimony—including that of Fannie Coles, who was described in a brief as "a pariah of mixed blood"—was not sufficiently credible. The Supreme Court of Appeals, however, credited a number of white witnesses who generally corroborated Coles and described Coles herself, who lived with Thomas and his daughter, as "intelligent" and "agreeable." The ruling awarded Lewis the bulk of her father's estate and made her, according to the Richmond Times, "the richest colored woman in Virginia.
Tue, 01 Sep 2015 14:20:13 EST]]>
/An_Act_to_amend_and_re-enact_the_9th_section_of_chapter_103_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_for_1860_1866 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 12:03:48 EST <![CDATA[An Act to amend and re-enact the 9th section of chapter 103 of the Code of Virginia for 1860 (1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_amend_and_re-enact_the_9th_section_of_chapter_103_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_for_1860_1866 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 12:03:48 EST]]> /An_Act_to_amend_and_re-enact_section_49_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_1887_1910 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:59:58 EST <![CDATA[An Act to amend and re-enact section 49 of the Code of Virginia, 1887 (1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_amend_and_re-enact_section_49_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_1887_1910 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:59:58 EST]]> /Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1924 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:43:07 EST <![CDATA[Colored Persons and Indians Defined (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1924 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:43:07 EST]]> /First_Military_District Thu, 27 Aug 2015 17:17:48 EST <![CDATA[First Military District]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/First_Military_District Thu, 27 Aug 2015 17:17:48 EST]]> /Adams_John_H_ca_1848-1934 Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:54:24 EST <![CDATA[Adams, John H. (ca. 1848–1934)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Adams_John_H_ca_1848-1934 John H. Adams served six years in Richmond's government representing Jackson Ward, two years on the city council and four years as an alderman. Adams hailed from a successful free black family, and received a bachelor's degree from a Pennsylvania college in 1873. A plasterer by trade, he became involved with the African American religious and spiritual community. He helped his neighborhood, created as a gerrymandered constituency to limit black political power, improve its schools, streets, and lighting. Adams moved to Danville in the 1890s, but retired about 1930 and returned to Richmond, where he died at the home of a niece in 1934.
Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:54:24 EST]]>
/Brooks_Lucy_Goode_1818-1900 Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:51:51 EST <![CDATA[Brooks, Lucy Goode (1818–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brooks_Lucy_Goode_1818-1900 Lucy Goode Brooks played the primary role in establishing the Friends' Asylum for Colored Orphans, an orphanage for African American children in Richmond, after the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born into slavery, she married Albert Royal Brooks, whose master allowed him to operate a livery stable and eating house. Although he eventually purchased his freedom and that of Lucy Brooks and several of their children, one daughter was sold by her owner to bondage in Tennessee. After Emancipation former slaves flocked to Richmond to look for missing family members. Having lost one of her own children to the slave trade, Lucy Brooks had a special concern for the plight of parentless children. She worked with the Ladies Sewing Circle for Charitable Work, a local Society of Friends meeting, and several black churches to create an orphanage. In March 1872 the General Assembly incorporated the Friends' Asylum for Colored Orphans, which remained in operation for almost sixty years. Brooks died in Richmond in 1900.
Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:51:51 EST]]>
/Andrews_William_H_b_ca_1839 Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:09:37 EST <![CDATA[Andrews, William H. (b. ca. 1839)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Andrews_William_H_b_ca_1839 William H. Andrews was a member of the Convention of 1867–1868 and served in the House of Delegates (1870–1871). Little is known about him, although his appearances in the public record indicates a troubled man who struggled with alcoholism. Andrews won his seat in the convention called to rewrite Virginia's state constitution in a racially polarized vote. Although he served quietly during the convention and generally voted with the Radical Republicans, for unexplained reasons he became the only African American delegate to vote against the new constitution. He narrowly won election to the House of Delegates from Surry County in 1869, but he acted erratically during his term. He was arrested multiple times, accused of whipping a page, and charged with bribery. He served out his term despite several attempts to expel him from the House. Andrews disappeared from public records after his term.
Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:09:37 EST]]>
/Bayne_Thomas_ca_1824-1888 Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:06:50 EST <![CDATA[Bayne, Thomas (ca. 1824–1888)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bayne_Thomas_ca_1824-1888 Thomas Bayne was a member of the Convention of 1867–1868 and a Republican leader during Reconstruction. Bayne was born enslaved and was known as Samuel Nixon. Literate and possessing a keen intellect, he became an assistant dentist while working at his owner's Norfolk dental practice. His relative freedom of movement allowed him to work on the Underground Railroad until he fled to Massachusetts in 1855. There he adopted Thomas Bayne as his new name and established his own dental practice in New Bedford. Returning to Norfolk by 1865, he began working for African American equal rights as a political activist and an itinerant preacher. In 1867 the city's voters elected him as one of their delegates to the convention called to rewrite the state constitution. There he became the most powerful black leader of the Republican Party's radical faction, arguing forcefully for integrated public schools and equal suffrage. Bayne sought a congressional seat in 1869, but a split among party candidates doomed him to defeat. He reduced his role in state politics but remained active in local elections into the 1880s.
Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:06:50 EST]]>
/Evans_William_W_d_1892 Tue, 25 Aug 2015 15:27:42 EST <![CDATA[Evans, William W. (d. 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Evans_William_W_d_1892 William W. Evans served one term in the House of Delegates (1887–1888). Evans, whose father served in both houses of the General Assembly, was born enslaved and became involved with politics by 1882, when Petersburg's voters elected him city gauger. By August 1887 Evans had become editor of the Virginia Lancet, a Republican newspaper that he used to advocate improvements in the political and material lives of African Americans. In November of that year he won a seat in the House of Delegates, representing Petersburg. He remained loyal to the Republican Party leader William Mahone during a bruising congressional race in 1888, ultimately won by the independent candidate John Mercer Langston. That year Evans obtained a law license and established a practice in Petersburg. Later he worked in Portsmouth until ill health caused him to move back to Petersburg, where he died in 1892.
Tue, 25 Aug 2015 15:27:42 EST]]>
/Vagrancy_Act_of_1866 Tue, 25 Aug 2015 15:14:14 EST <![CDATA[Vagrancy Act of 1866]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Vagrancy_Act_of_1866 The Vagrancy Act of 1866, passed by the General Assembly on January 15, 1866, forced into employment, for a term of up to three months, any person who appeared to be unemployed or homeless. If so-called vagrants ran away and were recaptured, they would be forced to work for no compensation while wearing balls and chains. More formally known as the Act Providing for the Punishment of Vagrants, the law came shortly after the American Civil War (1861–1865), when hundreds of thousands of African Americans, many of them just freed from slavery, wandered in search of work and displaced family members. As such, the act criminalized freedpeople attempting to rebuild their lives and perhaps was intended to contradict Governor Francis H. Pierpont's public statement discouraging punitive legislation. Shortly after its passage, the commanding general in Virginia, Alfred H. Terry, issued a proclamation declaring that the law would reinstitute "slavery in all but its name" and forbidding its enforcement. Proponents argued that the law applied to all people regardless of race, but the resulting controversy, along with other southern laws restricting African American rights, helped lead to military rule in the former Confederacy and congressional Reconstruction. It is unknown to what degree it was ever enforced, but the Vagrancy Act remained law in Virginia until 1904.
Tue, 25 Aug 2015 15:14:14 EST]]>
/Chapter_II_an_excerpt_from_Twelve_Years_a_Slave_1855 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:45:39 EST <![CDATA[Chapter II; an excerpt from Twelve Years a Slave (1855)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_II_an_excerpt_from_Twelve_Years_a_Slave_1855 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:45:39 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Morris_April_12_1786 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:38:19 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Robert Morris (April 12, 1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Morris_April_12_1786 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:38:19 EST]]> /_Abolitionism_New_York_Spectator_September_26_1842 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:35:41 EST <![CDATA["Abolitionism," New York Spectator (September 26, 1842)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Abolitionism_New_York_Spectator_September_26_1842 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:35:41 EST]]> /_More_Fugitive_Slaves_New_York_Daily_Times_May_14_1852 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:34:16 EST <![CDATA["More Fugitive Slaves," New York Daily Times (May 14, 1852)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_More_Fugitive_Slaves_New_York_Daily_Times_May_14_1852 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:34:16 EST]]> /_Fugitive_Slaves_in_Ohio_New_York_Daily_Times_September_7_1853 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:32:35 EST <![CDATA["Fugitive Slaves in Ohio," New York Daily Times (September 7, 1853)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Fugitive_Slaves_in_Ohio_New_York_Daily_Times_September_7_1853 Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:32:35 EST]]> /_The_Albany_Forwarding_Trade_BostonEmancipator_and_Free_American_May_20_1843 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 15:27:25 EST <![CDATA["The Albany Forwarding Trade," Boston Emancipator and Free American (May 20, 1843)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Albany_Forwarding_Trade_BostonEmancipator_and_Free_American_May_20_1843 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 15:27:25 EST]]> /_Miraculous_Escape_Boston_Emancipator_and_Free_American_May_11_1843 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 15:24:43 EST <![CDATA["Miraculous Escape," Boston Emancipator and Free American (May 11, 1843)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Miraculous_Escape_Boston_Emancipator_and_Free_American_May_11_1843 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 15:24:43 EST]]> /The_Thomas_Hughes_Affair_an_excerpt_fromIsaac_T_Hopperby_L_Maria_Child_1854 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 12:35:01 EST <![CDATA[The Thomas Hughes Affair; an excerpt from Isaac T. Hopper by L. Maria Child (1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Thomas_Hughes_Affair_an_excerpt_fromIsaac_T_Hopperby_L_Maria_Child_1854 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 12:35:01 EST]]> /Chapter_VII_an_excerpt_from_the_Narrative_of_the_Life_of_Henry_Box_Brown_1851 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 12:29:43 EST <![CDATA[Chapter VII; an excerpt from the Narrative of the Life of Henry Box Brown (1851)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_VII_an_excerpt_from_the_Narrative_of_the_Life_of_Henry_Box_Brown_1851 Fri, 21 Aug 2015 12:29:43 EST]]> /Letter_from_Alexander_Hamilton_to_John_Jay_March_14_1779 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:32:26 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Alexander Hamilton to John Jay (March 14, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Alexander_Hamilton_to_John_Jay_March_14_1779 Mon, 17 Aug 2015 12:32:26 EST]]> /An_act_to_authorize_the_manumission_of_slaves_1782 Thu, 13 Aug 2015 14:25:19 EST <![CDATA[An act to authorize the manumission of slaves (1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_to_authorize_the_manumission_of_slaves_1782 Thu, 13 Aug 2015 14:25:19 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_Reminiscences_of_Levi_Coffin_1880 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 12:19:30 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from Reminiscences of Levi Coffin (1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_Reminiscences_of_Levi_Coffin_1880 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 12:19:30 EST]]> /_A_Caution_to_All_Travellers_to_Philadelphia_Virginia_Journal_and_Alexandria_Advertiser_March_30_1786 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:57:55 EST <![CDATA["A Caution to All Travellers to Philadelphia," Virginia Journal and Alexandria Advertiser (March 30, 1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Caution_to_All_Travellers_to_Philadelphia_Virginia_Journal_and_Alexandria_Advertiser_March_30_1786 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:57:55 EST]]> /Speech_by_William_B_Preston_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_16_1832 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:09:34 EST <![CDATA[Speech by William B. Preston to the House of Delegates (January 16, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_William_B_Preston_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_16_1832 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:09:34 EST]]> /Speech_by_William_H_Brodnax_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_19_1832 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:05:58 EST <![CDATA[Speech by William H. Brodnax to the House of Delegates (January 19, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_William_H_Brodnax_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_19_1832 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:05:58 EST]]> /Davis_D_Webster_1862-1913 Mon, 27 Jul 2015 15:02:28 EST <![CDATA[Davis, D. Webster (1862–1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_D_Webster_1862-1913 D. Webster Davis was a teacher, poet, and lecturer in Richmond and Manchester. Born into slavery, Davis became a teacher in 1879, working in Richmond public schools for thirty-three years. In 1896 he was ordained a pastor. He also worked as an editor in the 1890s, but his literary ambitions centered mostly on poetry. His first collection was published in 1895 and a second two years later. Literary scholars have criticized his work for perpetuating racial stereotypes, but some argue that, read in context, the works illustrate the complicated position of the first generation of free, educated African Americans. Davis also became a popular lecturer, incorporating his poems into speeches. His notoriety augmented his position within Richmond and Manchester's African American communities, where he held a series of leadership positions. Schools in Richmond and Staunton, as well as Virginia State University, named buildings in honor of Davis, and several Richmond city schools closed on the day of his funeral in 1913.
Mon, 27 Jul 2015 15:02:28 EST]]>
/Dungee_Shed_1831-1900 Fri, 24 Jul 2015 10:16:44 EST <![CDATA[Dungee, Shed (1831–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dungee_Shed_1831-1900 Shed Dungee represented Buckingham and Cumberland counties for two terms in the House of Delegates (1879–1882). Born enslaved, Dungee worked as a cobbler and later became a licensed preacher. He took his seat in 1879, thirty-two years after he reportedly accompanied his master for a term in the General Assembly. Dungee introduced an unsuccessful bill to end the restriction on interracial marriage, on the grounds that outlawing such intermarriage violated the U.S. Constitution. Despite pressure from President Rutherford B. Hayes to support the Funders, he sided with Readjusters in the debate over how to deal with Virginia's crippling pre-war debt. After winning reelection in 1881 he did not seek office in 1883, though he remained active in the Readjuster and Republican parties during the 1890s. Dungee died in Cumberland County in 1900.
Fri, 24 Jul 2015 10:16:44 EST]]>
/Dungey_Jesse_ca_1820-1884 Thu, 16 Jul 2015 15:43:35 EST <![CDATA[Dungey, Jesse (ca. 1820–1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dungey_Jesse_ca_1820-1884 Jesse Dungey served one term in the House of Delegates (1871–1873). A skilled laborer, he was born free and began acquiring land in 1847. He owned 248 acres by the time of his death. The Freedmen's Bureau recognized him as a community leader after the American Civil War (1861–1865), noting his work in building a school and church for African Americans. Elected in 1871 as a Republican to represent King William County, Dungey sided with the Readjusters in debates and early votes over how to settle Virginia's crippling pre-war debt. After his term in office he served as a minister and census enumerator for the county. He died in King William County in 1884.
Thu, 16 Jul 2015 15:43:35 EST]]>
/Brown_John_ca_1830-after_1900 Wed, 08 Jul 2015 15:06:49 EST <![CDATA[Brown, John (ca. 1830–after 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_John_ca_1830-after_1900 John Brown represented Southampton County at the Convention of 1867–1868, called to rewrite Virginia's constitution. Brown was born enslaved, and before Emancipation his wife and children were sold and taken to Mississippi. How and why he entered politics after the American Civil War (1861–1865) is unknown, but he inspired a remarkable voter turnout during elections for the convention. White moderates who had been Whigs before the war sought African American support for the convention balloting. In an astonishing display of group cohesion, almost 98 percent of registered black men appeared at the polls on October 22, 1867. Brown received all 1,242 black voters to defeat his two white opponents. The turnout and support for Brown was a remarkable event in the county where Nat Turner's Rebellion of 1831 took place. Brown's political career did not continue after the convention. He likely never learned to read or write and died sometime between 1900 and 1910.
Wed, 08 Jul 2015 15:06:49 EST]]>
/Delaney_McDowell_ca_1844-after_1924 Wed, 08 Jul 2015 15:02:48 EST <![CDATA[Delaney, McDowell (ca. 1844–after 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Delaney_McDowell_ca_1844-after_1924 McDowell Delaney represented Amelia County for one term in the House of Delegates (1871–1873). Born to free parents, Delaney worked for a Confederate infantry company during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and likely held a job later with the Freedmen's Bureau. He entered politics by 1869, when he lost a race for the county's House of Delegates seat. Two years later Delaney won by a large margin and sided with the majority in trying to circumvent the Funding Act of 1871. Divisions within the local Republican Party likely caused his failed reelection bid, though he did represent Amelia at a state convention of African Americans in 1875. In subsequent years Delaney served in a variety of local offices, including justice of the peace, coroner, and constable. He also became engaged in such occupations as operating an ordinary, repairing bridges, teaching, ministering in a Baptist church, and farming. He moved to Cumberland County and successfully applied for a Confederate pension in 1924. The date and location of his death are unknown.
Wed, 08 Jul 2015 15:02:48 EST]]>
/Evans_Joseph_P_1835-1889 Wed, 08 Jul 2015 10:57:38 EST <![CDATA[Evans, Joseph P. (1835–1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Evans_Joseph_P_1835-1889 Wed, 08 Jul 2015 10:57:38 EST]]> /Speech_by_James_H_Gholson_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_12_1832 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:33:39 EST <![CDATA[Speech by James H. Gholson to the House of Delegates (January 12, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_James_H_Gholson_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_12_1832 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:33:39 EST]]> /Edmundson_Isaac_ca_1840-1927 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:29:53 EST <![CDATA[Edmundson, Isaac (ca. 1840–1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edmundson_Isaac_ca_1840-1927 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:29:53 EST]]> /Davis_Marion_E_1862-1946 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:18:33 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Marion E. (1862–1946)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Marion_E_1862-1946 Marion E. Davis, an African Methodist Episcopal minister, led the Negro Organization Society (NOS) from 1930 until 1942. Born enslaved in Mississippi, Davis moved to Virginia in 1910 and took over Portsmouth's Emmanuel Church. After leading congregations in Richmond and Norfolk, he served as presiding elder over four separate districts. Davis became involved with the Negro Organization Society, a community-improvement organization in line with the non-confrontational style associated with Booker T. Washington, a few years after its 1910 start. During his tenure as president of the NOS, the organization funded voter registration programs and took full advantage of opportunities made possible by New Deal federal aid. Davis died in Portsmouth in 1946.
Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:18:33 EST]]>
/Jones_Peter_K_ca_1834-1895 Mon, 06 Jul 2015 14:35:14 EST <![CDATA[Jones, Peter K. (ca. 1834–1895)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jones_Peter_K_ca_1834-1895 Peter K. Jones represented Greensville and Sussex counties in the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868 and then served four terms in the House of Delegates (1869–1877). Born free in Petersburg, he first acquired property in 1857. Soon after the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865), he became active in politics and began urging blacks to become self-sufficient and advocating for black suffrage and unity. He moved to Greensville County about 1867, and that same year he won a seat at the convention required by the Reconstruction Acts to write a new state constitution. A member of the convention's radical faction, Jones voted in favor of granting the vote to African American men and against segregating public schools. He represented Greensville County for four consecutive terms from 1869 to 1877. During his time in office he worked tirelessly to protect the rights of African Americans. By 1881 Jones had moved to Washington, D.C., and he continued his work in support of African American interests and of the Republican Party. He died in Washington in 1895.
Mon, 06 Jul 2015 14:35:14 EST]]>
/George_L_Christian_s_note_in_the_Virginia_Law_Journal_April_1880 Tue, 30 Jun 2015 15:25:10 EST <![CDATA[George L. Christian's note in the Virginia Law Journal (April 1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_L_Christian_s_note_in_the_Virginia_Law_Journal_April_1880 Tue, 30 Jun 2015 15:25:10 EST]]> /Danville_Riot_1883 Mon, 29 Jun 2015 15:52:26 EST <![CDATA[Danville Riot (1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Danville_Riot_1883 Mon, 29 Jun 2015 15:52:26 EST]]> /American_Civil_War_and_Virginia_The Fri, 26 Jun 2015 14:08:21 EST <![CDATA[Civil War in Virginia, The American]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/American_Civil_War_and_Virginia_The The American Civil War was fought from 1861 until 1865. It began after Virginia and ten other states in the southern United States seceded from the Union following the election of Abraham Lincoln as U.S. president in 1860. Worried that Lincoln would interfere with slavery and citing states' rights as a justification, Southern leaders established the Confederate States of America with Jefferson Davis as its president and Richmond as its capital. After Confederates fired on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, the war moved to Virginia. Union forces made several failed attempts to capture Richmond, and Confederate general Robert E. Lee twice invaded the North, only to be defeated in battle. Most, but not all, Virginians supported the Confederacy. In 1863, Unionists in the western part of the state established West Virginia. On the home front, both white and African American families suffered food shortages or were forced to flee their homes. The Confederate government instituted a draft, or conscription law, and in some cases impressed, or confiscated, private property. By the time Lee surrendered in 1865, much of the state had been ravaged by war. But the end of fighting also meant emancipation, or freedom, for enslaved African Americans. In the years that followed, many white Virginians saw their fight for independence as the Lost Cause, while black Virginians struggled to overcome institutionalized white supremacy and earn full citizenship rights.
Fri, 26 Jun 2015 14:08:21 EST]]>
/Affidavit_of_Powhatan_Bouldin_November_14_1883 Thu, 25 Jun 2015 12:11:35 EST <![CDATA[Affidavit of Powhatan Bouldin (November 14, 1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Affidavit_of_Powhatan_Bouldin_November_14_1883 Thu, 25 Jun 2015 12:11:35 EST]]> /_The_Danville_Riot_Richmond_Dispatch_November_4_1883 Thu, 25 Jun 2015 11:53:11 EST <![CDATA["The Danville Riot," Richmond Dispatch (November 4, 1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Danville_Riot_Richmond_Dispatch_November_4_1883 Thu, 25 Jun 2015 11:53:11 EST]]> /_The_Danville_Massacre_New_York_Times_November_10_1883 Thu, 25 Jun 2015 11:38:39 EST <![CDATA["The Danville Massacre," New York Times (November 10, 1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Danville_Massacre_New_York_Times_November_10_1883 Thu, 25 Jun 2015 11:38:39 EST]]> /_The_Riot_in_Danville_Staunton_Spectator_November_6_1883 Thu, 25 Jun 2015 11:37:06 EST <![CDATA["The Riot in Danville," Staunton Spectator (November 6, 1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Riot_in_Danville_Staunton_Spectator_November_6_1883 Thu, 25 Jun 2015 11:37:06 EST]]> /_The_Danville_Massacre_Chicago_Tribune_February_16_1884 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 16:28:50 EST <![CDATA["The Danville Massacre," Chicago Tribune (February 16, 1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Danville_Massacre_Chicago_Tribune_February_16_1884 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 16:28:50 EST]]> /_Coalition_Rule_in_Danville_October_1883 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 16:10:15 EST <![CDATA["Coalition Rule in Danville" (October 1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Coalition_Rule_in_Danville_October_1883 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 16:10:15 EST]]> /Testimony_of_Charles_D_Noel_November_13_1883 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 15:48:07 EST <![CDATA[Testimony of Charles D. Noel (November 13, 1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_of_Charles_D_Noel_November_13_1883 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 15:48:07 EST]]> /Testimony_of_Robert_J_Adams_February_19_1884 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 15:33:43 EST <![CDATA[Testimony of Robert J. Adams (February 19, 1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_of_Robert_J_Adams_February_19_1884 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 15:33:43 EST]]> /Testimony_of_Hense_Lawson_February_18_1884 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 15:18:15 EST <![CDATA[Testimony of Hense Lawson (February 18, 1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_of_Hense_Lawson_February_18_1884 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 15:18:15 EST]]> /Testimony_of_George_A_Lea_February_15_1884 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 14:06:05 EST <![CDATA[Testimony of George A. Lea (February 15, 1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_of_George_A_Lea_February_15_1884 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 14:06:05 EST]]> /Testimony_of_R_W_Glass_February_15_1884 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 15:53:14 EST <![CDATA[Testimony of R. W. Glass (February 15, 1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_of_R_W_Glass_February_15_1884 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 15:53:14 EST]]> /_The_Richmond_Freedmen_from_theNew-York_Tribune_June_17_1865 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:18:24 EST <![CDATA["The Richmond Freedmen," New-York Tribune (June 17, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Richmond_Freedmen_from_theNew-York_Tribune_June_17_1865 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:18:24 EST]]> /Extracts_from_Equal_Suffrage_Address_from_the_Colored_Citizens_of_Norfolk_Va_to_the_People_of_the_United_States_Also_an_Account_of_the_Agitation_among_the_Colored_People_of_Virginia_for_Equal_Rights_With_an_Appendix_Conce Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:11:14 EST <![CDATA[Excerpts from Equal Suffrage: Address from the Colored Citizens of Norfolk, Va., to the People of the United States. Also an Account of the Agitation among the Colored People of Virginia for Equal Rights. With an Appendix Conce]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Extracts_from_Equal_Suffrage_Address_from_the_Colored_Citizens_of_Norfolk_Va_to_the_People_of_the_United_States_Also_an_Account_of_the_Agitation_among_the_Colored_People_of_Virginia_for_Equal_Rights_With_an_Appendix_Conce Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:11:14 EST]]> /_An_act_to..._legalize_the_Marriages_of_Colored_Persons_now_cohabiting_as_Husband_and_Wife_1866 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 13:58:02 EST <![CDATA["An act to … legalize the Marriages of Colored Persons now cohabiting as Husband and Wife" (1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_to..._legalize_the_Marriages_of_Colored_Persons_now_cohabiting_as_Husband_and_Wife_1866 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 13:58:02 EST]]> /_The_Press_on_the_Danville_Riot_Richmond_Dispatch_November_6_1883 Fri, 19 Jun 2015 16:49:25 EST <![CDATA["The Press on the Danville Riot," Richmond Dispatch (November 6, 1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Press_on_the_Danville_Riot_Richmond_Dispatch_November_6_1883 Fri, 19 Jun 2015 16:49:25 EST]]> /_What_tyme_Indians_serve_1670 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 13:50:53 EST <![CDATA["What tyme Indians serve" (1670)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_What_tyme_Indians_serve_1670 Tue, 16 Jun 2015 13:50:53 EST]]> /Letter_to_Fields_Cook_and_the_Colored_State_Convention_1865 Mon, 15 Jun 2015 15:46:29 EST <![CDATA[Letter to Fields Cook and the Colored State Convention (1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_to_Fields_Cook_and_the_Colored_State_Convention_1865 Mon, 15 Jun 2015 15:46:29 EST]]> /Davis_John_H_d_1896 Thu, 11 Jun 2015 14:50:22 EST <![CDATA[Davis, John H. (d. 1896)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_John_H_d_1896 John H. Davis was an African American entrepreneur and newspaper publisher who advanced with the economic boom created by Roanoke's establishment in the 1880s and then lost much of his wealth in the financial panic of 1893. It is unknown whether Davis was born free or into slavery, but in 1869 he owned property in Lynchburg. In January 1879 he purchased land in the Roanoke County community of Big Lick, soon to become the railroad center Roanoke. His business holdings expanded over the next thirteen years, ultimately solely owning thirty lots, the four-story Davis Hall, and the Roanoke Weekly Press published in the Davis Building. Davis attended two state conventions as a supporter of the Readjuster Party, and had two failed bids for city council. At his peak, his real and personal property valued between $50,000 and $75,000. Davis's holdings shrank rapidly during the economic bust of the mid-1890s, and he died in 1896.
Thu, 11 Jun 2015 14:50:22 EST]]>
/Fayerman_George_d_1890 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 15:30:14 EST <![CDATA[Fayerman, George (d. 1890)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fayerman_George_d_1890 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 15:30:14 EST]]> /Speech_by_Samuel_McDowell_Moore_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_11_1832 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 15:01:45 EST <![CDATA[Speech by Samuel McDowell Moore to the House of Delegates (January 11, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_Samuel_McDowell_Moore_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_11_1832 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 15:01:45 EST]]> /Petition_from_Women_of_Fluvanna_County_November_24_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:59:52 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Women of Fluvanna County (November 24, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Women_of_Fluvanna_County_November_24_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:59:52 EST]]> /Petition_from_Citizens_of_Hanover_County_December_11_and_14_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:58:11 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Citizens of Hanover County (December 11 and 14, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Citizens_of_Hanover_County_December_11_and_14_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:58:11 EST]]> /Petition_from_Inhabitants_of_Fauquier_County_December_7_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:56:46 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Inhabitants of Fauquier County (December 7, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Inhabitants_of_Fauquier_County_December_7_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:56:46 EST]]> /Loudoun_County_Anti-Slave_Resolution_December_30_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:54:40 EST <![CDATA[Loudoun County Anti-Slave Resolution (December 30, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Loudoun_County_Anti-Slave_Resolution_December_30_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:54:40 EST]]> /Petition_from_Citizens_of_Culpeper_County_December_9_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:52:51 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Citizens of Culpeper County (December 9, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Citizens_of_Culpeper_County_December_9_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:52:51 EST]]> /Excerpts_from_Governor_John_Floyd_s_Message_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:48:29 EST <![CDATA[Excerpts from Governor John Floyd's Message to the General Assembly (December 6, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpts_from_Governor_John_Floyd_s_Message_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:48:29 EST]]> /Petition_from_the_Society_of_Friends_Charles_City_County_December_14_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:45:52 EST <![CDATA[Petition from the Society of Friends, Charles City County (December 14, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_the_Society_of_Friends_Charles_City_County_December_14_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:45:52 EST]]> /Petition_from_Women_of_Augusta_County_January_19_1832 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:44:09 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Women of Augusta County (January 19, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Women_of_Augusta_County_January_19_1832 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:44:09 EST]]> /Petition_from_Inhabitants_of_Washington_County_December_17_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:41:50 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Inhabitants of Washington County (December 17, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Inhabitants_of_Washington_County_December_17_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:41:50 EST]]> /Petition_from_Citizens_of_Northampton_County_December_6_1831 Tue, 09 Jun 2015 14:18:43 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Citizens of Northampton County (December 6, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Citizens_of_Northampton_County_December_6_1831 Tue, 09 Jun 2015 14:18:43 EST]]> /Ex_Parte_State_of_Virginia_1879 Fri, 22 May 2015 09:40:26 EST <![CDATA[Ex Parte State of Virginia (March 1, 1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ex_Parte_State_of_Virginia_1879 Fri, 22 May 2015 09:40:26 EST]]> /Davis_Cephas_L_ca_1839-1907 Thu, 21 May 2015 17:35:37 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Cephas L. (ca. 1839–1907)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Cephas_L_ca_1839-1907 Cephas L. Davis represented Charlotte and Mecklenburg counties in the Senate of Virginia for one term (1879–1880). Born into slavery, he became free at the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). He spent much of the 1870s as a pastor and teacher in Mecklenburg, though it appears controversy drove him from the ministry temporarily. In 1879 he ran for the state senate as a Republican, winning narrowly in a three-way race. Davis later joined the Readjuster Party, saying that the new party's members treated him as an equal. He did not seek reelection, but he remained involved in local politics. In 1887 he moved to North Carolina, where he taught school, and served as a principal and pastor. Davis spent his final years in Philadelphia, where he died in 1907.
Thu, 21 May 2015 17:35:37 EST]]>
/Davis_William_Roscoe_d_ca_1904 Thu, 21 May 2015 17:33:03 EST <![CDATA[Davis, William Roscoe (d. ca. 1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_William_Roscoe_d_ca_1904 William Roscoe Davis was an important African American leader in Elizabeth City County (later the city of Hampton) during the American Civil War (1861­–1865), and served as doorkeeper for the Constitutional Convention of 1867­–1868. Born into slavery, Davis was noted for his intelligence and received permission to work as a boat operator. He spent a considerable amount of his money paying for a lawsuit to defend his wife's manumission, but a local judge refused to enforce the couple's legal victory. Davis was among the first slaves to find freedom at Fort Monroe. A Baptist exhorter before the conflict, he became an ordained minister by 1863. His charisma was so impressive that he became a paid orator who toured Northern states. Later in life he claimed credit for the creation of Hampton Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Hampton University), telling people that his request for a new teacher led to the arrival of the institution's founder, Samuel Chapman Armstrong. He remained a leader in the community and respected elder in his family, also serving as the Old Point Comfort lighthouse keeper and buying property in Hampton. He died in 1904.
Thu, 21 May 2015 17:33:03 EST]]>
/Faulcon_William_1841-by_1904 Thu, 21 May 2015 17:22:41 EST <![CDATA[Faulcon, William (1841–by 1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Faulcon_William_1841-by_1904 William Faulcon represented Surry and Prince George counties for one term in the House of Delegates (1885–1887). Probably born into slavery, after the American Civil War (1861–1865) he operated a blacksmith's shop. He began purchasing land in Surry County in 1879, eventually acquiring ninety acres. Little is known about how he became involved in politics, but local Republicans nominated him for the House of Delegates in 1885. Faulcon won the seat handily, but he did not present legislation or speak on the record during the term's first session. He submitted a few bills on behalf of Surry County residents during the extra session. Faulcon was the Republican nominee for the seat in 1891, but he withdrew from the race before election day. He continued to farm in Surry County and died by 1904.
Thu, 21 May 2015 17:22:41 EST]]>
/Harris_Alfred_W_1853-1920 Thu, 21 May 2015 17:16:03 EST <![CDATA[Harris, Alfred W. (1853–1920)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harris_Alfred_W_1853-1920 Alfred W. Harris introduced the bill that chartered Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Virginia State University) during his time in the House of Delegates (1881–1888). Born enslaved in Fairfax County, during the American Civil War (1861–1865) his family moved to Alexandria, where he attended a school operated by the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands and later the city's first segregated public schools. He won a seat on the Alexandria common council as a twenty-year-old and became a lawyer. Harris relocated in Petersburg and in 1881 won the first of four consecutive terms term in the House of Delegates, representing Dinwiddie County. He played key roles in Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute's first years, serving as its de facto treasurer and the first secretary of the board of visitors. Harris strongly supported the Readjuster and later Republican Party leader William Mahone, even backing his candidate in the 1888 congressional election against John Mercer Langston. After leaving the House of Delegates, Harris served as a Newport News specials customs inspector and a Petersburg census enumerator. He resigned his post after being arrested and exonerated twice on charges of theft. Following a stroke, Harris died in his Petersburg home in 1920.
Thu, 21 May 2015 17:16:03 EST]]>
/Constitutional_Convention_Virginia_1901-1902 Wed, 20 May 2015 10:57:45 EST <![CDATA[Constitutional Convention, Virginia (1901–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Constitutional_Convention_Virginia_1901-1902 The Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902 produced the Virginia Constitution of 1902 and is an important example of post-Reconstruction efforts to restore white supremacy in the American South by disenfranchising large numbers of blacks and working-class whites. Remaining in effect until July 1, 1971, the constitution did much to shape Virginia politics in the twentieth century—a politics dominated by a conservative Democratic Party that fiercely resisted the New Deal, the New Frontier, the Great Society, the civil rights movement, and, with special fervor, federally mandated public school desegregation. Yet the significance of the 1901–1902 convention extends beyond Virginia in that it demonstrates the irony of how Progressive Era reforms nationwide often resulted in state legislation that was far from progressive.
Wed, 20 May 2015 10:57:45 EST]]>
/Browne_William_Washington_1849-1897 Wed, 20 May 2015 10:46:58 EST <![CDATA[Browne, William Washington (1849–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Browne_William_Washington_1849-1897 William Washington Browne was a slave, a Union solder during the American Civil War (1861–1865), a teacher, a Methodist minister, and the founder of Richmond's Grand Fountain of the United Order of True Reformers, an African American fraternal organization. As leader of the True Reformers, Browne strived to help members live productive lives without depending upon the white community. By establishing insurance that provided members with sick and death benefits and by encouraging members to purchase land and engage in practices of temperance and thrift, Browne believed that blacks in the post–Civil War South could thrive. Browne's enterprising mind helped lead the True Reformers in creating and organizing a bank which became the nation's first chartered black financial institution and a model that others, such as Maggie Lena Walker, would follow. Browne died in 1897 and the True Reformers initially continued to prosper, but the order collapsed in the wake of the scandalous failure of its bank in 1910.
Wed, 20 May 2015 10:46:58 EST]]>
/Lindsey_Lewis_1843-1908 Wed, 20 May 2015 10:44:28 EST <![CDATA[Lindsey, Lewis (1843–1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lindsey_Lewis_1843-1908 Lewis Lindsey represented the city of Richmond at the Convention of 1867–1868. Lindsey was born enslaved but learned to read and write while working in a female seminary. He became politically active after the American Civil War (1861–1865) and gained some local notoriety, possibly due to his literacy and success as a musician. Lindsey developed a reputation as a fiery speaker, and he and four other Republicans won election as Richmond's delegation to the constitution convention. He advocated expanding African American political rights, integrating public schools, and prohibiting former Confederates from holding state office. Although he never held state office, Lindsey remained active in Richmond politics after the convention adjourned, serving on local committees, speaking at Republican events, and later campaigning for Readjuster Party candidates. Following his death the Richmond Planet named him one of the ten greatest black leaders in Richmond's history, alongside such figures as Maggie Lena Walker and newspaper editor John Mitchell Jr.
Wed, 20 May 2015 10:44:28 EST]]>
/Dodson_Amos_A_1856-1888 Tue, 12 May 2015 17:32:55 EST <![CDATA[Dodson, Amos A. (1856–1888)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dodson_Amos_A_1856-1888 Amos A. Dodson served one term in the House of Delegates (1883–1884). Born into slavery in Mecklenburg County, Dodson after the American Civil War (1861–1865) began balancing a carpentry apprenticeship during the day and studying in his time away from work. He parlayed his education into a ten-year stint as a teacher beginning in 1872. Later he worked as a railroad clerk with the help of Readjuster Party leader William Mahone. Dodson prevailed in an intra-party struggle for the Readjuster nomination for the House of Delegates in 1883 and then won the general election. He did not seek reelection, though he remained active in politics. Dodson moved to Knoxville, Tennessee in 1886, entering the undertaking business. Known as an eloquent speaker, his public career ended with his death in 1888.
Tue, 12 May 2015 17:32:55 EST]]>
/Seaton_George_Lewis_ca_1822-1881 Tue, 12 May 2015 15:39:33 EST <![CDATA[Seaton, George Lewis (ca. 1822–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Seaton_George_Lewis_ca_1822-1881 George Lewis Seaton represented Alexandria for one session in the House of Delegates (1869–1871). Born free, Seaton worked as a carpenter and conducted multiple property transactions. After the American Civil War (1861–1865) he worked to improve the lives of former slaves by constructing two schools for Alexandria's freedpeople and helping to establish a local branch of the Freedman's Savings Bank and Trust Company. Seaton's strong reputation probably played a role in his selection to the grand jury for the U.S. Circuit Court for the District of Virginia, likely the first interracial jury in Virginia history. In 1869 he won election to the House of Delegates and voted with the majority to ratify the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution as required by Congress before Virginia could be readmitted to the United States. He lost a bid for reelection in 1871 by fewer than 100 votes, but continued to participate in party politics throughout the decade. He spent his later years supporting public schools and community organizations for African Americans in Alexandria, but had to liquidate assets including his grocery store after the Panic of 1873. He died of paralysis in his home in 1881.
Tue, 12 May 2015 15:39:33 EST]]>
/Morgan_Peter_G_1817-1890 Tue, 12 May 2015 15:36:01 EST <![CDATA[Morgan, Peter G. (1817–1890)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_Peter_G_1817-1890 Peter G. Morgan represented Petersburg in the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868 and then in the House of Delegates for one term (1869–1871). Born enslaved, Morgan worked as a shoemaker, purchasing freedom for himself and then for his wife and children. After the American Civil War (1861–1865) he won election in 1867 as a Republican to the convention called to write a new state constitution, usually siding with the party's radical faction during the proceedings. After the convention Morgan represented Petersburg for a two-year term in the House of Delegates. He served three terms the Petersburg city council, where he helped oppose a scheme that would have given a local judge the power to appoint city officials. Committed to education, Morgan was a trustee for Saint Paul Normal and Industrial School (later Saint Paul's College), founded by his son-in-law, James Solomon Russell. Morgan died at Russell's home in Lawrenceville in 1890.
Tue, 12 May 2015 15:36:01 EST]]>
/Brisby_William_H_1836-1916 Tue, 12 May 2015 15:27:03 EST <![CDATA[Brisby, William H. (1836–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brisby_William_H_1836-1916 William H. Brisby served one term in the House of Delegates (1869–1871), representing New Kent County. Brisby, who had an African American and Pamunkey Indian background, was born free and acquired enough money to establish his own blacksmith shop in 1860. He served as a blacksmith for a Confederate cavalry company to avoid impressment during the American Civil War (1861–1865), but also helped slaves and Union prisoners escape. The suspicion of the latter led to two imprisonments. By 1867 Brisby had entered politics as a Republican and he won a seat in the General Assembly two years later by just nineteen votes. He spent ten years on the New Kent County's board of supervisors and was a longtime justice of the peace. Brisby was strict and sometimes violent with his family, driving his sons out of the house. Late in life he began to suffer from dementia and died in 1916 at the Central State Hospital, in Petersburg, of kidney failure.
Tue, 12 May 2015 15:27:03 EST]]>
/_The_Appeal_from_Proceedings_of_the_Convention_of_the_Colored_People_of_VA_Held_in_the_City_of_Alexandria_1865 Mon, 11 May 2015 14:54:47 EST <![CDATA["The Appeal" from Proceedings of the Convention of the Colored People of VA., Held in the City of Alexandria (1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Appeal_from_Proceedings_of_the_Convention_of_the_Colored_People_of_VA_Held_in_the_City_of_Alexandria_1865 Mon, 11 May 2015 14:54:47 EST]]> /Interview_with_Allen_Wilson_July_16_1937 Mon, 11 May 2015 13:19:04 EST <![CDATA[Interview with Allen Wilson (July 16, 1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Interview_with_Allen_Wilson_July_16_1937 Mon, 11 May 2015 13:19:04 EST]]> /_The_Passing_of_John_Robinson_from_the_Richmond_Planet_January_25_1908 Mon, 11 May 2015 12:50:22 EST <![CDATA["The Passing of John Robinson" from the Richmond Planet (January 25, 1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Passing_of_John_Robinson_from_the_Richmond_Planet_January_25_1908 Mon, 11 May 2015 12:50:22 EST]]> /Perkins_Fountain_M_1816_or_1817-1896 Fri, 01 May 2015 08:36:14 EST <![CDATA[Perkins, Fountain M. (1816 or 1817–1896)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Perkins_Fountain_M_1816_or_1817-1896 Fountain M. Perkins was born into slavery and later served one term in the House of Delegates (1869–1871). An overseer on his owner's farm, by 1867 he was a preacher and had become a political figure. A local official with the Freedmen's Bureau considered him a prominent man in Louisa County. Perkins began speaking at political meetings and was considered a candidate for the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868, the first election in which Virginia's African American men could vote. In 1869 he won one of the county's two seats in the House of Delegates. He voted to ratify the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which the state was required to do before being readmitted to the United States. Perkins did not run for reelection in 1871 but stayed active in politics during the next two decades, attending local Republican meetings, sitting as an election judge, and serving on the state central committee. He acquired property and farmed, and then, in 1896, died of the effects of paralysis in Louisa County.
Fri, 01 May 2015 08:36:14 EST]]>
/Remarks_by_William_Williams_August_11_1865 Mon, 27 Apr 2015 14:56:12 EST <![CDATA[Remarks by William Williams (August 11, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Remarks_by_William_Williams_August_11_1865 Mon, 27 Apr 2015 14:56:12 EST]]> /_The_Sun_Do_Move_by_John_Jasper_1878 Fri, 17 Apr 2015 14:40:23 EST <![CDATA["The Sun Do Move" by John Jasper (1878)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Sun_Do_Move_by_John_Jasper_1878 Fri, 17 Apr 2015 14:40:23 EST]]> /Green_Armistead_d_1892 Thu, 16 Apr 2015 10:12:02 EST <![CDATA[Green, Armistead (d. 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Green_Armistead_d_1892 Thu, 16 Apr 2015 10:12:02 EST]]> /An_act_to_amend_an_act_entitled_an_act_reducing_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_March_15_1832 Wed, 15 Apr 2015 14:42:36 EST <![CDATA[An act to amend an act entitled, "an act reducing into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes, and for other purposes" (March 15, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_to_amend_an_act_entitled_an_act_reducing_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_March_15_1832 Wed, 15 Apr 2015 14:42:36 EST]]> /Union_Occupation_of_Charlottesville_1865 Mon, 13 Apr 2015 09:19:46 EST <![CDATA[Union Occupation of Charlottesville (1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Union_Occupation_of_Charlottesville_1865 Union cavalry under the command of Philip H. Sheridan occupied Charlottesville and the University of Virginia from March 3 to March 6, 1865, a month before the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). During the previous summer and autumn, Union forces had battled and largely defeated Jubal A. Early's Confederate Army of the Valley. In February 1865, Sheridan's men rode south from Winchester with orders to destroy railroads and possibly take Lynchburg. They arrived in Charlottesville on March 3, and there were met by a delegation of town and university officials, who asked for protection. Union troopers burned a nearby woolen mills but, apart from widespread foraging and some looting, left the town and college intact. In the meantime, many of the area's African Americans, including at least one enslaved directly by the University of Virginia, used the Union occupation to escape their enslavement. Sheridan left Charlottesville on March 6. In the war's aftermath, institutions that were not destroyed, such as the University of Virginia, became especially important in the South, and the school's enrollment and prestige rose steadily. In 2001, a state historical highway marker commemorating the occupation was rewritten to avoid the term "surrender"; it later was reported missing.
Mon, 13 Apr 2015 09:19:46 EST]]>
/Norton_Daniel_M_later_Daniel_McNorton_d_1918 Fri, 13 Feb 2015 10:08:55 EST <![CDATA[Norton, Daniel M., later Daniel McNorton (d. 1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Norton_Daniel_M_later_Daniel_McNorton_d_1918 Daniel M. Norton, one of three brothers elected to the General Assembly, was a physician who served in the Senate of Virginia (1871–1873, 1877–1887). Born enslaved, he escaped to New York in the mid-1850s. He learned the medical profession and by 1865 moved to Yorktown, where he quickly became a leader among the area's freedpeople. The region's voters elected him to the state Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868 and he later served for twelve years in the Senate of Virginia. Norton often clashed with the Republican Party's leadership and launched unsuccessful candidacies for the U.S. House of Representatives late in the 1860s and early in the 1870s. Norton aligned with the Readjuster Party in its early stages and played a key role in bringing African American voters into the short-lived, but powerful faction. He later clashed with political leader William Mahone, who engineered his removal from the Senate of Virginia. Norton owned considerable property in Yorktown, including the historic customs house. By 1910, he and his family were using the surname McNorton, although it is unclear why. He died in Hampton in 1918.
Fri, 13 Feb 2015 10:08:55 EST]]>
/Norton_F_S_d_1893 Fri, 13 Feb 2015 09:57:00 EST <![CDATA[Norton, F. S. (d. 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Norton_F_S_d_1893 F. S. Norton, one of three brothers elected to the General Assembly, served one term in the House of Delegates (1869–1871) and later sat on Williamsburg's city council (by 1879–1882). Born enslaved, he represented James City County and Williamsburg from 1869 until 1871, during which time he voted with the majority to ratify the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution as required by Congress before Virginia could be readmitted to the United States. Norton often differed politically from the Yorktown-based brothers, Daniel M. Norton and Robert Norton. He embraced Radical Republicanism in the 1860s while his brothers were more sympathetic with the Conservative Party. They all later joined the Readjuster Party, but he withdrew and supported the Republicans against his brothers. He identified himself as a Democrat in his later years. Norton died of unknown causes at his Williamsburg home in 1893.
Fri, 13 Feb 2015 09:57:00 EST]]>
/Addison_Lucy_1861-1937 Tue, 10 Feb 2015 10:16:50 EST <![CDATA[Addison, Lucy (1861–1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Addison_Lucy_1861-1937 Lucy Addison was a teacher and elementary school principal in Roanoke who was largely responsible for bringing high school–level education to the city's African Americans. Born enslaved in Fauquier County, she earned a teaching diploma in Philadelphia. Addison taught briefly in Loudoun County before moving to Roanoke in 1887. She served briefly as an interim principal at the city's First Ward Colored School before resuming her regular teaching duties. In 1918 she became principal of the Harrison School. Although the school offered classes only up to grade eight, Addison campaigned for a secondary-school curriculum, steadily adding advanced classes. The State Board of Education accredited Harrison as a high school in 1924. Addison retired from the position after the 1926–1927 school year, and the city named the school after her in 1928. It was Roanoke's first public building named after one of its own citizens. Addison, who never married, died in 1937 in Washington, D.C.
Tue, 10 Feb 2015 10:16:50 EST]]>
/Crump_Josiah_ca_1838-1890 Thu, 05 Feb 2015 14:58:43 EST <![CDATA[Crump, Josiah (ca. 1838–1890)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crump_Josiah_ca_1838-1890 Josiah Crump represented the Jackson Ward neighborhood on Richmond's city council for nearly ten years (1876–1884, 1888–1890). While it is unknown if Crump was born enslaved, by 1860 he was free and worked as a teamster. In 1871 he became a postal clerk in Richmond, most likely gaining the post because of his involvement with the Republican Party. He also joined the Grand Fountain United Order of True Reformers and served as a captain in one the city's African American militias. Crump won his first election to the city's board of aldermen in 1876, serving until 1884. He returned to office for two more years in 1888. In spite of increasing racial tensions, both black and white politicians respected Crump. He served on the committee of ordinances, a rarity for African American council members, and ended the practice of medical schools robbing graves for black cadavers. Crump died in 1890, and his funeral drew between 5,000 and 6,000 mourners.
Thu, 05 Feb 2015 14:58:43 EST]]>
/Farmer_James_1920-1999 Thu, 05 Feb 2015 13:22:11 EST <![CDATA[Farmer, James (1920–1999)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farmer_James_1920-1999 James Farmer was a civil rights leader who pioneered sit-in demonstrations during the 1940s and led the Freedom Riders of 1961. After graduating from Wiley College, in Texas, Farmer moved to Chicago to serve as race relations secretary for the pacifist group Fellowship of Reconciliation. Dedicated to fighting Jim Crow laws, in 1942 Farmer helped form what became the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). The organization selected Farmer as its national director in 1961, bringing him to prominence. The violent reaction by southern whites to the Freedom Riders was the first in a series of confrontations and arrests for his work on behalf of African American civil rights. Farmer left CORE in 1966 and later served briefly in the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Farmer moved to Spotsylvania County about 1980 and became a professor at Mary Washington College in 1985. That year his book, Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement, was published. Farmer received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1998.
Thu, 05 Feb 2015 13:22:11 EST]]>
/A_Dissertation_on_Slavery_With_a_Proposal_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_It_In_the_State_of_Virginia_1796 Wed, 04 Feb 2015 10:35:56 EST <![CDATA[A Dissertation on Slavery: With a Proposal for the Gradual Abolition of It, In the State of Virginia (1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Dissertation_on_Slavery_With_a_Proposal_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_It_In_the_State_of_Virginia_1796 A Dissertation on Slavery: With a Proposal for the Gradual Abolition of It, In the State of Virginia (1796), is an essay by St. George Tucker. When he submitted it to the General Assembly in 1796, Tucker was a law professor at the College of William and Mary and a judge on the bench of the General Court. In A Dissertation on Slavery, he discusses the history of slavery, the Virginia slave code, and the morality of slaveholding, and presents a plan for ending slavery. He wrestles with the tensions between the natural rights philosophy of the American Revolution (1775–1783) and the continued existence of slavery. Tucker's attempt to resolve this tension had little immediate effect—the House of Delegates tabled his proposal and Tucker believed that many of the assembly's members refused even to read it—but it did point to a society that somewhat resembled late nineteenth and early twentieth century Virginia. In his essay, Tucker proposed that enslaved African Americans be freed, but, for various reasons, should not enjoy the full rights and privileges of citizenship. Some historians have since pointed out that this circumstance actually came to pass, if not in precisely the manner that Tucker had prescribed.
Wed, 04 Feb 2015 10:35:56 EST]]>
/Russell_James_Solomon_1857-1935 Thu, 29 Jan 2015 17:33:54 EST <![CDATA[Russell, James Solomon (1857–1935)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Russell_James_Solomon_1857-1935 James Solomon Russell founded Saint Paul Normal and Industrial School (later Saint Paul's College). Born enslaved, after the American Civil War (1861–1865) Russell sought an education and attended Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University) when family finances allowed it. He established himself as a teacher and became attracted to the Episcopal Church. Russell entered divinity school, serving in a series of religious positions while attending what became the Bishop Payne Divinity School, in Petersburg. The church ordained him a deacon in 1882 and a priest in 1887. He began his ministry in 1882 in the Brunswick County town of Lawrenceville. In 1888 he founded Saint Paul Normal and Industrial School, in response to the local community's intense desire for educational opportunities. Russell fended off the school's early struggles by aggressively fund-raising, and Saint Paul's expanded in both its size and curriculum. He retired as its principal 1929 and was succeeded by his son James Alvin Russell. He died in Lawrenceville in 1935.
Thu, 29 Jan 2015 17:33:54 EST]]>
/Roanoke_Weekly_Press Thu, 29 Jan 2015 16:28:55 EST <![CDATA[Roanoke Weekly Press]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Roanoke_Weekly_Press The Roanoke Weekly Press was Roanoke City's first black newspaper, founded early in 1891 by John H. Davis, a wealthy African American businessman, philanthropist, and Republican political activist. The paper first appeared as an afternoon daily called the Press; several weeks later, it was moved to a weekly publication schedule and renamed the Roanoke Weekly Press (RWP). The paper was staunchly Republican in political orientation, reflecting its readership's deep antipathy toward the all-white Democratic Party in late nineteenth-century Virginia. Davis owned and edited the paper, which he published in different lengths on a periodic basis, often suspending publication for several months between issues. The only extant copy of the RWP is its fifth issue from 1892, which appeared on April 2 that year. Although some sources indicate the paper continued publication until 1897, it is more likely that it ceased operations in 1892. Davis left no personal or business papers behind, making details of his life difficult to discern. Even less is known about his newspaper, which remains an obscure and largely forgotten enterprise.
Thu, 29 Jan 2015 16:28:55 EST]]>
/Manly_Ralza_M_1822-1897 Tue, 27 Jan 2015 16:38:59 EST <![CDATA[Manly, Ralza M. (1822–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Manly_Ralza_M_1822-1897 Ralza M. Manly served as Virginia's superintendent of education under the Freedmen's Bureau and later helped establish and run the Richmond Colored Normal School. Born in Vermont, Manly was a minister and educator who began teaching African Americans when he became chaplain of the 1st United States Colored Cavalry at Fort Monroe during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After the war he oversaw the rapid expansion of black education civilian government returned to Virginia. He spearheaded the creation of what became the highly regarded Richmond Colored Normal School and served as its principal twice. In 1885 he left the state for Wellesley College in Massachusetts, where he joined his second wife on the faculty. He eventually moved to San Diego, California, and died there in 1897.
Tue, 27 Jan 2015 16:38:59 EST]]>
/Jones_Sarah_Garland_Boyd_1866-1905 Mon, 26 Jan 2015 14:14:32 EST <![CDATA[Jones, Sarah Garland Boyd (1866–1905)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jones_Sarah_Garland_Boyd_1866-1905 Sarah Garland Boyd Jones became the first African American woman to pass the Virginia Medical Examining Board's examination. Jones grew up among Richmond's black elite and became a teacher upon graduating from Richmond Colored Normal School. She entered Howard University's medical school in 1890 and earned her medical degree three years later. Jones established a successful practice in Richmond. She and her physician husband helped create a medical association for Virginia's African American doctors, and the pair opened their own small hospital. In 1922, the Sarah G. Jones Memorial Hospital, Medical College and Training School for Nurses (later Richmond Community Hospital) was named in her honor.
Mon, 26 Jan 2015 14:14:32 EST]]>
/Carter_James_B_ca_1816-1870 Fri, 23 Jan 2015 17:26:50 EST <![CDATA[Carter, James B. (ca. 1816–1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_James_B_ca_1816-1870 Fri, 23 Jan 2015 17:26:50 EST]]> /Canada_David_fl_1867-1868 Fri, 23 Jan 2015 17:24:13 EST <![CDATA[Canada, David (fl. 1867–1869)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Canada_David_fl_1867-1868 Fri, 23 Jan 2015 17:24:13 EST]]> /Bassette_Andrew_W_E_1857-1942 Fri, 23 Jan 2015 16:48:29 EST <![CDATA[Bassette, Andrew W. E. (1857–1942)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bassette_Andrew_W_E_1857-1942 Andrew W. E. Bassette was a teacher, lawyer, and businessman who rose from an impoverished upbringing to become a prosperous leader of Hampton's African American community. Born in Hampton, possibly enslaved, Bassette attended Hampton Institute and then taught school, supplementing his income with farm work. Finding time to study law, he passed the bar, and likely served as assistant commonwealth's attorney for Elizabeth City County. In 1889 he became one of a dozen founders of the People's Building and Loan Association of Hampton, writing the charter and serving as general counsel. Known as "Lawyer Bassette," he was one of Hampton's best-known African American figures, participating and sometimes presiding over the city's annual Emancipation Proclamation Day celebration. The city named a school for him. The father of an attorney, physician, and dentist, Bassette died at his home in 1942.
Fri, 23 Jan 2015 16:48:29 EST]]>
/Armistead_John_M_1852-1929 Thu, 15 Jan 2015 16:31:11 EST <![CDATA[Armistead, John M. (1852–1929)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Armistead_John_M_1852-1929 John M. Armistead was an influential Baptist minister in Portsmouth. Born enslaved, Armistead began his religious studies in 1868. He was a successful minister in Tennessee before taking over Portsmouth's Zion Baptist Church in 1882. During his forty-three years at the congregation's helm its membership nearly tripled and helped create five other churches. One of the most inspiring pulpit orators of his time, Armistead presided over the Virginia Baptist State Convention for six years, and he helped broker a deal that led to the establishment of Lynchburg Baptist Seminary (later Virginia University of Lynchburg). He retired in 1925 and died in Portsmouth four years later.
Thu, 15 Jan 2015 16:31:11 EST]]>
/Archer_Edinboro_ca_1849-1907 Thu, 15 Jan 2015 09:49:41 EST <![CDATA[Archer, Edinboro (ca. 1849–1907)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Archer_Edinboro_ca_1849-1907 Edinboro Archer served on the common council, one of two boards of the Richmond City Council, from 1882 until 1888. Born enslaved, he learned carpentry and eventually became a wheelwright. He settled in Jackson Ward, the famous political district in Richmond created by conservative whites in 1871 to concentrate the African American population in one location. This gerrymandering mitigated blacks' political strength by reducing the overall impact of their votes in city elections. Between 1871 and 1898 thirty-three African Americans represented Jackson Ward in the city government. In 1882 Archer won the first of three elections to the council. During his tenure he served on important committees and fought to gain needed improvements for Jackson Ward, such as a city park. After leaving office, Archer continued as a wheelwright and then worked at Evergreen Cemetery. He died in 1907.
Thu, 15 Jan 2015 09:49:41 EST]]>
/Perkins_Caesar_1839-1910 Fri, 09 Jan 2015 13:03:10 EST <![CDATA[Perkins, Caesar (1839–1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Perkins_Caesar_1839-1910 Caesar Perkins served two separate terms in the House of Delegates eighteen years apart (1869–1871, 1887–1888). Born enslaved, Perkins became a leader within Buckingham County's African American community after the American Civil War (1860–1865). In 1869 he won one of the locality's two seats in the General Assembly's lower house. Outside of politics Perkins purchased 628 acres in 1870, and later operated a general store and two ordinaries. He became an ordained Baptist minister by 1877. Perkins remained involved with public affairs, following most African American politicians into the short-lived Readjuster Party and then into the Republican Party. He won his second term in 1887, representing Brunswick and Caroline counties. He died in Richmond and was buried in Buckingham County.
Fri, 09 Jan 2015 13:03:10 EST]]>
/Thirteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution_The Wed, 03 Dec 2014 16:52:31 EST <![CDATA[Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thirteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution_The The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution abolished and permanently prohibited the reintroduction of slavery throughout the country. Congress submitted it to the states on January 31, 1865, and it was ratified on December 6, 1865. It was the first of three amendments adopted during Reconstruction that profoundly altered American society, government, and politics. The Fourteenth Amendment that defined citizenship and guaranteed the rights of citizens was ratified in July 1868, and the Fifteenth Amendment that granted the vote to African American men was ratified in February 1870.
Wed, 03 Dec 2014 16:52:31 EST]]>
/Bolling_Samuel_P_1819-1900 Mon, 17 Nov 2014 16:59:36 EST <![CDATA[Bolling, Samuel P. (1819–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bolling_Samuel_P_1819-1900 Samuel P. Bolling was a member of the House of Delegates from Cumberland County, the owner of a brickyard in Farmville, and an entrepreneur with enough wealth and success to attract national attention. Born enslaved, Bolling developed skills as a mechanic and manager. He began acquiring property after the American Civil War (1861–1865), purchasing more than 1,000 acres in Cumberland County. A front-page article in the Cleveland Gazette, published in 1886, estimated the value of his brick-making operation and country house at $40,000. Bolling joined the Readjuster Party in 1880 and served in a series of local positions, including the county board of supervisors. In 1885 he won the House of Delegates seat his son Phillip S. Bolling had captured two years earlier. Because of their similar names later works confused the two men. In his later years the elder Bolling sold part of his property to the area's poorer African Americans and contributed land for an industrial school. He died on his Cumberland County farm in 1900.
Mon, 17 Nov 2014 16:59:36 EST]]>
/Bolling_Phillip_S_ca_1849-1892 Mon, 17 Nov 2014 16:44:15 EST <![CDATA[Bolling, Phillip S. (ca. 1849–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bolling_Phillip_S_ca_1849-1892 Mon, 17 Nov 2014 16:44:15 EST]]> /Morgan_v_Virginia Mon, 20 Oct 2014 14:38:24 EST <![CDATA[Morgan v. Virginia (1946)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_v_Virginia In Morgan v. Virginia, decided on June 3, 1946, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down a Virginia law requiring racial segregation on commercial interstate buses as a violation of the commerce clause of the U.S. Constitution. The appellant, Irene Morgan, was riding a Greyhound bus from Hayes Store, in Gloucester County, to Baltimore, Maryland, in 1944 when she was arrested and convicted in Saluda for refusing to give up her seat to a white person. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) filed appeals on her behalf, and after the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals ruled against Morgan in 1945, the U.S. Supreme Court heard her arguments. The case came near the end of a string of decisions, dating back to 1878, in which various courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court, had found that the commerce clause did not support state laws that regulated commercial interstate passenger travel. Morgan v. Virginia was not a typical civil rights case in that it did not comment on a state's right to segregate whites from blacks. Still, Morgan's refusal to give up her seat foreshadowed Rosa Parks's more famous action a decade later and marked an early and important victory in the civil rights movement.
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 14:38:24 EST]]>
/Walker_Wyatt_Tee_1929- Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:03:54 EST <![CDATA[Walker, Wyatt Tee (1929– )]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Walker_Wyatt_Tee_1929- Wyatt Tee Walker is a civil rights activist, author, and religious leader. After earning his master of divinity degree from Virginia Union University in 1953, Walker became the pastor of Gillfield Baptist Church in Petersburg. During the 1950s, he served as the president of the Petersburg branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), was the state director of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in Virginia, and founded the Petersburg Improvement Association. In 1960 he was appointed chief of staff to Martin Luther King Jr. and served as the first full-time executive director of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Walker was instrumental in the fund-raising campaigns of the SCLC early in the 1960s and he helped formulate and analyze various protest strategies. He left the SCLC in 1964 and went on to serve as the pastor of Canaan Baptist Church of Christ in Harlem, New York, for thirty-seven years. Following his retirement in 2004, he returned to Virginia.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:03:54 EST]]>
/No_Action_Taken_Lively_Discussion_of_the_Colored_Pulpit-Press_Controversy Tue, 16 Sep 2014 14:35:00 EST <![CDATA["No Action Taken: Lively Discussion of the Colored Pulpit-Press Controversy" from the Roanoke Times (May 29, 1891)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/No_Action_Taken_Lively_Discussion_of_the_Colored_Pulpit-Press_Controversy Tue, 16 Sep 2014 14:35:00 EST]]> /_Bloodthirsty_Vest_from_The_Roanoke_Times_March_10_1891 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 10:05:26 EST <![CDATA["Bloodthirsty Vest." from the Roanoke Times (March 10, 1891)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Bloodthirsty_Vest_from_The_Roanoke_Times_March_10_1891 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 10:05:26 EST]]> /_Jno_H_Davis_from_The_Roanoke_Daily_Times_July_21_1896 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 10:03:50 EST <![CDATA["Jno. H. Davis" from the Roanoke Daily Times (July 21, 1896)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Jno_H_Davis_from_The_Roanoke_Daily_Times_July_21_1896 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 10:03:50 EST]]> /_The_Press_in_Trouble_from_The_Roanoke_Times_May_24_1891 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 09:48:08 EST <![CDATA["The Press in Trouble" from the Roanoke Times (May 24, 1891)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Press_in_Trouble_from_The_Roanoke_Times_May_24_1891 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 09:48:08 EST]]> /Bowser_Rosa_L_Dixon_1855-1931 Wed, 03 Sep 2014 14:06:55 EST <![CDATA[Bowser, Rosa L. Dixon (1855–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowser_Rosa_L_Dixon_1855-1931 Rosa L. Dixon Bowser, educator and civic leader, played a key role in implementing reforms that affected Virginia's African Americans. Bowser was most likely born enslaved. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), she moved to Richmond with her family and enrolled in public school, where she showed remarkable intelligence. She went on to become a teacher in Richmond's public schools. Her efforts on behalf of educators helped create Virginia's first professional African American teacher's association, and she later served as its president. Throughout her teaching career Bowser, like her contemporaries Janie Porter Barrett and Maggie Lena Walker, worked for societal improvement. She played a major role in African American reform organizations, industrial schools for black children, groups supporting universal woman suffrage, and associations publicly opposed to lynching and racial segregation. The first branch of the Richmond public library to be opened for African Americans was named for Bowser in 1925. She died of complications from diabetes in 1931 at her home in Richmond.
Wed, 03 Sep 2014 14:06:55 EST]]>
/Collins_Johnson_1847-1906 Wed, 20 Aug 2014 16:23:12 EST <![CDATA[Collins, Johnson (1847–1906)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Collins_Johnson_1847-1906 Wed, 20 Aug 2014 16:23:12 EST]]> /Bouldin_Wood_1838-1911 Sun, 17 Aug 2014 10:58:46 EST <![CDATA[Bouldin, Wood (1838–1911)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bouldin_Wood_1838-1911 Wood Bouldin, a Democratic Party stalwart, played a key role in disfranchising African Americans and poorer whites during the Convention of 1901–1902. Born in Charlotte County, he became an attorney and served as a Confederate artillery officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Settling in Halifax County after the war, he became an attorney and Democratic Party leader. Halifax voters elected him to the convention called to write a new constitution for Virginia. Bouldin introduced a resolution that limited voting rights to literate property owners and jury duty to registered voters. He also gave a long speech that defending the right of the convention to put the constitution into effect without approval by the voters.
Sun, 17 Aug 2014 10:58:46 EST]]>
/Charity_Ruth_LaCountess_Harvey_Wood_1924-1996 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 16:09:13 EST <![CDATA[Charity, Ruth LaCountess Harvey Wood (1924–1996)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Charity_Ruth_LaCountess_Harvey_Wood_1924-1996 Ruth LaCountess Harvey Wood Charity was a civil rights activist and defense attorney in Danville. Nonviolent demonstrations emerging from the Danville Movement in June 1963 resulted in a violent response from authorities and hundreds of arrests. Charity and a few local attorneys defended protesters through complicated state and federal appeals from 1964 until 1973. Danville's voters elected her to the city council in 1970, becoming the first African American woman to sit on the body. From 1972 to 1980, she was one of four Virginia members of the Democratic National Committee. Charity lost her law license in 1984 when she was convicted of embezzling from two clients' estates. In 1985 she moved to Alexandria and worked for the Fairfax Human Rights Commission. Charity died in Greenbelt, Maryland, in 1996.
Thu, 14 Aug 2014 16:09:13 EST]]>
/Binga_Anthony_Jr_1843-1919 Sun, 10 Aug 2014 08:44:02 EST <![CDATA[Binga, Anthony, Jr. (1843–1919)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Binga_Anthony_Jr_1843-1919 Anthony Binga Jr. was a Baptist minister and educator. Born in Canada, where his parents had fled to escape slavery, Binga became a preacher and principal in Ohio before settling in Richmond in 1872. He served as the minister of Manchester's First Baptist Church and became the first African American teacher in Manchester, during that period an independent city across the James River from Richmond. He served in the school system for sixteen years, overseeing secondary education for Manchester's black students at what expanded to include six schools. His church grew as the city developed, and he quickly became a leading light in the African American Baptist organizations. He was the first chairman of the Foreign Mission Board of the Baptist Foreign Mission Convention, the antecedent to the National Baptist Convention.
Sun, 10 Aug 2014 08:44:02 EST]]>
/Baskervill_Britton_1863-1892 Sun, 10 Aug 2014 08:21:18 EST <![CDATA[Baskervill, Britton (1863–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Baskervill_Britton_1863-1892 Britton Baskervill represented Mecklenburg County for one term in the General Assembly (1887–1888). Born enslaved, he acquired an education after the American Civil War (1861–1865) and taught school as one of his occupations. In 1887 Republican Party leader William Mahone engineered Baskervill's nomination as the party's candidate to the House of Delegates. The African American majority among the county's electorate provided Baskervill an easy victory over his Democratic opponent in the general election. He stood by Mahone in 1888 when most African Americans supported the independent congressional candidacy of John Mercer Langston. A year later, however, Baskervill lost Mahone's political support and with it the Republican Party's nomination for the seat in 1889. Baskervill returned to teaching and farming, never again holding public office.
Sun, 10 Aug 2014 08:21:18 EST]]>
/Ash_William_H_1859-1908 Sun, 10 Aug 2014 07:58:24 EST <![CDATA[Ash, William H. (1859–1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ash_William_H_1859-1908 William H. Ash represented Amelia and Nottoway counties in the House of Delegates during the 1887–1888 session. Ash was born enslaved and graduated from Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University). He settled in Burkeville as a teacher and helped establish the first statewide organization for African American educators in 1884. Three years later the Republicans selected Ash as their candidate for the House of Delegates but his ties to party leader William Mahone likely cost him renomination in 1889. He remained an educator and was an agricultural instructor at Virginia Normal and Industrial Institute (later Virginia State University) at the time of his death in 1908.
Sun, 10 Aug 2014 07:58:24 EST]]>
/Armstrong_Samuel_Chapman_1839-1893 Sun, 10 Aug 2014 07:10:13 EST <![CDATA[Armstrong, Samuel Chapman (1839–1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Armstrong_Samuel_Chapman_1839-1893 Samuel Chapman Armstrong was the founder of Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University). Armstrong's father served as the kingdom of Hawaii's minister of education and emphasized student labor as a key part of schooling. The younger Armstrong enlisted in the Union army during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and commanded regiments in the United States Colored Troops. After the war he worked with the Freedmen's Bureau and began planning a school to train black teachers. Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute opened in 1868 and emphasized labor alongside academics. The institution produced African American educators across the South, most notably Booker T. Washington. In 1878 Hampton's mission expanded with the admission of Native American students. The growth intensified Armstrong dependence on benefactors and in turn left it further exposed to the rising racism among American whites. In his later years academics at Hampton were publicly de-emphasized in favor of its trade-school programs. Armstrong died of a stroke in 1893.
Sun, 10 Aug 2014 07:10:13 EST]]>
/Cooper_Esther_Georgia_Irving_1881-1970 Fri, 08 Aug 2014 16:14:34 EST <![CDATA[Cooper, Esther Georgia Irving (1881–1970)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cooper_Esther_Georgia_Irving_1881-1970 Fri, 08 Aug 2014 16:14:34 EST]]> /Aggie_Mary_fl_1728-1731 Thu, 07 Aug 2014 15:02:35 EST <![CDATA[Aggie, Mary (fl. 1728–1731)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Aggie_Mary_fl_1728-1731 Mary Aggie was a slave who became a principal in a court case that changed Virginia's statute law. Although unsuccessful in suing for her freedom in 1728, she demonstrated her belief in Christianity to the satisfaction of the presiding judge, Lieutenant Governor William Gooch. In 1730 she was convicted by the York County court of oyer and terminer of stealing from her owner, which ordinarily would have doomed her to death or severe corporal punishment. In 1731, however, Gooch had her case sent to the General Court, where he hoped she could secure the benefit of clergy, a privilege in English law dating back centuries in which literate persons could escape death or the severest penalties for first convictions on most capital offenses. Before a final verdict could be rendered, on May 6, 1731, Gooch and the governor's Council pardoned Aggie on the condition that she would be sold out of the colony. The General Assembly referred to Aggie's cases in passing a law on July 1, 1732, that allowed virtually all Virginians to plead benefit of clergy except in certain cases, a privilege that continued for another sixty years.
Thu, 07 Aug 2014 15:02:35 EST]]>
/Blake_or_the_Huts_of_America_1859-1861 Wed, 06 Aug 2014 16:40:03 EST <![CDATA[Blake; or the Huts of America (1859–1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blake_or_the_Huts_of_America_1859-1861 Blake; or the Huts of America is a novel by Martin R. Delany that was serially published in the Anglo-African Magazine in 1859 and the Weekly Anglo-African in 1861 and 1862 (it was not published in complete book form until 1970). Delany was born free in 1812 in Charles Town, Virginia (later West Virginia). Giving a panoramic view of slave life in the nineteenth century, Delany's novel tells the story of Henry Blake, an escaped slave who travels throughout the southern United States and to Cuba in an effort to plan a large-scale slave insurrection. Written in part as a response to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 and the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), Blake's strong, militant, and revolutionary protagonist offers a counterexample to the seemingly docile Uncle Tom character popularized by Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852). Because the final installments of the novel have been lost, twenty-first-century readers may never know if Blake's planned revolution is successful; still, the novel offers an important nineteenth-century depiction of slavery and a potential way to end it.
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 16:40:03 EST]]>
/Delany_Martin_R_1812-1885 Wed, 06 Aug 2014 16:38:16 EST <![CDATA[Delany, Martin R. (1812–1885)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Delany_Martin_R_1812-1885 Martin R. Delany was an African American abolitionist, writer, editor, doctor, and politician. Born in Charles Town, Virginia (now West Virginia), he was the first black field officer in the United States Army, serving as a major during and after the American Civil War (1861–1865), and was among the first black nationalists. A fiercely independent thinker and wide-ranging writer, he coedited with Frederick Douglass the abolitionist newspaper North Star and later penned a manifesto calling for black emigration from the United States to Central America. He also authored Blake; or, The Huts of America, a serial publication about a fugitive slave who, in the tradition of Nat Turner, organizes insurrection. In his later life, Delany was a judge and an unsuccessful candidate for lieutenant governor of South Carolina. Despite all this, he remains relatively unknown. "His was a magnificent life," W. E. B. Du Bois wrote in 1936, "and yet, how many of us have heard of him?" Historians have tended to pigeonhole Delany's contributions, emphasizing his more radical views (which were celebrated in the 1970s), while giving less attention to the extraordinary complexity of his career.
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 16:38:16 EST]]>
/Loving_v_Virginia_June_12_1967 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:19:24 EST <![CDATA[Loving v. Virginia (June 12, 1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Loving_v_Virginia_June_12_1967 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:19:24 EST]]> /Chapter_10_of_Travels_of_Four_Years_and_a_Half_in_the_United_States_of_America_by_John_Davis_1803 Mon, 28 Jul 2014 10:31:19 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 10 of Travels of Four Years and a Half in the United States of America by John Davis (1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_10_of_Travels_of_Four_Years_and_a_Half_in_the_United_States_of_America_by_John_Davis_1803 Mon, 28 Jul 2014 10:31:19 EST]]> /Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Short_Report_of_the_American_Journey_Which_Was_Made_from_the_2nd_of_October_of_Last_Year_to_the_First_of_December_of_this_Current_Year_1702_by_Franz_Louis_Michel_1702 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 11:30:16 EST <![CDATA[Arriving in Virginia; an excerpt from "Short Report of the American Journey, Which Was Made from the 2nd of October of Last Year to the First of December of this Current Year 1702" by Frantz Ludwig Michel (1702)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arriving_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_Short_Report_of_the_American_Journey_Which_Was_Made_from_the_2nd_of_October_of_Last_Year_to_the_First_of_December_of_this_Current_Year_1702_by_Franz_Louis_Michel_1702 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 11:30:16 EST]]> /_An_act_to_repeal_part_of_an_act_directing_the_trial_of_slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_negroes_mulattoes_or_indians_bond_or_free_1788 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:11:28 EST <![CDATA["An act to repeal part of an act, directing the trial of slaves committing capital crimes, and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them, and for the better government of negroes, mulattoes, or indians, bond or free" (1788)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_to_repeal_part_of_an_act_directing_the_trial_of_slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_negroes_mulattoes_or_indians_bond_or_free_1788 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:11:28 EST]]> /Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_August_13_1797 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:09:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from St. George Tucker to Jeremy Belknap (August 13, 1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_August_13_1797 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:09:35 EST]]> /Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_January_24_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:08:01 EST <![CDATA[Letter from St. George Tucker to Jeremy Belknap (January 24, 1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_January_24_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:08:01 EST]]> /Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_June_29_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:06:48 EST <![CDATA[Letter from St. George Tucker to Jeremy Belknap (June 29, 1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_June_29_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:06:48 EST]]> /Letter_from_James_Winthrop_to_Jeremy_Belknap_March_4_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:05:10 EST <![CDATA[Letter from James Winthrop to Jeremy Belknap (March 4, 1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_James_Winthrop_to_Jeremy_Belknap_March_4_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:05:10 EST]]> /Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_November_27_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:02:58 EST <![CDATA[Letter from St. George Tucker to Jeremy Belknap (November 27, 1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_St_George_Tucker_to_Jeremy_Belknap_November_27_1795 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:02:58 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_St_George_Tucker_August_28_1797 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:01:26 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to St. George Tucker (August 28, 1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_St_George_Tucker_August_28_1797 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:01:26 EST]]> /_An_act_about_the_casuall_killing_of_slaves_1669 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 09:33:25 EST <![CDATA["An act about the casuall killing of slaves" (1669)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_about_the_casuall_killing_of_slaves_1669 Fri, 25 Jul 2014 09:33:25 EST]]> /Corprew_E_G_ca_1830-1881 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 13:25:50 EST <![CDATA[Corprew, E. G. (ca. 1830–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Corprew_E_G_ca_1830-1881 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 13:25:50 EST]]> /Harper_v_Virginia_State_Board_of_Elections_March_24_1966 Tue, 08 Jul 2014 14:15:36 EST <![CDATA[Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections (March 24, 1966)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harper_v_Virginia_State_Board_of_Elections_March_24_1966 Tue, 08 Jul 2014 14:15:36 EST]]> /Fugitive_Slave_Laws Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:09:49 EST <![CDATA[Fugitive Slave Laws]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fugitive_Slave_Laws Fugitive slave laws provided slaveowners and their agents with the legal right to reclaim runaways from other jurisdictions. Those states or jurisdictions were required to deliver the fugitives. As early as 1643, the United Colonies of New England had required the return of runaways, and, after the American Revolution (1775–1783), the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 contained similar protections for slaveowners. The U.S. Constitution included a Fugitive Slave Clause, which was agreed to without dissent at the Constitutional Convention. Following a dispute between Pennsylvania and Virginia, Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, which clarified the processes by which slaveowners could claim their property and was designed to balance the competing interests of free and slave states. In 1823, the law was upheld by Massachusetts in a case regarding a Virginia runaway, and then upheld again by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 expanded the number of federal officials empowered to act in fugitive-slave cases, but by this time, public opinion, at least in antislavery hotbeds such as Boston, Massachusetts, had turned against such laws. Thus a captured Virginia slave named Shadrach Minkins was rescued in 1851 and spirited north to Canada, but in 1854, authorities foiled an attempted rescue of the Virginia runaway slave Anthony Burns. Compromise soon became impossible, and enforcement of the law effectively ended with the onset of the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:09:49 EST]]>
/Poll_Tax Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:08:18 EST <![CDATA[Poll Tax]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Poll_Tax A poll tax is a tax levied as a prerequisite for voting. After Reconstruction (1865–1877)—the twelve-year period of rebuilding that followed the American Civil War (1861–1865)—many southern states passed poll taxes in an effort to keep African Americans from voting. As a result, many African Americans (and other impoverished citizens) who could not afford to pay the poll tax were disfranchised and deprived of their rights as citizens. In 1870 the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was adopted, stipulating that an individual's right to vote could not be denied by any state on the basis of race or color. Southern state legislators, however, soon looked for other ways to keep the vote from African Americans, which inevitably, and perhaps by design, blocked some white Americans. In response, many state legislatures drew up grandfather clauses to ensure that non–African American constituents were included in the voting process. The U.S. Supreme Court declared grandfather clauses unconstitutional in 1915 and again in 1939, but poll taxes had greater longevity and remained in effect into the era of the civil rights movement. The Twenty-fourth Amendment, ratified in 1964, outlawed the use of this tax (or any other tax) as a pre-condition in voting in federal elections, and the 1966 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections extended this ruling, stating that the imposition of a poll tax in state elections violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:08:18 EST]]>
/Brown_John_1800-1859 Sun, 29 Jun 2014 07:20:47 EST <![CDATA[Brown, John (1800–1859)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_John_1800-1859 John Brown was a fervent abolitionist who was accused of massacring pro-slavery settlers in Kansas in 1856 and who, in 1859, led an unsuccessful raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia (in what is now West Virginia), in an attempt to start a slave insurrection. On October 16, 1859, Brown and his men occupied the federal arsenal in the northern Shenandoah Valley and were quickly surrounded by the combined forces of local militias and a detachment of United States marines led by Robert E. Lee and J. E. B. Stuart. After a thirty-six-hour shoot-out, Brown and his surviving men surrendered. At the insistence of Virginia governor Henry Wise, Brown was tried in state, not federal, court. At the end of a gripping trial held in Charles Town, he was found guilty of conspiracy, of inciting servile insurrection, and of treason against the state. He was hanged on December 2, 1859. Brown's raid (and the fact that five of his "soldiers" were African Americans) touched off a frenzy among Southern slave-owners and, in the estimation of many historians, set the nation on an irreversible course toward the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Sun, 29 Jun 2014 07:20:47 EST]]>
/Daniel_Webster_Recommends_Paul_Jennings_June_23_1851 Fri, 20 Jun 2014 09:05:33 EST <![CDATA[Daniel Webster Recommends Paul Jennings (June 23, 1851)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Webster_Recommends_Paul_Jennings_June_23_1851 Fri, 20 Jun 2014 09:05:33 EST]]> /An_Act_to_admit_the_State_of_Virginia_to_Representation_in_the_Congress_of_the_United_States_January_26_1870 Thu, 19 Jun 2014 10:30:04 EST <![CDATA[An Act to admit the State of Virginia to Representation in the Congress of the United States (January 26, 1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_admit_the_State_of_Virginia_to_Representation_in_the_Congress_of_the_United_States_January_26_1870 Thu, 19 Jun 2014 10:30:04 EST]]> /Chambers_Joseph_Lenoir_Jr_1891-1970 Sun, 15 Jun 2014 06:49:46 EST <![CDATA[Chambers, Lenoir (1891–1970)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chambers_Joseph_Lenoir_Jr_1891-1970 Lenoir Chambers, newspaper editor and author, is best known for his opposition to the South's Massive Resistance to racial integration of the public schools, a position he maintained from early in 1954 to 1959. During his life and his career, he sought to educate readers about perceived injustices toward African Americans and workers throughout the South, and urged fairer treatment of them. When Virginia's political leaders closed the state's public schools in 1958 to avoid federally mandated school integration, Chambers wrote a series of articles in the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot that opposed the closings. His essays earned him a Pulitzer Prize for Distinguished Editorial Writing in 1960.
Sun, 15 Jun 2014 06:49:46 EST]]>
/William_Breedlove_Application_for_Pardon_December_18_1863 Thu, 12 Jun 2014 11:43:04 EST <![CDATA[William Breedlove Application for Pardon (December 18, 1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/William_Breedlove_Application_for_Pardon_December_18_1863 Thu, 12 Jun 2014 11:43:04 EST]]> /Breedlove_William_ca_1820-1871 Thu, 12 Jun 2014 11:04:20 EST <![CDATA[Breedlove, William (ca. 1820–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Breedlove_William_ca_1820-1871 William Breedlove served as a delegate to the Convention of 1867–1868. The free-born Breedlove owned real estate and worked as a blacksmith before the American Civil War (1861–1865). He also operated a ferry across the Rappahannock River on which he transported an escaped slave in 1863. The Essex County court convicted him for the action, but local dignitaries successfully lobbied Governor John Letcher for Breedlove's clemency. After the war he won election to a convention called to rewrite the state's constitution. Representing the district of Essex and Middlesex counties, he served inconspicuously and voted consistently with the Radical Republican majority. Breedlove later served as an Essex County justice of the peace, sat on the Tappahannock town council, and was the town's postmaster until shortly before his death in 1871.
Thu, 12 Jun 2014 11:04:20 EST]]>
/Address_on_the_Difficulties_of_the_Colored_Youth_In_Obtaining_an_Education_in_the_Virginias_1875 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 17:27:04 EST <![CDATA[Address on the Difficulties of the Colored Youth, In Obtaining an Education in the Virginias (1875)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Address_on_the_Difficulties_of_the_Colored_Youth_In_Obtaining_an_Education_in_the_Virginias_1875 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 17:27:04 EST]]> /Cromwell_John_Wesley_1846-1927 Wed, 04 Jun 2014 17:23:35 EST <![CDATA[Cromwell, John Wesley (1846–1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cromwell_John_Wesley_1846-1927 John Wesley Cromwell was an educator, lawyer, and journalist. Born enslaved in Portsmouth, he became free after his mother, who was manumitted in 1849, purchased and freed his father and siblings. The family settled in Philadelphia, where Cromwell attended the Institute for Colored Youth, a Quaker school. He taught at several schools between 1865 and 1871, some of which were located in Portsmouth and Norfolk County. Cromwell acquired his law degree at Howard University and likely was the first African American attorney to argue before the Interstate Commerce Commission. He also published and edited the People's Advocate, a weekly newspaper, from 1876 to 1884; established a series of intellectual associations, such as the Negro American Society and the Bethel Literary and Historical Association; and helped found the American Negro Academy. He resumed his career in education in 1899. Cromwell was a strong advocate for industrial and agricultural education, but later came to believe that African American leaders should also seek political solutions to racial problems. He died at his Washington, D.C., residence in 1927.
Wed, 04 Jun 2014 17:23:35 EST]]>
/Morgan_v_Virginia_June_3_1946 Tue, 03 Jun 2014 17:05:50 EST <![CDATA[Morgan v. Virginia (June 3, 1946)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_v_Virginia_June_3_1946 Tue, 03 Jun 2014 17:05:50 EST]]> /Plecker_Walter_Ashby_1861-1947 Fri, 30 May 2014 15:23:29 EST <![CDATA[Plecker, Walter Ashby (1861–1947)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Plecker_Walter_Ashby_1861-1947 Walter Ashby Plecker was a physician and the first Virginia state registrar of vital statistics, a position he served in from 1912 to 1946. He was a staunch promoter of eugenics, a discredited movement aimed at scientifically proving white racial superiority and thereby justifying the marginalizing of non-white people. Employing Virginia's Act to Preserve Racial Integrity (1924), Plecker effectively separated Virginia citizens into two simplified racial categories: white and colored. The law, which remained in effect until 1967, when it was overturned by the United States Supreme Court in the case of Loving v. Virginia , required that a racial description of every person be recorded at birth, while criminalizing marriages between whites and non-whites. Plecker's policies used deceptive scientific evidence to deem blacks a lesser class of human beings, but they also targeted poor whites and anyone he or other eugenicists considered "feebleminded." Asserting that Virginia Indians were, in fact, "mixed-blooded negroes," Plecker also pressured state agencies into reclassifying Indians as "colored." The policy's legacy was effectively to erase "Indian" as an identity and has made it difficult for Virginia Indians to gain state and federal recognition.
Fri, 30 May 2014 15:23:29 EST]]>
/Desegregation_in_Public_Schools Fri, 30 May 2014 14:52:24 EST <![CDATA[Desegregation in Public Schools]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Desegregation_in_Public_Schools The desegregation of the public schools in Virginia began on February 2, 1959, and continued through early in the 1970s when the state government's attempts to resist desegregation ended. During this period, African Americans in Virginia pushed for desegregation primarily by filing lawsuits in federal courts throughout Virginia. This litigation was aimed at achieving court rulings forcing the state of Virginia and its local school districts to comply with the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 decision Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, mandating the desegregation of public schools. State and local officials, however, generally resisted efforts to bring about desegregation and utilized their political power to avoid and then minimize public school desegregation. Virginia's Indians, meanwhile, went without the benefit of any state-funded public education until 1963, almost a decade after Brown.
Fri, 30 May 2014 14:52:24 EST]]>
/Jamestown_Settlement_Early Fri, 30 May 2014 11:27:18 EST <![CDATA[Jamestown Settlement, Early]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jamestown_Settlement_Early The Jamestown settlement, established in 1607, was the seat of England's first permanent colony in North America. After the failure of the Roanoke colonies, investors in the Virginia Company of London were anxious to find profit farther to the north, and in April 1607 three ships of settlers arrived at the Chesapeake Bay. The enterprise, fraught with disease, dissension, and determined Indian resistance, was a miserable failure at first. "The adventurers who ventured their capital lost it," the historian Edmund S. Morgan has written. "Most of the settlers who ventured their lives lost them. And so did most of the Indians who came near them." John Smith mapped out much of the Bay and established (sometimes violent) relations with the Powhatan Indians there. During the winter of 1609–1610, the colony nearly starved. The resupply ship Sea Venture, carrying much of Virginia's new leadership, was thought lost at sea. When it finally arrived in May 1610, fewer than a hundred colonists still survived. Discipline at Jamestown did not match the urgency of the moment until Sir Thomas Dale's arrival in 1611 and his full implementation of the strict Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall. By year's end, Dale had founded an outside settlement at Henrico, near what became Richmond. The introduction of saleable tobacco soon after helped secure the colony's economy, and as political power expanded into the James River Valley, the influence of Jamestown waned.
Fri, 30 May 2014 11:27:18 EST]]>
/The_Manumission_of_Lucy_Brooks_and_Her_Children_1862 Tue, 27 May 2014 11:31:01 EST <![CDATA[The Manumission of Lucy Brooks and Her Children (1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Manumission_of_Lucy_Brooks_and_Her_Children_1862 Tue, 27 May 2014 11:31:01 EST]]> /Woodson_Carter_G_1875-1950 Tue, 27 May 2014 04:53:27 EST <![CDATA[Woodson, Carter G. (1875–1950)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Woodson_Carter_G_1875-1950 Carter G. Woodson was a historian and founder of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, the Journal of Negro History, and "Negro History Week." Now known as the "Father of Black History" because of his efforts to promote African American history, Woodson wrote pioneering social histories chronicling the lives of black people at a time when mainstream white scholars denied that African Americans were worthy of historical study. Much of his work was based on public records, letters, speeches, folklore, and autobiographies, materials that were previously ignored. Woodson also used an interdisciplinary approach that combined anthropology, sociology, and history. From 1915 until 1947, he published four monographs, five textbooks, five edited collections of documents, five sociological studies, and thirteen articles. He pioneered in interpretations of slavery and Africa, which were adopted by mainstream historical scholars late in the 1950s. Among the works for which he is best known is The Mis-Education of the Negro (1933), which is still in print seventy-five years later.
Tue, 27 May 2014 04:53:27 EST]]>
/Bryan_Corbin_Braxton_1852-1922 Thu, 22 May 2014 16:37:12 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, C. Braxton (1852–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_Corbin_Braxton_1852-1922 C. Braxton Bryan was an Episcopal minister and a proponent of African American education. Between 1893 and 1905, while serving as minister of Saint John's Church in Hampton, he developed an interest in the students at Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, which was founded to educate African Americans and Native Americans. At Hampton, Bryan also helped establish Saint Cyprian's Church, the city's first African American Episcopal congregation. Early in 1905 he moved to Petersburg and was elected dean and principal of the Bishop Payne Divinity School, the oldest theological seminary for the education of African American Episcopal clergymen in the South. Bryan, who believed that whites were a superior race, felt that Christian beliefs helped improve the lives of black Virginians and saw the promotion of African American education and spirituality as his responsibility.
Thu, 22 May 2014 16:37:12 EST]]>
/Green_Charles_C_et_al_v_County_School_Board_of_New_Kent_County_Virginia Thu, 22 May 2014 16:34:01 EST <![CDATA[Green, Charles C. et al. v. County School Board of New Kent County, Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Green_Charles_C_et_al_v_County_School_Board_of_New_Kent_County_Virginia Charles C. Green et al. v. County School Board of New Kent County, Virginia, was a 1968 United States Supreme Court decision that ordered school districts to abolish dual systems of education for black and white students, placing on them an "affirmative duty" to integrate their schools genuinely. The pressure for such a ruling had mounted in the years since the Court's landmark decisions in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) and Brown II (1955), which had declared separate schools to be "inherently unequal" but did not define the process by which schools would be desegregated. Virginia officials had responded to Brown with the Massive Resistance movement, in some cases shutting down public schools rather than integrating them. Incremental desegregation occurred when federal courts forced those schools to reopen in 1959, although schools in Prince Edward County did not reopen until 1964. But in New Kent County, school board officials instituted bureaucratic delays while also placing the burden of desegregation on black families through a "freedom of choice" plan. Not until the Supreme Court struck down most "freedom of choice" plans in Green did Virginia school districts implement full desegregation.
Thu, 22 May 2014 16:34:01 EST]]>
/Runaway_Slaves_1642-1643 Mon, 05 May 2014 08:52:52 EST <![CDATA[Runaway Servants (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Runaway_Slaves_1642-1643 Mon, 05 May 2014 08:52:52 EST]]> /Hancock_Gordon_Blaine_1884-1970 Thu, 01 May 2014 10:12:50 EST <![CDATA[Hancock, Gordon Blaine (1884–1970)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hancock_Gordon_Blaine_1884-1970 Gordon Blaine Hancock was a professor at Virginia Union University, pastor of Moore Street Baptist church in Richmond , and a leading spokesman for African American equality in the generation before the civil rights movement. Hancock co-founded the Richmond chapter of the Urban League and wrote newspaper columns for the Associated Negro Press, advising his mostly black audience on how to get by in tough times while still taking principled stands against segregation. His work with the Virginia Interracial Commission and the Southern Regional Council also suggested his willingness to be both outspoken and pragmatic in the midst of the fight against segregation—a fight, he wrote, that must be won "if the Negro is to survive."
Thu, 01 May 2014 10:12:50 EST]]>
/Morgan_v_Commonwealth_June_6_1945 Wed, 30 Apr 2014 14:30:32 EST <![CDATA[Morgan v. Commonwealth (June 6, 1945)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_v_Commonwealth_June_6_1945 Wed, 30 Apr 2014 14:30:32 EST]]> /Chapter_161A_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:53:22 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 161A of the Code of Virginia § 4097z–dd (1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_161A_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:53:22 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_CXCII_of_the_Code_of_1873 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:34:45 EST <![CDATA[Chapter CXCII of the Code of Virginia (1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_CXCII_of_the_Code_of_1873 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:34:45 EST]]> /Chapter_357_of_Acts_and_Joint_Resolutions_Amending_the_Constitution_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_Virginia_1910 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:04:21 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 357 of Acts and Joint Resolutions (Amending the Constitution) of the General Assembly of the State of Virginia (1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_357_of_Acts_and_Joint_Resolutions_Amending_the_Constitution_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_Virginia_1910 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:04:21 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_17_of_Acts_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_1866 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:54:24 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 17 of Acts of the General Assembly of the State of Virginia (1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_17_of_Acts_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_1866 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:54:24 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_CIX_of_the_Code_of_1849 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:36:48 EST <![CDATA[Chapter CIX of the Code of Virginia (1849)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_CIX_of_the_Code_of_1849 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:36:48 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_CIII_of_the_Code_of_1860 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:10:01 EST <![CDATA[Chapter CIII of the Code of Virginia (1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_CIII_of_the_Code_of_1860 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:10:01 EST]]> /Loving_v_Commonwealth_March_7_1966 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:46:56 EST <![CDATA[Loving v. Commonwealth (March 7, 1966)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Loving_v_Commonwealth_March_7_1966 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:46:56 EST]]> /Excerpts_from_a_Transcript_of_Oral_Arguments_in_Loving_v_Virginia_April_10_1967 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:31:45 EST <![CDATA[Excerpts from a Transcript of Oral Arguments in Loving v. Virginia (April 10, 1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpts_from_a_Transcript_of_Oral_Arguments_in_Loving_v_Virginia_April_10_1967 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:31:45 EST]]> /Kinney_v_The_Commonwealth_October_3_1878 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:11:41 EST <![CDATA[Kinney v. the Commonwealth (October 3, 1878)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Kinney_v_The_Commonwealth_October_3_1878 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:11:41 EST]]> /Opinion_of_Judge_Leon_M_Bazile_January_22_1965 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:00:46 EST <![CDATA[Opinion of Judge Leon M. Bazile (January 22, 1965)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Opinion_of_Judge_Leon_M_Bazile_January_22_1965 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:00:46 EST]]> /Judgment_Against_Richard_and_Mildred_Loving_January_6_1959 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:52:14 EST <![CDATA[Judgment Against Richard and Mildred Loving (January 6, 1959)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judgment_Against_Richard_and_Mildred_Loving_January_6_1959 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:52:14 EST]]> /Hill_Oliver_W_1907-2007 Tue, 25 Mar 2014 10:18:41 EST <![CDATA[Hill, Oliver W. (1907–2007)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hill_Oliver_W_1907-2007 Oliver W. Hill was an African American attorney and civil rights activist. As the lead attorney for the Virginia State Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Hill and his colleagues filed more legal challenges to segregation than any other lawyers in the South and successfully undermined segregation and discrimination in all walks of southern life. Born in Richmond, Hill earned his law degree in 1933 at Howard University, where he met Thurgood Marshall, a future NAACP lawyer and U.S. Supreme Court associate justice. In coordination with Marshall, then special counsel for the NAACP, Hill argued on behalf of black teachers in Norfolk who received less pay than white teachers for equal work. After winning a federal appeals court ruling in 1940, Hill became an NAACP attorney in Virginia. He was one of the leading lawyers in Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward, one of five suits that were consolidated into the Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954). In the landmark decision, the Supreme Court declared segregation in public education unconstitutional. Hill believed political activism went hand in hand with the legal assault on segregation, and ran repeatedly for political office as a way to encourage African Americans to register and vote. In 1948, Hill became the first African American elected to the Richmond city council since 1894. He retired from the law in 1998 and died at his home in Richmond in 2007.
Tue, 25 Mar 2014 10:18:41 EST]]>
/Jackson_Giles_B_1853-1924 Sun, 23 Mar 2014 13:39:06 EST <![CDATA[Jackson, Giles B. (1853–1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jackson_Giles_B_1853-1924 Giles B. Jackson, although born enslaved, became an attorney, entrepreneur, real estate developer, newspaper publisher, and civil rights activist in the conservative mold of his mentor, Booker T. Washington. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served as a body servant to his master, a Confederate cavalry colonel. After the war, Jackson worked for the Stewart family in Richmond, where he learned to read and write. Subsequently, he was employed in the law offices of William H. Beveridge, who tutored Jackson in the law. In 1887, Jackson became the first African American attorney certified to argue before the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals. The next year, he helped found a bank associated with the United Order of True Reformers, and in 1900 became an aide to Washington, who had just founded the National Negro Business League in Boston. Jackson organized and promoted the Jamestown Negro Exhibit at the Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition of 1907 in the face of criticism from some black intellectuals that his attempt to highlight black achievement was itself an accommodation of Jim Crow segregation. He published a newspaper designed to publicize the exhibition and, in 1908, a book detailing its history. His efforts at the end of his life on behalf of a congressional bill aimed at addressing interracial labor problems failed. Jackson died in 1924.
Sun, 23 Mar 2014 13:39:06 EST]]>
/Jackson_Luther_Porter_1892-1950 Sun, 23 Mar 2014 12:34:24 EST <![CDATA[Jackson, Luther Porter (1892–1950)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jackson_Luther_Porter_1892-1950 Luther Porter Jackson was an African American historian and one of Virginia's most important civil rights activists of the 1930s and 1940s. He was a professor of history at Virginia State College in Petersburg for nearly thirty years and authored Free Negro Labor and Property Holding in Virginia, 1830–1860 (1942), research that challenged stereotypes of antebellum blacks. Jackson was perhaps most important, however, as a political and social activist. He helped found the Petersburg League of Negro Voters in 1935, wrote a weekly newspaper column titled "Rights and Duties in a Democracy," and worked to challenge segregation in Richmond's public transit system.
Sun, 23 Mar 2014 12:34:24 EST]]>
/Court_Ruling_on_Anthony_Johnson_and_His_Servant_1655 Mon, 10 Mar 2014 11:04:11 EST <![CDATA[Court Ruling on Anthony Johnson and His Servant (1655)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Court_Ruling_on_Anthony_Johnson_and_His_Servant_1655 Mon, 10 Mar 2014 11:04:11 EST]]> /Limber_Jim Sat, 08 Mar 2014 17:21:44 EST <![CDATA[Limber, Jim]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Limber_Jim "Jim Limber" or James Henry Brooks—his legal name and his life dates are uncertain—was a free, mixed-race child in the Confederate capital of Richmond during the American Civil War (1861–1865) who lived for slightly more than a year in the household of Confederate president Jefferson Davis. Contemporary accounts suggest that he enjoyed an intimate relationship with the Davis family, leading some modern observers to make unverified claims that he was "adopted" and effectively became a member of the family. In the beginning of the twenty-first century, the child has become a symbol of the Confederate first family's supposed liberality on racial issues.
Sat, 08 Mar 2014 17:21:44 EST]]>
/Minkins_Shadrach_d_1875 Mon, 03 Mar 2014 17:59:59 EST <![CDATA[Minkins, Shadrach (d. 1875)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Minkins_Shadrach_d_1875 Shadrach Minkins was an enslaved man who escaped from his owner in Norfolk in 1850, was arrested as a fugitive the following year in Boston, Massachusetts, and was rescued there by antislavery activists. Born into slavery, Minkins had various owners before being sold to John DeBree, a career naval officer, in 1849. He worked as a house servant for DeBree until making his escape in May 1850. Originally called Sherwood and then Shadrach, Minkins adopted the name Frederick in Boston, where he waited tables at an upscale restaurant. After passage of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, DeBree sent a slave catcher to Boston, and Minkins was arrested on February 15, 1851. Hundreds of antislavery activists gathered outside the courtroom where Minkins was being held, and a group of about twenty black men eventually broke through the doors and rescued Minkins, spiriting him through the streets of Boston and arranging for his journey to Canada. Minkins's escape became a national cause célèbre, with abolitionists rejoicing and the administration of President Millard Fillmore fuming. After arriving in Montreal, Minkins reverted to the name Shadrach and adopted the last name Minkins. He married an Irish woman, had four children, and ran a barbershop until his death in 1875.
Mon, 03 Mar 2014 17:59:59 EST]]>
/Moton_Robert_Russa_1867-1940 Sat, 01 Mar 2014 05:52:01 EST <![CDATA[Moton, Robert Russa (1867–1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Moton_Robert_Russa_1867-1940 Robert Russa Moton was one of the most prominent black educators in the United States in the first decades of the twentieth century. After graduating from the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton Institute and now Hampton University) in Hampton, Virginia, in 1890, he served as the school's commandant of cadets from 1891 until 1915. He was a close friend of Booker T. Washington, the founding principal of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, and the two shared a conservative vision of race relations. They argued, sometimes controversially, that African Americans should not openly defy segregation, but instead cooperate with whites and better themselves through education. After Washington's death in 1915, Moton became the second principal of Tuskegee, where he made significant contributions to the quality of education, especially in teacher training. He served on various national boards and, during World War I (1914–1918), went to Europe on behalf of U.S. president Woodrow Wilson to investigate the conditions of black soldiers. Moton Field at Tuskegee was named for him, as was Robert Russa Moton High School in Farmville, Virginia, the site of a student walkout in 1951.
Sat, 01 Mar 2014 05:52:01 EST]]>
/Allan_Edgar_1842-1904 Wed, 26 Feb 2014 11:25:35 EST <![CDATA[Allan, Edgar (1842–1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allan_Edgar_1842-1904 Edgar Allan was one of Virginia's leading Republicans from 1867 until 1902. A native of England who fought with George A. Custer's cavalry during the American Civil War (1861–1865), Allan settled in Prince Edward County as a farmer in 1865. He then taught himself law and established a Farmville practice. The region's African American voters elected him to the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868. Though mocked as "Yankee" Allan, he spent twelve years as Prince Edward's commonwealth's attorney and three years in the Senate of Virginia. In 1883 he moved to Richmond, becoming a prosperous lawyer. In 1892 he helped Bettie Thomas Lewis, daughter of a former slave and a wealthy white man, claim her inheritance. Eight years later he lost a bid for Congress, and Republicans aligned with U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt took control of the state party from Allan's group in 1902. Sickly, in pain, and emotionally devastated by the loss of political power, Allan committed suicide in 1904.
Wed, 26 Feb 2014 11:25:35 EST]]>
/Van_Lew_Elizabeth_L_1818-1900 Mon, 24 Feb 2014 15:10:06 EST <![CDATA[Van Lew, Elizabeth L. (1818–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Van_Lew_Elizabeth_L_1818-1900 Elizabeth Van Lew was a Richmond Unionist and abolitionist who spied for the United States government during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Leading a network of a dozen or so white and African American women and men, she relayed information on Confederate operations to Union generals and assisted in the care and sometimes escape of Union prisoners of war being held in the Confederate capital. Van Lew, who worked with invisible ink and coded messages, has been called "the most skilled, innovative, and successful" of all Civil War–era spies. While some historians have claimed that she was open about her Unionist politics, deflecting suspicion by behaving as if she were mentally ill, others have argued that these "Crazy Bet" stories are a myth. After the war, Van Lew served as postmaster of Richmond during the administration of U.S. president Ulysses S. Grant, one of the generals to whom she had once fed information.
Mon, 24 Feb 2014 15:10:06 EST]]>
/Nickson_John_fl_1687 Wed, 19 Feb 2014 16:54:44 EST <![CDATA[Nickson, John (fl. 1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Nickson_John_fl_1687 Wed, 19 Feb 2014 16:54:44 EST]]> /Thomas_Jefferson_s_Argument_in_Howell_v_Netherland_1770 Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:48:24 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Jefferson's Argument in Howell v. Netherland (1770)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Jefferson_s_Argument_in_Howell_v_Netherland_1770 Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:48:24 EST]]> /Crawford_Robert_Baxter_1895-1973 Fri, 24 Jan 2014 17:09:14 EST <![CDATA[Crawford, Robert B. (1895–1973)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crawford_Robert_Baxter_1895-1973 Robert B. Crawford was president of the Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties, a grassroots political organization dedicated to preserving racial segregation in Virginia's public schools. Crawford, a veteran of World War I (1914–1918) and a former member of the Prince Edward County school board, helped organize the Defenders after the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) mandated the desegregation of public schools. The group helped propel Massive Resistance until 1959, after which its political clout declined rapidly. Crawford resigned as the Defenders' president in 1963, but supported the organization until it dissolved in 1967. He died in 1973.
Fri, 24 Jan 2014 17:09:14 EST]]>
/Moton_School_Strike_and_Prince_Edward_County_School_Closings Tue, 21 Jan 2014 10:28:18 EST <![CDATA[Moton School Strike and Prince Edward County School Closings]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Moton_School_Strike_and_Prince_Edward_County_School_Closings On April 23, 1951, students at Robert Russa Moton High School in the town of Farmville, in Prince Edward County, walked out of school to protest the conditions of their education, which they claimed were vastly inferior to those enjoyed by white students at nearby Farmville High School. The strike, led by student Barbara Johns, is considered by many historians to signal the start of the desegregation movement in America and resulted in a court case that was later bundled with other, similar cases into Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court decided Brown by mandating public-school desegregation, and Virginia state leaders responded with an official policy of Massive Resistance. When, on January 19, 1959, both a federal and a state court simultaneously ruled the state's actions unconstitutional, the Prince Edward County Board of Supervisors closed its public schools rather than integrate them. They stayed shuttered for five years. Another U.S. Supreme Court decision—Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward—finally forced the county's schools to reopen in 1964.
Tue, 21 Jan 2014 10:28:18 EST]]>
/Cox_Joseph_ca_1835-1880 Thu, 09 Jan 2014 15:35:09 EST <![CDATA[Cox, Joseph (ca. 1835–1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cox_Joseph_ca_1835-1880 Joseph Cox, a leader of Richmond's African American population in the years after Emancipation, served as a delegate to the Convention of 1867–1868. Born in Powhatan County, he worked a variety of jobs, including laborer, huckster, and blacksmith. He helped organize the Union Republican Party in Virginia after the American Civil War (1861–1865). He aligned himself with the Radical faction in opposition to the more conservative wing that sought support from native white Virginians. In 1867 Cox sat on the petit jury that heard the treason case against former Confederate president Jefferson Davis. The same year Richmond voters elected him to the constitutional convention where he supported radical measures such as universal manhood suffrage, institution of a public school system, and proposed disfranchisement of Confederate loyalists. Cox shifted his efforts away from politics to nonpartisan movements aimed at improving living conditions for African Americans. Reportedly, 3,000 people attended his funeral after he died in 1880.
Thu, 09 Jan 2014 15:35:09 EST]]>
/Boland_Robert_J_1850-1918 Thu, 09 Jan 2014 15:23:53 EST <![CDATA[Boland, Robert J. (1850–1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boland_Robert_J_1850-1918 Robert J. Boland was a physician and African American leader in Roanoke. The Georgia-born Boland earned his medical degree in Michigan. He arrived in Virginia in 1886, possibly becoming the first black doctor to complete the new Virginia Board of Medical Examiners test. Five years later he settled in growing Roanoke, headquarters of the Norfolk and Western Railway, where he became a substantial property owner and a newspaper editor. Boland died in Roanoke in 1918.
Thu, 09 Jan 2014 15:23:53 EST]]>
/Washington_Booker_T_1856-1915 Mon, 23 Dec 2013 14:46:05 EST <![CDATA[Washington, Booker T. (1856–1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_Booker_T_1856-1915 Booker T. Washington was an author, educator, orator, philanthropist, and, from 1895 until his death in 1915, the United States' most famous African American. The tiny school he founded in Tuskegee, Alabama, in 1881 is now Tuskegee University, an institution that currently enrolls more than 3,000 students. The most famous of the several books he authored, coauthored, or edited during his lifetime, Up from Slavery (1901), has become a classic of American autobiography, drawing comparisons not only to earlier slave narratives but also to such texts as The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin.In the eyes of many of his contemporaries, Washington was an exemplary American citizen, "a public man second to no other American in importance," as the novelist William Dean Howells called him in 1901. When Washington became the first African American to receive an honorary degree from Harvard University in 1896, a Boston newspaper ranked him among "our national benefactors." When he became the first to dine at the White House in 1901, he did so at the invitation of U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, who would later call Washington "one of the most useful citizens of our land." Even his foremost critic, the African American writer and intellectual W.E.B. Du Bois, acknowledged Washington's status as both a racial and national leader, referring to him in 1903 as "the one recognized spokesman of his ten million fellows, and one of the most notable figures in a nation of seventy millions." Yet Washington also continues to inspire ambivalent and sometimes hostile reactions for having been an "accommodationist": one who, in order to gain a measure of economic success for African Americans in the former slave states, accepted segregation and refused to speak out loudly in favor of other forms of advancement, namely the pursuit of full legal, political, and social equality.
Mon, 23 Dec 2013 14:46:05 EST]]>
/Narratives_of_Henry_Box_Brown_The Mon, 16 Dec 2013 15:20:36 EST <![CDATA[Narratives of Henry Box Brown, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Narratives_of_Henry_Box_Brown_The The narratives of Henry Box Brown are two similarly titled works of nonfiction: Narrative of Henry Box Brown, published in Boston in 1849, and Narrative of the Life of Henry Box Brown, Written by Himself, published in Manchester, England, in 1851. Both books tell the story of Henry Brown, an enslaved man from Louisa County who escaped to freedom in March 1849 by having himself shipped in a box from Richmond to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Afterward, Brown moved to Boston and added the word Box to his name. He related his story at antislavery gatherings in New England, which is likely how he met the abolitionist Charles Stearns, who wrote and copublished the 1849 Narrative. The proceeds from the sale of that book helped fund a moving panorama called Henry Box Brown's Mirror of Slavery. Brown exhibited the panorama throughout New England until late in 1850, when he relocated to Great Britain to avoid the threat of re-enslavement under the Fugitive Slave Act. There he published the second Narrative in 1851. Although the second Narrative is subtitled "First English Edition," evidence suggests it was mostly written in Boston in 1850. The two books adhere to the same course of events, but diverge considerably in content and tone. The 1851 Narrative was not published in North America until 2002, when the Oxford University Press issued a reprint.
Mon, 16 Dec 2013 15:20:36 EST]]>
/Commodore_Aaron_1819_or_1820-1892 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 16:15:53 EST <![CDATA[Commodore, Aaron (1819 or 1820–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Commodore_Aaron_1819_or_1820-1892 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 16:15:53 EST]]> /Clark_Matt_ca_1844-after_1892 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:57:16 EST <![CDATA[Clark, Matt (ca. 1844–after 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clark_Matt_ca_1844-after_1892 Matt Clark represented Halifax County in the House of Delegates from 1874 to 1875. Born enslaved, by 1870 he had become a property owner and was literate. Three years later he won election as a Halifax County justice of the peace and as a member of the House of Delegates. Clark seldom spoke on the House floor and introduced only a few resolutions, including one that supported the improvement of living conditions at the Central Lunatic Asylum (later Central State Hospital) in Petersburg. A Republican, he and other African Americans became dissatisfied with the party's white leadership and attended a state convention that established the short-lived Laboring Men's Mechanics' Union Association. Clark did not seek reelection in 1875. His last known appearance in public records came in 1892 in a Halifax County personal property tax list.
Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:57:16 EST]]>
/Cook_Fields_ca_1817-1897 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:26:12 EST <![CDATA[Cook, Fields (ca. 1817–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cook_Fields_ca_1817-1897 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:26:12 EST]]> /Dabney_John_ca_1824-1900 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:22:46 EST <![CDATA[Dabney, John (ca. 1824–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dabney_John_ca_1824-1900 John Dabney was a renowned Richmond-based caterer through much of the nineteenth century. Dabney began acquiring his reputation while enslaved, even serving one of his famed mint juleps to the future Edward VII during the prince's 1860 visit to America. He was in the process of purchasing his own freedom when the American Civil War (1861–1865) and slavery ended. Known for his integrity, he could secure credit from banks, which he and his wife used to purchase several properties and open a restaurant. While outwardly conforming to the expectations of white society, he privately harbored no illusions about his clients' racism. Dabney inwardly experienced the "two-ness" that the sociologist W. E. B. Du Bois described in The Souls of Black Folk (1903), of being "an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings." Exemplifying his popularity, all four of Richmond's daily newspapers reported his death.
Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:22:46 EST]]>
/Cox_Henry_1832-after_1910 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:05:27 EST <![CDATA[Cox, Henry (1832–after 1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cox_Henry_1832-after_1910 Henry Cox served as a member of the House of Delegates for eight years. He was born in Powhatan County, whether free or enslaved is not certain. The 1870 census listed him as a farmer who was able to read and write. Cox represented Powhatan and Chesterfield counties in the House of Delegates beginning in 1869 and, following a redistricting of the assembly, won three more consecutive terms as the sole delegate from Powhatan County. In 1872 he was part of a multistate delegation that met with President Ulysses S. Grant to discuss federal civil rights legislation. When his fourth term ended, Cox did not seek reelection. He moved to Washington, D.C., about 1881, and last appears in public records in 1910.
Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:05:27 EST]]>
/Dabbs_Isaac_ca_1848-after_1910 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:02:40 EST <![CDATA[Dabbs, Isaac (ca. 1848–after 1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dabbs_Isaac_ca_1848-after_1910 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:02:40 EST]]> /Editorial_in_the_Waverly_Watchman_March_18_1873 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:40:25 EST <![CDATA[Editorial in the Waverly Watchman (March 18, 1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Editorial_in_the_Waverly_Watchman_March_18_1873 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:40:25 EST]]> /_The_most_promising_work_an_excerpt_from_Exhibition_of_the_Royal_Academy_June_1_1861 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:07:21 EST <![CDATA["The most promising work"; an excerpt from "Exhibition of the Royal Academy" (June 1, 1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_most_promising_work_an_excerpt_from_Exhibition_of_the_Royal_Academy_June_1_1861 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:07:21 EST]]> /Wilder_Lawrence_Douglas_1931- Mon, 11 Nov 2013 13:10:02 EST <![CDATA[Wilder, Lawrence Douglas (1931– )]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wilder_Lawrence_Douglas_1931- L. Douglas Wilder was governor of Virginia from 1990 until 1994. His was a political career of many firsts: the grandson of slaves, he was the first African American elected governor of any state in America. He was the first black member of the Virginia Senate in the twentieth century. And he was the first African American to win statewide office in Virginia when he was elected lieutenant governor in 1985. A Democrat, he ran briefly for United States president in 1991 and in 2004 was elected mayor of Richmond, serving until 2008.
Mon, 11 Nov 2013 13:10:02 EST]]>
/Brown_George_O_1852-1910 Wed, 30 Oct 2013 16:43:07 EST <![CDATA[Brown, George O. (1852–1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_George_O_1852-1910 George O. Brown established a family-run photography studio that recorded African American life in Richmond for seventy years. Brown, probably born enslaved, was working in the photography business by age nineteen old. He opened his own studio in 1899 and moved it to Jackson Ward, the center of Richmond's African American community, in 1905. Two years later his skills earned him a silver medal at the Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition. Along with his children, Brown became the most important visual chronicler of Richmond's African American population, documenting community life at schools, colleges, sporting events, and fraternal meetings. The studio took thousands of portraits of ordinary citizens and famed figures such as Maggie Lena Walker and Bill "Bojangles" Robinson. Brown died in 1910, but his photography business continued to operate until 1969.
Wed, 30 Oct 2013 16:43:07 EST]]>
/Defenders_of_State_Sovereignty_and_Individual_Liberties Wed, 23 Oct 2013 16:21:50 EST <![CDATA[Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Defenders_of_State_Sovereignty_and_Individual_Liberties The Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties, a grassroots political organization created in Petersburg in October 1954, was dedicated to preserving strict racial segregation in Virginia's public schools. A group of prominent Southside leaders formed the group following Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, the U.S. Supreme Court decision, handed down on May 17, 1954, that mandated the desegregation of public schools. Opening chapters across the state and employing a variety of tactics, the Defenders rigorously confronted the Brown mandate, influencing the state commission that bestowed its blessing on the policy of Massive Resistance and even the temporary closing of public schools in Warren County, Norfolk, and Charlottesville. When Massive Resistance was declared unconstitutional, the Defenders organized a Bill of Rights Crusade and protested in Richmond, but the group's support and influence was on the wane. It dissolved in 1967.
Wed, 23 Oct 2013 16:21:50 EST]]>
/Dyer_Carrie_Victoria_1839-1921 Sat, 19 Oct 2013 12:18:15 EST <![CDATA[Dyer, Carrie Victoria (1839–1921)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dyer_Carrie_Victoria_1839-1921 Carrie Victoria Dyer was a key founder of Hartshorn Memorial College, an African American Baptist women's college in Richmond that later merged with Virginia Union University. Dyer, who spent her early years in Michigan and Vermont, initially taught black students in Providence, Rhode Island, and Nashville. She and Hartshorn co-founder Lyman Beecher Tefft believed female students were better served by single-sex education, which led to the establishment of the new institution. The college opened in 1883 with Dyer as principal and second in command to Tefft, who served as its president. Dyer also acted as an instructor and spent twenty-nine years as the treasurer of the Rachel Hartshorn Education and Missionary Society. She took over Hartshorn's day-to-day operations for the 1905–1906 term while Tefft was ill. Dyer became dean in 1912 and served for two academic years before she gave up the position to teach one final session. In 1926 money bequeathed by Dyer's estate to the Woman's National Baptist Convention Auxiliary of the National Baptist Convention, U.S.A., was used to establish the Carrie V. Dyer Memorial Hospital in Monrovia, Liberia.
Sat, 19 Oct 2013 12:18:15 EST]]>
/Dean_Jennie_Serepta_1848-1913 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:50:25 EST <![CDATA[Dean, Jennie Serepta (1848–1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dean_Jennie_Serepta_1848-1913 Jennie Serepta Dean founded the Manassas Industrial School for Colored Youth. A former slave, Dean attended schools in Fairfax County and Washington, D.C., and in 1878 began to establish a series of Sunday schools. She was a skilled fund-raiser, securing money from African American and white donors in Virginia and in northern cities to support her plan to open a school that would teach skilled trades to young African Americans. The Manassas Industrial School for Colored Youth opened in 1894 after nearly six years of fundraising. Dean served on the school's board of directors and executive committee. She died in 1913.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:50:25 EST]]>
/Curry_Jabez_Lamar_Monroe_1825-1903 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:10:56 EST <![CDATA[Curry, J. L. M. (1825–1903)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Curry_Jabez_Lamar_Monroe_1825-1903 J. L. M. Curry was one of the most important educational reformers in the second half of the nineteenth century. He was born in Georgia, but moved to Alabama at age thirteen. Curry served as a member of the Alabama House of Representatives, the U.S. House of Representatives, and the First Confederate Congress. He was also an officer in the Confederate army. He joined the faculty of Richmond College (later the University of Richmond) in 1868 and taught there until 1881. Once he left the school, Curry became an advocate for education in the South. He worked with the Peabody Education Fund and the John F. Slater Fund for the Education of Freedmen to promote industrial education for the region's African Americans, and worked with state governments in the South to bolster their public education systems. Curry served as president of the Baptist General Association of Virginia, as president of the National Baptist Sunday School Convention, as president of the Foreign Mission Board, and served as American minister to Spain. Although a native of Georgia and important citizen of Alabama, Curry's connection to Virginia was strong and he was buried in Richmond's Hollywood Cemetery. The University of Virginia's school of education is named for Curry.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:10:56 EST]]>
/Cox_Earnest_Sevier_1880-1966 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 12:01:35 EST <![CDATA[Cox, Earnest Sevier (1880–1966)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cox_Earnest_Sevier_1880-1966 Earnest Sevier Cox was a committed white supremacist who advocated on behalf of anti-miscegenation laws and in 1922 cofounded with the composer John Powell the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, a Richmond-based, nationwide organization devoted to maintaining a strict separation of the races. In 1923, Cox published White America, a book that described his travels in Africa and argues that race-mixing would result in the collapse of "white civilization." He also wrote extensively on eugenics, a now discredited scientific movement aimed at proving the superiority of the white race. Together with composer Powell and Virginia state registrar Walter Plecker, Cox played an influential role in lobbying the Virginia General Assembly to pass the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, a strict anti-miscegenation law, and later the Massenburg Bill, which banned racial mixing in all public places. In 1924, Cox formed an unlikely alliance with the black nationalist Marcus Garvey based on their shared belief that the only way to save the races was for African Americans to relocate to Africa. Cox retired from the real estate business in 1958 and died in Richmond in 1966.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 12:01:35 EST]]>
/Brown_Goodman_1840-1929 Thu, 15 Aug 2013 16:44:17 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Goodman (1840–1929)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Goodman_1840-1929 Goodman Brown represented Prince George and Surry counties in the House of Delegates. He came from a free, property-owning African American family. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Brown served in the U.S. Navy as a cabin boy aboard the USS Maratanza. In the 1870s he became involved in politics and later was an ally of Readjuster leader William Mahone. As chairman of the Surry County Readjuster Committee, Brown used his relationship with Mahone to seek patronage positions for local men. When the Readjuster Party ceased to exist, Brown followed Mahone into the Republican Party. Winning the party's nomination for the local House of Delegates seat in 1887, he soundly defeated his Democratic opponent in the general election. Although he did not seek reelection in 1889, Brown remained one of Surry County's most important African American citizens.
Thu, 15 Aug 2013 16:44:17 EST]]>
/_A_strange_dream_this_day_an_excerpt_from_the_diary_of_Landon_Carter_1776A Wed, 14 Aug 2013 14:00:11 EST <![CDATA["A strange dream this day"; an excerpt from the diary of Landon Carter (1776–1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_strange_dream_this_day_an_excerpt_from_the_diary_of_Landon_Carter_1776A Wed, 14 Aug 2013 14:00:11 EST]]> /Black_Leonard_A_1820-1883 Fri, 09 Aug 2013 11:00:32 EST <![CDATA[Black, Leonard A. (1820–1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Leonard_A_1820-1883 Leonard A. Black was a Baptist minister in Norfolk and Petersburg. Born enslaved in Maryland, Black moved to New England in his youth. He became a member of the clergy and wrote his autobiography, The Life and Sufferings of Leonard Black, a Fugitive from Slavery (1847). Black became pastor at Norfolk's First Baptist Church about 1871, and in 1873 became the leader of Petersburg's historic First Baptist Church. He doubled the latter church's membership during his tenure. Black died in Petersburg in 1883, and accounts of his funeral service stated that 5,000 people attended the ceremony.
Fri, 09 Aug 2013 11:00:32 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Eugene_Davis_to_Thomas_H_Key_November_1850 Tue, 06 Aug 2013 09:35:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Eugene Davis to Thomas H. Key (November 1850)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Eugene_Davis_to_Thomas_H_Key_November_1850 Tue, 06 Aug 2013 09:35:44 EST]]> /Brooks_Robert_Peel_1853-1882 Tue, 23 Jul 2013 14:09:58 EST <![CDATA[Brooks, Robert Peel (1853–1882)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brooks_Robert_Peel_1853-1882 Robert Peel Brooks was one of Richmond's first African American lawyers and a Republican Party leader. Born into slavery, he was manumitted in 1862 and graduated from Howard University's law school in 1875. While practicing law in Richmond he also edited the Richmond Virginia Star. Brooks became involved in politics and was elected secretary of the Republican State Central Committee in 1880. Initially siding with the Funders, who advocated full payment of the state's prewar debt, he came to support the Readjusters, who sought adjustment of the debt, because they promoted black political participation. He contracted typhoid fever in 1882 and died not long before his twenty-ninth birthday.
Tue, 23 Jul 2013 14:09:58 EST]]>
/Branch_Tazewell_1828-1925 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 16:29:29 EST <![CDATA[Branch, Tazewell (1828–1925)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Branch_Tazewell_1828-1925 Tazewell Branch was born enslaved in Prince Edward County and later served two terms in the House of Delegates. Learning to read and write, Branch worked as a shoemaker and was known for his intelligence. By 1873 he owned land in Farmville and sat on the town council. That same year he won a seat in the General Assembly. Branch, who was respected by African Americans and whites, won reelection two years later as a member of a coalition that included the moderate factions of Prince Edward County's Republicans and Conservatives. He dropped out of politics after his second term, and his income declined as mass-produced footwear undermined his shoemaking business. His biggest legacy might have come from his children, who became educated and led successful careers in teaching and medicine.
Thu, 18 Jul 2013 16:29:29 EST]]>
/Billy_fl_1770s-1780s Fri, 12 Jul 2013 12:26:46 EST <![CDATA[Billy (fl. 1770s–1780s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Billy_fl_1770s-1780s Billy was an enslaved African American who became a principal in a court case during the American Revolution (1775–1783). In 1781, the Prince William County Court indicted him for waging war against the state from a British armed ship. Despite his testimony that he had been forced to board the vessel against his will and had never taken up arms on behalf of the British, the court convicted Billy of treason and sentenced him to be hanged. Two dissenting judges argued to Governor Thomas Jefferson that a slave, being a noncitizen, could not commit treason. Billy received a gubernatorial reprieve, and the General Assembly pardoned him on June 14, 1781. What happened to him after that is not known. Billy made his mark on history because his trial forced white leaders to confront the logic of slavery. Excluded from the protections conferred by citizenship, he was ultimately shielded from execution because Virginia's law of treason could not logically apply to him.
Fri, 12 Jul 2013 12:26:46 EST]]>
/The_Life_and_Sufferings_of_Leonard_Black_a_Fugitive_from_Slavery_Written_by_Himself_1847 Fri, 12 Jul 2013 09:03:58 EST <![CDATA[The Life and Sufferings of Leonard Black, a Fugitive from Slavery. Written by Himself (1847)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Life_and_Sufferings_of_Leonard_Black_a_Fugitive_from_Slavery_Written_by_Himself_1847 Fri, 12 Jul 2013 09:03:58 EST]]> /Great_Awakening_in_Virginia_The Thu, 11 Jul 2013 14:20:03 EST <![CDATA[Great Awakening in Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Great_Awakening_in_Virginia_The The Great Awakening was the most significant cultural upheaval in colonial America. The term refers to a series of religious revivals that began early in the eighteenth century and led, eventually, to the disestablishment of the Church of England as the official church during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Triggered by the preaching of the Anglican itinerant George Whitefield, the Great Awakening began in New England and the Middle Colonies, where thousands converted to an evangelical faith centered on the experience of the "new birth" of salvation. It also featured intense, emotional scenes of penitential sinners and new converts being filled, as they saw it, with the Holy Spirit, with associated outcries, visions, dreams, and spirit journeys. The Great Awakening's effects in Virginia developed slowly, beginning early in the 1740s. By the 1760s, evangelical Presbyterians and Baptists were making major inroads among Virginians, and challenging the established church in the colony. Perhaps the most notable historical result of the Great Awakening in Virginia was the end of the state's establishment of religion, which was ultimately accomplished through the Act for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786). The cause of religious freedom was championed politically by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, but it depended on the popular support of legions of evangelicals, especially Baptists.
Thu, 11 Jul 2013 14:20:03 EST]]>
/Barrett_James_D_1833-1903 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 14:00:42 EST <![CDATA[Barrett, James D. (1833–1903)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barrett_James_D_1833-1903 James D. Barrett represented Fluvanna County at the Convention of 1867–1868. Barrett, most likely enslaved before Emancipation, became involved with politics after the American Civil War (1861–1865). He and the county's African American voters showed an independent streak during elections for delegates to the convention that created a new state constitution. A public meeting nominated Abraham Shepherd, a white conservative and the county's court clerk, instead of Barrett. He ran anyway and won by a clear majority of Fluvanna's black voters. Outside of politics, he worked as a pastor and helped organize Thessalonia Baptist Church in 1868. Barrett married twice and died in 1903.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 14:00:42 EST]]>
/Andros_Sir_Edmund_1637-ca_1714 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:28:06 EST <![CDATA[Andros, Sir Edmund (1637–ca. 1714)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Andros_Sir_Edmund_1637-ca_1714 Sir Edmund Andros served as governor of Virginia from 1692 until 1698. Born in London, Andros enjoyed ties to the family of Charles II, served in the army, was appointed governor of New York by the future James II in 1674 and in 1686 of the Dominion of New England. His stay in New England was unpopular enough that he ended up imprisoned before returning to England. During the Glorious Revolution (1688) he supported William of Orange, who appointed him governor of Virginia with the hopes that he would aid New York during King William's War (1689–1697) and raise the salaries of the Anglican clergy. Andros's efforts were hindered by the war's effect on the tobacco trade; when prices fell, so did the salaries of clergymen, who were paid in the crop. Forced to battle with the clergymen's leader, James Blair, Andros raised salaries some but not enough. In the meantime, he subtly extended royal power in Virginia, tying the colony's laws closer to England's. Just staying in power despite a host of political enemies, Andros left office due to poor health, leaving Virginia in 1699. He served as lieutenant governor of Guernsey before dying in England sometime around 1714.
Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:28:06 EST]]>
/Blake_or_The_Huts_of_America_1859 Wed, 19 Jun 2013 15:43:05 EST <![CDATA["Blake; or, The Huts of America" (1859)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blake_or_The_Huts_of_America_1859 Wed, 19 Jun 2013 15:43:05 EST]]> /_NAACP_Carries_Teacher_Salary_Fight_into_VA_1938 Fri, 14 Jun 2013 11:55:05 EST <![CDATA["NAACP Carries Teacher Salary Fight into VA." (1938)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_NAACP_Carries_Teacher_Salary_Fight_into_VA_1938 Fri, 14 Jun 2013 11:55:05 EST]]> /_The_Southern_Problem_and_its_Solution_1893 Fri, 14 Jun 2013 09:16:21 EST <![CDATA["The Southern Problem and its Solution" (1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Southern_Problem_and_its_Solution_1893 Fri, 14 Jun 2013 09:16:21 EST]]> /Negro_in_Virginia_The_1940 Thu, 13 Jun 2013 16:53:17 EST <![CDATA[Negro in Virginia, The (1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Negro_in_Virginia_The_1940 The Negro in Virginia, published in 1940, traces the political, economic, and social history of African Americans in Virginia from the arrival of the first Africans in 1619 through the American Revolution (1775–1783), the American Civil War (1861–1865), Reconstruction (1865–1877), and the rise of Jim Crow laws in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. One of a planned series of "racial studies" undertaken by the Works Progress Administration's Federal Writers' Project (FWP), the book was completed by the Virginia Writers' Project (VWP). Specifically, it was researched and written under the auspices of the VWP's Negro Studies Project and was published by the VWP. Relying on interviews with more than 300 former slaves, along with a wide-ranging review of the relevant literature and laborious primary research in courthouses and archives across the state, the book's twenty-nine chapters constitute a singular achievement for its time: an attempt to tell what its editor, Professor Roscoe E. Lewis of Hampton Institute, called the "story of the Negro" from an African American point of view.
Thu, 13 Jun 2013 16:53:17 EST]]>
/Negro_Organization_Society Wed, 15 May 2013 14:30:50 EST <![CDATA[Negro Organization Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Negro_Organization_Society The Negro Organization Society was a grassroots advocacy association that stressed community self-improvement for African Americans in Virginia during the Jim Crow era. Founded in 1912 at the Hampton Institute by Robert Russa Moton, its motto was "Better Schools, Better Health, Better Homes, Better Farms." Pursuit of these four goals was considered essential to the protection and welfare of black citizens, especially in rural areas where the great majority of Virginia's African Americans lived. Over the years, the organization's actions shifted from building schools to improving education by accrediting more institutions and improving teacher pay. By the 1950s, when the Negro Organization Society had begun to dissolve, the fight for African American civil rights had largely shifted from community and regional organizers to the court system.
Wed, 15 May 2013 14:30:50 EST]]>
/_Life_of_Isaac_Jefferson_of_Petersburg_Virginia_Blacksmith_by_Isaac_Jefferson_1847 Fri, 03 May 2013 09:49:59 EST <![CDATA["Life of Isaac Jefferson of Petersburg, Virginia, Blacksmith" by Isaac Jefferson (1847)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Life_of_Isaac_Jefferson_of_Petersburg_Virginia_Blacksmith_by_Isaac_Jefferson_1847 Fri, 03 May 2013 09:49:59 EST]]> /Query_XVIII_an_excerpt_from_Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1784 Thu, 11 Apr 2013 09:58:57 EST <![CDATA[Query XVIII; an excerpt from Notes on the State of Virginia by Thomas Jefferson (1784)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Query_XVIII_an_excerpt_from_Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_by_Thomas_Jefferson_1784 Thu, 11 Apr 2013 09:58:57 EST]]> /_Sketches_in_the_Free_and_Slave_States_of_America_by_Eyre_Crowe_September_27_1856 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 10:44:45 EST <![CDATA["Sketches in the Free and Slave States of America" by Eyre Crowe (September 27, 1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Sketches_in_the_Free_and_Slave_States_of_America_by_Eyre_Crowe_September_27_1856 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 10:44:45 EST]]> /Chapter_IV_an_excerpt_from_With_Thackeray_in_America_by_Eyre_Crowe_1893 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 10:25:48 EST <![CDATA[Chapter IV; an excerpt from With Thackeray in America by Eyre Crowe (1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_IV_an_excerpt_from_With_Thackeray_in_America_by_Eyre_Crowe_1893 Mon, 08 Apr 2013 10:25:48 EST]]> /_Sambo_and_the_Ass_by_Basil_L_Gildersleeve_April_5_1864 Wed, 27 Feb 2013 10:25:48 EST <![CDATA["Sambo and the Ass" by Basil L. Gildersleeve (April 5, 1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Sambo_and_the_Ass_by_Basil_L_Gildersleeve_April_5_1864 Wed, 27 Feb 2013 10:25:48 EST]]> /_Miscegenation_by_Basil_L_Gildersleeve_April_18_1864 Wed, 27 Feb 2013 10:12:03 EST <![CDATA["Miscegenation" by Basil L. Gildersleeve (April 18, 1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Miscegenation_by_Basil_L_Gildersleeve_April_18_1864 Wed, 27 Feb 2013 10:12:03 EST]]> /Dorm_Life_an_excerpt_fromHistory_of_the_University_of_Virginia_1819-1919by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1920-1922 Wed, 27 Feb 2013 09:56:27 EST <![CDATA[Dorm Life; an excerpt fromHistory of the University of Virginia, 1819–1919by Philip Alexander Bruce (1920–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dorm_Life_an_excerpt_fromHistory_of_the_University_of_Virginia_1819-1919by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1920-1922 Wed, 27 Feb 2013 09:56:27 EST]]> /Runaway_Slaves_and_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:53:29 EST <![CDATA[Runaway Slaves and Servants in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Runaway_Slaves_and_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Runaway slaves and indentured servants were a persistent problem for landowners in colonial Virginia. They fled from abusive masters, to take a break from work, or in search of family members from whom they had been separated. Some servants were lured away by neighbors attempting to steal labor. Early court cases reveal that whites and blacks sometimes ran off together but that punishments for the latter could be much harsher. As early as 1643, the General Assembly passed laws that established penalties for runaway slaves and servants, regulated their movement, identified multiple offenders (by branding them or cutting their hair), and provided rewards for their capture. In October 1669, the burgesses admitted that these laws "have hitherto in greate parte proved ineffectuall," as slaves and servants continued to brave wide rivers, often dangerous Indians, and the storm-tossed Chesapeake Bay. They fled mostly into Maryland but sometimes as far north as New Netherland and New England. In 1705 a sweeping new law allowed planters to discipline slaves to death or, in some cases, to kill runaways without penalty. Robert "King" Carter sought and received permission to dismember his runaways. Beginning in 1736, landowners advertised in the Virginia Gazette for their runaways; they describe more than 3,500 fugitives from 1736 until 1783. These advertisements affirmed a lingering desire for freedom on the part of slaves.
Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:53:29 EST]]>
/Slave_Ships_and_the_Middle_Passage Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:48:55 EST <![CDATA[Slave Ships and the Middle Passage]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Ships_and_the_Middle_Passage The slave ship was the means by which nearly 12.5 million enslaved Africans were transported from Africa to the Americas between 1500 and 1866. Leaving from its home port in Europe, a typical ship made its first passage to the west coast of Africa, trading goods for a full cargo of slaves—people who had been captured in war, convicted of petty crimes, or simply kidnapped. On the second, or "middle," passage, the captain sailed his cargo across the Atlantic Ocean to one or more ports in the New World, where he sold his slaves and purchased or loaded goods such as sugar, rum, and molasses. On the final passage, he returned home. The Portuguese dominated the early slave trade, but at its height, in the eighteenth century, British and American merchants helped bring millions of Africans to the Americas, a very small percentage of whom ended up in Virginia. About 15 percent of all Africans who made the voyage died, most from the accumulation of brutal treatment and inadequate care from the time of their enslavement in the interior of Africa. Others suffocated in the tightly packed holds, while some committed suicide, refused to eat, or revolted. Crew members, meanwhile, died at even higher rates, also mostly from disease. The victims of violence meted out by their officers, sailors in turn dispensed their own brand of terror to the Africans. For Africans who survived, the Middle Passage began with the separation from family and community and ended with a lifetime of enslavement.
Tue, 29 Jan 2013 13:48:55 EST]]>
/Known_World_The_2003 Tue, 15 Jan 2013 16:10:28 EST <![CDATA[Known World, The (2003)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Known_World_The_2003 The Known World (2003) is a novel by Edward P. Jones that centers on Henry Townsend, a free black slaveholder living in antebellum Virginia. Winner of the National Book Critics Circle Award for fiction in 2003 and the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 2004, the novel was lavishly praised by critics, with Kirkus Reviews calling it "a harrowing tale that scarcely ever raises its voice." The New York Times noted how racial lines in the book "are intriguingly tangled and not easily drawn." In addition, The Known World has been compared favorably with classic American novels about slavery such as Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), William Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom! (1936), and Toni Morrison's Beloved (1987). Jones's book is distinctive, however, for its focus on the historical reality of black slaveholders before the American Civil War (1861–1865). Although the author, who received a master of fine arts degree in creative writing from the University of Virginia in Charlottesville in 1981, has downplayed the role of his research, the reality of Henry Townsend adheres to the historical record. According to scholarship done in the 1920s by Carter G. Woodson, 12 percent of all free black heads of families in Virginia in 1830 owned slaves.
Tue, 15 Jan 2013 16:10:28 EST]]>
/General_Court_Responds_to_Runaway_Servants_and_Slaves_1640 Mon, 14 Jan 2013 16:21:46 EST <![CDATA[General Court Responds to Runaway Servants and Slaves (1640)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/General_Court_Responds_to_Runaway_Servants_and_Slaves_1640 Mon, 14 Jan 2013 16:21:46 EST]]> /_A_Report_of_a_Comittee_from_an_Assembly_Concerning_the_freedome_of_Elizabeth_Key_1656 Fri, 11 Jan 2013 09:34:02 EST <![CDATA["A Report of a Comittee from an Assembly Concerning the freedome of Elizabeth Key" (1656)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Report_of_a_Comittee_from_an_Assembly_Concerning_the_freedome_of_Elizabeth_Key_1656 Fri, 11 Jan 2013 09:34:02 EST]]> /_Description_of_the_Slave_Ship_Brookes_chapter_6_of_Liverpool_and_Slavery_by_a_Genuine_Dicky_Sam_1884 Thu, 10 Jan 2013 13:21:25 EST <![CDATA["Description of the Slave Ship 'Brookes'"; chapter 6 of Liverpool and Slavery by "a Genuine 'Dicky Sam'" (1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Description_of_the_Slave_Ship_Brookes_chapter_6_of_Liverpool_and_Slavery_by_a_Genuine_Dicky_Sam_1884 Thu, 10 Jan 2013 13:21:25 EST]]> /The_Ship_Thomas_chapter_7_of_Liverpool_and_Slavery_by_a_Genuine_Dicky_Sam_1884 Fri, 21 Dec 2012 12:20:49 EST <![CDATA[The Ship "Thomas"; chapter 7 of Liverpool and Slavery by "a Genuine 'Dicky Sam'" (1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Ship_Thomas_chapter_7_of_Liverpool_and_Slavery_by_a_Genuine_Dicky_Sam_1884 Fri, 21 Dec 2012 12:20:49 EST]]> /Letter_from_Edward_Coles_to_Thomas_Jefferson_September_26_1814 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 14:49:46 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Edward Coles to Thomas Jefferson (September 26, 1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Edward_Coles_to_Thomas_Jefferson_September_26_1814 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 14:49:46 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Edward_Coles_August_25_1814 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 14:31:24 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Edward Coles (August 25, 1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Edward_Coles_August_25_1814 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 14:31:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_James_Monroe_to_Thomas_Jefferson_September_15_1800 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 13:30:36 EST <![CDATA[Letter from James Monroe to Thomas Jefferson (September 15, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_James_Monroe_to_Thomas_Jefferson_September_15_1800 Fri, 14 Dec 2012 13:30:36 EST]]> /_Mr_Jefferson_s_Servants_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:21:20 EST <![CDATA["Mr. Jefferson's Servants"; an excerpt from The Private Life of Thomas Jefferson by Hamilton W. Pierson (1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mr_Jefferson_s_Servants_an_excerpt_from_The_Private_Life_of_Thomas_Jefferson_by_Hamilton_W_Pierson_1862 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 10:21:20 EST]]> /Letter_from_Ellen_Wayles_Randolph_Coolidge_to_Joseph_Coolidge_October_24_1858 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:49:05 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge to Joseph Coolidge (October 24, 1858)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Ellen_Wayles_Randolph_Coolidge_to_Joseph_Coolidge_October_24_1858 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:49:05 EST]]> /Letter_from_Abigail_Adams_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_27_1787 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:36:01 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Abigail Adams to Thomas Jefferson (June 27, 1787)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Abigail_Adams_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_27_1787 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:36:01 EST]]> /Letter_from_Abigail_Adams_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_26_1787 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:34:21 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Abigail Adams to Thomas Jefferson (June 26, 1787)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Abigail_Adams_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_26_1787 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:34:21 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Nicholas_Lewis_April_12_1792 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:28:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Nicholas Lewis (April 12, 1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Nicholas_Lewis_April_12_1792 Tue, 27 Nov 2012 14:28:35 EST]]> /Lewis_Miller_s_Virginia_Slavery_Drawings Thu, 15 Nov 2012 17:29:17 EST <![CDATA[Lewis Miller's Virginia Slavery Drawings]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_Miller_s_Virginia_Slavery_Drawings Many of Lewis Miller's watercolor sketches depict enslaved people in Virginia. Historians have drawn heavily on these to inform their interpretations of bondage as practiced in the state during the years leading up to the American Civil War (1861–1865). Miller, who lived from 1796 until 1882, was a Pennsylvania native who worked as a carpenter and often visited his brother in Virginia. His watercolors and the texts that accompany them are rare, because few artists of his time bothered to depict or write about slaves. His pictures are also valued for their relative emotional detachment and credibility, for Miller fancied himself a recorder, not an agitator, activist, or commentator. He avoided shading his subjects with personal opinion in lieu of drawing and writing what he saw and heard. Yet no reportage is strictly neutral, and he was not immune to wishful thinking, stereotyping, and sentimentalizing. For these reasons, his pictures and texts are best understood within the context of his time, biography, personality, and artistic style. While it is usually impossible to say whether specific subjects were enslaved or free people, the specific contexts of Miller's sketches, combined with what historians know about Virginia's population and its large-scale agrarian economy in the antebellum period (1820–1860), suggest that most of the African American people depicted by Miller were, in fact, enslaved.
Thu, 15 Nov 2012 17:29:17 EST]]>
/_Our_massa_Jefferson_he_say_by_Anonymous_September_1_1802 Fri, 09 Nov 2012 11:39:50 EST <![CDATA["Our massa Jefferson he say" by Anonymous (September 1, 1802)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Our_massa_Jefferson_he_say_by_Anonymous_September_1_1802 Fri, 09 Nov 2012 11:39:50 EST]]> /Hemings-Jefferson_DNA_an_excerpt_from_Jefferson_Fathered_Slave_s_Last_Child_by_Eugene_A_Foster_et_al_November_5_1998 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 15:03:58 EST <![CDATA[Hemings-Jefferson DNA; an excerpt from "Jefferson Fathered Slave's Last Child" by Eugene A. Foster, et al. (November 5, 1998)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hemings-Jefferson_DNA_an_excerpt_from_Jefferson_Fathered_Slave_s_Last_Child_by_Eugene_A_Foster_et_al_November_5_1998 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 15:03:58 EST]]> /_Life_Among_the_Lowly_No_3_by_Israel_Jefferson_December_25_1873 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 10:23:17 EST <![CDATA["Life Among the Lowly, No. 3" by Israel Jefferson (December 25, 1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Life_Among_the_Lowly_No_3_by_Israel_Jefferson_December_25_1873 Wed, 07 Nov 2012 10:23:17 EST]]> /_Life_Among_the_Lowly_No_1_by_Madison_Hemings_March_13_1873 Thu, 01 Nov 2012 15:27:44 EST <![CDATA["Life Among the Lowly, No. 1" by Madison Hemings (March 13, 1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Life_Among_the_Lowly_No_1_by_Madison_Hemings_March_13_1873 Thu, 01 Nov 2012 15:27:44 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_Randolph_to_the_Pike_County_Republican_ca_1874 Mon, 22 Oct 2012 14:58:34 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson Randolph to the Pike County Republican (ca. 1874)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_Randolph_to_the_Pike_County_Republican_ca_1874 Mon, 22 Oct 2012 14:58:34 EST]]> /Testimony_in_the_Trial_of_Gabriel_October_6_1800 Wed, 03 Oct 2012 11:57:26 EST <![CDATA[Testimony in the Trial of Gabriel (October 6, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_in_the_Trial_of_Gabriel_October_6_1800 Wed, 03 Oct 2012 11:57:26 EST]]> /_To_the_New_York_Committee_for_the_Celebration_of_the_Birthday_of_Washington_by_Daniel_Webster_February_20_1851 Wed, 03 Oct 2012 09:21:25 EST <![CDATA["To the New York Committee for the Celebration of the Birthday of Washington" by Daniel Webster (February 20, 1851)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_To_the_New_York_Committee_for_the_Celebration_of_the_Birthday_of_Washington_by_Daniel_Webster_February_20_1851 Wed, 03 Oct 2012 09:21:25 EST]]> /Confederate_Morale_during_the_Civil_War Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:12:47 EST <![CDATA[Confederate Morale during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Confederate_Morale_during_the_Civil_War Because the American Civil War (1861–1865) was fought between two popular democracies, the attitudes of the citizens of each country or region toward the war significantly shaped the course of the conflict. When citizens expressed enthusiasm for their cause it boosted the morale of their soldiers and assured the government that the public supported their policies. For a variety of reasons, historians have studied the morale of Southerners more closely than their Northern foes. First, of the South's nine million people, four million were African Americans, who expressed little voluntary support for the Confederacy and instead sided strongly with the Union. Second, the pressures of war created great hardship for Southern civilians and this hardship depressed the morale of many. Even if it did not lead people to support reunion, it embittered them against the Confederate leadership, which they viewed as often incompetent or unsympathetic. Part of the attention focused on Southern morale is by virtue of Confederate defeat—since the Confederacy lost, perhaps the problem was a lack of support among its citizens. Although it is clear that Union military successes and the hardships generated by the war debilitated Southerners, historians are divided over the relationship of this trend to the war's outcome. At many points during the conflict, Northern morale was as low or lower than that of the Confederates, yet the Union achieved victory nonetheless. For Virginians, tracking the changes in soldier and civilian morale are particularly challenging because the state contained such a broad spectrum of residents.
Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:12:47 EST]]>
/_A_Proclamation_by_the_President_of_the_United_States_February_18_1851 Tue, 28 Aug 2012 13:09:50 EST <![CDATA["A Proclamation by the President of the United States" (February 18, 1851)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Proclamation_by_the_President_of_the_United_States_February_18_1851 Tue, 28 Aug 2012 13:09:50 EST]]> /Letter_from_A_Private_Citizen_to_James_Monroe_December_10-11_1800 Fri, 24 Aug 2012 10:38:32 EST <![CDATA[Letter from "A Private Citizen" to James Monroe (December 10–11, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_A_Private_Citizen_to_James_Monroe_December_10-11_1800 In this letter to James Monroe, dated December 10, 1800, and printed in the Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser the next day, "A Private Citizen" praises the governor's handling of Gabriel's Conspiracy. The writer goes on to claim that the potential for violence remains and that Virginia must address the problem, arguing against a gradual emancipation plan presented by St. George Tucker and instead providing his own blueprint for long-term white supremacy. Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 24 Aug 2012 10:38:32 EST]]>
/_Uncle_Gabriel Thu, 23 Aug 2012 11:38:29 EST <![CDATA["Uncle Gabriel"]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Uncle_Gabriel Thu, 23 Aug 2012 11:38:29 EST]]> /Colored_Shiloh_Baptist_Association Thu, 09 Aug 2012 14:05:19 EST <![CDATA[Colored Shiloh Baptist Association]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Shiloh_Baptist_Association The Colored Shiloh Baptist Association was a union of individual black congregations in central Virginia formed on August 11, 1865, just after the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). A similar association had been formed in Norfolk the year before, but the Richmond-based Colored Shiloh Baptist Association was soon larger and more influential, with both groups helping to provide blacks the opportunity to worship on their own terms.
Thu, 09 Aug 2012 14:05:19 EST]]>
/The_General_Assembly_Convenes_1619 Wed, 08 Aug 2012 12:47:35 EST <![CDATA[The General Assembly Convenes (1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_General_Assembly_Convenes_1619 In this excerpt from the Journals of the House of Burgesses, the assembly's's first meeting on July 30, 1619, is described, with Governor Sir George Yeardley, the governor's Council, and the burgesses meeting in unicameral session in the church at Jamestown. After the Reverend Richard Bucke said a prayer to open the session, the assembly ruled on two of its new members' standing. Some spelling has been updated and contractions expanded.
Wed, 08 Aug 2012 12:47:35 EST]]>
/John_Nickson_Runs_Away_1687 Fri, 03 Aug 2012 09:31:03 EST <![CDATA[John Nickson Runs Away (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_Nickson_Runs_Away_1687 Fri, 03 Aug 2012 09:31:03 EST]]> /_Act_directing_the_trial_of_Slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_Negros_Mulattos_and_Indians_bond_or_free_1723 Wed, 01 Aug 2012 12:54:19 EST <![CDATA["An Act directing the trial of Slaves, committing capital crimes; and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them; and for the better government of Negros, Mulattos, and Indians, bond or free" ]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Act_directing_the_trial_of_Slaves_committing_capital_crimes_and_for_the_more_effectual_punishing_conspiracies_and_insurrections_of_them_and_for_the_better_government_of_Negros_Mulattos_and_Indians_bond_or_free_1723 In "An Act directing the trial of Slaves, committing capital crimes; and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them; and for the better government of Negros, Mulattos, and Indians, bond or free," passed by the General Assembly in the session of May 1723, Virginia's colonial government establishes laws with regards to the punishment of slaves and the overall government of slaves, free blacks, and Indians.
Wed, 01 Aug 2012 12:54:19 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Edward_Coles_to_Thomas_Jefferson_July_31_1814 Wed, 01 Aug 2012 09:14:12 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Edward Coles to Thomas Jefferson (July 31, 1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Edward_Coles_to_Thomas_Jefferson_July_31_1814 Wed, 01 Aug 2012 09:14:12 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_amend_the_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:36:47 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to amend the act intituled, 'An act to reduce into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes'" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_amend_the_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:36:47 EST]]> /_An_ACT_concerning_patroles_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:32:11 EST <![CDATA["An ACT concerning patroles" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_concerning_patroles_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:32:11 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_establish_a_guard_in_the_city_of_Richmond_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:26:52 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to establish a guard in the city of Richmond" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_establish_a_guard_in_the_city_of_Richmond_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:26:52 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_empower_the_governor_to_transport_slaves_condemned_when_it_shall_be_deemed_expedient_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:20:42 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to empower the governor to transport slaves condemned, when it shall be deemed expedient" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_empower_the_governor_to_transport_slaves_condemned_when_it_shall_be_deemed_expedient_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:20:42 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_arm_the_militia_of_certain_towns_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:16:26 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to arm the militia of certain towns" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_arm_the_militia_of_certain_towns_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:16:26 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_purchase_Pharoah_and_Tom_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:11:20 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to purchase Pharoah and Tom" (1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_purchase_Pharoah_and_Tom_1801 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 13:11:20 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_amend_the_several_laws_concerning_slaves_1806 Tue, 31 Jul 2012 12:38:21 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to amend the several laws concerning slaves" (1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_amend_the_several_laws_concerning_slaves_1806 The following legislation, "An ACT to amend the several laws concerning slaves," was passed by the General Assembly on January 25, 1806, and prohibits the importation of slaves to Virginia and requires that any freed slaves leave the state within twelve months.
Tue, 31 Jul 2012 12:38:21 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Mosby_Sheppard_to_James_Monroe_August_30_1800 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 15:59:08 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Mosby Sheppard to James Monroe (August 30, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Mosby_Sheppard_to_James_Monroe_August_30_1800 In this letter to James Monroe, Mosby Sheppard warns the governor of a planned insurrection that came to be known as Gabriel's Conspiracy. Two enslaved men owned by the Mosby family, Pharoah and Tom, had betrayed the conspiracy to Sheppard earlier in the day.
Tue, 17 Jul 2012 15:59:08 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_James_Monroe_September_20_1800 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 15:53:51 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to James Monroe (September 20, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_James_Monroe_September_20_1800 In this letter to Governor James Monroe, Thomas Jefferson offers his advice on how best to punish those slaves arrested in connection with Gabriel's Conspiracy.
Tue, 17 Jul 2012 15:53:51 EST]]>
/_An_act_concerning_Servants_and_Slaves_1705 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 10:28:39 EST <![CDATA["An act concerning Servants and Slaves" (1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_concerning_Servants_and_Slaves_1705 In "An act concerning Servants and Slaves," passed by the General Assembly in the session of October 1705, Virginia's colonial government collects old and establishes new laws with regards to indentured servants and slaves.
Tue, 17 Jul 2012 10:28:39 EST]]>
/_Gabriel_s_Defeat_September_17_1831 Mon, 16 Jul 2012 15:38:39 EST <![CDATA["Gabriel's Defeat" (September 17, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Gabriel_s_Defeat_September_17_1831 In "Gabriel's Defeat," published on September 17, 1831, the editors of the Liberator reprint a romanticized and inaccurate account of Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800) that first appeared in the Albany Evening Journal. The context of its publication was the more recent, more successful uprising led by Nat Turner in Southampton County earlier in the year.
Mon, 16 Jul 2012 15:38:39 EST]]>
/_Gabriel_s_Defeat_October_21_1831 Mon, 16 Jul 2012 14:49:02 EST <![CDATA["Gabriel's Defeat" (October 21, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Gabriel_s_Defeat_October_21_1831 In "Gabriel's Defeat," published on October 21, 1831, the editors of the Richmond Enquirer seek to correct the facts in an article of the same name published in the Albany Evening Journal. The subject is Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800), although the context was the more recent, more successful uprising led by Nat Turner in Southampton County earlier in the year.
Mon, 16 Jul 2012 14:49:02 EST]]>
/_Gabriel_s_Defeat_by_Thomas_Wentworth_Higginson_September_1862 Mon, 16 Jul 2012 14:39:30 EST <![CDATA["Gabriel's Defeat" by Thomas Wentworth Higginson (September 1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Gabriel_s_Defeat_by_Thomas_Wentworth_Higginson_September_1862 In "Gabriel's Defeat," published in the Atlantic Monthly in September 1862, the abolitionist minister Thomas Wentworth Higginson relates a history of Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800) drawn mostly from newspaper accounts. Writing in the midst of the American Civil War (1861–1865), he places the planned insurrection in the context of Nat Turner's Rebellion (1831) and John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry (1859).
Mon, 16 Jul 2012 14:39:30 EST]]>
/_20_and_odd_Negroes_an_excerpt_from_a_letter_from_John_Rolfe_to_Sir_Edwin_Sandys_1619_1620 Thu, 12 Jul 2012 14:19:22 EST <![CDATA["Twenty and odd Negroes"; an excerpt from a letter from John Rolfe to Sir Edwin Sandys (1619/1620)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_20_and_odd_Negroes_an_excerpt_from_a_letter_from_John_Rolfe_to_Sir_Edwin_Sandys_1619_1620 In this excerpt from a letter to Sir Edwin Sandys, treasurer of the Virginia Company of London, the Jamestown colonist John Rolfe describes events in the Virginia colony. These include the first meeting of the General Assembly, a murder trial, and a controversy involving the Indian-language interpreter Captain Henry Spelman. He also notes the arrival of "20. and odd Negroes," the first Africans in Virginia. In greater detail he recounts a visit to Jamestown by a Patawomeck elder Iopassus (Japazaws), who in 1613 had been responsible for delivering Rolfe's since-deceased wife Pocahontas into the hands of Captain Samuel Argall. Now Iopassus appeared to be engaging in diplomacy independent of Powhatan, Opechancanough, and the Indians of Tsenacomoco. The letter is dated "January 1619/1620," the two years reflecting both the Old (Julian) Calendar and the New (Gregorian) Calendar. Some spelling has been updated and contractions expanded.
Thu, 12 Jul 2012 14:19:22 EST]]>
/Crater_Battle_of_the Tue, 26 Jun 2012 09:52:15 EST <![CDATA[Crater, Battle of the]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crater_Battle_of_the The Battle of the Crater, part of the Petersburg Campaign, was the result of an unusual attempt, on the part of Union forces, to break through the Confederate defenses just south of the critical railroad hub of Petersburg, Virginia, during the American Civil War (1861–1865). For several weeks, Pennsylvania miners in Union general Ambrose E. Burnside's Ninth Corps worked at digging a long tunnel, packed the terminus with explosives, and then on the morning of July 30, 1864, blew it up. In the words of a Maine soldier, the sky was filled with "Earth, stones, timbers, arms, legs, guns unlimbered and bodies unlimbed." Burnside had initially planned to send a fresh division of black troops into the breach, but his superiors, Ulysses S. Grant and George G. Meade, ruled against it. That role—literally via a short straw—went to James H. Ledlie, a hard-drinking political general who spent the day well behind the lines as his white soldiers piled into the explosion's deep crater rather than go around it. Unable to escape, and followed by Burnside's other three divisions, they turned into what one New Hampshire soldier described as "a mass of worms crawling over each other"—easy targets for Confederates. The battle was a Union disaster and marked by particularly cruel treatment of the black troops who participated, many of whom were captured and murdered. Although Congress later blamed Meade for the loss, it was Ledlie and Burnside who lost their commands.
Tue, 26 Jun 2012 09:52:15 EST]]>
/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 Tue, 12 Jun 2012 14:32:24 EST <![CDATA[Anti-Lynching Law of 1928]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 The Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, signed by Virginia governor Harry Flood Byrd Sr. on March 14, 1928, was the first measure in the nation that defined lynching specifically as a state crime. The bill's enactment marked the culmination of a campaign waged by Louis Isaac Jaffé, the editor of the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, who responded more forcefully than any other white Virginian to an increase in mob violence in the mid-1920s. Jaffé's efforts, however, which earned him a Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing in 1929, came to fruition only after the state's political and business leadership recognized that mob violence was a threat to their efforts to attract business and industry. Ironically, no white person was ever convicted of lynching an African American under the law.
Tue, 12 Jun 2012 14:32:24 EST]]>
/Twenty-Slave_Law Thu, 31 May 2012 16:37:11 EST <![CDATA[Twenty-Slave Law]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Twenty-Slave_Law The Twenty-Slave Law, passed by the Confederate Congress on October 11, 1862, during the American Civil War (1861–1865), created an exemption to military conscription for the owners of twenty or more slaves. The law was controversial in much of the South, where it served to exacerbate certain social rifts and led to claims by drafted soldiers that they were fighting a "rich man's war." The law did not generate as much opposition in Virginia, home to the Confederacy's largest population of slaves. Supporters viewed the law as essential in guarding against slave rebellion and in maintaining agriculture and industry and, therefore, the nation's ability to carry on the war effort. The Confederate Congress later amended the law to alleviate concerns, limiting the ability of plantation owners to evade military service.
Thu, 31 May 2012 16:37:11 EST]]>
/Letter_from_John_Pory_to_Sir_Dudley_Carleton_1619 Fri, 18 May 2012 16:51:13 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Pory to Sir Dudley Carleton (1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Pory_to_Sir_Dudley_Carleton_1619 In this letter to the English aristocrat Sir Dudley Carleton, John Pory describes events in the Virginia colony, including the arrival of two ships containing the colony's first Africans and the introduction of a saleable grade of tobacco. Some spelling has been updated.
Fri, 18 May 2012 16:51:13 EST]]>
/Parishes_and_Tithes_1643 Thu, 17 May 2012 13:26:28 EST <![CDATA[Parishes and Tithes (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Parishes_and_Tithes_1643 In its March 1643 session, the General Assembly repealed all former laws and passes a series of new laws that helped to clarify the intentions of its previous legislation. In this first act, the assembly explains the powers and obligations of the parish vestry and dictates taxes to be paid and the people—including enslaved African women—considered tithable, or eligible to be taxed. Some spelling has been modernized.
Thu, 17 May 2012 13:26:28 EST]]>
/_Of_Servants_and_Slaves_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 Tue, 15 May 2012 15:54:18 EST <![CDATA["Of Servants and Slaves in Virginia"; an excerpt from The History of Virginia by Robert Beverley (1722)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Of_Servants_and_Slaves_in_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 This excerpt from The History of Virginia by Robert Beverley Jr. encompasses all of Book Four, Chapter 10, in which the author describes the institutions of slavery and indentured servitude in Virginia. He defends the institutions from naysayers, paying special attention to the legal rights of servants. (He does not mention any such rights for slaves.) Beverley's History and Present State of Virginia was first published in 1705, but written earlier, before the institution of Virginia's slave code. This excerpt comes from Beverley's second, revised edition, published in 1722.
Tue, 15 May 2012 15:54:18 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_keeping_holy_the_13th_of_September_1663 Mon, 14 May 2012 14:41:44 EST <![CDATA["An act for keeping holy the 13th of September" (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_keeping_holy_the_13th_of_September_1663 In "An act for keeping holy the 13th of September," the General Assembly declares an annual holiday after a foiled attempt by servants in Gloucester County to rebel.
Mon, 14 May 2012 14:41:44 EST]]>
/_Their_devilish_plot_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 Mon, 14 May 2012 10:21:34 EST <![CDATA["Their devilish plot"; an excerpt from The History of Virginia by Robert Beverley (1722)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Their_devilish_plot_an_excerpt_from_The_History_of_Virginia_by_Robert_Beverley_1722 In this excerpt from The History of Virginia (1722)—an expansion of The History and Present State of Virginia (1705)—Robert Beverley Jr. describes the Gloucester County Conspiracy (1663), also known as the Servants' Plot and Birkenhead's Rebellion, in which a group of indentured servants planned a revolt in Gloucester County.
Mon, 14 May 2012 10:21:34 EST]]>
/Testimony_about_the_Gloucester_County_Conspiracy_1663 Mon, 14 May 2012 08:24:49 EST <![CDATA[Testimony about the Gloucester County Conspiracy (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_about_the_Gloucester_County_Conspiracy_1663 In these depositions, several indentured servants, captured in an attempt to rebel in Gloucester County, explain what their plan was and how it should have been executed. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 14 May 2012 08:24:49 EST]]>
/Letter_the_Third_an_excerpt_from_Observations_on_a_Guinea_voyage_In_a_series_of_letters_addressed_to_the_Rev_Thomas_Clarkson_by_James_Field_Stanfield_1788 Mon, 23 Apr 2012 08:34:54 EST <![CDATA[Letter the Third; an excerpt from Observations on a Guinea voyage. In a series of letters addressed to the Rev. Thomas Clarkson by James Field Stanfield (1788)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_the_Third_an_excerpt_from_Observations_on_a_Guinea_voyage_In_a_series_of_letters_addressed_to_the_Rev_Thomas_Clarkson_by_James_Field_Stanfield_1788 In this excerpt from Observations on a Guinea voyage. In a series of letters addressed to the Rev. Thomas Clarkson (1788), published in London by the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade, the former slave-ship sailor James Field Stanfield explains why the trade was so difficult and deadly for men like him. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 23 Apr 2012 08:34:54 EST]]>
/Slave_Ship_The_1924 Fri, 20 Apr 2012 10:58:17 EST <![CDATA[Slave Ship, The (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Ship_The_1924 The Slave Ship (1924) is the eighteenth novel by the Virginia-born writer Mary Johnston. Set in Scotland, Virginia, Africa, and Jamaica, the novel follows twelve years in the life of David Scott, who is captured at the Battle of Culloden in 1746 and then transported to Virginia as a convict laborer. After a daring escape, Scott finds refuge on the slave ship Janet. There he works his way up from clerk to captain, making numerous voyages to the Slave Coast of West Africa and participating in the infamous Middle Passage, during which millions of enslaved Africans were transported to the Americas. Johnston's novel reflects her own extensive research on the Atlantic slave trade and, at times, an impressive attention to detail. Nevertheless, Johnston consistently understates the horrors of the Middle Passage and especially of the captains and crews who violently oversaw their human cargoes. Reviews of The Slave Ship upon its release were generally positive. The New York Times, for instance, praised its evocative descriptions while worrying that Johnston's theme—that master and servant are both slaves—distracted from the brutal reality of African enslavement.
Fri, 20 Apr 2012 10:58:17 EST]]>
/_At_each_bite_an_Arm_an_excerpt_from_A_New_and_Accurate_Description_of_the_Coast_of_Guinea_by_William_Bosman_1705 Fri, 20 Apr 2012 10:05:05 EST <![CDATA["At each bite an Arm"; an excerpt from A New and Accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea by William Bosman (1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_At_each_bite_an_Arm_an_excerpt_from_A_New_and_Accurate_Description_of_the_Coast_of_Guinea_by_William_Bosman_1705 In this excerpt from A New and Accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea (1705), the Dutch merchant William Bosman describes various species to be found in the waters off the Gold Coast of Africa, or what is present-day Ghana. Bosman's "noordkapers" are right whales, and the "hayes" are sharks (from the Dutch haai for shark). Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 20 Apr 2012 10:05:05 EST]]>
/Mutiny_on_the_Ferrers_Galley_an_excerpt_from_A_new_account_of_some_parts_of_Guinea_and_the_slave-trade_by_William_Snelgrave_1734 Fri, 20 Apr 2012 09:57:43 EST <![CDATA[Mutiny on the Ferrers Galley; an excerpt from A new account of some parts of Guinea, and the slave-trade by William Snelgrave (1734)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mutiny_on_the_Ferrers_Galley_an_excerpt_from_A_new_account_of_some_parts_of_Guinea_and_the_slave-trade_by_William_Snelgrave_1734 In this excerpt from A new account of some parts of Guinea, and the slave-trade, published in London in 1734, the former slave-ship captain William Snelgrave tells of an insurrection by enslaved Africans aboard a slave ship in 1722. Unlike many accounts of the so-called Middle Passage, Snelgrave's book was not critical of the slave trade, and this account in particular suggests that a captain's kindness might precipitate rebellion. It also recalls one of the dubious justifications for slavery: that it saved African prisoners from certain death. Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 20 Apr 2012 09:57:43 EST]]>
/Letter_the_Fifth_an_excerpt_from_Observations_on_a_Guinea_voyage_In_a_series_of_letters_addressed_to_the_Rev_Thomas_Clarkson_by_James_Field_Stanfield_1788 Fri, 20 Apr 2012 09:47:52 EST <![CDATA[Letter the Fifth; an excerpt from Observations on a Guinea voyage. In a series of letters addressed to the Rev. Thomas Clarkson by James Field Stanfield (1788)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_the_Fifth_an_excerpt_from_Observations_on_a_Guinea_voyage_In_a_series_of_letters_addressed_to_the_Rev_Thomas_Clarkson_by_James_Field_Stanfield_1788 In this excerpt from Observations on a Guinea voyage. In a series of letters addressed to the Rev. Thomas Clarkson (1788), published in London by the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade, the former slave-ship sailor James Field Stanfield graphically describes his own disease-ridden ship as it sails on the Middle Passage. Stanfield references Alexander Falconbridge, who worked as a surgeon on several slave voyages before joining Clarkson's anti-slavery society. Some spelling has been modernized.
Fri, 20 Apr 2012 09:47:52 EST]]>
/_An_act_to_repeale_a_former_law_makeing_Indians_and_others_ffree_1682 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 16:28:16 EST <![CDATA["An act to repeale a former law makeing Indians and others ffree" (1682)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_to_repeale_a_former_law_makeing_Indians_and_others_ffree_1682 In "An act to repeale a former law makeing Indians and others ffree," passed by the General Assembly in the session of November 1682, Virginia's colonial government attempts to clarify the definitions of indentured servants and slaves.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 16:28:16 EST]]>
/_English_running_away_with_negroes_1660-1661 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 15:28:33 EST <![CDATA["English running away with negroes" (1661)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_English_running_away_with_negroes_1660-1661 In this act, "English running away with negroes," passed by the General Assembly in the session of March 1660/61 (Old Style), colonial Virginia's government responds to the problem of runaway indentured servants and slaves.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 15:28:33 EST]]>
/_Negro_women_not_exempted_from_tax_1668 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:57:53 EST <![CDATA["Negro women not exempted from tax" (1668)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Negro_women_not_exempted_from_tax_1668 In the act "Negro women not exempted from tax," passed by the General Assembly in the session of September 1668, colonial Virginia's government attempted to better define the conditions by which free and enslaved African Americans were taxed.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 14:57:53 EST]]>
/_Women_servants_whose_common_imployment_is_working_in_the_ground_to_be_accompted_tythable_1662 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:49:25 EST <![CDATA["Women servants whose common imployment is working in the ground to be accompted tythable" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Women_servants_whose_common_imployment_is_working_in_the_ground_to_be_accompted_tythable_1662 In the act "Women servants whose common imployment is working in the ground to be accompted tythable," passed by the General Assembly in the session of December 1662, Virginia's colonial government attempted to better define the conditions by which free and enslaved African Americans were taxed.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:49:25 EST]]>
/_An_act_declaring_that_baptisme_of_slaves_doth_not_exempt_them_from_bondage_1667 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:22:27 EST <![CDATA["An act declaring that baptisme of slaves doth not exempt them from bondage" (1667)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_declaring_that_baptisme_of_slaves_doth_not_exempt_them_from_bondage_1667 In "An act declaring that baptisme of slaves doth not exempt them from bondage," passed by the General Assembly in the session of September 1667, Virginia's colonial government attempted to better define the conditions by which people were enslaved or free.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 11:22:27 EST]]>
/Westmoreland_Slave_Plot_1687 Tue, 03 Apr 2012 09:11:38 EST <![CDATA[Westmoreland Slave Plot (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Westmoreland_Slave_Plot_1687 The Westmoreland slave plot of 1687 involved an alleged conspiracy uncovered by Nicholas Spencer, who claimed that the participants intended to kill whites and destroy property in the county and throughout Virginia. Preceded by the Gloucester County Conspiracy (1663) and Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), the Westmoreland plot was the first conspiracy in British North America not involving white supporters or participants. As such, it heightened planters' fear of their slaves, already expressed in a 1680 act that sought to prohibit slaves' ability to carry weapons, meet in public, or travel without permission. After Spencer's revelation, Virginia governor Francis Howard, baron Howard of Effingham, convened what perhaps was British America's first oyer and terminer court, a criminal panel subsequently used to try slave rebels. Effingham also issued a proclamation reiterating the language of the 1680 act, something his successor felt compelled to do again, in 1690. After another attempted rebellion in Westmoreland in 1688, the General Assembly, in 1691, passed legislation allowing colonists to kill any slave who resisted, ran away, or refused to surrender when so ordered. This and other laws suggest that in the time since the Servants' Plot, Virginians began to see the danger of servile revolt as coming primarily from enslaved African Americans.
Tue, 03 Apr 2012 09:11:38 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_preventing_Negroes_Insurrections_1680 Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:04:11 EST <![CDATA["An act for preventing Negroes Insurrections" (1680)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_preventing_Negroes_Insurrections_1680 On June 8, 1680, the General Assembly passed "An act for preventing Negroes Insurrections" in response to planters' concerns about rebellious slaves.
Mon, 02 Apr 2012 15:04:11 EST]]>
/Phillip_Mongom_Accused_of_Stealing_Hogs_1659-1660 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 15:25:02 EST <![CDATA[Phillip Mongom Accused of Stealing Hogs (1660)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Phillip_Mongom_Accused_of_Stealing_Hogs_1659-1660 Wed, 28 Mar 2012 15:25:02 EST]]> /Proclamation_from_Governor_Nicholson_1690 Fri, 02 Mar 2012 16:38:21 EST <![CDATA[Proclamation from Governor Nicholson (1690)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Proclamation_from_Governor_Nicholson_1690 Fri, 02 Mar 2012 16:38:21 EST]]> /_Against_Runawayes_1669 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:59:51 EST <![CDATA["Against Runawayes" (1669)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Against_Runawayes_1669 In this act, "Against Runawayes," passed by the General Assembly in the session of October 1669, Virginia's colonial government responds to the problem of runaway indentured servants and slaves.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:59:51 EST]]>
/Denying_Free_Blacks_the_Right_to_Vote_1724_1735 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:56:21 EST <![CDATA[Denying Free Blacks the Right to Vote (1724, 1735)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Denying_Free_Blacks_the_Right_to_Vote_1724_1735 In this exchange of letters, the Board of Trade questions the appropriateness of a 1723 law in Virginia denying free blacks the right to vote. The Board's legal counsel, Richard West, raised his question in 1724, but the Board's secretary, Alured Popple, did not ask for an explanation until 1735, when he wrote to Virginia lieutenant governor William Gooch.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:56:21 EST]]>
/Governor_Effingham_Reveals_a_Planned_Slave_Insurrection_1687 Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:11:45 EST <![CDATA[Governor Effingham Reveals a Planned Slave Insurrection (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Governor_Effingham_Reveals_a_Planned_Slave_Insurrection_1687 In the official record of the governor's Council for October 24, 1687, Virginia governor Francis Howard, baron Howard of Effingham, announces that Nicholas Spencer, the colony's secretary and a resident of Westmoreland County, had uncovered a conspiracy among the slaves there. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Thu, 23 Feb 2012 15:11:45 EST]]>
/York_County_Conspiracy_1661 Thu, 09 Feb 2012 16:13:01 EST <![CDATA[York County Conspiracy (1661)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/York_County_Conspiracy_1661 The York County Conspiracy was a plan by indentured servants to rise up against authorities in York County in 1661. Led by Isaac Friend and William Clutton, the servants were angered by the lack of meat in their diet, but their conspiracy apparently was revealed before they could act. The county court warned Friend about his behavior and encouraged his overseer to watch him more carefully. Clutton was ordered arrested for delivering "seditious words & speeches," but the result of the county's legal action is not known.
Thu, 09 Feb 2012 16:13:01 EST]]>
/Civil_Rights_Act_of_1964 Tue, 31 Jan 2012 14:15:46 EST <![CDATA[Civil Rights Act of 1964]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Civil_Rights_Act_of_1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a landmark piece of national legislation, not only for the civil rights movement but for the emerging women's movement of the 1960s. It officially outlawed discrimination in public accommodations and employment and established the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights and the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission to enforce those provisions. In contrast to earlier civil rights measures, it included a ban on employment discrimination on the basis of gender, as well as race, color, and religion, making it the most comprehensive civil rights bill in American history and giving the revived women's movement new legal—and moral—weight. Yet, in an ironic twist, the legislation banned gender discrimination only because of the efforts of Howard W. Smith, U.S. representative from Virginia, a leader of the Conservative Coalition in Congress, and an opponent of civil rights. His tireless attempts to defeat the bill—including adding "sex" as grounds for illegal discrimination, which he believed would guarantee the bill's failure—resulted in a more expansive bill passing.
Tue, 31 Jan 2012 14:15:46 EST]]>
/_Negro_womens_children_to_serve_according_to_the_condition_of_the_mother_1662 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:12:43 EST <![CDATA["Negro womens children to serve according to the condition of the mother" (1662)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Negro_womens_children_to_serve_according_to_the_condition_of_the_mother_1662 In the act "Negro womens children to serve according to the condition of the mother," passed by the General Assembly in the session of December 1662, Virginia's colonial government attempted to better define the conditions by which people were enslaved or free.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:12:43 EST]]>
/_An_act_prohibiting_servants_to_goe_abroad_without_a_lycense_1663 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:10:53 EST <![CDATA["An act prohibiting servants to goe abroad without a lycence" (1663)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_prohibiting_servants_to_goe_abroad_without_a_lycense_1663 In "An act prohibiting servants to goe abroad without a lycense," passed by the General Assembly in the session of September 1663, Virginia's colonial government responds to the problem of runaway indentured servants and slaves.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 14:10:53 EST]]>
/Punishment_for_the_Enslaved_Man_Sam_1688 Fri, 27 Jan 2012 13:47:59 EST <![CDATA[Punishment for the Enslaved Man Sam (1688)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Punishment_for_the_Enslaved_Man_Sam_1688 On April 26, 1688, the General Court found Sam, the slave of Richard Metcalfe of Westmoreland County, guilty in James City County of promoting a slave rebellion. His conviction came just six months or so after a suspected plot was discovered in Westmoreland County. Some spelling has been modernized and contractions expanded.
Fri, 27 Jan 2012 13:47:59 EST]]>
/Massive_Resistance Wed, 29 Jun 2011 11:09:35 EST <![CDATA[Massive Resistance]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Massive_Resistance Massive Resistance was a policy adopted in 1956 by Virginia's state government to block the desegregation of public schools mandated by the U.S. Supreme Court in its 1954 ruling in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Advocated by U.S. senator Harry F. Byrd Sr., a conservative Democrat and former governor who coined the term, Massive Resistance reflected the racial views and fears of Byrd's power base in Southside Virginia as well as the senator's reflexive disdain for federal government intrusion into state affairs. When schools were shut down in Front Royal in Warren County , Charlottesville , and Norfolk to prevent desegregation, the courts stepped in and overturned the policy. In the end, Massive Resistance added more bitterness to race relations already strained by the resentments engendered by the caste system and delayed large-scale desegregation of Virginia's public schools for more than a decade. Meanwhile, Virginia's defiance served as an example for the states of the Lower South, and the legal vestiges of Massive Resistance lasted until early in the 1970s.
Wed, 29 Jun 2011 11:09:35 EST]]>
/Desegregation_in_Higher_Education Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:14:13 EST <![CDATA[Desegregation in Higher Education]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Desegregation_in_Higher_Education The desegregation of higher education in Virginia was the result of a long legal and social process that began after the American Civil War (1861–1865) and did not end before the 1970s. When the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" public accommodations for blacks and whites were constitutional in the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the court established a sturdy legal basis for segregation. This ruling encouraged the Jim Crow era of legalized discrimination against blacks in the south. But the terminology of "separate but equal" eventually also created an opening for African Americans to demand educational opportunities and facilities equal to those available to whites. Educational opportunities for blacks were vastly inferior to whites, and segregation in higher education was entrenched in Virginia through World War II (1941–1945). But during the 1950s and 1960s, the first black students entered various graduate programs at the University of Virginia and the College of William and Mary, then undergraduate engineering programs at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and the University of Virginia, and finally general undergraduate programs at all historically white colleges and universities. In 1935 Alice Jackson failed to win admission to a graduate program at the University of Virginia, but Gregory Swanson, with the help of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and a ruling from a federal court, gained admission to the university's law school in 1950. Admittance into programs did not mean an immediate end to unfair and unequal treatment on campus, but by 1972 black students were able to enroll in Virginia in any curriculum and also live and eat in campus facilities.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:14:13 EST]]>