Encyclopedia Virginia http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Veney_Bethany_ca_1815 Wed, 13 Dec 2017 13:20:58 EST Veney, Bethany (ca. 1815­–1916) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Veney_Bethany_ca_1815 Wed, 13 Dec 2017 13:20:58 EST]]> /Wythe_George_1726_or_1727-1806 Tue, 12 Dec 2017 11:33:56 EST <![CDATA[Wythe, George (1726 or 1727–1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wythe_George_1726_or_1727-1806 Tue, 12 Dec 2017 11:33:56 EST]]> /Harrison_Gessner_1807-1862 Tue, 12 Dec 2017 08:17:21 EST <![CDATA[Harrison, Gessner (1807–1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harrison_Gessner_1807-1862 Gessner Harrison was a professor of ancient languages at the University of Virginia from 1828 to 1859, the first graduate of the university to join the faculty. Born in Harrisonburg, he hailed from a learned and political family, and, in 1825, became the fifth student to register at the new University of Virginia. Harrison's sincerity and religious conviction appeared to have impressed Thomas Jefferson, with whom he was invited to dine, and he became a professor when he was just twenty-one years old. What impressed Jefferson, however, did not always impress his students who, early in Harrison's career, attacked him on multiple occasions, once with a horsewhip. Harrison, who had earned a degree in medicine, eventually came to earn respect as a classics scholar, and he served as faculty chairman three times (1837–1839, 1840–1842, 1847–1854). In 1859, he resigned from the university to establish a school for boys. The beginning of the American Civil War (1861–1865) took most of his students away and the school closed when Harrison died in 1862.
Tue, 12 Dec 2017 08:17:21 EST]]>
/Venable_Charles_S_1827-1900 Mon, 11 Dec 2017 16:55:31 EST <![CDATA[Venable, Charles S. (1827–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Venable_Charles_S_1827-1900 Charles S. Venable was a mathematician who served as an aide-de-camp to Confederate general Robert E. Lee during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and as the chair of mathematics at the University of Virginia from 1865 until his retirement in 1896. Born at his family's estate near Farmville, Venable pursued academics from an early age, teaching at Hampden-Sydney College (1846–1856), the University of Georgia (1856–1857), and the University of South Carolina (1857–1862) before joining Lee's staff. His wartime experience and his close affiliation with Lee served him well in the postwar years, helping his advocacy for the University of Virginia and making him an important voice among those promoting the Lost Cause interpretation of the Civil War. A few months after the surrender at Appomattox, Venable accepted a position in Charlottesville and twice served as chairman of the faculty (1870–1873, 1886–1888). During his tenure he helped secure critical public and private funding for the university and pushed for the expansion of the university's course offerings in the sciences. Exploiting a mutual interest in astronomy, he helped secure a large financial gift from Leander J. McCormick that in 1885 went toward a domed observatory and refractor telescope, the second largest of its kind in the world. Venable taught the University of Virginia's first woman student, in 1893, but voted against coeducation the next year. He died in 1900.
Mon, 11 Dec 2017 16:55:31 EST]]>
/Barbour_Philip_Pendleton_1783-1841 Mon, 11 Dec 2017 13:24:54 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, Philip Pendleton (1783–1841)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_Philip_Pendleton_1783-1841 Philip Pendleton Barbour was a member of the House of Delegates (1812–1814), Speaker of the House of Representatives (1821–1823), president of the Convention of 1829–1830, a federal district court judge (1830–1836), and an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1836–1841). Born in Orange County, Barbour studied law with St. George Tucker and practiced briefly in Kentucky before returning to Virginia. He served for two years in the General Assembly and then in Congress, from 1814 to 1825. His older brother, James Barbour, also was a prominent politician, serving as governor and then in the U.S. Senate, but their political philosophies diverged over time. Whereas James Barbour came to support a federal bank and federally supported internal improvement projects, Philip Pendleton Barbour remained a staunch Jeffersonian conservative, emphasizing states' rights and limited government. Even while his brother served in the cabinet of President John Quincy Adams, Philip Pendleton Barbour loudly opposed the administration. After the election of Andrew Jackson, Barbour won appointment as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. His time on the bench was short and devoted to undoing the work of Chief Justice John Marshall, who advocated for a broad interpretation of the Constitution. Barbour died in 1841.
Mon, 11 Dec 2017 13:24:54 EST]]>
/Lee_Henry_1787-1837 Fri, 08 Dec 2017 16:50:48 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Henry (1787–1837)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Henry_1787-1837 Fri, 08 Dec 2017 16:50:48 EST]]> /Lee_Henry_1756-1818 Fri, 08 Dec 2017 16:44:43 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Henry (1756–1818)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Henry_1756-1818 Henry Lee, also known as Light-Horse Harry Lee or Henry Lee III, was an officer in the Continental and U.S. armies, a representative from Virginia to the Confederation Congress (1786–1788) and the U.S. House of Representatives (1799–1801), a member of the House of Delegates (1789–1791), the governor of Virginia (1791–1794), and the master of Stratford Hall. Born in Prince William County and educated at Princeton, he was the father of eight children who survived to adulthood, including Henry Lee IV, Charles Carter Lee, and Robert E. Lee. A gifted cavalryman, Lee distinguished himself in the American Revolution (1775–1783), fighting under generals George Washington and Nathanael Greene. After the war, Lee played an active role in state and national politics, but his ambitions were undermined by disastrous land deals and financial mismanagement. He served time in debtor's prison, and in 1812, an encounter with an anti-Federalist mob in Baltimore left him disfigured and ailing. After traveling abroad to escape his creditors, Lee died in Georgia in 1818.
Fri, 08 Dec 2017 16:44:43 EST]]>
/Lee_Robert_Edward_1807-1870 Thu, 07 Dec 2017 10:43:33 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Robert E. (1807–1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Robert_Edward_1807-1870 Robert E. Lee was a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865) who led the Army of Northern Virginia from June 1862 until its surrender at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. Descended from several of Virginia's First Families, Lee was a well-regarded officer of the United States Army before the war. His decision to fight for the Confederacy was emblematic of the wrenching choices faced by Americans as the nation divided. After an early defeat in western Virginia, he repulsed George B. McClellan's army from the Confederate capital during the Seven Days' Battles (1862) and won stunning victories at Manassas (1862), Fredericksburg (1862), and Chancellorsville (1863). The Maryland and Pennsylvania campaigns he led resulted in major contests at Antietam (1862) and Gettysburg (1863), respectively, with severe consequences for the Confederacy. Lee offered a spirited defense during the Overland Campaign (1864) against Ulysses S. Grant, but was ultimately outmaneuvered and forced into a prolonged siege at Petersburg (1864–1865). Lee's generalship was characterized by bold tactical maneuvers and inspirational leadership; however, critics have questioned his strategic judgment, his waste of lives in needless battles, and his unwillingness to fight in the Western Theater. In 1865, his beloved home at Arlington having been turned into a national cemetery, Lee became president of Washington College (now Washington and Lee University) in Lexington. There he promoted educational innovation and presented a constructive face to the devastated Southern public. Privately Lee remained bitter and worked to obstruct societal changes brought about by the war, including the enfranchisement of African Americans. By the end of his life he had become a potent symbol of regional pride and dignity in defeat, and has remained an icon of the Lost Cause. He died on October 12, 1870.
Thu, 07 Dec 2017 10:43:33 EST]]>
/Beale_R_L_T_1819-1893 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 11:01:45 EST <![CDATA[Beale, R. L. T. (1819–1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beale_R_L_T_1819-1893 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 11:01:45 EST]]> /Wythe_The_Death_of_George_1806 Thu, 30 Nov 2017 11:07:25 EST <![CDATA[Wythe, The Death of George (1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wythe_The_Death_of_George_1806 George Wythe, a prominent judge and professor who signed the Declaration of Independence, died in Richmond on June 8, 1806. He had become violently ill after eating breakfast on May 25 with Lydia Broadnax and Michael Brown, both free African Americans. On May 27, George Wythe Sweeney Jr., Wythe's great-nephew, attempted to cash a check bearing Wythe's forged signature and was arrested soon after. Brown died on June 1, and by that time Wythe had come to believe that he, Brown, and Broadnax had been poisoned by Sweeney. Before dying he amended his will to disinherit Sweeney. The Richmond Hustings Court found sufficient evidence against Sweeney to refer forgery and murder charges to the District Court, where Sweeney was tried in September. Defended by two friends of George Wythe, including Edmund Randolph, he was acquitted of murder and found guilty on two of four counts of forgery. Sweeney's prison sentence was set aside, however, and he soon left the state. Many in Richmond and across the country had come to assume that Sweeney was guilty of murder and the trial garnered significant press attention. While the Richmond Enquirer claimed that the verdict was the result of Virginia's prohibition of African American testimony against white defendants, later historians have pointed to the purely circumstantial nature of the evidence.
Thu, 30 Nov 2017 11:07:25 EST]]>
/Ambler_Richard_1690-ca_1766 Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:31:11 EST <![CDATA[Ambler, Richard (1690–ca. 1766)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ambler_Richard_1690-ca_1766 Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:31:11 EST]]> /Boone_Daniel_1734-1820 Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:26:45 EST <![CDATA[Boone, Daniel (1734–1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boone_Daniel_1734-1820 Daniel Boone was a legendary frontiersman and a member of the House of Delegates (1781–1782, 1787–1788, 1791). Born in Pennsylvania the son of Quakers, he moved to North Carolina as a young man. His first long hunting trip was in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. Boone briefly lived in Culpeper County after the Cherokee War drove him north, and by the end of the decade he was making regular trips to Kentucky. In 1775 he was hired to cut a road from present-day Tennessee, through the Cumberland Gap, to the Kentucky River—what came to be known as the Wilderness Road. His fame as a woodsman grew, enhanced by violent run-ins with Indians and the embellishments of writers. In 1780 he was elected to the House of Delegates from the newly created Fayette County (in what later became the state of Kentucky). Boone moved several times, ran a store, and twice more won election to the House of Delegates. In 1799 the Spanish granted him land in what was then Louisiana and what later became Missouri. He died there in 1820.
Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:26:45 EST]]>
/Byrd_Organization Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:24:01 EST <![CDATA[Byrd Organization]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Organization The Byrd Organization was a state political machine headed by Harry F. Byrd (1887–1966), a Democratic state senator, governor, and United States senator who, for more than forty years, used his power and influence to dominate the political life of Virginia. Inheriting an already tight party organization that for decades had emphasized small government and a limited franchise, Byrd prioritized fiscal conservatism—a policy he pithily dubbed "pay as you go"—and, on those grounds, opposed many of fellow Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal programs. Byrd and his organization are perhaps best known, however, for their fierce opposition to a 1954 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that mandated the desegregation of public schools. The resulting Massive Resistance movement led to the shutdown of schools in Charlottesville, Front Royal, and Norfolk before the federal and state courts overturned state antidesegregation policies. It also effectively ended the organization's decades-long hold on power in the state.
Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:24:01 EST]]>
/Rind_Clementina_d_1774 Mon, 27 Nov 2017 13:51:40 EST <![CDATA[Rind, Clementina (d. 1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rind_Clementina_d_1774 Clementina Rind was a public printer for Virginia and publisher from August 1773 to September 1774 of one of two Virginia Gazettes printedin Williamsburg. Born about 1740, she married the Maryland printer William Rind after 1762 and they moved to Williamsburg later in 1765 or early in 1766. There, in May 1766, William Rind established the Virginia Gazette in direct competition to a paper of the same name published by Alexander Purdie and John Dixon. He soon also became the colony's public printer, publishing all of the government's official documents. Rind died in 1773 and Clementina Rind took over the newspaper and won appointment to succeed her husband as public printer. She managed the business well and supplemented her income by printing other material, such as Thomas Jefferson's tract A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774). Although nonpartisan, her Virginia Gazette included news that suggested solidarity with the patriot cause in the years before the American Revolution (1775–1783). She died in Williamsburg in 1774.
Mon, 27 Nov 2017 13:51:40 EST]]>
/Stratford_Hall Tue, 21 Nov 2017 14:25:40 EST <![CDATA[Stratford Hall]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Stratford_Hall Stratford Hall is a 1,500-acre plantation located in Westmoreland County on the Potomac River. The politician and planter Thomas Lee purchased the land for Stratford in 1717; although no records exist to indicate when the house was built, construction likely began in 1738 and was completed sometime in the 1740s. The plantation was home to two signers of the Declaration of Independence—Richard Henry Lee and Francis Lightfoot Lee—and was the birthplace of the Confederate general Robert E. Lee. Thomas Lee's descendants lived at Stratford until the 1820s, when Henry Lee IV sold the plantation to cover his debts. Since 1929, the Robert E. Lee Memorial Association, or RELMA, has owned Stratford Hall.
Tue, 21 Nov 2017 14:25:40 EST]]>
/University_of_Virginia_Riot_of_1836 Fri, 17 Nov 2017 17:08:20 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Riot of 1836]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Riot_of_1836 The University of Virginia Riot of 1836 occurred on November 12–13 of that year when members of the student drilling company, the University Volunteers, commandeered the Rotunda and marched through the university's grounds, destroying property. In some respects, the violence was the culmination of a decade of misbehavior among students who hailed from elite backgrounds, were bound by an honor culture, and were unchecked by a university founded on the belief that its charges could police themselves. The University Volunteers were allowed to drill with muskets only during specially sanctioned exercises, but in 1836 the company began ignoring the rules. When the faculty chairman, John A. G. Davis, threatened to disband the group, the Volunteers defied authority, each pledging an oath of solidarity to one another. That promise bound members of the group even when some wavered in the face of violence and expulsion. Students rioted for two nights, focusing much of their ire on Davis, who called in civilian law enforcement to restore order. After debating how to handle punishments, the faculty voted to allow members of the Volunteers to remain at the university if they made "proper atonement" for the participation in the riots. Riots continued to occur in subsequent years, and the anniversary of the 1836 disturbance was marked with mischief, revelry, and, in 1840, murder, when Davis was shot dead.
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 17:08:20 EST]]>
/Tuck_William_M_1896-1983 Thu, 16 Nov 2017 17:10:10 EST <![CDATA[Tuck, William M. (1896–1983)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tuck_William_M_1896-1983 William M. Tuck was a member of the House of Delegates (1924–1932), the Senate of Virginia (1932–1942), and the U.S. House of Representatives (1953–1969). He also served as lieutenant governor (1942–1946) and governor (1946–1950). Born in Halifax County and educated in the law, Tuck was raised around tobacco and politics and was renowned for his girth and flamboyant personality. Harry F. Byrd Sr., a U.S. senator and head of the conservative Democratic Byrd Organization, did not initially warm to Tuck, who bucked him early on with regard to New Deal politics. But the two eventually became close allies. As governor, Tuck fought organized labor, threatening to draft union members into the state militia if they went on strike and helping usher a right-to-work law through the General Assembly. He also fought civil rights, opposing the agenda of President Harry S. Truman and later efforts to enforce public-school desegregation. Tuck retired from politics in 1969 and died in South Boston in 1983.
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 17:10:10 EST]]>
/Burns_Anthony_The_Trial_of_1854 Tue, 14 Nov 2017 11:24:50 EST <![CDATA[Burns, Anthony, The Trial of (1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burns_Anthony_The_Trial_of_1854 The trial of Anthony Burns, a fugitive slave from Virginia, occurred in Boston, Massachusetts, during the spring of 1854. Hired out in Richmond, Burns had saved money and stowed away on a ship to Boston, where he worked in a clothing store. A letter home to his brother unintentionally revealed his location, and when it was intercepted, Burns's owner, Charles F. Suttle, traveled north and claimed Burns under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Approved as part of the Compromise of 1850, the law was designed to strengthen federal protections for southerners attempting recover slaves who had fled to free states. Members of the Boston Vigilance Committee, a group of antislavery activists who were committed to resisting the law, made an attempt to free Burns from custody. The rescue effort was unsuccessful, and a guard was killed in the process. In the trial, Burns's lawyers argued that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional and that Burns was not actually the man whom Suttle claimed to own. On June 1, 1854, Judge Edward Greely Loring ruled against Burns, who was afterward transported to Norfolk, Virginia, on a U.S. Revenue Cutter. Antislavery activists later purchased his freedom, and he became a minister, dying in Canada in 1862. None of those responsible for the guard's death was convicted, and many southerners believed that, in spite of the Fugitive Slave Act's successful enforcement, the Burns affair proved that northerners could not be trusted to fulfill their constitutional obligations.
Tue, 14 Nov 2017 11:24:50 EST]]>
/Davis_John_Staige_1824-1885 Mon, 13 Nov 2017 15:59:10 EST <![CDATA[Davis, John Staige (1824–1885)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_John_Staige_1824-1885 John Staige Davis was a professor of medicine at the University of Virginia from 1847 until 1885. Born in Albemarle County, he was the son of John A. G. Davis, a law professor at the university who was shot and killed by a student there in 1840. The younger Davis practiced medicine in western Virginia before joining the faculty himself in 1847. Preferring a practical approach to anatomy instruction, and thwarted by a Virginia law that prohibited the disinterment of dead bodies, he resorted to grave robbing. Most of the bodies came from African American and pauper cemeteries, others from executed convicts. In 1859, Davis requested the bodies of men sentenced to be hanged after John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry but received none. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Davis served as a Confederate surgeon in Charlottesville. He died in 1885.
Mon, 13 Nov 2017 15:59:10 EST]]>
/Anatomical_Theatre Mon, 13 Nov 2017 15:55:16 EST <![CDATA[Anatomical Theatre]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anatomical_Theatre The Anatomical Theatre was designed by Thomas Jefferson and erected on the grounds of the University of Virginia in 1825–1826. It was used for anatomy instruction and the storage of cadavers. Jefferson had long prioritized medical education in his plans for the university, but when Robley Dunglison, the first professor of anatomy, arrived in 1825, he found that his pavilion's teaching space was inconvenient for the dissection of cadavers. Inspired by Renaissance architecture and the work of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Jefferson designed a square, three-story building that housed a skylit, octagonal surgical theater on the top floor. The Anatomical Theatre opened for classes in 1827 and was the subject of periodic construction and renovations in subsequent decades. In 1837, a one-story brick Anatomical Laboratory was built behind it and used only for dissections. Enslaved labor helped construct and later clean the theater, with university records referencing a man known as Anatomical Lewis, who served as custodian from 1839 to 1857. In order to acquire cadavers for dissection, professors such as John Staige Davis, who taught from 1847 until his death in 1885, relied on grave robbers who stole mostly African American corpses. The building fell into disuse after the opening of the University of Virginia Hospital in 1901 and briefly served as home to the School of Rural Economics. It was razed in 1939 to improve views of the new Alderman Library. It is the only Jefferson-designed building at the university to have been torn down.
Mon, 13 Nov 2017 15:55:16 EST]]>
/Ashe_Arthur_1943-1993 Thu, 09 Nov 2017 10:46:41 EST <![CDATA[Ashe, Arthur (1943–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ashe_Arthur_1943-1993 Arthur Ashe was a professional tennis player, broadcaster, author, and activist. Known for his on-court grace and low-key demeanor, he was the first black men's tennis champion at the U.S. Open and Wimbledon, the first African American to play for and captain the U.S. Davis Cup team, and the first black man inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame. Yet it was and remains Ashe's legacy outside of professional tennis for which he is most noted. He was the first and only African American to have a statue of his likeness erected on Richmond's historic Monument Avenue and one of the most prominent athletes of any race to die from AIDS.
Thu, 09 Nov 2017 10:46:41 EST]]>
/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_July_4-7_1840 Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:53:53 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Board of Visitors Minutes (July 4–7, 1840)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_July_4-7_1840 Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:53:53 EST]]> /University_of_Virginia_The_Architecture_of_the Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:49:05 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia, The Architecture of the]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_The_Architecture_of_the As Thomas Jefferson's last major contribution to American public life, the University of Virginia combined his deepest civic and personal passions: democracy, architecture, and the dissemination of knowledge. Springing from concepts developed in his early years as a politician and gentleman architect, Jefferson's design for the university, which he called the "Academical Village," was a large, complicated composition based in the rules and monuments of classical architecture. Tightly organized around a U-shaped, terraced lawn with a library at its head, Jefferson's university combined faculty and student housing, classrooms, dining halls, and utility spaces into a relatively self-sustaining complex. Understood even by its founder as a place that would have to adapt to changing needs and a growing population, the university was amended and reconsidered throughout the nineteenth century, until a massive fire in 1895 allowed for a substantial reorientation of Jefferson's initial vision by the New York architecture firm of McKim, Mead, and White. Over the course of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, however, attempts to alter and preserve the Academical Village have been far more cautious.
Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:49:05 EST]]>
/Virginia_Tech_Shootings Tue, 07 Nov 2017 08:21:04 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Tech Shootings]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Tech_Shootings Tue, 07 Nov 2017 08:21:04 EST]]> /Shooting_Victims_of_the_Virginia_Tech_Mass_2007 Mon, 06 Nov 2017 16:12:15 EST <![CDATA[Shooting, Victims of the Virginia Tech Mass (2007)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Shooting_Victims_of_the_Virginia_Tech_Mass_2007 Mon, 06 Nov 2017 16:12:15 EST]]> /Free_Blacks_in_Colonial_Virginia Thu, 26 Oct 2017 09:18:09 EST <![CDATA[Free Blacks in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Free_Blacks_in_Colonial_Virginia Thu, 26 Oct 2017 09:18:09 EST]]> /Billy_Billy_or_Blind_ca_1805-1855 Mon, 16 Oct 2017 16:43:17 EST <![CDATA[Billy or Blind Billy (ca. 1805–1855)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Billy_Billy_or_Blind_ca_1805-1855 Mon, 16 Oct 2017 16:43:17 EST]]> /Harris_Joseph_D_c_1833-1884 Wed, 11 Oct 2017 10:02:51 EST <![CDATA[Harris, J. D. (ca. 1833–1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harris_Joseph_D_c_1833-1884 J. D. Harris, a free-born physician, ran as the lieutenant gubernatorial candidate for the Republican Party's radical faction in the election of 1869. Harris entered public life late in the 1850s, advocating African American repatriation to the Caribbean. His interest in tropical diseases led him into medicine, and he became a doctor in 1864. Harris's medical work for the U.S. Army settled him in Virginia. Politically active and known for his intelligence, he received the Republicans' nomination for lieutenant governor in the first statewide election under the Constitution of 1869. His multiracial background played a role in splitting the party that year. A breakaway group known as the True Republicans received the tacit support of the Conservative Party and carried the election. Harris remained active in medicine and civil rights, living in South Carolina and Virginia, until a mental breakdown in 1876. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1884.
Wed, 11 Oct 2017 10:02:51 EST]]>
/Brown_Abram_d_1840 Mon, 09 Oct 2017 15:10:39 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Abram (d. 1840)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Abram_d_1840 Abram Brown was a Baptist lay leader in Charles City County who helped found Elam Baptist Church in 1818. Born free, Brown farmed on land he inherited from his father and was wealthy compared to most African Americans of his day. He joined a Baptist church in Petersburg but soon after established a separate church on his Charles City County land and took a leadership role in his local religious community. In 1818 he transferred the land to the church, thus taking credit as founder of Elam Baptist Church. Little else is known about Brown's life. He had at least eight children, many of whom, along with their own children and grandchildren, played important roles in the African American community of Charles City County. Brown died in 1840.
Mon, 09 Oct 2017 15:10:39 EST]]>
/Abrams_Joseph_1791-1854 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:23:30 EST <![CDATA[Abrams, Joseph (1791–1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Abrams_Joseph_1791-1854 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:23:30 EST]]> /Ambler_Jaquelin_1742-1798 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:21:50 EST <![CDATA[Ambler, Jaquelin (1742–1798)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ambler_Jaquelin_1742-1798 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:21:50 EST]]> /William_Daniel_Jr_1806-1873 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:19:12 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, William Jr. (1806–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/William_Daniel_Jr_1806-1873 William Daniel Jr. was a member of the House of Delegates (1831–1832, 1835–1836, 1838) and served as a judge of the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals (1847– 1865). Born in Winchester, Daniel earned a law degree from the University of Virginia and practiced in Lynchburg. He represented Campbell County in the House of Delegates, and during the slavery debate of 1831–1832 spoke against a proposal to free children born to enslaved mothers. Elected to the Supreme Court of Appeals in 1846, he sat on the bench through the American Civil War (1861–1865) issuing respected rulings on equity jurisprudence and property rights. In 1861, he wrote an opinion in Baker v. Wise, Governor, which upheld a Virginia law that required state inspectors to verify that ships owned out of state and bound for the North did not harbor fugitive slaves. After the war Daniel resumed his law practice in Lynchburg and died in nearby Nelson County in 1873.
Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:19:12 EST]]>
/Boxley_George_ca_1780-1865 Mon, 11 Sep 2017 16:09:29 EST <![CDATA[Boxley, George (ca. 1780–1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boxley_George_ca_1780-1865 George Boxley was an antislavery leader who allegedly conspired to help slaves revolt in 1816. Born in Spotsylvania County, he farmed and ran a general store and himself owned slaves. His motivations for turning against slavery in 1815 remain unclear, although speculation has included everything from personal grievances to religious delusions. Boxley's plans were exposed, a number of slaves were arrested, and he turned himself in. What resulted was the largest prosecution for insurrection between Gabriel's Conspiracy in 1800 and Nat Turner's Revolt in 1831. With the help of his wife, Boxley escaped jail and spent the next several years on the run, outwitting bounty hunters. He finally settled in Hamilton County, Indiana, where he died in 1865.
Mon, 11 Sep 2017 16:09:29 EST]]>
/Crane_William_1790-1866 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 16:06:08 EST <![CDATA[Crane, William (1790–1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crane_William_1790-1866 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 16:06:08 EST]]> /Colson_William_1805-1835 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 15:48:48 EST <![CDATA[Colson, William (1805–1835)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colson_William_1805-1835 William Colson was a merchant who helped establish Roberts, Colson, and Company, one of the first African American transatlantic shipping companies. Born in Petersburg the son of a free black barber, he was probably self-educated. His partnership with Joseph Jenkins Roberts, another free black businessman, began during or before 1829. They acquired a schooner and began to trade between the United States and Liberia, where Roberts moved. The business did well and Colson lived well in Petersburg. In 1835 he visited Liberia to acquaint himself with the business there and to serve a year as a missionary. Not long after arriving, however, he became ill and died.
Wed, 06 Sep 2017 15:48:48 EST]]>
/Ogilvie_James_1773-1820 Thu, 31 Aug 2017 14:14:49 EST <![CDATA[Ogilvie, James (1773–1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ogilvie_James_1773-1820 James Ogilvie was a schoolteacher who became a celebrity orator, ultimately spending twelve years traveling throughout the United States, England, and Scotland advocating for oratory as a primary medium of communication. Born and educated in Scotland, he came to Virginia in 1793 to teach at the Fredericksburg Academy. There his avowed atheism and radical republicanism made him a controversial figure, but over fifteen years traveling throughout central Virginia he proved both an effective and successful teacher. After delivering two dozen lectures in the State Capitol from 1803 to 1804, Ogilvie abandoned teaching for oratory in 1808. He traveled up and down the East Coast selling tickets to a series of eloquent, educational lectures on "moral and philosophical subjects." He quickly became one of the most famous men in America, renowned for his speaking skills. In 1813 he announced a plan to create temporary schools of oratory, an effort that had some success in South Carolina but few other places. Then in 1816 he published a collection of essays and autobiography, Philosophical Essays, that was a critical failure and he left the United States for the British Isles. He died in 1820, likely by his own hand.
Thu, 31 Aug 2017 14:14:49 EST]]>
/Boothe_Gardner_Lloyd_1872-1964 Wed, 30 Aug 2017 14:37:10 EST <![CDATA[Boothe, Gardner L. (1872–1964)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boothe_Gardner_Lloyd_1872-1964 Gardner L. Boothe was a Democratic Party leader in Alexandria for more than fifty years. Born in that city in 1872, he studied law at the University of Virginia in 1893 and opened a law practice. Boothe became Alexandria's city attorney in 1897 and five years later was elected a member of the Democratic Party's State Central Committee. That same year he was selected chairman of the Eighth District Committee, a position he held until 1952. Boothe aligned himself with the state's conservative establishment, backing stalwarts Harry F. Byrd Sr. and Howard W. Smith, including in their opposition to civil rights legislation. A member of the state's old guard, he presided over Alexandria's First National Bank for forty-six years and took an active role in local business, civic, and religious affairs. He died in Alexandria in 1964.
Wed, 30 Aug 2017 14:37:10 EST]]>
/Byrd_Harry_Flood_Sr_1887-1966 Wed, 30 Aug 2017 14:21:49 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, Harry F. (1887–1966)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Harry_Flood_Sr_1887-1966 Harry F. Byrd served as a Virginia state senator (1915–1925), governor (1926–1930), and United States senator (1933–1965), was the father of a U.S. senator, and for forty years led the Democratic political machine known as the Byrd Organization. By virtue of both his service and power, he was one of the most prominent Virginians of the twentieth century. But much of that power was wielded in mostly vain opposition to the New Deal's big-government programs and the civil rights legislation of the 1960s. As governor he instituted a popular downsizing of state government that increased efficiency, but the end of his career was marked by his now-infamous "massive resistance" to federally mandated school desegregation.
Wed, 30 Aug 2017 14:21:49 EST]]>
/John_Mitchell_Jr_1863-1929 Tue, 29 Aug 2017 09:22:20 EST <![CDATA[Mitchell, John Jr. (1863–1929)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_Mitchell_Jr_1863-1929 John Mitchell Jr. was a prominent newspaper editor, politician, banker, and civil rights activist. Born enslaved near Richmond, Mitchell attended the Richmond Colored Normal School and taught for a year before he and other black teachers were fired by a new Democratic school board. He then went into journalism, in 1884 becoming editor of the Richmond Planet, an African American weekly newspaper. Mitchell used the Planet to promote civil rights, racial justice, and racial pride. As an editor and an activist, he became a key figure in the antilynching movement and played an instrumental role in organizing the Richmond streetcar boycott of 1904. Mitchell's bold protest against racial injustice, which at times included calls to take up arms in self-defense, earned him his reputation as "the Fighting Editor." In addition to his work on the Richmond Planet, Mitchell served on the Richmond city council from 1888 to 1896 before founding the Mechanics Savings Bank in 1901. His work at the bank brought him more into the political and social mainstream but after its collapse in 1922 led him to be convicted on charges of fraud and theft. The conviction was later overturned but left him destitute. When the state Republican Party excluded most black delegates from its convention, Mitchell unsuccessfully ran for governor on a "Lily Black" ticket. He remained editor of the Richmond Planet until his death in 1929.
Tue, 29 Aug 2017 09:22:20 EST]]>
/Dickinson_R_H_1811_or_1812-1873 Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:42:53 EST <![CDATA[Dickinson, R. H. (1811 or 1812–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dickinson_R_H_1811_or_1812-1873 R. H. Dickinson was a slave trader in Richmond. Born probably on his parents' Caroline County plantation, he moved to Richmond and went into the slave-trading business there with one or both of his brothers. They purchased slaves in Virginia and Maryland for resale in bigger, Deep South markets, and in 1856 may have earned as much as $200,000. Dickinson was a part owner of the Saint Charles Hotel, where he conducted at least some of his sales and may have had an office. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served in the state reserves and sold slaves right up to the fall of Richmond. The end of the Confederacy and the abolition of slavery erased much of Dickinson's wealth, and little is known of his life after the war. He died in 1873.
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:42:53 EST]]>
/Trinkle_E_Lee_1876-1939 Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:35:44 EST <![CDATA[Trinkle, E. Lee (1876–1939)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Trinkle_E_Lee_1876-1939 E. Lee Trinkle served in the Senate of Virginia (1916–1922) and as governor of Virginia (1922–1926). Born in Wytheville and educated at Hampden-Sydney College and the University of Virginia, Trinkle practiced law in his hometown before beginning his political career. He served first in the Senate of Virginia as a Democrat and moderate Progressive who supported prohibition and woman suffrage. Although Trinkle ran a failed campaign for Congress and boasted only a modest legislative record, circumstances conspired to make him a compromise choice for governor in 1922. His term was notable for his struggle with up-and-coming Harry F. Byrd over control of the state Democratic Party. The primary issue was funding for the state highway system. Trinkle preferred bonds and Byrd preferred what became his signature "pay-as-you-go" method. Voters overwhelmingly defeated a $50 million bond issue in 1923, essentially curtailing Trinkle's aspirations for higher political office. Trinkle signed the Racial Integrity Act in 1924, supported the New Deal under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and served as chairman of the state Board of Education from 1930 until his death, in Richmond, in 1939.
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:35:44 EST]]>
/Prentis_John_B_1788-1848 Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:33:13 EST <![CDATA[Prentis, John B. (1788–1848)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Prentis_John_B_1788-1848 John B. Prentis was a prominent slave trader in Richmond. Born in Williamsburg, he did not follow his father into politics and the law. Instead, he apprenticed as an architect in Philadelphia before working as a builder in Richmond. Early in his life Prentis may have harbored antislavery feelings, but by 1820 he had turned to the slave trade for a living. He spent summers traveling across the Upper South buying enslaved men, women, and children and then either reselling them in Richmond or transporting them to markets in the Deep South. By 1826 he had accumulated more than 100 acres of land in Richmond and a nice residence in the city's Church Hill neighborhood. He died in 1848 .
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:33:13 EST]]>
/Bowser_James_b_ca_1730 Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:29:01 EST <![CDATA[Bowser, James (b. ca. 1730)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowser_James_b_ca_1730 James Bowser was a Continental army soldier during the American Revolution (1775–1783), one of about 5,000 African Americans to serve in the Patriots' army or navy. Born in Nansemond County, Bowser probably first joined the army in 1778 or 1779, fighting in Pennsylvania and then Virginia. He likely was present at the siege of Yorktown. There were two James Bowsers from Virginia, probably related, who fought during the war and distinguishing their lives has become difficult. Bowser was fifty-three when he left the army, and the date and place of his death are unknown.
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:29:01 EST]]>
/Virginia_Slavery_Debate_of_1831-1832_The Fri, 25 Aug 2017 11:29:50 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Slavery Debate of 1831–1832, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Slavery_Debate_of_1831-1832_The The Virginia slavery debate occurred in the House of Delegates during its 1831–1832 session and was prompted by a slave insurrection in August 1831 led by Nat Turner. In the months that followed, about forty petitions, signed by more than 2,000 Virginians, urged the General Assembly to engage the problems associated with slavery. Some petitions called for outright emancipation, others for colonization. Many focused on removing from the state free blacks, who were widely seen as a nefarious influence. The House established a select committee, and when the debate finally spilled over into the full body, in mid-January 1832, it focused on two resolutions. One, made by William O. Goode, called for the rejection of all petitions calling for emancipation. Another, made by Thomas Jefferson Randolph, asked the committee to prepare an emancipation plan to go before the state's voters. By taking up these questions, the House, in effect, considered whether to free Virginia's slaves. After vigorous debate, members declined to pass such a law, deciding instead that they "should await a more definite development of public opinion." In fact, pro-slavery, anti-abolitionist opinion hardened in Virginia in the years that followed, buttressed by arguments previewed in the House. Randolph believed that even having such an open debate should be considered a victory, while others lamented how divided the state was on the crucial question of slavery.
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 11:29:50 EST]]>
/Bruce_James_Coles_1806-1865 Tue, 22 Aug 2017 11:58:13 EST <![CDATA[Bruce, James Coles (1806–1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bruce_James_Coles_1806-1865 James Coles Bruce was a planter, a member of the House of Delegates (1831–1834), and a member of the Convention of 1861. Born in Halifax County, he studied law at the University of Virginia before returning home to farm. In the House of Delegates, during the slavery debate of 1831–1832, he described slavery as a necessary evil and denounced efforts to abolish it. He himself owned probably more slaves than any other legislator. After his term he commissioned the building of Berry Hill, a grand mansion modeled after the Parthenon, and participated in public conversations about how the South's agricultural economy might be stimulated. Bruce suggested crop rotation, diversification, better use of capital and credit, and the sale of surplus slaves. He also advocated for the establishment of a state system of public schools open equally to men and women. One of the wealthiest men in the country. Bruce represented Halifax County at the Convention of 1861, called to consider whether Virginia should secede from the Union. He gave speeches in favor of states' rights and against abolitionism and eventually voted to secede. Bruce died in 1865.
Tue, 22 Aug 2017 11:58:13 EST]]>
/Caldwell_Alfred_1817-1868 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 17:06:21 EST <![CDATA[Caldwell, Alfred (1817–1868)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Caldwell_Alfred_1817-1868 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 17:06:21 EST]]> /Fire_Richmond_Theatre_1811 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 15:19:02 EST <![CDATA[Fire, Richmond Theatre (1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fire_Richmond_Theatre_1811 The Richmond Theatre fire, on December 26, 1811, caused the deaths of more than seventy people, including the governor of Virginia. At the time it was the deadliest urban disaster in American history. The five-year-old brick theater, located at the corner of H (later Broad) and Twelfth streets, housed performances by the South Carolina–based Placide and Green Company of actors, who played Richmond from August to December that year. On the night of the fire, more than 600 people, or about 6 percent of the city's population, packed the poorly designed and poorly constructed building to watch two full-length plays. At the end of the first act of the second play a lit chandelier was mistakenly raised, catching backdrops and then the roof on fire. Those patrons who sat in the two levels of raised boxes were forced to exit down a single, narrow, winding staircase, which soon collapsed. Others threw themselves out second- and third-story windows. George William Smith, elected governor less than three weeks earlier, was among the listed dead, which included at least fifty-four women and many of Richmond's wealthy elites. Their bodies were interred on the site, and over the crypt the city built Monumental Church, a structure designed by the architect Robert Mills.
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 15:19:02 EST]]>
/Colonial_Virginia Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST <![CDATA[Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colonial_Virginia The colonial period in Virginia began in 1607 with the landing of the first English settlers at Jamestown and ended in 1776 with the establishment of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although a thriving Indian society had existed for thousands of years before the English arrived, war with the European settlers and the introduction of new diseases for which the Indians had no resistance spelled disaster for it. The English colonists, meanwhile, just barely survived, suffering through summer droughts and winter starvation. Salvation came to the colony in the form of smoking tobacco, or what King James I called a "vile and stinking custom," when John Rolfe cultivated a variety of tobacco that sold well in England. In 1619, a General Assembly convened, bringing limited self-government to America. That same year brought the first slaves to Virginia. For most of the 1600s, white indentured servants worked the colony's tobacco fields, but by 1705 the Virginia colony had become a slave society. Nearly all power was in the hands of white male landowners, who ran the government and, by law, belonged to the Church of England. Women who married and worked at home were considered "good wives"; those who refused such "proper" roles were considered troublesome. And while Virginia's ruling men did not encourage women to be independent, they nevertheless fought for their own independence, taking full part in the American Revolution (1775–1783).
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST]]>
/Tait_Bacon_1796-1871 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:47:41 EST <![CDATA[Tait, Bacon (1796–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tait_Bacon_1796-1871 Bacon Tait was one of the most successful Richmond slave traders and jail operators in the years leading up to the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born near Lynchburg, he served briefly during the War of 1812 and spent time working in Richmond before relocating there permanently by 1828. In that year he made his first significant transaction in slaves, selling thirty-seven in New Orleans and entering into a year-long, unsuccessful partnership with two other men. About the same time Tait began what would be a longstanding business relationship with Thomas Boudar that included the buying and selling of slaves and the operation of a so-called jail for the confinement of enslaved men, women, and children awaiting sale. Tait probably first built the facility that came to be known as Lumpkin's Jail before constructing an even bigger one on the corner of Fifteenth and Cary streets. Although his business was not widely considered to be a respectable one, Tait served four terms on the Richmond City Council (1847–1851). Between 1843 and 1848 he fathered four children, including twins, with Courtney Fountain, a free black woman, and in 1851 Tait and Fountain moved to Salem, Massachusetts. He lived in Richmond during the Civil War and his wealth survived the war intact. He died in 1871.
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:47:41 EST]]>
/Washington_John_M_1838-1918 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:37:52 EST <![CDATA[Washington, John M. (1838–1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_John_M_1838-1918 John M. Washington was a slave in Fredericksburg who escaped to freedom during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and later wrote a narrative of his life entitled Memorys of the Past. Born in Fredericksburg, Washington spent his earliest years on an Orange County plantation where his mother had been hired out as a field laborer. Upon their return to Fredericksburg, Washington served as his owner's personal slave, remaining in that role even when his mother was hired out to a school principal in Staunton. In 1860, Washington labored in a Fredericksburg tobacco factory and then spent the next year as a waiter in Richmond. When Union troops occupied Fredericksburg in April 1862, he was tending bar in that city's Shakespeare Hotel and used the opportunity to escape to Union lines. Washington worked at the headquarters of Union general Rufus King until Union troops abandoned the city on August 31. He escaped to Washington, D.C., and was eventually joined there by his wife and newborn son, his mother, and her husband. Washington worked as a painter after the war and was active in the Baptist church. He wrote his narrative in 1873 and died at the Massachusetts home of one of his sons in 1918.
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:37:52 EST]]>
/West_Virginia_Creation_of Tue, 08 Aug 2017 17:55:53 EST <![CDATA[West Virginia, Creation of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/West_Virginia_Creation_of West Virginia was recognized by the U.S. government as the thirty-fifth state on June 20, 1863, an event that was the culmination of more than sixty years of heated sectional politics and legislative maneuverings. From the first political rumblings of new-state advocates at the turn of the nineteenth century through the formative sessions of the Wheeling conventions held from 1861 until 1863, the creation of West Virginia was a complex and contentious process that divided the residents, communities, and political leaders of Virginia. Spearheaded by northwestern Virginians, the statehood movement began as an effort to expand western political influence and the region's growing industrial economy. Final approval of West Virginia's statehood was forged amid the chaos and divisiveness of the secession debate and the bloodshed of the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Tue, 08 Aug 2017 17:55:53 EST]]>
/Abbott_Charles_Cortez_1906-1986 Tue, 08 Aug 2017 16:20:45 EST <![CDATA[Abbott, Charles Cortez (1906–1986)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Abbott_Charles_Cortez_1906-1986 Charles Cortez Abbott taught business at Harvard University (1923–1954) before becoming the first dean of the business school at the University of Virginia. Born in Kansas, Abbott was raised in New England and educated at Yale and Harvard. He published several books on business and finance before moving to Virginia, where he served as dean of what became known as the Colgate Darden Graduate School of Business Administration from 1954 until 1972. Abbott built the program into the one of the outstanding business schools in the South. He retired to Connecticut and died in 1986.
Tue, 08 Aug 2017 16:20:45 EST]]>
/Blackford_Mary_Berkeley_Minor_1802-1896 Tue, 08 Aug 2017 15:32:35 EST <![CDATA[Blackford, Mary Berkeley Minor (1802–1896)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blackford_Mary_Berkeley_Minor_1802-1896 Mary Berkeley Minor Blackford was an antislavery leader who founded a female auxiliary of the American Colonization Society in Fredericksburg. Born in Fredericksburg, she was unusually well educated by the time she married the attorney William Blackford in 1825. Together they were active in the Episcopal Church and she was a lifelong temperance advocate. Unlike her husband, Blackford saw colonization as the first step toward the abolition of slavery, and she became the most prominent female advocate of colonization in Virginia. In 1829 she founded the Fredericksburg and Falmouth Female Auxiliary to the American Colonization Society, raising hundreds of dollars and recruiting elite women such as Dolley Madison as life members. As public support for colonization and emancipation waned, she turned her efforts to promoting the education of women in Liberia. When she and her husband moved to Lynchburg in 1846, her work ended, although not her strong feelings about the cause. She became increasingly alienated from her family and opposed secession in 1861. She died in 1896.
Tue, 08 Aug 2017 15:32:35 EST]]>
/Foster_Kitty_ca_1790-1863 Fri, 28 Jul 2017 16:35:52 EST <![CDATA[Foster, Kitty (ca. 1790–1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Foster_Kitty_ca_1790-1863 Kitty Foster was a free African American woman who owned property just south of the University of Virginia, the site of which has been memorialized by the school. Born enslaved in Albemarle County, Foster was free by 1820 and renting land in an African American community near the university known as Canada. She purchased just more than two acres from a white merchant in 1833 and lived there until her death, washing clothes for students and faculty. In 1837, a university report accused her of holding firearms for students who were prohibited from carrying them on the university's grounds. Foster died in 1863 and was buried in a cemetery on her property. Archaeologists discovered the cemetery in 1993, and in 2011 the University of Virginia dedicated a memorial on the site.
Fri, 28 Jul 2017 16:35:52 EST]]>
/Campbell_Archibald_W_1833-1899 Fri, 28 Jul 2017 15:52:48 EST <![CDATA[Campbell, Archibald W. (1833–1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Campbell_Archibald_W_1833-1899 Archibald W. Campbell was a journalist, abolitionist, and Republican Party leader. Born in Ohio, he grew up in western Virginia and studied law in New York, where he met the abolitionist and future secretary of state William H. Seward. Campbell followed Seward into the Republican Party and in 1856 purchased the Wheeling Daily Intelligencer, making it the most influential Virginia newspaper outside Richmond. During the American Civil War (1861–1865) Campbell helped lead the movement for the creation of West Virginia but fell out with many Republican Party leaders after the war. He never sought public office and died in 1899.
Fri, 28 Jul 2017 15:52:48 EST]]>
/Washington_George_and_Slavery Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:50:15 EST <![CDATA[Washington, George and Slavery]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_George_and_Slavery George Washington owned enslaved people from age eleven until his death, when his will promised his slaves freedom. His actions and private statements suggest a long evolution in his stance on slavery, based on experience and a possible awakening of conscience. Born in 1732, Washington came of age in a time when large-scale tobacco planting, carried out by enslaved labor, dominated the economy and society of colonial Virginia. Washington made no official public statements on slavery or emancipation as a Virginia legislator, as a military officer, or as president of the United States. As a young man he acted as most of his slaveholding peers did—making full and lawful use of slave labor, buying and selling slaves, and even raffling off a debtor's slaves, including children, to recoup a loan. His marriage brought many slaves under his control, but he did not legally own these "dower" slaves. After the American Revolution (1775–1783) his private statements became more in line with abolitionist goals than with the economic and political positions of his Virginia peers, until he reached the point, around 1789, when his "regret" over slavery grew so strong that he eventually rewrote his will with provisions to free slaves. Washington was the only southern Founding Father to free all his slaves.
Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:50:15 EST]]>
/George_Washington_1732-1799 Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:45:05 EST <![CDATA[Washington, George (1732–1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_Washington_1732-1799 George Washington served as commander in chief of the Continental army during the American Revolution (1775–1783), as president of the United States Constitutional Convention (1787), and as first president of the United States (1789–1797). Born to a family of middling wealth, Washington's formal education ended when he was about fifteen. Thanks to his half-brother's marriage into the wealthy Fairfax family, Washington acquired social polish, a taste for aristocratic living, and connections to Virginia's political elite. Long months on the frontier as a surveyor toughened the young Washington, preparing him for service in Virginia's militia during the French and Indian War (1754–1763). He held positions of command at a remarkably young age. Marriage to Martha Custis brought him great wealth. Increasingly restive under British taxation and trade restrictions, Washington took a leading role in the nascent revolutionary movement after British regulars killed colonists and seized private property at the battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts in April 1775. As commander in chief, he led American forces for the entire eight-year war, losing more battles than he won but managing to keep the army together under the most difficult circumstances. By the middle of the war, he was already hailed as the "Father of His Country." His enormous prestige after the war led to his being chosen to lead the Constitutional Convention and to his election as first president.
Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:45:05 EST]]>
/Maggie_Lena_Walker_1864-1934 Thu, 13 Jul 2017 09:16:46 EST <![CDATA[Walker, Maggie Lena (1864–1934)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Maggie_Lena_Walker_1864-1934 Maggie Lena Walker was an African American entrepreneur and civic leader who broke traditional gender and discriminatory laws by becoming the first woman—white or black—to establish and become president of a bank in the United States—the Saint Luke Penny Savings Bank in Richmond. As of 2010, when it was known as Consolidated Bank and Trust Company, it was the oldest continually African American–operated bank in the United States. In her role as grand secretary of the Independent Order of Saint Luke, Walker also was indispensable in organizing a variety of enterprises that advanced the African American community while expanding the public role of women. Although as an African American woman in the post–Civil War South she faced social, economic, and political barriers in her life and business ventures, Walker, by encouraging investment and collective action, achieved tangible improvements for African Americans.
Thu, 13 Jul 2017 09:16:46 EST]]>
/Slave_Literacy_and_Education_in_Virginia Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:59:20 EST <![CDATA[Slave Literacy and Education in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Literacy_and_Education_in_Virginia Many enslaved African Americans in Virginia learned to read and write, either on their own or at the behest of their masters. As many as 5 percent of slaves may have been literate by the start of the American Revolution (1775–1783), their educations often tied to religious instruction. Many slaveholders viewed Christian teaching as their duty, and converts to the Church of England were required to be literate enough to read a catechism. The Anglican bishop Edmund Gibson and the minister Dr. Thomas Bray both promoted slave education in America with the Associates of Dr. Bray founding a number of schools, including in Williamsburg and Fredericksburg. Virginia law never explicitly prohibited the education of slaves, but in the years after Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800), the General Assembly made it more difficult. Elite whites worried that slaves who could read and write could travel through white society more easily and be exposed to ideas of freedom, making them more inclined to rebel. The gathering of slaves for the purpose of education was prohibited, so individuals stole away to learn on their own, often at great personal risk. During the antebellum period, the percentage of literate slaves had doubled to 10 percent. The laws became even stricter after Nat Turner's Revolt in 1831—Turner was a literate preacher—but during and after the American Civil War (1861–1865) freedpeople quickly established their own schools. Literacy rates rose to 30 percent and then, by 1910, to as high as 70 percent.
Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:59:20 EST]]>
/Madison_Dolley_1768-1849 Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:05:09 EST <![CDATA[Madison, Dolley (1768–1849)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Madison_Dolley_1768-1849 Dolley Madison was the wife of James Madison, the architect of the U.S. Constitution and fourth president of the United States (1809­–1817). She was the third woman to serve as what is now called "first lady," and her imprint as the national hostess defined the role until the more activist Eleanor Roosevelt broke Madison's ceremonial model. It was during her years in the White House that Madison gained her fame as a shrewd and graceful politician who could win the hearts of those who opposed her husband, and the greatest Washington hostess of the first quarter of the nineteenth century. She is also known for saving a portrait of George Washington during the War of 1812. After the end of James Madison's second term in the White House, the couple returned to live at their plantation, Montpelier, in Orange County, where they remained until James Madison died in 1836. From 1836 to 1844, Dolley Madison resided both in Washington, D.C., and at Montpelier, after which she spent the last five and a half years of her life in Washington. She was criticized by abolitionists for continuing to own slaves but remained a prominent national figure even while facing serious financial struggles. Along with Elizabeth Hamilton, the wife of Alexander Hamilton, she was the last surviving member of the founding generation, admired and esteemed for both her own contributions and those of her husband. She died in 1849 in Washington, where she was buried. Her remains were later moved to the Madison family cemetery at Montpelier.
Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:05:09 EST]]>
/An_Act_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_Slavery_March_1_1780 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 11:30:07 EST <![CDATA[An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery (March 1, 1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_Slavery_March_1_1780 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 11:30:07 EST]]> /Smythe_Sir_Thomas_ca_1558-1625 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:26:41 EST <![CDATA[Smythe, Sir Thomas (ca. 1558–1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smythe_Sir_Thomas_ca_1558-1625 Sir Thomas Smythe was an English merchant who served as the first of three treasurers of the Virginia Company of London. Although his surname is sometimes rendered Smith, he always spelled it Smythe. Like his father, he was a successful haberdasher and investor in trading companies, including the East India Company. He was briefly imprisoned after a rebellion against Queen Elizabeth I, but was knighted by King James I in 1603 and appointed royal ambassador to Russia. In 1609, in conjunction with the company's second charter, he became treasurer (essentially chairperson) of the Virginia Company of London, a joint-stock company that funded the English colony at Jamestown. Smythe's administration was tumultuous and ended with the election of his rival Sir Edwin Sandys as treasurer in 1619. Four years later the Crown opened an investigation into the company for mismanagement and in 1624 revoked its charter. Smythe died in Kent in 1625.
Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:26:41 EST]]>
/Advertisement_by_Lewis_A_Collier_Richmond_Enquirer_August_23_1833 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:22:54 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement by Lewis A. Collier, Richmond Enquirer (August 23, 1833)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_by_Lewis_A_Collier_Richmond_Enquirer_August_23_1833 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:22:54 EST]]> /_Private_Jails_The_Liberator_December_27_1834 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:21:13 EST <![CDATA["Private Jails," The Liberator (December 27, 1834)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Private_Jails_The_Liberator_December_27_1834 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:21:13 EST]]> /_Mysteries_of_a_Shamble_New-York_Tribune_July_15_1861 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:15:46 EST <![CDATA["Mysteries of a Shamble," New-York Tribune (July 15, 1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mysteries_of_a_Shamble_New-York_Tribune_July_15_1861 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:15:46 EST]]> /VIRGINIA_In_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_MARCH_16_1798 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:00:11 EST <![CDATA[VIRGINIA: In the High Court of Chancery, MARCH 16, 1798.]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/VIRGINIA_In_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_MARCH_16_1798 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:00:11 EST]]> /_An_Act_to_Explain_and_Amend_an_Act_Entitled_An_Act_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_Slavery_March_29_1788 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:53:24 EST <![CDATA["An Act to Explain and Amend an Act Entitled 'An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery'" (March 29, 1788)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_to_Explain_and_Amend_an_Act_Entitled_An_Act_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_Slavery_March_29_1788 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:53:24 EST]]> /Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Claypool_s_American_May_25_1796 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:45:55 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement for the Capture of Oney Judge, Claypoole's American (May 25, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Claypool_s_American_May_25_1796 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:45:55 EST]]> /Davis_Hector_1816-1863 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:09:00 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Hector (1816–1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Hector_1816-1863 Hector Davis was a prominent slave trader in Richmond in the years leading up to the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born probably in Goochland County, Davis moved to Richmond sometime in the 1840s and established there a slave trading business. He ran a so-called jail, where enslaved men, women, and children were confined awaiting sale. In 1859 his auction house alone did business the value of which exceeded all the flour and equaled all the tobacco exported from Virginia that year. Early in 1860 he and thirteen other men chartered the Traders Bank of Virginia, with Davis serving as the president. Davis never married, but he had several children with an enslaved woman he owned, Ann Banks Davis, whom he moved to Philadelphia about 1860 and freed in his will. Davis died in Richmond in 1863.
Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:09:00 EST]]>
/Davis_Ann_Banks_1830-1907 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:05:24 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Ann Banks (1830–1907)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Ann_Banks_1830-1907 Ann Banks Davis was an enslaved woman who bore several children with the Richmond slave trader Hector Davis. Little is known of Ann Davis's early life. She likely was the daughter of an enslaved woman named Mathilda Banks and did not take the name Davis until later in life. By 1852 she was owned by Hector Davis and that year bore him the first of at least four children. The two never legally married and it is unlikely that, as Davis's property, she could have consented to their physical relationship. By 1860, Hector Davis had moved Ann and her children to Philadelphia, where they continued to live after his death in 1863. He left them substantial money in his will but the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865) rendered much of his inheritance worthless or unattainable. Davis died in 1907.
Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:05:24 EST]]>
/Hinton_Corinna_1835-1887 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:00:35 EST <![CDATA[Hinton, Corinna (1835–1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hinton_Corinna_1835-1887 Corinna Hinton was an enslaved woman who bore several children with the Richmond slave trader Silas Omohundro and helped him run his business. Little is known of Hinton's early life. By the time she was thirteen years old, she was owned by Omohundro and had given birth to the first of their seven children. The two never legally married and it is unlikely that, as Omohundro's property, Hinton could have consented to their physical relationship, although historians have varying interpretations. In addition to running the household, Hinton made clothes for slaves about to be sold and helped operate a boardinghouse. Omohundro died in 1864, freeing Hinton and acknowledging himself as the father of her children. She later went into business with a white journalist from Maine, Nathaniel Davidson. It is unclear whether the two married. Hinton died in 1887.
Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:00:35 EST]]>
/Barret_William_1786-1871 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 14:55:50 EST <![CDATA[Barret, William (1786–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barret_William_1786-1871 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 14:55:50 EST]]> /Virginia_s_First_Africans Wed, 05 Jul 2017 09:45:01 EST <![CDATA[Africans, Virginia's First]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_s_First_Africans Virginia's first Africans arrived at Point Comfort, on the James River, late in August 1619. There, "20. and odd Negroes" from the English ship White Lion were sold in exchange for food and some were transported to Jamestown, where they were sold again, likely into slavery. Historians have long believed these Africans to have come to Virginia from the Caribbean, but Spanish records suggest they had been captured in a Spanish-controlled area of West Central Africa. They probably were Kimbundu-speaking people, and many of them may have had at least some knowledge of Catholicism. While aboard the São João Bautista bound for Mexico, they were stolen by the White Lion and another English ship, the Treasurer. Once in Virginia, they were dispersed throughout the colony. The number of Virginia's Africans increased to thirty-two by 1620, but then dropped sharply by 1624, likely because of the effects of disease and the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632). Evidence suggests that many were baptized and took Christian names, and some, like Anthony and Mary Johnson, won their freedom and bought land. By 1628, after a shipload of about 100 Angolans was sold in Virginia, the Africans' population jumped dramatically.
Wed, 05 Jul 2017 09:45:01 EST]]>
/Harland_Marion_1830-1922 Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:52:17 EST <![CDATA[Harland, Marion (1830–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harland_Marion_1830-1922 Marion Harland was a writer of novels, short stories, biographies, travel narratives, cookbooks, and domestic manuals whose career stretched across seven decades of sectional conflict and great change in American life. Harland chronicled much of that change, penning novels that suggested her own divided loyalties between North and South before establishing herself as an expert and often a sly and sarcastic commentator on the domestic arts of homemaking.
Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:52:17 EST]]>
/Omohundro_Silas_1807-1864 Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:34:56 EST <![CDATA[Omohundro, Silas (1807–1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Omohundro_Silas_1807-1864 Silas Omohundro was a Richmond slave trader who also operated, with his enslaved concubine Corinna Hinton, a complex that included a slave jail and boardinghouse. Born in 1807 and raised on his father's farm in Fluvanna County, Omohundro worked as an agent for the slave-trading firm Franklin & Armfield, in Alexandria, before moving to Richmond by the mid-1840s. There he ran a boardinghouse for slave traders and a jail where they confined enslaved men, women, and children awaiting sale. Omohundro also engaged in the direct buying and selling of slaves, including those he and other traders called "fancy," a label that indicated that they were to be sold for sexual purposes. Although never legally married, Omohundro had children with at least three different women, including his slaves Louisa Tandy and Corinna Hinton. With the latter he had seven children and on at least two occasions introduced the light-skinned Hinton as his wife. In his will, executed in July 1864, Omohundro legally acknowledged Hinton's children as his own and freed them and their mother.
Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:34:56 EST]]>
/Slave_Trade_Eyre_Crowe_s_Images_of_the Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:17:22 EST <![CDATA[Slave Trade, Eyre Crowe's Images of the]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Trade_Eyre_Crowe_s_Images_of_the English painter Eyre Crowe's images of the American slave trade include a series of sketches later published as wood engravings and, in two instances, turned into oil paintings that depict the domestic trade in enslaved African Americans just before the American Civil War (1861–1865). These images provide some of the only eyewitness visual renderings of the slave trade in Richmond, the largest slave-trading center in the Upper South. An act of Congress had abolished the international slave trade in the United States effective 1808, but a domestic trade accounted for the sale of millions of slaves from the Upper South to the Deep South, where the cotton boom led to a near-bottomless market for enslaved labor. The process of trafficking slaves, which Crowe's images helped to illuminate and publicize, included auction houses, auction blocks, so-called slave jails, and transportation either on foot or by train. Crowe was visiting Richmond in 1853 as the secretary of British novelist William Makepeace Thackeray, who was on a lecture tour, when he witnessed and sketched a slave auction on Wall Street, down the hill from downtown Richmond. His sketching nearly caused him to be removed from the auction house. Later, he also witnessed and depicted slaves being taken to a railroad depot. Two paintings made from his sketches, After the Sale: Slaves Going South from Richmond and Slaves Waiting for Sale, Richmond, Virginia, were exhibited in Great Britain in 1854 and 1861 respectively. Together with Crowe's other images, these paintings played an important role in spreading antislavery awareness in both Britain and in America.
Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:17:22 EST]]>
/Minnigerode_Charles_1814-1894 Thu, 22 Jun 2017 13:56:49 EST <![CDATA[Minnigerode, Charles (1814–1894)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Minnigerode_Charles_1814-1894 Charles Minnigerode was a professor of Latin and Greek and, for thirty-three years, the rector of Saint Paul's Episcopal Church in Richmond. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Saint Paul's was sometimes called "the Cathedral of the Confederacy," and its parishioners included Confederate president Jefferson Davis and Confederate general Robert E. Lee. In 1862, Minnigerode, who immigrated to the United States from Germany in 1839, baptized Davis, and in 1864, he read prayers at the burial of Confederate general J. E. B. Stuart.
Thu, 22 Jun 2017 13:56:49 EST]]>
/Stuart_Alexander_H_H_1807-1891 Thu, 22 Jun 2017 13:36:09 EST <![CDATA[Stuart, Alexander H. H. (1807–1891)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Stuart_Alexander_H_H_1807-1891 Alexander H. H. Stuart was a member of the House of Delegates (1836–1839, 1873–1877) and the U.S. House of Representatives (1841–1843), secretary of the interior in the administration of Millard Fillmore (1850–1853), a member of the Senate of Virginia (1857–1861) and the Convention of 1861, and a principal member of the Committee of Nine, which negotiated with the federal government for an end to Reconstruction in Virginia in 1869. Born in Staunton, he studied law at the University of Virginia before going into politics. In the General Assembly and then Congress, Stuart was a typical Whig in his support of internal improvements and his moderation on the issue of slavery. After John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859, he helped pen a government report condemning Northern abolitionist agitation. Stuart voted against secession in 1861 but signed the Ordinance of Secession. Stuart did not serve in government or the military during the American Civil War (1861–1865), but in 1867, amidst controversy over a new state constitution, he helped to form the Conservative Party. He and eight other men, the so-called Committee of Nine, successfully negotiated a plan with the federal government to present an acceptable constitution to Virginia voters and so end Reconstruction in the state. He also served as rector of the University of Virginia (1876–1882, 1886­–1887) and president of the Virginia Historical Society (1881–1891). He died in 1891.
Thu, 22 Jun 2017 13:36:09 EST]]>
/Farmville_Protests_of_1963 Fri, 16 Jun 2017 11:45:10 EST <![CDATA[Farmville Protests of 1963]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farmville_Protests_of_1963 The Farmville civil rights demonstrations began late in July 1963, when the Reverend L. Francis Griffin organized a direct-action campaign to, as he told reporters, "protest closed schools, delay in the courts, and segregation in its totality." Public schools in Prince Edward County and its county seat, Farmville, had been closed since June 1959, when county officials refused to levy taxes to operate schools rather than follow federal court orders to desegregate. The state government had abandoned its policy of Massive Resistance, but Prince Edward County remained steadfast and became the only place in the nation without public education. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Allen v. County School Board of Prince Edward County and later Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County had petitioned the federal judiciary to open the schools, but the case moved glacially through the courts. African Americans in Prince Edward County faced a variety of additional obstacles, such as discriminatory hiring practices and de facto and de jure segregation. The two-month direct action campaign Griffin launched that summer included picketing along Main Street, sit-ins, kneel-ins, try-ins, and economic boycotts. The protests ended in September 1963, after the formation of the Prince Edward Free School Association, a nonprofit organization that established and maintained an integrated school system in Prince Edward County until 1964, when the U.S. Supreme Court ordered the county to reopen its public schools. The Farmville protests did not end the county's racial discrimination, but they helped set the community on a path to change.
Fri, 16 Jun 2017 11:45:10 EST]]>
/Henderson_Helen_Timmons_1877-1925 Wed, 14 Jun 2017 16:18:52 EST <![CDATA[Henderson, Helen Timmons (1877–1925)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Henderson_Helen_Timmons_1877-1925 Helen Timmons Henderson, from the town of Council in Buchanan County, served in the Virginia House of Delegates (1924–1925), one of the first two women elected to that body (the other was Norfolk's Sarah Lee Fain). She died before having the opportunity to run for a second term.
Wed, 14 Jun 2017 16:18:52 EST]]>
/PLEASANTS_against_PLEASANTS_Nov_r_Term_1798 Fri, 09 Jun 2017 12:00:07 EST <![CDATA[PLEASANTS against PLEASANTS. Nov'r. Term 1798.]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/PLEASANTS_against_PLEASANTS_Nov_r_Term_1798 Fri, 09 Jun 2017 12:00:07 EST]]> /Pope_John_1822-1892 Tue, 06 Jun 2017 13:31:56 EST <![CDATA[Pope, John (1822–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pope_John_1822-1892 John Pope was a Union general during the American Civil War (1861–1865) with a reputation for outspokenness and arrogance. After serving in the Mexican War (1846–1848) as an engineer, the West Point graduate fought well in the West during 1861 and 1862, prompting U.S. president Abraham Lincoln to transfer him east. There, he exacerbated his already bad relations with Union generals George B. McClellan and Fitz-John Porter by issuing a proclamation trumpeting his own generalship. When he declared that he would make his "headquarters in the saddle," some quipped that he had mistaken his hindquarters for his headquarters, and when he announced a series of hard-war policies aimed at punishing Confederate civilians, Confederate general Robert E. Lee labeled him a "miscreant." At the head of the new Army of Virginia, Pope got the opportunity to confront Lee at the Second Battle of Manassas in August 1862 but was soundly defeated. Pope was transferred to the Dakotas, where he fought against Indians in the aftermath of the Sioux Uprising (1862). During Reconstruction (1865–1877), he held military administrative posts in the South. He died in 1892.
Tue, 06 Jun 2017 13:31:56 EST]]>
/Trist_Nicholas_Philip_1800-1874 Tue, 16 May 2017 16:29:16 EST <![CDATA[Trist, Nicholas Philip (1800–1874)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Trist_Nicholas_Philip_1800-1874 Nicholas Philip Trist was a diplomat who served as American consul to Cuba and helped to negotiate the end of the Mexican War (1846–1848). Born in Charlottesville to a family with a long acquaintance with Thomas Jefferson, Trist attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point without taking a degree and soon after married Jefferson's granddaughter, Virginia Jefferson Randolph. He served as clerk to the University of Virginia board of visitors, owned a newspaper in Charlottesville, and served briefly as President Andrew Jackson's private secretary. In 1833 Trist was appointed American consult to Cuba and he survived calls for his removal in 1839. Six years later President James K. Polk made Trist the State Department's chief clerk, and in 1847 dispatched him to Mexico with instructions to discreetly negotiate an end to the war. He did that, but not without confrontations with both the president and General Winfield Scott. After his return, Trist practiced law in New York, supported the Union during the American Civil War (1861–1865), and later moved to Alexandria. He died there in 1874.
Tue, 16 May 2017 16:29:16 EST]]>
/Daniel_Peter_V_Jr_1818-1889 Tue, 16 May 2017 16:19:40 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Peter V. Jr. (1818–1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Peter_V_Jr_1818-1889 Peter V. Daniel Jr. was a railroad executive. Born in Henrico County, he was the son of Peter V. Daniel, a longtime member of the Council of State and later an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, and the grandson of Edmund Randolph, the Virginia governor and U.S. attorney general and secretary of state under George Washington. Daniel was privately educated and studied civil engineering and law. In 1853 he became president of the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad Company and seven years later of the Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad Company. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Daniel struggled to keep the strategically important railroad, which connected Washington, D.C., and Richmond, running. The company suffered but remained afloat after the war, and in 1871 Daniel also became president of the Potomac Railroad Company. Daniel died in Richmond in 1889.
Tue, 16 May 2017 16:19:40 EST]]>
/Broaddus_William_F_1801-1876 Tue, 16 May 2017 16:14:46 EST <![CDATA[Broaddus, William F. (1801–1876)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Broaddus_William_F_1801-1876 William F. Broaddus was a Baptist minister. Born in what would later become Rappahannock County, he was educated there and in 1824 ordained as the pastor of the F. T. Baptist Church. Two years later he moved to Frederick County and advocated the work of traveling missionaries against the opposition of those who feared they would corrupt the principles of individual salvation. Broaddus's proposal that money be raised to evangelize among the poor led the Ketocton Baptist Association to deny him a seat and the Columbia Baptist Association, at least temporarily, to bar him from its conference. Broaddus eventually moved to Kentucky, then worked as an agent raising funds for Columbian College (later George Washington University) in Washington, D.C. In 1853, he became the pastor of Fredericksburg Baptist Church. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he was briefly imprisoned by the U.S. Army as a Confederate sympathizer. From 1863 to 1868 he served as pastor of the Charlottesville Baptist Church before returning to Fredericksburg. He died there in 1876.
Tue, 16 May 2017 16:14:46 EST]]>
/Martin_Henry_1826-1915 Mon, 15 May 2017 17:18:33 EST <![CDATA[Martin, Henry (1826–1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Martin_Henry_1826-1915 Henry Martin was the head janitor and bell-ringer at the University of Virginia from at least 1868 until his retirement in 1909. Born enslaved at Monticello, he was purchased by the Carr family and before the American Civil War (1861–1865) labored at a boardinghouse on what came to be known as Carr's Hill, near the University of Virginia. During the war he tended the wounded at the military hospital in Charlottesville. In 1866 he was hired by the university to haul coal and by 1868 was working as the head janitor and bell-ringer. He worked at the school for more than four decades, becoming a well-known figure there but one who was treated in the context of the Lost Cause archetype of the faithful servant. He died in 1915.
Mon, 15 May 2017 17:18:33 EST]]>
/Crozet_Claudius_1789-1864 Mon, 15 May 2017 15:44:05 EST <![CDATA[Crozet, Claudius (1789–1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crozet_Claudius_1789-1864 Claudius Crozet was a civil engineer best known for his work blasting tunnels through the Blue Ridge Mountains. Born in France, he received a technical education and artillery training before entering the French army. He was captured by the Russians at the Battle of Borodino in 1812 and served two years as a prisoner of war. From 1816 to 1823 Crozet taught at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, after which he began the first of two stints as principal engineer for the Virginia Board of Public Works. A difficult man, Crozet clashed with government officials over transportation projects in western Virginia. He resigned in 1832 and spent time working in Louisiana before returning to the position in 1837 and serving until 1843. Crozet taught at the Virginia Military Institute and was the first president of its board. In 1849, as chief engineer for the Blue Ridge Railroad Company, he began work on a series of tunnels through the mountains separating Charlottesville and Staunton. The largest, designated the Crozet Tunnel, opened in April 1858. By that time Crozet had moved on to a water project in Washington, D.C., and in 1859 became the chief engineer of the Virginia and Kentucky Railroad. He died in 1864. The town of Crozet in Albemarle County is named for him.
Mon, 15 May 2017 15:44:05 EST]]>
/Black_Confederates Mon, 15 May 2017 08:02:57 EST <![CDATA[Black Confederates]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Confederates Black Confederates is a term often used to describe both enslaved and free African Americans who filled a number of different positions in support of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Most often this assistance was coerced rather than offered voluntarily. Male slaves were either hired out by their owners or impressed to work in various departments of the Confederate army. Free black men were also routinely impressed or otherwise forced to perform manual labor for the army. The government's use of black labor, whether free or slave, followed patterns established during the antebellum period, when county governments routinely engaged the service of black men to help maintain local roads and other public property. While large numbers of black men thus accompanied every Confederate army on the march or in camp, those men would not have been considered soldiers. Only a few black men were ever accepted into Confederate service as soldiers, and none did any significant fighting. Through most of the war, the Confederate government's official policies toward black men maintained that those men were laborers, not soldiers; changes to that policy in March 1865 came too late to make any difference to Confederate prospects for victory. Those changes were also accompanied by widespread debate indicating that a significant minority of white Southerners opposed any change to the institution of slavery, even if that change might help bring about a Confederate victory.
Mon, 15 May 2017 08:02:57 EST]]>
/Bluett_Benjamin_1580-1621 Fri, 12 May 2017 09:47:48 EST <![CDATA[Bluett, Benjamin (1580–1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bluett_Benjamin_1580-1621 Fri, 12 May 2017 09:47:48 EST]]> /Blackford_William_1801-April_1864 Tue, 09 May 2017 16:31:48 EST <![CDATA[Blackford, William (1801–1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blackford_William_1801-April_1864 William Blackford was a journalist and diplomat. Born in Maryland, he moved to Fredericksburg in 1825 to practice law. From 1828 to 1841 he owned the Fredericksburg Political Arena and Literary Messenger, which supported the Whig Party. With his wife, Mary Berkeley Minor Blackford, he was active in the colonization movement. From 1842 to 1845 he served as chargé d'affaires to the Republic of New Granada, helping to negotiate a new postal treaty. In 1846, he purchased a paper in Lynchburg, which he sold in 1850 to become postmaster. In 1853 he became the cashier of the new Exchange Bank of Lynchburg, a position he held until his death. Blackford supported the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and served as the Confederate States Treasury agent in Lynchburg. He died in 1864.
Tue, 09 May 2017 16:31:48 EST]]>
/Highway_Bond_Referendum_1923 Mon, 08 May 2017 14:22:56 EST <![CDATA[Highway Bond Referendum, 1923]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Highway_Bond_Referendum_1923 The 1923 Highway Bond Referendum was defeated by voters after a long and bruising battle in the General Assembly where state senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. emerged as a real political force. At issue was how to pay for much-needed road improvement. While bonds were popular at first, Byrd had managed to muster a fierce and stubborn opposition, arguing that a gas tax, instead of bonds, would allow the state to adopt a "pay-as-you-go" policy that was more fiscally responsible. Byrd's behind-the-scenes machinations foreshadowed the political powerhouse he was about to become—as Virginia's governor, as a U.S. senator, and as head of the Byrd Organization, a statewide Democratic Party machine.
Mon, 08 May 2017 14:22:56 EST]]>
/Blind_Billy_Death_Notice_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_April_23_1855 Fri, 05 May 2017 11:41:18 EST <![CDATA[Blind Billy Death Notice, Richmond Daily Dispatch (April 23, 1855)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blind_Billy_Death_Notice_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_April_23_1855 Fri, 05 May 2017 11:41:18 EST]]> /Deed_of_Gift_Robert_Carter_III_s Fri, 05 May 2017 11:35:46 EST <![CDATA[Deed of Gift, Robert Carter III's]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Deed_of_Gift_Robert_Carter_III_s Robert Carter III's Deed of Gift was a legal document, signed on August 1, 1791, and presented in Northumberland District Court on September 5, that set out provisions to free 452 enslaved men and woman. By the time those provisions were fulfilled, more than three decades later, between 500 and 600 were freed, probably the largest emancipation by an individual in the United States before 1860. Carter was a member of one of the wealthiest families in Virginia and inherited hundreds of slaves. Perhaps because of a religious conversion, he turned against slavery during and after the American Revolution (1775–1783). His plan to free his own slaves was carefully designed to conform to state law and to be gradual. Adults would be freed in small groups each year based on their age, children would be freed when they became adults, and the elderly would be allowed to independently farm on Carter's Nomony Hall estate for the remainder of their lives. In 1793, Carter moved to Baltimore, leaving the process in the hands of the Baptist minister Benjamin Dawson. He later sold his remaining slaves to Dawson. After Carter's death in 1804, Carter's heirs sued the minister to stop the manumissions but lost an 1808 ruling by the Virginia Court of Appeals. The scholar Andrew Levy has noted that Carter's Deed of Gift has not simply been forgotten but actively ignored. Perhaps in response to his complaint, a roadside marker dedicated to the deed was erected in Northumberland County in 2016.
Fri, 05 May 2017 11:35:46 EST]]>
/Carter_Robert_1728-1804 Fri, 05 May 2017 11:32:43 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Robert (1728–1804)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Robert_1728-1804 Robert Carter, also known as Robert Carter III and Councillor Carter, was a member of Virginia's Council of State (1758–1776) who, after a religious conversion, emancipated more than five hundred of his enslaved African Americans. Heir to a fortune in land and slaves built by his grandfather, Robert "King" Carter, Carter studied law in London before returning to Virginia in 1751. His contemporaries remarked on his lack of learning and social grace, and he twice ran unsuccessfully for the House of Burgesses, receiving only a handful of votes each time. Through the influence of his wife's uncle, Carter was appointed to the Council. In 1763, he served on the Virginia Committee of Correspondence, and in 1766 drafted the Council's response to the Stamp Act. In 1777, he converted to evangelical Christianity, aligning himself with the Baptists. In 1788, he converted again, this time to the teachings of the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg. On August 1, 1791, he took the legal steps to gradually manumit, or free, more than 500 of his slaves, the largest individual emancipation before 1860. After the death of his wife, Carter moved to Baltimore, Maryland, where he died in 1804.
Fri, 05 May 2017 11:32:43 EST]]>
/_Henry_Martin_by_David_Marvel_Reynolds_Culbreth_The_University_of_Virginia_Memories_of_Her_Student-Life_and_Professors_1908 Fri, 05 May 2017 10:32:47 EST <![CDATA["Henry Martin" by David M. R. Culbreth, The University of Virginia: Memories of Her Student-Life and Professors (1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Henry_Martin_by_David_Marvel_Reynolds_Culbreth_The_University_of_Virginia_Memories_of_Her_Student-Life_and_Professors_1908 Fri, 05 May 2017 10:32:47 EST]]> /_Faithful_Janitor_Dead_at_89_Daily_Progress_October_6_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 10:02:59 EST <![CDATA["Faithful Janitor Dead at 89," Charlottesville Daily Progress (October 6, 1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Faithful_Janitor_Dead_at_89_Daily_Progress_October_6_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 10:02:59 EST]]> /_Funeral_of_Henry_Martin_Daily_Progress_October_9_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:45:39 EST <![CDATA["Funeral of Henry Martin," Charlottesville Daily Progress (October 9, 1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Funeral_of_Henry_Martin_Daily_Progress_October_9_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:45:39 EST]]> /_Henry_Martin_1826-1915_by_John_S_Patton_Alumni_Bulletin_January_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:28:25 EST <![CDATA["Henry Martin, 1826–1915" by John S. Patton, Alumni Bulletin (October 1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Henry_Martin_1826-1915_by_John_S_Patton_Alumni_Bulletin_January_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:28:25 EST]]> /_Uncle_Henry_Bell-Ringer_A_Dramatic_Monologue_Cork_and_Curls_1914 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:18:15 EST <![CDATA["Uncle Henry: Bell-Ringer, A Dramatic Monologue," Corks and Curls (1914)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Uncle_Henry_Bell-Ringer_A_Dramatic_Monologue_Cork_and_Curls_1914 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:18:15 EST]]> /Custis_John_Parke_1754-1781 Thu, 04 May 2017 15:02:32 EST <![CDATA[Custis, John Parke (1754–1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_John_Parke_1754-1781 John Parke Custis was a planter and member of the House of Delegates (1778–1781). After the death of his father, Daniel Parke Custis, his mother, Martha Dandridge Custis, married George Washington and moved the family to Mount Vernon. Washington became Custis's guardian and the administrator of his large inheritance. Custis was never a strong student (one of his teachers described him as "exceedingly indolent") and left King's College in New York City without earning a degree. Back in Virginia he managed his extensive landholdings and served in the House of Delegates, where during the American Revolution (1775–1783) he criticized the conduct of the war but often did not attend the assembly's sessions. Custis served with his stepfather at the siege of Yorktown (1781) and died of illness a few months later.
Thu, 04 May 2017 15:02:32 EST]]>
/Religious_Revivals_During_the_Civil_War Thu, 04 May 2017 13:55:28 EST <![CDATA[Religious Revivals during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Religious_Revivals_During_the_Civil_War Religious revivals during the American Civil War (1861–1865) were characterized by surges in religious interest and observance among large numbers of soldiers in both the Union and Confederate armies. Although they came not long after the Second Great Awakening, which was primarily a Baptist and Methodist phenomenon, the soldier revivals tended to be ecumenical and to cross class boundaries. They were often marked by frequent, fervent, and heavily attended religious ceremonies, including preaching services, organized prayer meetings, and "experience meetings," or gatherings in which individual soldiers took turns sharing with the group how God had brought them to faith in Christ. They were also evidenced by much private Bible reading and small informal prayer meetings among the troops.
Thu, 04 May 2017 13:55:28 EST]]>
/Robert_Carter_III_s_Deed_of_Gift_August_1_1791 Wed, 03 May 2017 10:47:14 EST <![CDATA[Robert Carter III's Deed of Gift (August 1, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robert_Carter_III_s_Deed_of_Gift_August_1_1791 Wed, 03 May 2017 10:47:14 EST]]> /Ferdinando_Fairfax_Plan_for_liberating_the_negroes_within_the_united_states_December_1_1790 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 14:06:44 EST <![CDATA[Ferdinando Fairfax, "Plan for liberating the negroes within the united states" (December 1, 1790)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ferdinando_Fairfax_Plan_for_liberating_the_negroes_within_the_united_states_December_1_1790 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 14:06:44 EST]]> /Virginia_Gazette_and_General_Advertiser_September_28_1791 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 09:30:52 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser (September 28, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Gazette_and_General_Advertiser_September_28_1791 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 09:30:52 EST]]> /_Funeral_Procession_Richmond_Dispatch_June_7_1854 Thu, 27 Apr 2017 12:52:55 EST <![CDATA["Funeral Procession," Richmond Dispatch (June 7, 1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Funeral_Procession_Richmond_Dispatch_June_7_1854 Thu, 27 Apr 2017 12:52:55 EST]]> /Schele_de_Vere_Maximilian_1820-1898 Wed, 26 Apr 2017 13:04:09 EST <![CDATA[Schele De Vere, Maximilian (1820–1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Schele_de_Vere_Maximilian_1820-1898 Maximilian Schele De Vere was a professor of modern languages at the University of Virginia and a founding member of the American Philological Society. Born in Sweden, likely with the surname von Scheele, he later changed his name, possibly after marrying an Irish woman named De Vere. After studying languages in Germany, Schele De Vere edited a German-language newspaper in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and then studied Greek at Harvard. In 1844, he joined the faculty at the University of Virginia, teaching there for more than fifty years. He supported the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865), serving as captain of a home guard unit. Before and after the war he published regularly, including translations, collections of essays, and textbooks. He resigned his teaching position in 1895 amid accusations he had sent libelous letters to another professor and the chair of the faculty. He also may have become addicted to morphine taken to control back pain. Schele De Vere died in Washington, D.C., in 1898.
Wed, 26 Apr 2017 13:04:09 EST]]>
/Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Philadelphia_Gazette_May_24_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 15:14:32 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement for the Capture of Oney Judge, Philadelphia Gazette (May 24, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Philadelphia_Gazette_May_24_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 15:14:32 EST]]> /_Washington_s_Runaway_Slave_The_Liberator_August_22_1845 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:48:40 EST <![CDATA["Washington's Runaway Slave," The Liberator (August 22, 1845)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Washington_s_Runaway_Slave_The_Liberator_August_22_1845 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:48:40 EST]]> /_A_Slave_of_George_Washington_by_Benjamin_Chase_The_Liberator_January_1_1847 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:24:32 EST <![CDATA["A Slave of George Washington!" by Benjamin Chase, The Liberator (January 1, 1847)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Slave_of_George_Washington_by_Benjamin_Chase_The_Liberator_January_1_1847 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:24:32 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Lee_to_George_Washington_June_28_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 13:23:46 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Lee to George Washington (June 28, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Lee_to_George_Washington_June_28_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 13:23:46 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Burwell_Bassett_Jr_August_11_1799 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 09:47:34 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Burwell Bassett Jr. (August 11, 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Burwell_Bassett_Jr_August_11_1799 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 09:47:34 EST]]> /Carter_Charles_1732-1806 Wed, 19 Apr 2017 17:48:12 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Charles (1732–1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Charles_1732-1806 Charles Carter, a planter and member-elect of the Council of State, spent much of his adulthood managing Corotoman, the Lancaster County plantation he inherited from his father, John Carter. Later he inherited Shirley Plantation in Charles City County and relocated there after renovating its main house. He was a successful and wealthy planter and entrepreneur, owning more than 13,000 acres of land in thirteen counties at his death. Carter served as a member of the House of Burgesses from 1758 until the American Revolution (1775–1783). Carter supported the reaction against greater parliamentary regulation of colonial affairs and sat in the four Revolutionary Conventions that met in 1774 and 1775. Despite these efforts, he declined a seat on the Council of State in the new commonwealth of Virginia. He died in 1806.
Wed, 19 Apr 2017 17:48:12 EST]]>
/Judge_Oney_ca_1773-1848 Wed, 19 Apr 2017 16:51:23 EST <![CDATA[Judge, Oney (ca. 1773–1848)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judge_Oney_ca_1773-1848 Oney Judge was the enslaved personal attendant of Martha Custis Washington when she ran away from the President's House in Philadelphia in 1796. Born about 1773 at Mount Vernon, Judge began laboring in the mansion when she was ten years old. After George Washington was elected president in 1789, she accompanied the family to New York and then, when the federal capital moved, to Philadelphia. On May 21, 1796, she escaped from the president's mansion while the family ate dinner and boarded a ship for Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Washington's agents tracked her there, twice speaking with her, in 1796 and 1799, but failing to apprehend her. Judge married the free black sailor John Staines in 1797 and the couple had three children before his death in 1803. Oney Judge Staines lived the rest of her life in poverty. In 1845 and 1847 she gave interviews to abolitionist newspapers, recounting the story of her life with the Washington family and her escape from slavery. She died in Greenland, New Hampshire, in 1848.
Wed, 19 Apr 2017 16:51:23 EST]]>
/Brown_Henry_Box_ca_1815 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 14:23:44 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Henry Box (1815 or 1816–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Henry_Box_ca_1815 Henry Box Brown was an abolitionist lecturer and performer. Born a slave in Louisa County, he worked in a Richmond tobacco factory and lived in a rented house. Then, in 1848, his wife, who was owned by another master and who was pregnant with their fourth child, was sold away to North Carolina, along with their children. Brown resolved to escape from slavery and enlisted the help of a free black and a white slaveowner, who conspired to ship him in a box to Philadelphia. In March 1849 the package was accepted there by a leader of the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. As a free man, Brown lectured across New England on the evils of slavery and participated in the publication of the Narrative of Henry Box Brown (1849). In 1850, a moving panorama, Henry Box Brown's Mirror of Slavery, opened in Boston. That same year, Brown, worried that he might be re-enslaved, moved to England, where he lectured, presented his panorama, and performed as a hypnotist. In 1875, he returned to the United States with his wife and daughter Annie and performed as a magician. Brown died in Toronto on June 15, 1897. He stands as a powerful symbol of the Underground Railroad and enslaved African Americans' thirst for freedom.
Fri, 14 Apr 2017 14:23:44 EST]]>
/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Tobias_Lear_April_12_1791 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 13:02:31 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Tobias Lear (April 12, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Tobias_Lear_April_12_1791 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 13:02:31 EST]]> /Letter_from_Joseph_Whipple_to_George_Washington_December_22_1796 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 12:07:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Joseph Whipple to George Washington (December 22, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Joseph_Whipple_to_George_Washington_December_22_1796 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 12:07:44 EST]]> /_An_ACT_concerning_descendants_of_indians_and_other_persons_of_mixed_blood_not_being_free_negroes_or_mulattoes_February_25_1833 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 11:39:11 EST <![CDATA["An ACT concerning descendants of indians and other persons of mixed blood, not being free negroes or mulattoes" (February 25, 1833)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_concerning_descendants_of_indians_and_other_persons_of_mixed_blood_not_being_free_negroes_or_mulattoes_February_25_1833 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 11:39:11 EST]]> /Bassett_Burwell_1764-1841 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:52:31 EST <![CDATA[Bassett, Burwell (1764–1841)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bassett_Burwell_1764-1841 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:52:31 EST]]> /Blair_John_D_1759-1823 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:50:02 EST <![CDATA[Blair, John D. (1759–1823)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_John_D_1759-1823 John D. Blair was a Presbyterian minister in Hanover County and Richmond who preached variously at Pole Green Church, the Henrico Parish Church, and the Virginia State Capitol. Born in Pennsylvania and educated at what is now Princeton University, Blair may have served briefly in the American Revolution (1775–1783). After moving to Virginia he taught in Hanover County and served as president of the Washington-Henry Academy there from 1782 to 1790. He served as minister of Pole Green Church from 1785 to 1821 and as chaplain of the House of Delegates from 1800 to 1801. Blair was famously close friends with the Episcopal minister John Buchanan and after the Richmond Theatre fire in 1811 the two helped raise money for the construction of Monumental Church on the site of the disaster. While they may have intended to share the church, the Episcopalians appropriated it for themselves. He died in Richmond in 1823.
Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:50:02 EST]]>
/Buchanan_John_1748-1822 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:47:08 EST <![CDATA[Buchanan, John (1748–1822)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Buchanan_John_1748-1822 John Buchanan was an Episcopal clergyman who served as the rector of Henrico Parish (1785–1822) and the treasurer of the Diocese of Virginia (1793–1822). Born in Scotland, he may have attended university there and received his license to minister in Virginia in 1775. A decade later he became rector of Henrico Parish and, after inheriting a large estate from his half brother, lived an easy and social life. Buchanan, who preached at Saint John's Church in Richmond, was famously close friends with the Presbyterian minister John D. Blair, and after the Richmond Theatre fire in 1811 the two helped raise money for the construction of Monumental Church on the site of the disaster. While they may have intended to share the church, the Episcopalians appropriated it for themselves. Buchanan died in 1822.
Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:47:08 EST]]>
/Cary_Lott_ca_1780-1828 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:41:35 EST <![CDATA[Cary, Lott (ca. 1780–1828)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cary_Lott_ca_1780-1828 Lott Cary was a Baptist minister and one of the first American settlers of Liberia. Born enslaved about 1780, he labored in Richmond tobacco warehouses before purchasing his own freedom by about 1813. He bought land in Henrico County, married, and became a popular lay preacher. In 1815 Cary helped found the Richmond African Baptist Missionary Society and after the establishment of the American Colonization Society a year later, prepared to immigrate with other free blacks to Liberia, in West Africa. He arrived there in 1821 and helped to settle what became the town of Monrovia in 1824. Demonstrating a wide range of leadership skills, he tended the sick, organized a native labor force, established a joint stock company, and helped extend the settlement's territory. He was twice elected vice agent of Liberia, in 1826 and 1827, and president of the Monrovia Baptist Missionary Society. He assumed leadership of Monrovia in 1828 but died later that year in an accidental gunpowder explosion. After his death, Cary became something of a folk hero, becoming even more eloquent and pious than he had been in life.
Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:41:35 EST]]>
/Colored_Farmers_Alliance_and_Cooperative_Union_of_Virginia_The Thu, 13 Apr 2017 14:53:13 EST <![CDATA[Colored Farmers' Alliance and Cooperative Union of Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Farmers_Alliance_and_Cooperative_Union_of_Virginia_The Thu, 13 Apr 2017 14:53:13 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Joseph_Whipple_November_28_1796 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 12:55:19 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Joseph Whipple (November 28, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Joseph_Whipple_November_28_1796 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 12:55:19 EST]]> /Campbell_Joseph_T_1827-1876 Wed, 12 Apr 2017 14:28:53 EST <![CDATA[Campbell, Joseph T. (1827–1876)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Campbell_Joseph_T_1827-1876 Wed, 12 Apr 2017 14:28:53 EST]]> /Atkinson_Archibald_1792-1872 Mon, 10 Apr 2017 15:05:50 EST <![CDATA[Atkinson, Archibald (1792–1872)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Atkinson_Archibald_1792-1872 Mon, 10 Apr 2017 15:05:50 EST]]> /Barnes_Thomas_H_1831-1913 Fri, 07 Apr 2017 13:18:33 EST <![CDATA[Barnes, Thomas H. (1831–1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barnes_Thomas_H_1831-1913 Fri, 07 Apr 2017 13:18:33 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Oliver_Wolcott_Jr_September_1_1796 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 12:19:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Oliver Wolcott Jr. (September 1, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Oliver_Wolcott_Jr_September_1_1796 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 12:19:35 EST]]> /Barrett_Gilbert_Hunt_the_City_Blacksmith_by_Philip_1859 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 10:41:13 EST <![CDATA[Gilbert Hunt, the City Blacksmith by Philip Barrett (1859)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barrett_Gilbert_Hunt_the_City_Blacksmith_by_Philip_1859 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 10:41:13 EST]]> /Hunt_Gilbert_ca_1780-1863 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 17:05:28 EST <![CDATA[Hunt, Gilbert (ca. 1780–1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hunt_Gilbert_ca_1780-1863 Gilbert Hunt was an African American blacksmith in Richmond who became known in the city for his aid during two fires: the Richmond Theatre fire in 1811 and the Virginia State Penitentiary fire in 1823. Born enslaved in King William County, Hunt trained as a blacksmith in Richmond and remained there most of the rest of his life. After the Richmond Theatre caught fire on December 26, 1811, he ran to the scene and, with the help of Dr. James D. McCaw, helped to rescue as many as a dozen women. He performed a similar feat of courage on August 8, 1823, during the penitentiary fire. Hunt purchased his freedom and in 1829 immigrated to the West African colony of Liberia, where he stayed only eight months. After returning to Richmond, he resumed blacksmithing and served as an outspoken, sometimes-controversial deacon in the First African Baptist Church. In 1848 he helped form the Union Burial Ground Society. In 1859, a Richmond author published a biography of Hunt, largely in the elderly blacksmith's own words, but portraying him as impoverished and meek, a depiction at odds with the historical record. Hunt died in 1863.
Wed, 05 Apr 2017 17:05:28 EST]]>
/Beverley_William_ca_1696-1756 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:53:15 EST <![CDATA[Beverley, William (ca. 1696–1756)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beverley_William_ca_1696-1756 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:53:15 EST]]> /Beverley_Robert_ca_1740-1800 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:37:06 EST <![CDATA[Beverley, Robert (ca. 1740–1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beverley_Robert_ca_1740-1800 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:37:06 EST]]> /Allen_John_d_1799 Mon, 03 Apr 2017 09:54:17 EST <![CDATA[Allen, John (d. 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allen_John_d_1799 Mon, 03 Apr 2017 09:54:17 EST]]> /Batte_Archibald_d_by_April_12_1830 Fri, 31 Mar 2017 15:05:46 EST <![CDATA[Batte, Archibald (d. by April 12, 1830)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Batte_Archibald_d_by_April_12_1830 Fri, 31 Mar 2017 15:05:46 EST]]> /Adams_Andrew_1905-1985 Wed, 29 Mar 2017 13:34:27 EST <![CDATA[Adams, Andrew (1905–1985)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Adams_Andrew_1905-1985 Wed, 29 Mar 2017 13:34:27 EST]]> /Allen_William_1768-1831 Wed, 29 Mar 2017 11:24:41 EST <![CDATA[Allen, William (1768–1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allen_William_1768-1831 Wed, 29 Mar 2017 11:24:41 EST]]> /Abrahall_Robert_fl_1620s-1680s Wed, 29 Mar 2017 10:08:32 EST <![CDATA[Abrahall, Robert (fl. 1620s–1680s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Abrahall_Robert_fl_1620s-1680s Wed, 29 Mar 2017 10:08:32 EST]]> /Godwyn_Preface_and_Introduction_from_The_Negro_s_and_Indians_Advocate_by_Morgan_1680 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:18:01 EST <![CDATA[Godwyn, Preface and Introduction from The Negro's and Indians Advocate by Morgan (1680)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Godwyn_Preface_and_Introduction_from_The_Negro_s_and_Indians_Advocate_by_Morgan_1680 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:18:01 EST]]> /_A_Colored_Hero_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_November_30_1858 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:14:50 EST <![CDATA["A Colored Hero," Richmond Daily Dispatch (November 30, 1858)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Colored_Hero_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_November_30_1858 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:14:50 EST]]> /_Death_of_Gilbert_Hunt_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_April_27_1863 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:13:14 EST <![CDATA["Death of Gilbert Hunt," Richmond Daily Dispatch (April 27, 1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Death_of_Gilbert_Hunt_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_April_27_1863 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:13:14 EST]]> /Johnson_Excerpts_from_Twenty-Eight_Years_a_Slave_by_Thomas_L_1909 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:11:03 EST <![CDATA[Johnson, Excerpts from Twenty-Eight Years a Slave by Thomas L. (1909)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Johnson_Excerpts_from_Twenty-Eight_Years_a_Slave_by_Thomas_L_1909 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:11:03 EST]]> /_To_the_Citizens_of_Richmond_RichmondEnquirer_December_31_1811 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:03:02 EST <![CDATA["To the Citizens of Richmond," Richmond Enquirer (December 31, 1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_To_the_Citizens_of_Richmond_RichmondEnquirer_December_31_1811 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:03:02 EST]]> /Refugees_During_the_Civil_War Mon, 27 Mar 2017 11:37:54 EST <![CDATA[Refugees during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Refugees_During_the_Civil_War Virginia possessed the largest number of the estimated 200,000 Southerners who fled their homes during the American Civil War (1861–1865). There were three broad classes of refugees in Virginia during the war—slaves, white Unionists and other dissidents, and Confederates—although historians have tended to focus only on Confederates. These three groups shared some of the same dislocations, but their experiences of the war differed dramatically. White and black Unionists and dissidents who fled to Union lines contributed to the Northern war effort. Confederates, in contrast, bitterly resented the Union invaders, but the hardships of refugee life exacerbated feelings of war weariness. This, combined with social divisions inside Virginia, factored into Confederate defeat.
Mon, 27 Mar 2017 11:37:54 EST]]>
/Constitution_of_the_Union_Burial_Ground_Society_January_23_1848 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 12:12:11 EST <![CDATA[Constitution of the Union Burial Ground Society (January 23, 1848)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Constitution_of_the_Union_Burial_Ground_Society_January_23_1848 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 12:12:11 EST]]> /An_ACT_providing_for_the_voluntary_enslavement_of_the_free_negroes_of_the_commonwealth_February_18_1856 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:44:38 EST <![CDATA[An ACT providing for the voluntary enslavement of the free negroes of the commonwealth (February 18, 1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_providing_for_the_voluntary_enslavement_of_the_free_negroes_of_the_commonwealth_February_18_1856 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:44:38 EST]]> /An_ACT_for_the_Voluntary_Enslavement_of_Free_Negroes_without_compensation_to_the_Commonwealth_March_28_1861 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:29:53 EST <![CDATA[An ACT for the Voluntary Enslavement of Free Negroes, without compensation to the Commonwealth (March 28, 1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_for_the_Voluntary_Enslavement_of_Free_Negroes_without_compensation_to_the_Commonwealth_March_28_1861 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:29:53 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_R_Joynes_to_Levin_S_Joynes_December_27_1811 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:03:34 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas R. Joynes to Levin S. Joynes (December 27, 1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_R_Joynes_to_Levin_S_Joynes_December_27_1811 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:03:34 EST]]> /Advertisements_Virginia_Gazette_September_8_1774 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:32:51 EST <![CDATA[Advertisements, Virginia Gazette (September 8, 1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisements_Virginia_Gazette_September_8_1774 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:32:51 EST]]> /An_ACT_to_amend_and_explain_an_act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_4_1805 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:18:44 EST <![CDATA[An ACT to amend and explain an act further declaring what shall be deemed unlawful meetings of slaves (January 4, 1805)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_to_amend_and_explain_an_act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_4_1805 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:18:44 EST]]> /An_act_to_amend_an_act_entitled_quot_an_act_reducing_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_quot_1832 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:58:34 EST <![CDATA[An act to amend an act entitled, "an act reducing into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes, and for other purposes" (1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_to_amend_an_act_entitled_quot_an_act_reducing_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_quot_1832 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:58:34 EST]]> /_Report_of_the_Committee_of_Investigation_Richmond_Enquirer_December_31_1811 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:49:44 EST <![CDATA["Report of the Committee of Investigation," Richmond Enquirer (December 31, 1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Report_of_the_Committee_of_Investigation_Richmond_Enquirer_December_31_1811 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:49:44 EST]]> /An_Act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_24_1804 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:47:39 EST <![CDATA[An Act further declaring what shall be deemed unlawful meetings of slaves (January 24, 1804)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_24_1804 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:47:39 EST]]> /An_ACT_more_effectually_to_restrain_the_practice_of_negroes_going_at_large_January_25_1803 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:44:45 EST <![CDATA[An ACT more effectually to restrain the practice of negroes going at large (January 25, 1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_more_effectually_to_restrain_the_practice_of_negroes_going_at_large_January_25_1803 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:44:45 EST]]> /_Statements_RichmondEnquirer_January_2_1812 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:57:17 EST <![CDATA["Statements," Richmond Enquirer (January 2, 1812)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Statements_RichmondEnquirer_January_2_1812 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:57:17 EST]]> /An_Act_to_amend_the_act_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_April_7_1831 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:50:19 EST <![CDATA[An Act to amend the act concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes (April 7, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_amend_the_act_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_April_7_1831 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:50:19 EST]]> /Arlington_House Wed, 15 Mar 2017 10:25:18 EST <![CDATA[Arlington House]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arlington_House Arlington House, also known as the Lee-Custis Mansion, overlooks Washington, D.C., from a rise across the Potomac River in Arlington, Virginia. Constructed between 1802 and 1818, it was one of the earliest and boldest expressions of the Greek Revival architectural style in America. Arlington House claims special historical significance through its association with the Washington and Custis families, and particularly with Robert E. Lee. After his family's departure in 1861 at the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865), Arlington House became a Union army facility. In 1863 the United States government established a Freedmen's Village on the property that was intended to serve as a model community for African Americans freed by the 1862 abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia and the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation. Its location, meanwhile, was a striking reminder that Arlington had once been a slave labor–based plantation. In 1864 the federal government officially appropriated the grounds and there established Arlington National Cemetery, which continues to serve as a final resting place for members of the United States armed forces.
Wed, 15 Mar 2017 10:25:18 EST]]>
/Harvey_Sir_John_ca_1581_or_1582-by_1650 Mon, 13 Mar 2017 13:16:22 EST <![CDATA[Harvey, Sir John (ca. 1581 or 1582–by 1650)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harvey_Sir_John_ca_1581_or_1582-by_1650 Mon, 13 Mar 2017 13:16:22 EST]]> /_Memorable_Disasters_Richmond_Enquirer_January_11_1812 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 15:20:54 EST <![CDATA["Memorable Disasters," Richmond Enquirer (January 11, 1812)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Memorable_Disasters_Richmond_Enquirer_January_11_1812 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 15:20:54 EST]]> /_Letter_from_Virginia_Slaves_to_Bishop_Edmund_Gibson_August_4_September_8_1723 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:53:23 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Virginia Slaves to Bishop Edmund Gibson (August 4, September 8, 1723)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Letter_from_Virginia_Slaves_to_Bishop_Edmund_Gibson_August_4_September_8_1723 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:53:23 EST]]> /Black_Baptists_in_Virginia_1865-1902 Fri, 03 Mar 2017 14:03:30 EST <![CDATA[Black Baptists in Virginia (1865–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Baptists_in_Virginia_1865-1902 Most religious African Americans after the American Civil War (1861–1865) belonged to Baptist churches. Even prior to the abolition of slavery, Baptists, black and white, came closer to the principle of the equality of all believers than many other religious bodies. Even white Baptists recognized in principle the idea that African Americans were full members of the church, though whites generally did not consent to the ordination of their black counterparts. Once free, African American Baptists became even more assertive in forming churches and organizing independent local and state associations. These groups gave a platform to African American views of the world, from the theological to the political, and an avenue by which connections could be made both domestically and abroad. For instance, black Baptists in Virginia sought educational and humanitarian support from white Baptists in the North while at the same time, in part through the Baptist Foreign Mission Convention, created in 1880, establishing missions in West Africa. This strategy eventually caused a rift between those black Baptists (so-called independents) who balked at asking white Baptists for help, and others (so-called cooperationists) who argued that they should rise above racial differences. Taking advantage of their numbers and influence, Baptist groups also lobbied hard for black civil rights. And for a time black men voted and regularly held office in Virginia. But by 1902, and the ratification of a new state constitution, such rights were effectively eliminated. In the difficult years to come, Virginia's black Baptists relied on their now well-established institutions to pursue their social and political interests.
Fri, 03 Mar 2017 14:03:30 EST]]>
/Blair_John_ca_1687-1771 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:59:09 EST <![CDATA[Blair, John (ca. 1687–1771)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_John_ca_1687-1771 John Blair sat on the governor's Council (1745–1770), becoming its president in 1757 and serving as acting governor on four occasions. Born in Scotland, he came to Virginia as a child, living in Williamsburg and earning a degree there at the College of William and Mary, founded by his uncle, James Blair. John Blair served as deputy auditor general from 1728 until 1771, reforming and improving the procedures by which the government collected revenue. In addition, he served as York County justice of the peace (1724–1745) and as a naval officer on the James River (1727–1728). Upon the death of his father, Archibald Blair, he joined the House of Burgesses representing Jamestown (1724–1736). In 1736, he was elected as a burgess from Williamsburg, serving until 1740. He is probably the same John Blair who also served as mayor of Williamsburg in 1751. After the governor's death and in ill health himself, Blair resigned from the Council in 1770 rather than serve as acting governor a fifth time. He died in 1771.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:59:09 EST]]>
/Barrett_Kate_Waller_1858-1925 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:53:53 EST <![CDATA[Barrett, Kate Waller (1857–1925)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barrett_Kate_Waller_1858-1925 Kate Waller Barrett was a prominent physician, social reformer, humanitarian, and leader of the National Florence Crittenton Mission, a progressive organization established in 1883 to assist unmarried women and teenage girls who either had children or were trying to leave prostitution.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:53:53 EST]]>
/Barbour_Lucy_Johnson_1775-1860 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:34:28 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, Lucy Johnson (1775–1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_Lucy_Johnson_1775-1860 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:34:28 EST]]> /Baldwin_John_Brown_1820-1873 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:30:30 EST <![CDATA[Baldwin, John Brown (1820–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Baldwin_John_Brown_1820-1873 John Brown Baldwin was an attorney, member of the Virginia Convention of 1861, member of the Confederate House of Representatives (1861–1865), and Speaker of the House of Delegates (1865–1867). After attending the University of Virginia, Baldwin studied law in his native Staunton and became politically active on behalf of his law partner and brother-in-law Alexander H. H. Stuart, a Whig Party candidate for presidential elector in 1844. Baldwin served a term in the House of Delegates and, during the secession crisis of 1860–1861, was a staunch Unionist who, as a delegate to the secession convention, voted against leaving the Union, even meeting privately with U.S. president Abraham Lincoln in an attempt to find a compromise. After a brief stint in the Confederate army at the beginning of the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served in the Confederate Congress. After the war, he was a Conservative Party leader and, as Speaker of the House of Delegates, became such an expert on parliamentary law that the rules of the House became known as Baldwin's Rules. He was a moderate who supported limits on the rights of African Americans and, in 1869, as a member of the so-called Committee of Nine, met with U.S. president Ulysses S. Grant to negotiate the end of Reconstruction in Virginia. He died in 1873.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:30:30 EST]]>
/Bailey_Odessa_Pittard_1906-1994 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:27:24 EST <![CDATA[Bailey, Odessa Pittard (1906–1994)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bailey_Odessa_Pittard_1906-1994 Odessa Pittard Bailey was a civic leader in western Virginia. In 1944, after her appointment to the Roanoke Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court, she became the first woman in Virginia's history to hold a judicial post higher than justice of the peace or county trial justice. She helped found the Virginia Council of Juvenile Court Judges and served as its president from 1947 to 1948. After leaving the bench in 1948, she was appointed to several state commissions dealing with crime and social work. Bailey participated in Democratic Party politics, and as president of the Virginia Federation of Women's Clubs she lobbied for increased state funding to help disadvantaged children and the mentally ill. After her husband's death in 1957, Bailey ran a travel agency in Roanoke. She later moved to California, where she died in 1994.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:27:24 EST]]>
/Allan_William_1837-1889 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:07:19 EST <![CDATA[Allan, William (1837–1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allan_William_1837-1889 William Allan was an educator, writer, and Confederate army officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). A University of Virginia graduate, Allan served on the staff of Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and later with Jubal A. Early's Army of the Valley. After the war, at the invitation of Robert E. Lee, Allan taught mathematics at Washington College in Lexington. There he began to write about the Civil War, collaborating on a book with the mapmaker Jedediah Hotchkiss, contributing to the debates about the Battle of Gettysburg, and publishing a memoir. Allan became popular on the Lost Cause lecture circuit, and authored a history of the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1862 and the first volume of a history of the Army of Northern Virginia. In 1873, Allan became the first principal of McDonogh Institute, a private school for poor boys near Baltimore, Maryland. He died there in 1889.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:07:19 EST]]>
/From_the_Diary_of_Charles_Copland_1811 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:32:27 EST <![CDATA[From the Diary of Charles Copland (1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/From_the_Diary_of_Charles_Copland_1811 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:32:27 EST]]> /Letter_from_Rev_Jonathan_Boucher_to_Rev_John_Waring_March_9_1767 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:31:13 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. Jonathan Boucher to Rev. John Waring (March 9, 1767)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_Jonathan_Boucher_to_Rev_John_Waring_March_9_1767 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:31:13 EST]]> /Associates_of_Dr_Bray Mon, 20 Feb 2017 17:26:26 EST <![CDATA[Associates of Dr. Bray]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Associates_of_Dr_Bray The Associates of Dr. Bray was a philanthropic group founded in 1724 by the English clergyman Thomas Bray to educate enslaved African Americans in the British North American colonies. Educated at Oxford, Bray founded two groups—the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (1699) and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (1701)—charged with spreading literacy and Christianity throughout England and America. A friend's bequest led to the establishment of the Associates of Dr. Bray, dedicated to the religious education of enslaved African Americans in particular. After briefly merging with a group intent on founding a convict colony in Georgia, the Associates concentrated on their primary function. Missions to Georgia and South Carolina failed, but in 1757 Benjamin Franklin suggested that a school be established in Philadelphia. When that succeeded, Franklin recommended that Bray schools be opened in New York; Newport, Rhode Island; and Williamsburg, Virginia. The Williamsburg school operated from 1760 to 1774; it employed a single teacher and was overseen by a number of people, including successive presidents of the College of William and Mary. A similar school opened in Fredericksburg in 1765 and closed five years later due to low enrollment and hostility from local slaveholders. By the second year of the American Revolution (1775–1783), all the Bray schools had closed.
Mon, 20 Feb 2017 17:26:26 EST]]>
/Willoughby_Westel_1830-1897 Mon, 20 Feb 2017 08:51:54 EST <![CDATA[Willoughby, Westel (1830–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Willoughby_Westel_1830-1897 Westel Willoughby was a lawyer, a Union officer in a New York regiment during the American Civil War (1861–1865), and judge of the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals from 1869 until a new constitution was adopted in 1870. Born and educated in New York, Willoughby helped raise the 137th New York Volunteer Regiment and was severely wounded at the Battle of Chancellorsville (1863). He resigned his commission a few months later but stayed in Virginia, serving as the commonwealth's attorney of Alexandria County (later Arlington County) from 1864 to 1869, when he was appointed first as a judge of the Ninth Circuit and then of the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals. He cast the deciding vote in a case that allowed an Alexandria railroad that had sided with the Confederacy to contest a sale of the line's assets during the Civil War. In private practice he defended the federal government's efforts to resist compensating the Lee family for the seizure of their Arlington estate. Willoughby made several unsuccessful runs for office as a Republican. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1897.
Mon, 20 Feb 2017 08:51:54 EST]]>
/Richmond_and_Petersburg_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War_The Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:15:13 EST <![CDATA[Richmond and Petersburg Railroad during the Civil War, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Richmond_and_Petersburg_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War_The The Richmond and Petersburg Railroad extended for twenty-two miles and linked the two central Virginia cities. The Virginia General Assembly chartered the company in 1836 and the line was completed two years later. Despite its name, however, the southern terminus of the railroad actually was in the suburb of Pocahontas, which lay on the north bank of the Appomattox River across from Petersburg. Goods and passengers had to be off-loaded and disembarked at the Pocahontas station and then transported by wagon and carriage across a bridge into Petersburg. Once in the city, there were several rail-transportation options. The Petersburg Railroad, also known as the Weldon Railroad, led south to North Carolina, while the South Side Railroad ran west to Lynchburg and the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad linked those two cities.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:15:13 EST]]>
/Daniel_Peter_V_1784-1860 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:00:59 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Peter V. (1784–1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Peter_V_1784-1860 Peter V. Daniel was a member of the House of Delegates (1808–1810) and the Council of State (1812–1836), a U.S. district court judge (1836–1841), and an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1841–1860). Born in Stafford County to a wealthy family, Daniel was educated at the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University) and studied law in Richmond with Edmund Randolph. (He later married Randolph's daughter.) Daniel was elected to the House of Delegates in 1808 as an advocate of states' rights and limited government, and that year he mortally wounded John Seddon in a duel fought in Maryland. He served on the Council of State for more than two decades, serving as president from 1818, making him acting governor in the absence of the chief executive. After the death of Associate Justice Philip Pendleton Barbour, a fellow Virginian, Daniel won confirmation to the seat after a fight in the U.S. Senate. On the bench, Daniel was sharply conservative, at times provincial, and often acerbic and witty in his opinions. He was a strong supporter of slavery and wrote a separate, even more strongly worded opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford(1857). He died in 1860.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:00:59 EST]]>
/Custis_William_H_B_1814-1889 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 16:09:51 EST <![CDATA[Custis, William H. B. (1814–1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_William_H_B_1814-1889 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 16:09:51 EST]]> /Harrison_Burton_Mrs_1843-1920 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 15:59:00 EST <![CDATA[Harrison, Burton, Mrs., (1843–1920)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harrison_Burton_Mrs_1843-1920 Mrs. Burton Harrison, also known as Constance Cary Harrison, was a prolific American novelist late in the nineteenth century who came from a prominent Virginia family. As a young woman, she witnessed the destruction of the American Civil War (1861–1865) and nursed the Confederate wounded in Manassas and Richmond. After the war, Harrison toured Europe, eventually married, and settled down in New York City. She was active in elite New York society and produced a large body of work, much of it popular serialized fiction and sentimental romance, in which she recorded the social mores of her time. The author of more than fifty works, including short stories, articles and essays, children's books, and short plays, she is best known for her 1911 autobiography, Recollections Grave and Gay.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 15:59:00 EST]]>
/Burnham_Horace_Blois_1824-1894 Tue, 07 Feb 2017 11:00:16 EST <![CDATA[Burnham, Horace B. (1824–1894)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burnham_Horace_Blois_1824-1894 Tue, 07 Feb 2017 11:00:16 EST]]> /Freedmen_s_Education_in_Virginia_1861-1870 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 13:51:40 EST <![CDATA[Freedmen's Education in Virginia, 1861–1870]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Freedmen_s_Education_in_Virginia_1861-1870 Virginia's freed slaves sought education for themselves and their children at the earliest opportunity. Shortly after the American Civil War (1861–1865) began in Virginia, African Americans established and taught in schools for Virginia's freed people. An African American Virginian created the first black secondary school in the state. More than one-third of the teachers at Virginia's first black schools between 1861 and the end of Reconstruction were African American, and black teachers taught far longer in freedmen's schools in Virginia than white teachers, northern or southern. Not only were African Americans the first to teach in primary schools for Virginia's freed people, they also founded and staffed the first secondary school in the state for free blacks. Northern aid societies like the American Missionary Association sent teachers, books, and other educational support to Virginia's early black schools, and the federal government provided building material for schools and transportation for northern teachers through the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, popularly known as the Freedmen's Bureau. Many historians have portrayed freedmen's education as a northern white benevolent effort, a white gift to the black South. Although many northern teachers braved remarkably aggressive circumstances in their service, evidence suggests that black education in Virginia, as elsewhere in the South, was a product of the freed people's own initiative and determination, temporarily supported by northern benevolence and federal aid.
Mon, 06 Feb 2017 13:51:40 EST]]>
/Custis_George_Washington_Parke_1781-1857 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:46:27 EST <![CDATA[Custis, George Washington Parke (1781–1857)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_George_Washington_Parke_1781-1857 George Washington Parke Custis was a writer and orator who worked to preserve the legacy of their stepgrandfather, George Washington. Born in Maryland, Custis moved to Mount Vernon after the death of his father in 1781. He was expelled from college, served in the army, and lost election to the House of Delegates before moving to an inherited estate he called Arlington. In addition, Custis owned two other large plantations and property in four other counties. He promoted agricultural reform and commercial independence and disapproved of slavery on economic grounds, supporting gradual emancipation and colonization. During the War of 1812, Custis manned a battery, helped Dolley Madison save Washington's portrait at the White House, and delivered well-received orations on a variety of topics. In the years after the war, he began writing essays, often about Washington's family and career. He later turned to the penning of historical plays and operettas. Pocahontas; or, The Settlers of Virginia, from 1830, was dedicated to John Marshall and remains his most durable work. The patriotism of his plays fed into his work to preserve the legacy of his stepgrandfather. Custis curated a collection of Washington relics made available for public view and sometimes distributed as gifts. He arranged for portraits of Washington and painted his own scenes of life during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Custis died at Arlington in 1857.
Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:46:27 EST]]>
/Barbour_B_Johnson_1821-1894 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:39:25 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, B. Johnson (1821–1894)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_B_Johnson_1821-1894 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:39:25 EST]]> /Duncan_Pauline_Adelaide_Haislip_1888-1973 Fri, 03 Feb 2017 14:31:01 EST <![CDATA[Duncan, Pauline Haislip (1888–1973)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Duncan_Pauline_Adelaide_Haislip_1888-1973 Pauline Haislip Duncan served as one of Virginia's first female law enforcement officers. She was a charter member of the Organized Women Voters of Arlington County, which was among a number of local civic and political groups she joined after women received the right to vote. The organization pushed for a woman deputy in 1923, recommending Smith. She recorded her first criminal arrest the following year and served until 1943, surviving an attempt to remove her in 1927. Smith mostly worked on cases involving women and children, though she at times chased thieves and helped stop fights. She also aided the local Parent-Teacher Association and the Girl Scouts, helping earn her the nickname Aunt Polly. The Organized Women Voters of Arlington County honored her as its Woman of the Year in 1965.
Fri, 03 Feb 2017 14:31:01 EST]]>
/Carter_Willis_M_1852-1902 Thu, 02 Feb 2017 16:18:36 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Willis M. (1852–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Willis_M_1852-1902 Willis M. Carter was an educator and editor who, by the end of the nineteenth century, had become one of Virginia's best-known African Americans. Born into slavery in Albemarle County, he worked as a laborer and a waiter after the American Civil War (1861–1865). In 1874 he moved to Washington, D.C., and received a teaching degree in 1881. Carter then moved to Staunton, where he spent the rest of his life. He served as principal of the West End School there for fifteen years and as president of the August County Teachers' Association. Following the Danville Riot in November 1883 he led a group of African Americans that considered leaving Virginia. He also served as editor and president of the black newspaper the Southern Tribune, published in Staunton. (He changed the paper's name to the Staunton Tribune in 1893.) In 1901 he participated in protests against the new constitutional convention called to disfranchise African Americans. He died in Staunton in 1902.
Thu, 02 Feb 2017 16:18:36 EST]]>
/Barbour_James_1775-1842 Thu, 02 Feb 2017 15:59:53 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, James (1775–1842)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_James_1775-1842 James Barbour was Speaker of the House of Delegates (1809–1812), the governor of Virginia (1812–1814), a member of the U.S. Senate (1815–1825) and its president pro tempore (1819), and the secretary of war (1825–1828) and minister plenipotentiary to Great Britain (1828–1829) in the administration of President John Quincy Adams. Born in Orange County, he read law in Richmond and married his first cousin, Lucy Maria Johnson. (Barbour's younger brother, Philip Pendleton Barbour, married Johnson's sister.) As a member of the General Assembly, Barbour was a states'-rights conservative, but that changed over time. He became governor after George William Smith died in the Richmond Theatre fire, and his management of state affairs during the War of 1812 made him more appreciative of the need for a strong executive. In the U.S. Senate Barbour supported a federal bank and federally financed internal improvements and served in Adams's Federalist administration that was loudly opposed by many Jeffersonian Virginians, including Barbour's own brother, then in the U.S. House of Representatives. After the election of Andrew Jackson, Barbour retired to his estate, Barboursville, where he focused on innovative farming techniques. He helped to organize the Whig Party in Virginia in opposition to Jackson's policies. He died in 1842.
Thu, 02 Feb 2017 15:59:53 EST]]>
/Daniel_John_M_1825-1865 Thu, 02 Feb 2017 15:42:05 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, John M. (1825–1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_John_M_1825-1865 John M. Daniel was the proslavery editor of the Richmond Examiner, a member of the Council of State (1851–1852), a diplomat stationed in Turin, and a Confederate officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born in Stafford County, he studied law and then worked as a librarian before becoming editor of the Southern Planter and then the Richmond Examiner. Daniel's writing was often abrasive and caustic and he was challenged to and fought several duels throughout his life. He served in the Council of State only a year, until the body was dissolved by a new constitution. In 1853, President Franklin Pierce appointed Daniel to a diplomatic post in Turin, the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia, in present-day Italy. He stayed on until 1861, surviving calls for his resignation due to his intemperate writing. Upon his return to Richmond, Daniel resumed control of the Examiner and became a prominent wartime voice, supporting the Confederate capital's move to Richmond and Jefferson Davis as dictator. Soon, though, Daniel became one of Davis's loudest critics, arguing he was not aggressive enough in waging war and that many of the Confederacy's generals were incompetent. He served as a staff officer under General John B. Floyd and later A. P. Hill, suffering one wound in battle and another in a duel. He died in 1865.
Thu, 02 Feb 2017 15:42:05 EST]]>
/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 Tue, 24 Jan 2017 11:11:52 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, St. George (1752–1827)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 St. George Tucker was a lawyer, teacher, poet, essayist, inventor, and judge. One of the most influential jurists and legal scholars in the early years of the United States, he sat on three courts in Virginia: the General Court (1789–1804), the Court of Appeals (1804–1811), and the U.S. District Court for the District of Virginia (and later the Eastern District of Virginia) (1813–1825). He also served as rector (1789–1790) and professor of law (1790–1804) at the College of William and Mary. His five-volume edition of Sir William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, published in 1803, was the first major treatise on American law. Born in Bermuda, Tucker studied law as an apprentice to George Wythe in Williamsburg, gaining admission to the bar in 1774. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he smuggled needed supplies into Virginia and fought under Nathanael Greene at the Battle of Guilford Court House (1781) and under George Washington at the siege of Yorktown (1781). After the war he practiced in the county courts before being elevated to a judgeship. At William and Mary, he advocated the study of law as an academic discipline, and in 1796 he published A Dissertation on Slavery, his plan to gradually abolish slavery in Virginia. The General Assembly ignored it. Tucker married twice and had five surviving children, including the jurist and congressman Henry St. George Tucker and the writer and states' rights advocate Nathaniel Beverley Tucker. He died in Nelson County in 1827.
Tue, 24 Jan 2017 11:11:52 EST]]>
/Custis_Mary_Lee_Fitzhugh_1788-1853 Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:38:31 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Mary Lee Fitzhugh (1788–1853)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_Mary_Lee_Fitzhugh_1788-1853 Mary Lee Fitzhugh Custis was an Episcopal lay leader whose efforts helped to revive Virginia's Episcopal church early in the nineteenth century. Custis's father, William Fitzhugh, served in the Continental Congress. Her husband, George Washington Parke Custis, was the stepgrandson of George Washington and well-known writer and orator. Their daughter, Mary Randolph Custis, married Robert E. Lee. Mary Custis lived at Arlington, a plantation in Alexandria County, and from there involved herself in raising funds for Episcopal schools and the American Colonization Society, which sought to free enslaved African Americans and send them to Africa. She and her daughter Mary also took an active role in the education of slaves. Custis died in 1853 and was buried at Arlington.
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:38:31 EST]]>
/Edmund_Custis Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:35:13 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Edmund (d. after 18 October 1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edmund_Custis Edmund Custis was a member of the House of Delegates (1787–1790) and the Convention of 1788. Born in Northampton County, on the Eastern Shore, he relocated to neighboring Accomack County as a young man. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he appears to have been a Patriot despite some pro-British sentiments. In 1787, Custis was elected to the House of Delegates, serving for three years. In 1787, he was one of two Accomack County delegates to a state convention called to consider the proposed U.S. constitution. Custis was an antifederalist who opposed a strong national government and voted against ratification. The owner of more than 1,000 acres and more than a dozen slaves, he fell into debt and in 1797 moved to Baltimore, likely in an attempt to escape his creditors. He died sometime later.
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:35:13 EST]]>
/Custis_Elizabeth_Parke_1776-1831 Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:31:30 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Elizabeth Parke (1776–1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_Elizabeth_Parke_1776-1831 Elizabeth Parke Custis was a social leader and the stepgranddaughter of George Washington. Born in Maryland, she lived with her mother in Alexandria after the death of her father in 1781. When her mother remarried in 1783, they moved to Hope Park, a country estate in Fairfax County, where Custis felt isolated and limited by the social restrictions imposed on women. Eccentric, intelligent, and sometimes difficult, Custis married the merchant Thomas Law in 1796, and the couple lived and entertained in Washington, D.C., until they separated in 1804. A divorce was finalized in 1811. Custis lived for a time on an estate outside Alexandria, which she called Mount Washington. Later in life she traveled between friends and relatives, collecting Washington family memorabilia. She died in 1831 and is buried at Mount Vernon.
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:31:30 EST]]>
/Custis_Eleanor_Nelly_Parke_1779-1852 Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:26:45 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Eleanor "Nelly" Parke (1779–1852)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_Eleanor_Nelly_Parke_1779-1852 Eleanor "Nelly" Parke Custis was the stepgranddaughter of George Washington and important preserver of the first president's legacy. Born in Maryland, she and her brother, George Washington Parke Custis, went to live at Mount Vernon after the death of her father in 1781. Nelly Custis was educated in New York and Philadelphia while Washington served as president and helped to entertain guests. In 1797 she married Washington's nephew, Lawrence Lewis, and the couple lived briefly at Mount Vernon. After Washington's death, they inherited about 2,000 acres of his estate and in 1805 built their own home, Woodlawn. Throughout her life Nelly Custis Lewis regarded herself as the keeper of George Washington's legacy, serving as an accurate purveyor of information about him and his life. She was instrumental in having a tomb erected at Mount Vernon in 1835. She died in 1852.
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:26:45 EST]]>
/Ruffin_Robert_D_1842-1916 Mon, 09 Jan 2017 17:17:17 EST <![CDATA[Ruffin, R. D. (1842–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ruffin_Robert_D_1842-1916 R. D. Ruffin was a lawyer, sheriff, and member of the House of Delegates (1875–1876) who achieved financial success in real estate. Born enslaved, he faced controversy throughout his long public life. In 1874 voters in Alexandria (later Arlington) County elected him sheriff, possibly the first African American to hold the position in state history, but he resigned as pressure mounted over his residency. The following year he won election to represent Dinwiddie County in the House of Delegates. He survived a challenge to his election from his opponent, who claimed that Ruffin was not a resident of the county, and he introduced three bills that died in committee. His tenure is most notable for his being expelled from the assembly in 1876 when the overwhelming majority of delegates believed Ruffin stole money from the first door keeper. Ruffin, a lawyer who engaged in real estate, rose from slave to owner of lands reportedly worth millions of dollars. His financial climb was matched by a large number of lawsuits and arrests. To what degree his troubles stemmed from wrongdoing or a cutthroat political climate is unknown. In his later years, he moved to Chicago, Illinois, where he died in 1916.
Mon, 09 Jan 2017 17:17:17 EST]]>
/Members_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives_from_Virginia Mon, 09 Jan 2017 14:21:01 EST <![CDATA[Members of the United States House of Representatives from Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Members_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives_from_Virginia Mon, 09 Jan 2017 14:21:01 EST]]> /New_Deal_in_Virginia Wed, 04 Jan 2017 09:01:37 EST <![CDATA[New Deal in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/New_Deal_in_Virginia In March 1933, the newly inaugurated president of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, a Democrat, addressed the problems created by the Great Depression by announcing a vast array of federal programs that came to be known as the New Deal. During the first 100 days of his administration, a Democratic Congress created the "alphabet agencies" (so called because of their well-known abbreviations) to deal with unemployment, economic stagnation, low farm prices, and home and farm foreclosures.
Wed, 04 Jan 2017 09:01:37 EST]]>
/Percy_George_1580-1632_or_1633 Wed, 28 Dec 2016 16:51:13 EST <![CDATA[Percy, George (1580–1632 or 1633)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Percy_George_1580-1632_or_1633 George Percy was one of the original Jamestown settlers and the author of two important primary accounts of the colony. He served as president of the Council (1609–1610) during the Starving Time, and briefly as deputy governor (1611). Born in Sussex, England, to the eighth earl of Northumberland, Percy hailed from a family of Catholic conspirators; his father died while imprisoned in the Tower of London, his uncle was beheaded, and his older brother, the ninth earl of Northumberland, was also imprisoned. While his accounts suggest that Percy was awed by the natural beauty of Virginia, he was nevertheless overwhelmed by the many problems the first colonists faced, including hunger, disease, internal dissention, and often-difficult relations with Virginia Indians. While president of the Council, he and his fellow colonists suffered through the Starving Time, initiated in part by the Indians' siege of Jamestown at the beginning of the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614). Through support from his older brother, Percy seems to have lived in relative comfort, but he also suffered from recurring illness, finally leaving Virginia in 1612. His second account of Jamestown, A Trewe Relacyon , was written in the mid-1620s with the intention of rebutting Captain John Smith's popular version of events in the colony. Percy died in the winter of 1632–1633, leaving no will.
Wed, 28 Dec 2016 16:51:13 EST]]>
/Carter_John_1695_or_1696-1742 Tue, 27 Dec 2016 14:28:45 EST <![CDATA[Carter, John (1695 or 1696–1742)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_John_1695_or_1696-1742 John Carter was secretary of the colony and a member of the governor's Council. His father, Robert "King" Carter, sent him to England, where he studied law in London, and attended Cambridge. Called to the bar in 1720, Carter was appointed secretary of the colony in June 1722 and he returned to Virginia six months later. As secretary, a lucrative and politically powerful office, Carter was responsible for keeping the colony's records and appointing all of the county court clerks. Some men, including the lieutenant governor, voiced concerns about the extent of the power of the secretary, but Carter successfully defended his conduct. In 1724 he also became a member of the Council and held both positions until his death. Through marriage and inheritance Carter acquired extensive estates, including Shirley plantation and Corotoman, and became one of Virginia's wealthiest gentlemen.
Tue, 27 Dec 2016 14:28:45 EST]]>
/Carter_John_ca_1613-1670 Tue, 27 Dec 2016 14:24:46 EST <![CDATA[Carter, John (ca. 1613–1670)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_John_ca_1613-1670 John Carter was a member of the governor's Council and the House of Burgesses. His family had familial and business connections with the Virginia Company of London, and Carter left England for Virginia during the 1630s. In 1642 he began acquiring the extensive property on the north bank of the Rappahannock River that became the family seat known as Corotoman. Carter married five times and founded one of the greatest of the colonial Virginia families. During the 1640s and 1650s Carter served in the House of Burgesses, which elected him to the governor's Council in 1658. He was again a burgess in 1660, when Charles II was restored to the throne, and Governor Sir William Berkeley reappointed Carter, a royalist, to the Council. He remained a councillor until his death ten years later.
Tue, 27 Dec 2016 14:24:46 EST]]>
/Carter_Edward_d_by_1682 Wed, 21 Dec 2016 15:01:11 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Edward (d. by 1682)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Edward_d_by_1682 Wed, 21 Dec 2016 15:01:11 EST]]> /Hemings_Sally_1773-1835 Wed, 21 Dec 2016 11:02:06 EST <![CDATA[Hemings, Sally (1773–1835)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hemings_Sally_1773-1835 Sally Hemings was an enslaved house servant owned by Thomas Jefferson, who, many historians believe, fathered at least six of Hemings's children. Born in 1773 at a Virginia plantation of John Wayles, Hemings became the property of Jefferson, whose wife, Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson, was likely Hemings's half-sister. Described by Thomas Jefferson Randolph as being "light colored and decidedly goodlooking," Hemings lived at Monticello and then, when Jefferson moved to Paris, France, at Eppington, an estate in Chesterfield County. In 1787, she accompanied Jefferson's daughter Mary to Paris, and lived there as a servant in the Jefferson household until 1789. After her return to Monticello, Hemings bore six children, whom her son Madison Hemings later claimed to have been fathered by Jefferson. Rumors to that effect had already circulated when, in 1802, James Thomson Callender, a journalist and by then a political enemy of Jefferson, accused the president of keeping one of his slaves "as his concubine." In an 1873 newspaper interview, Madison Hemings bluntly stated that Jefferson was his father, and the issue was revived a century later by the Jefferson biographer Fawn M. Brodie, becoming a social, political, and historical cause célèbre. Although many biographers initially doubted the possibility, many historians now agree that Jefferson probably fathered the Hemings children. After Jefferson's death in 1826, Sally Hemings lived in Charlottesville with her sons Madison and Eston Hemings. She died in 1835.
Wed, 21 Dec 2016 11:02:06 EST]]>
/Franklin_A_Q_1852-1924 Tue, 20 Dec 2016 16:21:37 EST <![CDATA[Franklin, A. Q. (1852–1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Franklin_A_Q_1852-1924 A. Q. Franklin, educator and member of the House of Delegates (1889–1890). Born in Richmond to a former slave who had freed himself and possibly a white mother who taught him to read and write, Franklin worked as a laborer and then, Charles City County, a schoolteacher. He served as the county's commissioner of revenue for many years and helped establish Bull Field Academy, a school for African Americans. In 1889 Franklin won election to the House of Delegates as a Republican, one of only three African Americans elected in 1889. They were the last black candidates to win election to the General Assembly until 1967. In 1908 he began raising funds for an African American high school (later Charles City County High School), which prompted the closure of Bull Field Academy in 1911. According to at least one historian, Franklin's efforts produced an unusually high number of college-educated African Americans from Charles City County. He died in 1924.
Tue, 20 Dec 2016 16:21:37 EST]]>
/Lewis_Fielding_1725-1781_or_1782 Tue, 20 Dec 2016 13:32:15 EST <![CDATA[Lewis, Fielding (1725–1781 or 1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_Fielding_1725-1781_or_1782 Fielding Lewis was a merchant, justice of the peace for Spotsylvania County (1749–1781), and member of the House of Burgesses (1760–1769) who helped to found the Fredericksburg Gun Manufactory during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Born at Warner Hall, his family's Gloucester County estate, he moved to Fredericksburg in the 1740s, helping to manage his father's store there. Lewis married George Washington's cousin and, after her death, Washington's sister, serving in the General Assembly and as a justice of the peace. He was known, in particular, for his financial acumen and sometimes advised his brother-in-law on investments. Early in the 1770s Lewis built for his family a large Georgian mansion (later named Kenmore) that was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970. In 1775, the third Revolutionary Convention tasked Lewis and his fellow merchant Charles Dick with establishing a weapons factory in Fredericksburg; by May 1777 the Fredericksburg Gun Manufactory produced about twenty muskets per week. The enterprise cost Lewis £7,000 of his own money, which the state never repaid. He died sometime late in 1781 or early in 1782.
Tue, 20 Dec 2016 13:32:15 EST]]>
/United_States_Colored_Troops_The Tue, 20 Dec 2016 08:37:35 EST <![CDATA[United States Colored Troops, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/United_States_Colored_Troops_The The United States Colored Troops (USCT) was a branch of the United States Army founded in 1863 to recruit, organize, and oversee the service of African American soldiers during the American Civil War (1861–1865). USCT regiments consisted of black enlisted men led in almost all cases by white officers. By the end of the Civil War, more than 185,000 men had served in the USCT, including more than 178,000 black soldiers and approximately 7,000 white officers. At least 5,723 black soldiers were mustered into service in Virginia, although Virginia-born and -raised black troops—especially former slaves who may have fled from the state or been sold to other parts of the Confederacy—likely joined in other locations. The administration of President Abraham Lincoln initially did not approve of black soldiers, and used them only as laborers. As the war dragged on, however, attitudes began to change, and the Final Emancipation Proclamation (1863) provided for the enlistment of African Americans. Once in uniform, the men of the USCT saw action in every major theater of the war, with five Virginians being awarded a Medal of Honor. In addition to making significant contributions to the war effort, they were also subjected to racially motivated atrocities. At war's end, many black veterans continued to serve in the South during Reconstruction (1865–1877) while others became leaders in their communities.
Tue, 20 Dec 2016 08:37:35 EST]]>
/Godwin_Mills_E_1914-1999 Mon, 19 Dec 2016 09:29:16 EST <![CDATA[Godwin, Mills E. (1914–1999)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Godwin_Mills_E_1914-1999 Mills E. Godwin was the only governor of Virginia elected by the voters to two terms, serving as a Democrat from 1966 to 1970 and as a Republican from 1974 to 1978. After playing a major legislative role in Virginia's resistance to desegregation of the public schools in the 1950s, Godwin adopted more moderate positions as lieutenant governor from 1962 to 1966 and as candidate for governor in 1965. During his first term he was responsible for enactment of a sales tax and approval of the first significant statewide bond issue in the twentieth century. Godwin devoted the additional revenue to public education, mental health, and highways. The creation of the Virginia Community College System was one of Godwin's major accomplishments. He also appointed a commission to revise the Constitution of 1902. Constitutionally ineligible to succeed himself, Godwin left office in 1970. Disillusioned by the growing influence of liberals in the Virginia Democratic Party, Godwin sought the governorship again as a Republican in 1973. He narrowly defeated Lieutenant Governor Henry E. Howell. Godwin's second term coincided with an economic recession, energy shortages, and an environmental catastrophe. In a time of retrenchment his major initiatives were improvements to state prisons and a second bond issue approved in 1977.
Mon, 19 Dec 2016 09:29:16 EST]]>
/Cities_of_Virginia Mon, 19 Dec 2016 09:27:35 EST <![CDATA[Cities of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cities_of_Virginia Mon, 19 Dec 2016 09:27:35 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Elizabeth_Parke_Custis_September_14_1794 Mon, 12 Dec 2016 13:41:12 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Elizabeth Parke Custis (September 14, 1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Elizabeth_Parke_Custis_September_14_1794 Mon, 12 Dec 2016 13:41:12 EST]]> /Danville_Civil_Rights_Demonstrations_of_1963 Wed, 07 Dec 2016 09:56:15 EST <![CDATA[Danville Civil Rights Demonstrations of 1963]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Danville_Civil_Rights_Demonstrations_of_1963 The Danville civil rights demonstrations began peacefully late in May 1963 when local civil rights leaders organized demonstrations, sit-ins, and marches to protest segregation in all spheres, but especially in municipal government, employment, and public facilities. As protests accelerated, however, white authorities responded early in June with tough legal stratagems and violence, attacking demonstrators with clubs and fire hoses. Martin Luther King Jr.'s Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) all sent state and national leaders to Danville to assist the African American protesters, but to little avail. The legal resistance displayed by authorities—injunctions, ordinances, and court procedures condemned by the U.S. Justice Department—proved so effective and unyielding that protests were stymied, resulting in few immediate gains for African Americans.
Wed, 07 Dec 2016 09:56:15 EST]]>
/Burwell_Lewis_bap_1622-c_1652 Thu, 01 Dec 2016 16:44:36 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lewis (bap. 1622–ca. 1652)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lewis_bap_1622-c_1652 Thu, 01 Dec 2016 16:44:36 EST]]> /An_Ordinance_for_providing_arms_and_ammunition_for_the_use_of_this_colony_July_1775 Wed, 30 Nov 2016 12:16:11 EST <![CDATA[An Ordinance for providing arms and ammunition for the use of this colony (July 1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Ordinance_for_providing_arms_and_ammunition_for_the_use_of_this_colony_July_1775 Wed, 30 Nov 2016 12:16:11 EST]]> /Burwell_Lewis_1651_or_1652-1710 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 16:45:43 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lewis (1651 or 1652–1710)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lewis_1651_or_1652-1710 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 16:45:43 EST]]> /Armistead_John_fl_1650s-1690s Mon, 28 Nov 2016 15:58:01 EST <![CDATA[Armistead, John (fl. 1650s–1690s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Armistead_John_fl_1650s-1690s John Armistead was a member of the governor's Council of Virginia late in the seventeenth century. A planter in Gloucester County, he also entered into several successful business ventures. Becoming active in politics, Armistead sat on the county court and served as sheriff. He opposed the tobacco cutting riots and favored English policies put in place after Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677). Armistead twice represented Gloucester in the House of Burgesses before the governor appointed him to the Council in 1688. Armistead relinquished his seat in 1691 when he refused to take the oaths to the new monarchs William and Mary. Although restored to his place later in the decade, Armistead did not rejoin the Council. His date of death is unknown.
Mon, 28 Nov 2016 15:58:01 EST]]>
/Burwell_Robert_1720-1777 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 14:45:01 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Robert (1720–1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Robert_1720-1777 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 14:45:01 EST]]> /Jefferson_s_Mound_Archaeological_Site Tue, 22 Nov 2016 17:01:47 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson's Mound Archaeological Site]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_s_Mound_Archaeological_Site Tue, 22 Nov 2016 17:01:47 EST]]> /Burwell_Lucy_1683-1716 Tue, 22 Nov 2016 16:12:20 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lucy (1683–1716)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lucy_1683-1716 Lucy Burwell is best known for rejecting the fervent and sometimes menacing courtship of Governor Sir Francis Nicholson. The teenaged daughter of a key Virginia family chose to marry Edmund Berkeley, twelve years her senior, instead of the forty-five-year-old governor. Humiliated by this rejection, Nicholson taunted and threatened the Burwells and their allies among Virginia's elite. These actions, along with his attempted reforms of the colony's politics, led to a petition against Nicholson. Queen Anne ultimately removed him from office. In exercising her prerogative to choose her own husband, Burwell became a symbol of Virginia's opposition to heavy-handed rule. She bore Berkeley at least five children before her death in 1716.
Tue, 22 Nov 2016 16:12:20 EST]]>
/Burwell_Lewis_d_1743 Tue, 22 Nov 2016 15:59:41 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lewis (d. 1743)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lewis_d_1743 Tue, 22 Nov 2016 15:59:41 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_George_Washington_March_6_1776 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 15:40:50 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to George Washington (March 6, 1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_George_Washington_March_6_1776 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 15:40:50 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_George_Washington_November_14_1775 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 15:21:11 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to George Washington (November 14, 1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_George_Washington_November_14_1775 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 15:21:11 EST]]> /Jefferson_Thomas_and_Books Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:09:35 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and Books]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Books "I cannot live without books," Thomas Jefferson declared in a letter to John Adams on June 10, 1815. To the man who had authored the Declaration of Independence and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom and founded the University of Virginia, books and reading were "a necessary of life." Jefferson relied on his books as his chief source of inspiration and practical knowledge, and believed that education was the means to an enlightened and informed citizenry that would help preserve democracy. Jefferson owned between 9,000 and 10,000 books in his lifetime—some were inherited from his father, Peter Jefferson, and his mentor, George Wythe; others were acquired in Williamsburg; Washington, D.C.; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; New York City; or Europe. Their subjects included history, philosophy, law, architecture, science and literature. In 1815, Jefferson sold his 6,500-volume library to Congress to replace the one that was destroyed when the British burned the U.S. Capitol on August 24, 1814. He then replenished his personal supply of books by building a smaller collection that reflected his retirement interests. The year before he died, he drew up a catalog of books for the library at the University of Virginia. The list, composed of 6,860 volumes with an estimated total cost of more than $24,000, was the culmination of his lifetime of reading.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:09:35 EST]]>
/Menokin Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:08:24 EST <![CDATA[Menokin]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Menokin Menokin, located in Richmond County, was the home of Francis Lightfoot Lee and his wife, Rebecca Tayloe Lee. Constructed from 1769 to 1771, the home sat on a 1,000-acre plantation and was a wedding gift from Rebecca Lee's father, John Tayloe II. The designer is unknown but may have been the English craftsman William Buckland, who also worked on George Mason's Gunston Hall. The Lees lived at Menokin on and off until their deaths in 1797, and two years later the house was inherited by John Tayloe III, who owned it until 1823. The property changed hands a number of times before falling into disrepair and being abandoned by the mid-twentieth century. In the 1960s, the Omohundro family, which inherited Menokin in 1935, removed the interior paneling and woodwork to protect it from damage; in 1995, T. Edgar Omohundro deeded the property to the Menokin Foundation. Beginning in 1985, archaeological investigations evaluated the site and dated its occupation back to the Rappahannock Indians, who lived and hunted there prior to the arrival of the English. In the early twenty-first century, the Menokin Foundation opened a visitors center and began plans to preserve the site by replacing the missing walls and roof with glass and steel.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:08:24 EST]]>
/Williamsburg_during_the_Colonial_Period Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:07:08 EST <![CDATA[Williamsburg during the Colonial Period]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Williamsburg_during_the_Colonial_Period Williamsburg was the capital of the Virginia colony from 1699 until 1779. Plotted on land first used by Virginia Indians, it was settled by the English during and just after the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632) and called Middle Plantation, for its location equidistant between the York and James rivers. In subsequent years, wealth and political prestige gradually shifted upriver from the first seat of English government, at Jamestown, and talk of moving the capital gained momentum during Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), when rebels burned the statehouse. The Crown did not agree to move the capital until after the establishment of the College of William and Mary at Middle Plantation, in 1693, and another fire at the statehouse, in 1698. In 1699, Middle Plantation became Williamsburg, after King William III, and the colony's new capital. At the behest of the General Assembly, officials laid out streets and began building a new statehouse. Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood oversaw the construction of a powder magazine (1715), the enlargement of Bruton Parish Church (1715), a public theater (1718), and the completion of the Governor's Palace (1722). When the statehouse burned and smallpox hit in 1748, officials briefly considered, but then rejected, the idea of moving the capital, paving the way for a boom in building and population growth. During the American Revolution (1775–1783), Virginia's royal governor dissolved the General Assembly and fled the city. After British troops invaded Virginia in 1779, Governor Thomas Jefferson moved the capital to Richmond.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:07:08 EST]]>
/Randolph_George_Wythe_1818-1867 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:04:11 EST <![CDATA[Randolph, George Wythe (1818–1867)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Randolph_George_Wythe_1818-1867 George Wythe Randolph was a lawyer, Confederate general, and, briefly, Confederate secretary of war during the American Civil War (1861–1865). The grandson of former U.S. president Thomas Jefferson, Randolph hailed from an elite Virginia family but largely shunned public life until John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859. He supported secession, founded the Richmond Howitzers, joined the Confederate army, and fought at the Battle of Big Bethel (1861). Appointed the Confederacy's third secretary of war in March 1862, he helped to reform the War Department at a time when the Confederate capital at Richmond was threatened by Union general George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign (1862). Randolph helped to improve procurement and authored the Confederacy's first conscription law, having already done the same for Virginia. His independence and focus on the strategic importance of the West put him into conflict with Confederate president Jefferson Davis, and he resigned in November 1862, his health failing. He died of tuberculosis in 1867.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:04:11 EST]]>
/Cary_Archibald_1721-1787 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:01:35 EST <![CDATA[Cary, Archibald (1721–1787)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cary_Archibald_1721-1787 Archibald Cary was a member of the Convention of 1776, Speaker of the Senate of Virginia (1776–1786), and one of the wealthiest and most influential men in Virginia during and after the American Revolution (1775–1783). Raised in Williamsburg and at his family home of Ampthill, in Chesterfield County, Cary probably attended the College of William and Mary, later working a large farm on land deeded to him from his father. He served in the House of Burgesses, representing Goochland County (1748–1749) and Chesterfield County (1756–1775) and in 1766 was named presiding judge of the Chesterfield County Court. He used his power to curtail the activities of local Baptists. Although Cary voted against Patrick Henry's Resolves on the Stamp Act in 1765, thinking them too inflammatory, he went on to unfailingly support colonial protests against the power of Parliament. In 1773 he was appointed to the Committee of Correspondence and, from 1774 to 1776, to five Revolutionary Conventions. He was a member of the committee that drafted the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the first state constitution. From 1776 until 1786 he served as Speaker of the Senate of Virginia, in many respects as powerful a voice as many of his contemporaries but little known outside Virginia. He died at Ampthill in 1787.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:01:35 EST]]>
/Dunmore_John_Murray_fourth_earl_of_c_1730-1809 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:54:23 EST <![CDATA[Dunmore, John Murray, fourth earl of (ca. 1730–1809)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dunmore_John_Murray_fourth_earl_of_c_1730-1809 John Murray, fourth earl of Dunmore, was Virginia's last royal governor. Dunmore, a member of the House of Lords, reluctantly assumed the office in 1771, not wanting to relinquish his position as governor of New York. He won support by asserting Virginia's land claims west of the Allegheny Mountains, but his impulsive nature alienated key politicians, and the lack of instructions from London hindered his ability to govern. Dunmore received a last measure of popularity in October 1774 when he led volunteers in a defeat of Indians at Point Pleasant on the state's western frontier, later known as Dunmore's War. Tensions between the colony and Great Britain increased rapidly, causing him to remove gunpowder from the public magazine in Williamsburg in April 1775. This action caused his authority to unravel, and he fled to Hampton Roads in June. On November 7 Dunmore declared martial law and offered to free any runaway slaves who supported royal authority. His troops lost the Battle of Great Bridge on December 9 and his fleet shelled Norfolk early in 1776. He left for Great Britain later in the year, where he supported the interests of Loyalist Virginians. In 1787 Dunmore became governor of the Bahamas, during which time he fell from royal favor. He died at his home in England in 1809.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:54:23 EST]]>
/Bland_Richard_1710-1776 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:53:02 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Richard (1710–1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Richard_1710-1776 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:53:02 EST]]> /Jefferson_Thomas_as_Governor_of_Virginia Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:51:34 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas as Governor of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_as_Governor_of_Virginia Thomas Jefferson served as the second governor of Virginia under the Constitution of 1776, holding office for two terms, from June 2, 1779, until June 3, 1781. Jefferson already was a seasoned politician, having served in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776), and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He had no military experience, though, and his tenure was dominated by repeated British invasions of Virginia during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Hampering his efforts to respond was the state constitution, which had relegated little power to the state's chief executive. Faced with calls to provide the struggling Continental army with troops and the need to reinforce the militia against possible invasion, Jefferson presided over draft lotteries that were met with stiff resistance. Then, when the British general Benedict Arnold raided Richmond in January 1781, the governor was slow to call up the militia. By May, thousands of British troops had entered Virginia and many citizens were in near open revolt against the Patriot government. Jefferson was perceived as, and often felt himself to be, powerless to do anything. In June 1781 British cavalry chased the General Assembly out of Charlottesville and nearly captured Jefferson at Monticello. Having already decided not to run for a third term, he followed his family to Poplar Forest instead of going with the assembly to Staunton. For that reason Virginia went without an elected governor for eight days and Jefferson's reputation was tarnished.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:51:34 EST]]>
/Henry_Patrick_1736-1799 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:49:54 EST <![CDATA[Henry, Patrick (1736–1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Henry_Patrick_1736-1799 Patrick Henry was a lawyer, orator, and statesman whose career spanned the founding of the United States. An early critic of British authority and leader in the movement toward independence, Henry dedicated most of his life to Virginia politics. He served as a member of the House of Burgesses (1765–1774), as the first governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia (1776–1779), as a member of the House of Delegates (1779–1784; 1788–1791), and again as governor (1784–1786). He was a founding member of the Virginia Committee of Correspondence (1773) and a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses (1774–1776). He also attended the Virginia Conventions of 1774, March 1775, July–August 1775, May 1776, and 1788. He is best remembered, however, for the speech he delivered during the Virginia Convention of 1775 that famously ended with the words, "Give me liberty, or give me death!" Henry's Virginia contemporaries recognized him as "the man who gave the first impulse to the ball of revolution." Henry retired from public life in 1791 and declined invitations to serve on the Supreme Court, as secretary of state, and as a vice presidential candidate. Only a request from George Washington, made during the divisive conflict over the Alien and Sedition Acts and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, brought him back into the public arena. Henry won election to the General Assembly in the spring of 1799, but died before the House of Delegates convened that autumn.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:49:54 EST]]>
/Braxton_Carter_1736-1797 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:46:59 EST <![CDATA[Braxton, Carter (1736–1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Braxton_Carter_1736-1797 Carter Braxton was a member of the Continental Congress (1776) who supported and signed the Declaration of Independence, and of the Council of State (1786–1791; 1794–1797). Born to power—his maternal grandfather was the wealthy land and slave owner Robert "King" Carter—Braxton married it, as well, wedding first a niece of the Speaker of the House of Burgesses and then, after her death, the daughter of a member of the governor's Council. Braxton acquired large amounts of land and numbers of slaves, and he both cultivated and traded tobacco. While in the House of Burgesses (1761–1775), he served on various prestigious committees and, in May 1775, confronted Patrick Henry and a group of militiamen over their demand for reimbursement of Virginia gunpowder seized by the Crown. Braxton arranged for his father-in-law to pay for it. Although he supported independence, he published a pamphlet that challenged the democratic ideas of John Adams and, as a result, was sent home from the Continental Congress. The American Revolution (1775–1783) left Braxton virtually insolvent, but his political connections intact. He served on the Council of State, and during his second term, advised Henry, his one-time adversary and now Virginia governor. Braxton died in Richmond in 1797.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:46:59 EST]]>
/Francis_Lightfoot_Lee_1734-1797 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:45:25 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Francis Lightfoot (1734–1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Francis_Lightfoot_Lee_1734-1797 Francis Lightfoot Lee, known as Frank, was a member of the House of Burgesses (1758–1774), the Continental Congress (1775–1779), and the Senate of Virginia (1778–1782). Born into the Lee family of Stratford Hall, Lee was a dedicated if reluctant public servant for most of his life. He is best known for signing the Declaration of Independence and for representing Loudoun and Richmond counties in the House of Burgesses; he also provided political and emotional support to his controversy-prone brothers, Richard Henry Lee and Arthur Lee, throughout their careers. (Arthur Lee wrote of Francis Lee, "He was calmness and philosophy itself.") He died on January 17, 1797, at his estate, Menokin, in present-day Warsaw, Virginia.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:45:25 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786), founder of the University of Virginia (1819), governor of Virginia (1779–1781), and third president of the United States (1801–1809). Born at Shadwell, his parents' estate in Albemarle County, he attended the College of William and Mary and studied the law under the tutelage of George Wythe. In 1769, Jefferson began construction of Monticello, his home in Albemarle County, and for the rest of his life pursued an interest in architecture, which included design of Poplar Forest and the State Capitol. Jefferson also indulged a passion for science, serving as president of the American Philosophical Society (1797–1814) and publishing Notes on the State of Virginia (1795). After representing Albemarle County in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), Jefferson was a delegate to Virginia's five Revolutionary Conventions and served in the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776) and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He earned a reputation during the American Revolution (1775–1783) as a forceful advocate of revolutionary principles, articulated in A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774), the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking Up Arms (1775), and, most famously, the Declaration of Independence, approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. His two terms as governor were marked by British invasion and Jefferson's controversial flight to Poplar Forest. From 1784 to 1789, he served as a diplomat in France and there may have begun a sexual relationship with his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Jefferson served as secretary of state in the administration of George Washington (1790–1793) and as vice president under John Adams (1797–1801) before being elected president by the U.S. House of Representatives after a tie vote in the Electoral College. As president Jefferson arranged for the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the subsequent Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806). With James Madison, Jefferson helped found the Republican Party and advocated for states' rights and a small federal government, although as president he sometimes pushed the limits of his executive authority. In his retirement he founded the University of Virginia, which was chartered in 1819 and opened for classes in the spring of 1825. Jefferson died at Monticello on July 4, 1826, fifty years after the Declaration of Independence was approved. He is buried at Monticello.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Colonel_George_Brooke_Treasurer_of_Virginia_February_9_1781 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:42:00 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Colonel George Brooke, Treasurer of Virginia (February 9, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Colonel_George_Brooke_Treasurer_of_Virginia_February_9_1781 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:42:00 EST]]> /Lee_Richard_Henry_1732-1794 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:39:48 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Richard Henry (1732–1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Richard_Henry_1732-1794 Richard Henry Lee was a planter, merchant, politician, and a member of the prominent Lee family of Virginia. Son of Thomas Lee, Richard Henry Lee pursued his father's interest in westward expansion and was a key political figure during the American Revolution (1775–1783): it was Lee who, at the Second Continental Congress in 1776, made the motion to declare independence from Britain. Lee began his career as a justice of the peace for Westmoreland County (1757); he later served as a member of the House of Burgesses (1758–1775), the House of Delegates (1777, 1780, 1785), and the United States Senate (1789–1792). He also represented Virginia at the two Continental Congresses (1774–1779, 1784–1787) and served as president of Congress in 1784. In 1792 Lee retired from public service, citing his poor health. He passed away two years later at Chantilly-on-the-Potomac, his estate in the Northern Neck of Virginia. Lee was mired in controversy throughout his political career, and his legacy has been influenced in part by his enemies. But Lee's prominent role in the events that shaped Virginia and the nation in the mid- to late seventeenth century cannot be denied; it places him high on the list of America's forgotten founders.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:39:48 EST]]>
/Dismal_Swamp_Land_Company_Articles_of_Agreement_November_3_1763 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 11:52:34 EST <![CDATA[Dismal Swamp Land Company Articles of Agreement (November 3, 1763)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dismal_Swamp_Land_Company_Articles_of_Agreement_November_3_1763 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 11:52:34 EST]]> /African_American_Legislators_in_Virginia_1867-1899 Thu, 17 Nov 2016 15:34:27 EST <![CDATA[African American Legislators in Virginia (1867–1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/African_American_Legislators_in_Virginia_1867-1899 Thu, 17 Nov 2016 15:34:27 EST]]> /Clayton_John_ca_1666-1737 Tue, 15 Nov 2016 16:32:50 EST <![CDATA[Clayton, John (ca. 1666–1737)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clayton_John_ca_1666-1737 Tue, 15 Nov 2016 16:32:50 EST]]> /Berkeley_John_ca_1560-1622 Tue, 15 Nov 2016 16:28:46 EST <![CDATA[Berkeley, John (ca. 1560–1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Berkeley_John_ca_1560-1622 John Berkeley was a member of the governor's Council and overseer of an ironworks in Virginia. Berkeley, born in Gloucestershire, England, came to the attention of the Virginia Company of London in 1621 because of his experience in iron smelting and forging. In July 1621, before he reached Virginia, he was appointed to the governor's Council. Upon arrival in the colony, Berkeley continued the construction of an ironworks near Falling Creek, in what is now Chesterfield County. Before he could begin production, Berkeley and twenty-six others at the ironworks were killed during the Powhatans' concerted uprising of March 22, 1622.
Tue, 15 Nov 2016 16:28:46 EST]]>
/Parish_in_Colonial_Virginia_The Mon, 14 Nov 2016 11:05:15 EST <![CDATA[Parish in Colonial Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Parish_in_Colonial_Virginia_The A parish in colonial Virginia was a unit of both civil and religious authority that covered a set geographical territory. Each Church of England parish in the colony was served by a single minister and governed by a vestry usually composed of local elites. As a religious institution, a parish contained a mother, or central, church, and frequently two or more so-called chapels of ease in outlying areas that the minister served on successive Sundays. As a civil institution, the parish vestry was charged with overseeing a wide range of responsibilities that included social welfare and presenting moral offenders to the courts. The contemporary understanding of parishes and vestries as institutions that deal primarily, if not exclusively, with internal parochial affairs is at odds with the extent of duties associated with the colonial parish. Indeed, according to the historian John Nelson, local government in early Virginia should be understood as "parish-county" government, these two "linked institutions sharing, dividing up, and intermingling their interests and responsibilities."
Mon, 14 Nov 2016 11:05:15 EST]]>
/Brent_Margaret_ca_1601-1671 Mon, 14 Nov 2016 08:50:44 EST <![CDATA[Brent, Margaret (ca. 1601–1671)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brent_Margaret_ca_1601-1671 Mon, 14 Nov 2016 08:50:44 EST]]> /Carter_Charles_1732-1796 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:18:15 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Charles (1732–1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Charles_1732-1796 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:18:15 EST]]> /Brent_Giles_ca_1652-1679 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:03:47 EST <![CDATA[Brent, Giles (ca. 1652–1679)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brent_Giles_ca_1652-1679 Giles Brent was a participant in Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677). A Catholic of both Indian and English heritage, he learned the Indian language from his mother, inherited all of his father's land, and became a prosperous young planter and militia captain. In July 1675 Brent served in a party that killed several Doeg Indians in retaliation for the Indians' having killed some white Virginians. He joined forces loyal to Nathaniel Bacon in order to battle the Pamunkey and collaborated with Bacon until the rebel leader turned his forces against the governor, Sir William Berkeley, in 1676 and laid siege to Jamestown. Brent then gathered approximately 1,000 men to confront Bacon's forces. When the men learned that Bacon had burned Jamestown, they deserted Brent. He died in Middlesex County on September 2, 1679.
Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:03:47 EST]]>
/Bland_Theodorick_bap_1630-1672 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:00:32 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Theodorick (bap. 1630–1672)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Theodorick_bap_1630-1672 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:00:32 EST]]> /Bland_Anna_Bennett_d_1687 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 16:58:28 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Anna Bennett (d. 1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Anna_Bennett_d_1687 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 16:58:28 EST]]> /Borden_Benjamin_1675-1743 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 16:54:26 EST <![CDATA[Borden, Benjamin (1675–1743)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Borden_Benjamin_1675-1743 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 16:54:26 EST]]> /House_of_Burgesses Thu, 10 Nov 2016 11:11:57 EST <![CDATA[House of Burgesses]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/House_of_Burgesses The House of Burgesses was an assembly of elected representatives from Virginia that met from 1643 to 1776. This democratically elected legislative body was the first of its kind in English North America. From 1619 until 1643, elected burgesses met in unicameral session with the governor and the royally appointed governor's Council; after 1643, the burgesses met separately as the lower house of the General Assembly of Virginia. Each county sent two burgesses to the House; towns could petition to send a single representative, as Jamestown, Williamsburg, and Norfolk did. (The College of William and Mary also had representation in the House.) Most burgesses were also members of the gentry class, though the colonists they represented were usually small land–owners and tenant farmers. In 1774, when the House of Burgesses began to support resistance to the Crown, Virginia's royal governor, John Murray, earl of Dunmore, dissolved it. The Virginia Constitution of 1776 created a new General Assembly that replaced the governor's Council with an elected Senate and the House of Burgesses with an elected House of Delegates. The House of Burgesses is notable, however, for being the training ground of many of America's Founding Fathers, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Richard Henry Lee, and Patrick Henry.
Thu, 10 Nov 2016 11:11:57 EST]]>
/Virginia_Company_of_London Thu, 10 Nov 2016 10:59:52 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Company of London]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Company_of_London The Virginia Company of London was a joint-stock company chartered by King James I in 1606 to establish a colony in North America. Such a venture allowed the Crown to reap the benefits of colonization—natural resources, new markets for English goods, leverage against the Spanish—without bearing the costs. Investors, meanwhile, were protected from catastrophic losses in the event of the project's failure. The company established a settlement at Jamestown in 1607, and over the next eighteen years, the Crown granted the company two new charters, democratizing its governance and reforming its financial model. What began as an enterprise of investors seeking a dividend was funded a decade later almost exclusively by a public lottery. By 1618 the company had found a way to use its most abundant resource—land—to tempt settlers to pay their own passage from England to the colony and then, after arrival, to pay the company a quitrent, or fee, to use the land. Still, the Virginia Company and the colony it oversaw struggled to survive. Disease, mismanagement, Indian attacks, and factionalism in London all took a toll until, in 1623, the Privy Council launched an investigation into the company's finances. A year later, the company's charter was revoked and the king assumed direct control of Virginia.
Thu, 10 Nov 2016 10:59:52 EST]]>
/Dawson_John_M_1829-1913 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 08:26:41 EST <![CDATA[Dawson, John M. (1829–1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dawson_John_M_1829-1913 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 08:26:41 EST]]> /Edwards_Ballard_T_ca_1828-1881 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 07:54:28 EST <![CDATA[Edwards, Ballard T. (ca. 1828–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edwards_Ballard_T_ca_1828-1881 Ballard T. Edwards represented Chesterfield and Powhatan counties for one term in the House of Delegates (1869–1871). Born free in Manchester (later annexed by Richmond), he became a skilled laborer, owned property, and played a key role in his church. By 1867 Edwards had become involved with Republican Party politics. Two years later he won a seat in the House of Delegates in racially polarized voting. Edwards actively looked out for the rights of freedpeople, though the Conservative Party quashed measures that included safeguarding payment for workers, integrating transportation, and outlawing the Vagrancy Act of 1866. Defeated in his reelection attempt, Edwards remained an active civic figure in his final years. He also worked as a brick mason and plasterer. He died at his Manchester home in 1881.
Thu, 10 Nov 2016 07:54:28 EST]]>
/Gooch_Sir_William_1681-1751 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 16:00:40 EST <![CDATA[Gooch, Sir William (1681–1751)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gooch_Sir_William_1681-1751 Sir William Gooch served as lieutenant governor of Virginia, the colony's chief administrator at the time, from 1727 until 1749, and is the namesake of Goochland County. Born in England, Gooch served in the army during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701­–1714) and later during a Jacobite uprising in Scotland. Appointed lieutenant governor by George I in 1727, Gooch was one of Virginia's ablest and most successful chief executives and was second only to Sir William Berkeley in the length of time he lived in the colony. Succeeding where his predecessors had failed, Gooch worked with, rather than against, Virginia's strong planter class to implement new policies. The most significant legislation Gooch engineered was the Tobacco Inspection Act of 1730, which created a network of warehouses that graded the quality of the harvest and destroyed low-quality product. The program, combined with market forces, helped spur profitable harvests. Gooch's tenure coincided with a period of prosperity and population growth most associated today with large plantation houses. Gooch was wounded in both ankles in the English attack on Cartagena in what is now Colombia, which he helped to lead in 1740, while still lieutenant governor; he subsequently suffered poor health for the rest of his life. A staunch member of the Church of England, he focused on what he perceived as threats from new Protestant denominations such as the Methodists and Baptists. He retired from political life and sailed back to England in 1749, where he died in 1751.
Wed, 09 Nov 2016 16:00:40 EST]]>
/Paige_R_G_L_1846-1904 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 11:02:00 EST <![CDATA[Paige, R. G. L. (1846–1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Paige_R_G_L_1846-1904 R. G. L. Paige was a Republican member of the House of Delegates (1871–1875, 1879–1882) and possibly the first African American lawyer in Norfolk and one of the first in Virginia. Born into slavery in the city of Norfolk, Paige escaped to Philadelphia about 1857 and eventually settled in Boston. After the American Civil War (1861–1865) and the abolition of slavery, he returned to Norfolk. There he purchased the local African American burial ground (later Mount Olive Cemetery) and in 1871 won election to the House of Delegates. In the General Assembly Paige lobbied for civil rights, served as a delegate to the Republican National Convention, and won a patronage appointment as an assistant clerk at the Norfolk customs house. In 1880 he delivered a speech against lynching that was widely reprinted, but no legislation resulted. That same year he threatened to, but in the end did not, sue a Richmond theater company that refused to seat him. From 1882 to 1885 he served as secretary of the curators of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute. In 1882 he helped pass legislation chartering the Virginia Building and Savings Association and became a founding member of its board of directors. Paige died in 1904.
Wed, 09 Nov 2016 11:02:00 EST]]>
/Norton_Robert_d_by_October_17_1898 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:58:57 EST <![CDATA[Norton, Robert (d. by October 17, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Norton_Robert_d_by_October_17_1898 Robert Norton, one of three brothers elected to the General Assembly, served in the House of Delegates (1869–1882) and chaired the Committee on Labor and the Poor during the 1881–1882 session. Norton and his brother Daniel M. Norton escaped slavery in the mid-1850s. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), Robert Norton settled in Yorktown and carved out a power base by leading the fraternal society Lone Star. He won his first election to the House of Delegates in 1869, serving all but one term through 1883. The rise of the Readjuster Party late in the 1870s enhanced Norton's influence, and he gained notice for seconding party leader William Mahone's nomination for the U.S. Senate. Norton sat as a delegate to Republican and Readjuster national and state conventions, and campaigned unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives in 1874. Norton lost his bid for renomination to the House of Delegates in 1883. He was named to the board of visitors of the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Virginia State University) in 1885 and held a gubernatorial appointment as a curator of the fund for Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University). Norton died by 1898.
Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:58:57 EST]]>
/Nickens_Armistead_S_1836-1906 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:55:04 EST <![CDATA[Nickens, Armistead S. (1836–1906)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Nickens_Armistead_S_1836-1906 Armistead S. Nickens represented Lancaster County in the House of Delegates for two terms (1871–1875). Born into a free family, Nickens became prosperous enough by the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865) that the local agent of the Freedmen's Bureau listed him as a respectable citizen capable of holding public office. Nickens won his first term in 1871, becoming the first African American elected official in county history. He gained a second term in 1873 by a scant twenty-nine votes. After his term in the assembly Nickens received an appointment as a special collector of delinquent taxes in Lancaster County. A landowner, according to local tradition Nickens advocated a bridge across the Rappahannock River that would connect Tappahannock and Richmond County. He died at home in 1906.
Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:55:04 EST]]>
/Fields_James_A_1844-1903 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:30:26 EST <![CDATA[Fields, James A. (1844–1903)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fields_James_A_1844-1903 James A. Fields, who was born enslaved and became a successful lawyer, served one term in the House of Delegates (1889–1890). A brutal beating prompted Fields to escape his Hanover County bondage, and he settled in the Hampton area during the American Civil War (1861–1865). He enrolled in Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute's first class in 1869 and graduated two years later. In 1882 Fields received his law degree from Howard University and began to practice law in Warwick County (later Newport News). Five years later the area's voters elected him as commonwealth's attorney, and in 1889 he won his seat in the General Assembly. By 1900 he paid taxes on at least twenty-five properties in Newport News and Elizabeth City County. Fields died of Bright's disease in 1903. His late-Victorian Italianate residence in Newport News was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2002.
Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:30:26 EST]]>
/Evans_William_D_ca_1831-1900 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:14:01 EST <![CDATA[Evans, William D. (ca. 1831–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Evans_William_D_ca_1831-1900 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:14:01 EST]]> /Connor_Miles_d_1893 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 09:41:22 EST <![CDATA[Connor, Miles (d. 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Connor_Miles_d_1893 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 09:41:22 EST]]> /Coleman_Asa_d_after_February_24_1893 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 09:36:10 EST <![CDATA[Coleman, Asa (d. after February 24, 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Coleman_Asa_d_after_February_24_1893 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 09:36:10 EST]]> /Carter_Peter_Jacob_1845-1886 Tue, 08 Nov 2016 11:48:44 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Peter Jacob (1845–1886)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Peter_Jacob_1845-1886 Peter Jacob Carter, a member of the House of Delegates (1871–1878), was the Eastern Shore's predominant African American politician in the decades following the American Civil War. Born in Northampton County, Carter escaped from slavery and then served for more than two years with the U.S. Colored Infantry. In 1871 he won election as a Republican to the House of Delegates representing Northampton County. He was reelected three more times, and his eight-year tenure was one of the longest among nineteenth-century African American members of the General Assembly. Carter was a Funder Republican—that is, he supported the aggressive repayment of Virginia's antebellum debts—a rare position for an African American politician. Conservatives gerrymandered Carter out of his district ahead of the 1879 elections, and he lost his bid for a seat in the Senate of Virginia. He retained much of his political power, dispensing federal patronage and chairing the state's delegation to the Republican National Convention in 1880. He left the party to join William Mahone's Readjusters, a Republican-allied coalition that sought to readjust Virginia's payment of its antebellum debt. Carter was rewarded for his support by being elected doorkeeper of the Senate of Virginia in 1881 and appointed rector of Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Virginia State University) in 1883. He died in 1886, probably of appendicitis.
Tue, 08 Nov 2016 11:48:44 EST]]>
/Lynching_in_Virginia Mon, 07 Nov 2016 10:09:49 EST <![CDATA[Lynching in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lynching_in_Virginia Lynching involves the extralegal punishment of perceived wrongdoing by a mob. Lynching became pervasive in the American South late in the nineteenth century and, at its height, from 1880 to 1930, killed at least eighty-six men in Virginia, all but fifteen of them African Americans. Many historians believe the term can be traced to Charles Lynch, a Bedford County militia colonel during the American Revolution (1775–1783) who punished captured Loyalists outside the law. Although a regular feature of the Revolution, mob violence spiked during the 1830s in response to immigration and tensions over slavery. In the South, meanwhile, slavery had long encouraged violence against African Americans, implicating even non-slaveholding whites who were often called upon to search for escaped slaves. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), these two traditions—mob violence and violence against African Americans—joined to create an epidemic of lynchings that killed probably as many as 4,000 people from 1880 until the mid-twentieth century; the large majority of those victims were African Americans living in the South. White Virginians, who lynched the fewest number of people of any southern state, justified the practice by demonizing African Americans and arguing that the courts provided insufficient protection against their supposed criminal tendencies. Blacks and whites understood lynching as a means of enforcing white supremacy. Vocal black critics, such as the editor John Mitchell Jr., encouraged armed defense but were ignored by white lawmakers. In the 1920s, after a rash of mob violence, Virginia passed the South's first antilynching law, although no white person was ever convicted under the legislation.
Mon, 07 Nov 2016 10:09:49 EST]]>
/Ku_Klux_Klan_in_Virginia Fri, 04 Nov 2016 16:34:31 EST <![CDATA[Ku Klux Klan in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ku_Klux_Klan_in_Virginia The Ku Klux Klan (KKK), also known as the Klan or the Invisible Empire, is a right-wing extremist organization that has emerged at three distinct periods of U.S. history: from 1865 to the 1870s, from 1915 to 1944, and from the 1950s to the present. In the name of white supremacy and the protection of "one-hundred percent Americanism," these Klan movements have targeted—through political rhetoric and violent actions—African Americans, immigrants, Catholics, Jews, and organized labor, as well as prostitution and the alcohol industry. While antipathy from political elites ensured that the Klan never gained the foothold in Virginia that it had in other states, it was most prominent in the Commonwealth during the 1920s and resurged during the 1950s and 1960s to target civil rights activists. During Reconstruction (1865–1877), the Klan was active in Virginia only for a period of several months before the newspapers that had once supported it condemned its use of violence. After the events of World War I (1914–1918) encouraged a heightened fear of "anti-American elements," the Klan was more efficiently mobilized and enjoyed a longer reign in Virginia, but was undone by legal restrictions on its violent activities, which included kidnappings, floggings, and at least one lynching. The Klan was reborn in the late 1950s to defend white supremacy against the threats of desegregation, but mounting pressure from civil rights groups led the white political establishment to commit to stamping out masked rallies and cross-burnings and making Virginia an inhospitable environment for Klan activity. The white political and social elite consistently decried the Klan, not because they were opposed to white supremacy but because they viewed the Klan's methods as crass and unsophisticated. Klan klaverns still exist in the Commonwealth, but there has been little public notice or concern of them since the late 1960s.
Fri, 04 Nov 2016 16:34:31 EST]]>
/Two_Penny_Acts_1755_1758 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:06:52 EST <![CDATA[Two Penny Acts (1755, 1758)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Two_Penny_Acts_1755_1758 The General Assembly adopted the Two Penny Acts of 1755 and 1758 as temporary relief measures in response to the failure of the Virginia colony's tobacco crops. Tobacco was Virginia's principal export, but it also backed the colony's currency, and these crop failures threatened Virginia's system of taxation for support of local and provincial government, including the parishes and clergy of the Church of England. The Two Penny Acts allowed vestries and county courts to collect taxes and pay salaries in money calculated at the usual market price for tobacco rather than in tobacco at windfall rates. Although it reduced their annual salaries, relatively few Virginia clergymen objected to the 1755 act, which expired after ten months. They were less amenable to the second act, however. Reverend Jacob Rowe spoke so vehemently against it that he was forced to apologize to the House of Burgesses. Reverend John Camm, meanwhile, took the protest to London and succeeded in having the act revoked, which set up a conflict between Lieutenant Governor Francis Fauquier and the power of the Crown. When clergymen sued for their back wages, the controversy known as the Parsons' Cause erupted and became a precedent for resistance to English authority.
Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:06:52 EST]]>
/Camm_John_bap_1717-1779 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:01:45 EST <![CDATA[Camm, John (bap. 1717–1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Camm_John_bap_1717-1779 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:01:45 EST]]> /Fauquier_Francis_bap_1703-1768 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 11:20:32 EST <![CDATA[Fauquier, Francis (bap. 1703–1768)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fauquier_Francis_bap_1703-1768 Francis Fauquier served as lieutenant governor of Virginia from 1758 until his death in 1768 and during the terms of two absentee governors, John Campbell, fourth earl of Loudoun, and Sir Jeffery Amherst. Born and educated in London, Fauquier was influential in business and the arts before coming to Virginia. Beginning in the midst of the French and Indian War (1754–1763), his administration was fraught with unusual difficulties. He struggled to establish defenses against Indian raids on the frontier and to recruit and supply Virginia regiments to supplement British expeditionary forces; he worked for a compromise between colonials and English merchants over the issue of paper money; and he maintained a strong grip upon the government in the midst of the Stamp Act crisis and revelations of irregularities in the Treasurer's Office following the death of Speaker John Robinson (1705–1766). Influenced by the Enlightenment, Fauquier had a good relationship with Virginia's colonial leaders and generally promoted education. Before his death, he stipulated that the families of his slaves not be split up upon his death.
Thu, 03 Nov 2016 11:20:32 EST]]>
/_An_ACT_to_punish_certain_thefts_and_forgeries_December_31_1806 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:15:57 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to punish certain thefts and forgeries" (December 31, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_punish_certain_thefts_and_forgeries_December_31_1806 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:15:57 EST]]> /_quot_The_Lynching_of_Negroes_quot_chapter_4_of_The_Negro_The_Southerner_apos_s_Problem_by_Thomas_Nelson_Page_1904 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:13:47 EST <![CDATA["The Lynching of Negroes"; chapter 4 of The Negro: The Southerner's Problem by Thomas Nelson Page (1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Lynching_of_Negroes_quot_chapter_4_of_The_Negro_The_Southerner_apos_s_Problem_by_Thomas_Nelson_Page_1904 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:13:47 EST]]> /Toler_Burwell_ca_1822-1880 Wed, 02 Nov 2016 14:47:35 EST <![CDATA[Toler, Burwell (ca. 1822–1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Toler_Burwell_ca_1822-1880 Wed, 02 Nov 2016 14:47:35 EST]]> /_quot_The_Negro_and_the_Criminal_Law_quot_chapter_6_of_The_Plantation_Negro_as_Freeman_by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1889 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:47:42 EST <![CDATA["The Negro and the Criminal Law"; chapter 6 of The Plantation Negro as Freeman by Philip Alexander Bruce (1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Negro_and_the_Criminal_Law_quot_chapter_6_of_The_Plantation_Negro_as_Freeman_by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1889 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:47:42 EST]]> /_quot_The_Perpetuation_of_Our_Political_Institutions_quot_by_Abraham_Lincoln_January_27_1838 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:30:47 EST <![CDATA["The Perpetuation of Our Political Institutions" by Abraham Lincoln (January 27, 1838)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Perpetuation_of_Our_Political_Institutions_quot_by_Abraham_Lincoln_January_27_1838 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:30:47 EST]]> /Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_Refugee_gt_1856 Fri, 28 Oct 2016 10:59:11 EST <![CDATA[Arrivals from Virginia; an excerpt from The Refugee (1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_Refugee_gt_1856 Fri, 28 Oct 2016 10:59:11 EST]]> /Jefferson_Thomas_and_Gardening Wed, 26 Oct 2016 17:11:11 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and Gardening]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Gardening Thomas Jefferson's interest in gardening arose from a passionate curiosity about the natural world. From his childhood home at Shadwell, where in his early twenties Jefferson recorded that 2,500 pea seeds would fill a pint jar, until 1825, when at the age of eighty-two he sought and later received from the former governor of Ohio seeds of giant cucumbers, Jefferson had an unrelenting enthusiasm for natural history and horticulture that was expressed in his Garden Book. Sixty-six pages long, bound in leather, and residing today at the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Garden Book is also a reflection of Jefferson's Enlightenment ethic. Although he also displayed his love of gardening, food, and wine during his political life in Paris, Philadelphia, and Washington, and at his retirement retreat at Poplar Forest, Jefferson's lifelong home at Monticello became his experimental horticultural laboratory as well as a natural canvas on which to indulge his interest in landscape design, whether sketching plans for garden temples, planting groves of native and introduced species of plants, or composing dreamy visions for classical grottoes around natural mountain springs.
Wed, 26 Oct 2016 17:11:11 EST]]>
/Dodge_Sanford_M_ca_1820-d_1870 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 17:06:40 EST <![CDATA[Dodge, Sanford M. (ca. 1820–1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dodge_Sanford_M_ca_1820-d_1870 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 17:06:40 EST]]> /Allen_Arthur_ca_1652-1710 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:28:33 EST <![CDATA[Allen, Arthur (ca. 1652–1710)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allen_Arthur_ca_1652-1710 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:28:33 EST]]> /Act_of_Toleration_1689 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:24:40 EST <![CDATA[Act of Toleration (1689)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Act_of_Toleration_1689 The Act of Toleration, or "An Act for Exempting their Majestyes Protestant Subjects dissenting from the Church of England from the Penalties of certaine Lawes," passed by Parliament in 1689, represented the most significant religious reform in England since its break with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s. Instituted in the wake of the Glorious Revolution (1688–1689) that deposed the Catholic James II in favor of his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch Calvinist husband, William, the act exempted religious dissenters from certain penalties and disadvantages under which they had suffered for more than a century. Under the act's provisions, Trinitarian Protestants (not Catholics) could operate without interference from the state if they swore an oath of allegiance to the government. This excluded those Anglicans who supported a return to the Stuart monarchy (the line of James II). Offering this toleration to Presbyterians, Baptists, and other orthodox dissenters built a stronger base of support for King William's rule, but it also legally endorsed an unprecedented level of religious diversity in England. This reform would have cascading—if contested—consequences for religion in the American colonies, including Virginia.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:24:40 EST]]>
/Sound_in_Jefferson_s_Virginia Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:13:42 EST <![CDATA[Sound in Jefferson's Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sound_in_Jefferson_s_Virginia Sound in Thomas Jefferson's Virginia included natural, man-made, and melodic noises. The areas surrounding Monticello, the Albemarle County estate of Jefferson, and the city of Charlottesville, reverberated with thunder, cicadas, bells, work songs, fiddles, and drums. Nearby taverns, parlors, dances, and political rallies resonated with the sounds of crowd noises, toasts, songs, military salutes, fireworks, and shouts. Jefferson's world was as noisy as any small town of its time, filled with the sounds of nature (especially cicadas), Western art music, political music, and the sounds of the enslaved. In taverns, patrons sang drinking songs and patriotic tunes. In parlors, young women performed with keyboards and lutes. At dances, men played fiddles, and in the military, they participated in fife and drum corps. In slave quarters, enslaved men and women, though regularly ignored, sang spirituals and played fiddles and drums, sometimes to communicate with one another.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:13:42 EST]]>
/Witchcraft_in_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 25 Oct 2016 12:11:32 EST <![CDATA[Witchcraft in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Witchcraft_in_Colonial_Virginia Witchcraft was a genuine concern for colonial Virginians. The colony's English settlers brought with them a strong belief in the devil's power and his presence in the New World. This belief was first manifested in the Jamestown colonists' early perceptions of the Virginia Indians, whom they believed to be devil worshippers. After 1622, some colonists began to accuse one another of practicing witchcraft. Though witchcraft cases in Virginia were less common and the sentences less severe than the more famous witch trials of Salem, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, evidence exists that about two dozen such trials took place in Virginia between 1626 and 1730. They ranged from civil defamation suits to criminal accusations. The most famous of these was the trial of Grace Sherwood of Princess Anne County, in which the judges determined her guilt by administering a water test. Records indicate that the last witchcraft trial in the mainland colonies took place in Virginia in 1730; five years later, Parliament repealed the Witchcraft Act of 1604, the statute under which British American colonists prosecuted accused witches. Since then, witchcraft has been largely forgotten as an aspect of life in colonial Virginia.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 12:11:32 EST]]>
/Brooke_George_d_1782 Fri, 14 Oct 2016 12:03:51 EST <![CDATA[Brooke, George (d. 1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brooke_George_d_1782 George Brooke was a member of the House of Burgesses (1765, 1771, 1774), the Convention of 1776, and the Senate of Virginia (1776–1779), and served as treasurer of Virginia from 1779 until his death. Born in King William County, he moved to King and Queen County after his marriage and formed a mercantile partnership with one of his wife's relatives. He earned a reputation as a reliable businessman and was involved in settling the controversial and politically sensitive estate of Speaker John Robinson. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he sat in the Revolutionary Conventions, although he missed the vote for independence in 1776, and was paymaster to several Virginia regiments. At the end of his life he served as treasurer of Virginia, helping to supervise the transfer of the capital from Williamsburg to Richmond and to keep the state's fiscal affairs intact during British raids in 1781. He died in 1782.
Fri, 14 Oct 2016 12:03:51 EST]]>
/Boothe_Armistead_L_1907-1990 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 16:52:55 EST <![CDATA[Boothe, Armistead L. (1907–1990)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boothe_Armistead_L_1907-1990 Armistead L. Boothe was a Democratic politician who challenged the party's powerful, conservative political machine run by Senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. Boothe entered the General Assembly in 1948 as an independent thinker within what was known as the Byrd Organization. He sabotaged an attempt to keep Harry S. Truman off the ballot for the 1948 presidential election and the next year predicted that public school segregation would soon be ruled illegal. In 1950 he proposed integrating common carriers, and after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) that segregation in public schools was indeed unconstitutional, he issued his own plan for limited public school desegregation despite his personal opposition to integration. Boothe opposed Byrd's plan of Massive Resistance, or a refusal to desegregate, as a threat to strong public schools. Despite being an influential member of the House of Delegates and the Senate of Virginia for more than a decade, Boothe remained an opposition figure within his own party. He lost Democratic primaries for lieutenant governor in 1961 and for the U.S. Senate in 1966.
Wed, 12 Oct 2016 16:52:55 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_George_Wythe_with_Enclosure_September_16_1787 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 14:57:20 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to George Wythe, with Enclosure (September 16, 1787)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_George_Wythe_with_Enclosure_September_16_1787 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 14:57:20 EST]]> /Reports_on_the_Death_of_George_Wythe_Poulson_s_American_Daily_Advertiser_June_17_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:15:49 EST <![CDATA[Reports on the Death of George Wythe, Poulson's American Daily Advertiser (June 17, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Reports_on_the_Death_of_George_Wythe_Poulson_s_American_Daily_Advertiser_June_17_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:15:49 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_Wirt_to_Elizabeth_Gamble_Wirt_July_13_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:01:12 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William Wirt to Elizabeth Gamble Wirt (July 13, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_Wirt_to_Elizabeth_Gamble_Wirt_July_13_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:01:12 EST]]> /Ariss_John_ca_1729-1799 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 16:51:10 EST <![CDATA[Ariss, John (ca. 1729–1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ariss_John_ca_1729-1799 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 16:51:10 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_the_Virginia_Gazette_December_14_1769 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:54:18 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from the Virginia Gazette (December 14, 1769)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_the_Virginia_Gazette_December_14_1769 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:54:18 EST]]> /An_act_ascertaining_the_place_for_erecting_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_February_8_1693 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:48:37 EST <![CDATA[An act ascertaining the place for erecting the College of William and Mary in Virginia (February 8, 1693)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_ascertaining_the_place_for_erecting_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_February_8_1693 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:48:37 EST]]> /The_Third_of_Five_Student_Speeches_written_by_Francis_Nicolson_and_James_Blair_May_1_1699 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:44:46 EST <![CDATA[The Third of Five Student Speeches written by Francis Nicolson and James Blair (May 1, 1699)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Third_of_Five_Student_Speeches_written_by_Francis_Nicolson_and_James_Blair_May_1_1699 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:44:46 EST]]> /An_act_for_the_Seatinge_of_the_middle_Plantation_February_1_1632 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:40:30 EST <![CDATA[An act for the Seatinge of the middle Plantation (February 1, 1632)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_the_Seatinge_of_the_middle_Plantation_February_1_1632 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:40:30 EST]]> /The_Statutes_of_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_1758 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:36:35 EST <![CDATA[The Statutes of the College of William and Mary in Virginia (1758)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Statutes_of_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_1758 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:36:35 EST]]> /Amendments_proposed_by_the_Council_to_the_Bill_Entituled_an_Act_continuing_the_Act_directing_the_building_the_Capitol_and_the_City_of_Williamsburgh_with_additions_1705 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:27:20 EST <![CDATA[Amendments proposed by the Council to the Bill Entituled an Act, continuing the Act directing the building the Capitol and the City of Williamsburgh, with additions (1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Amendments_proposed_by_the_Council_to_the_Bill_Entituled_an_Act_continuing_the_Act_directing_the_building_the_Capitol_and_the_City_of_Williamsburgh_with_additions_1705 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:27:20 EST]]> /An_Act_Continuing_the_Act_directing_the_building_the_Capitol_and_the_city_of_Williamsburg_with_additions_1699 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:24:34 EST <![CDATA[An Act Continuing the Act directing the building the Capitol and the city of Williamsburg; with additions (1699)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_Continuing_the_Act_directing_the_building_the_Capitol_and_the_city_of_Williamsburg_with_additions_1699 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:24:34 EST]]> /_Account_of_Col_George_Mercer_s_Arrival_in_Virginia_and_his_Resignation_of_the_Office_of_Stamp_Distributor_October_31_1765 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:15:17 EST <![CDATA["Account of Col. George Mercer's Arrival in Virginia, and his Resignation of the Office of Stamp Distributor" (October 31, 1765)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Account_of_Col_George_Mercer_s_Arrival_in_Virginia_and_his_Resignation_of_the_Office_of_Stamp_Distributor_October_31_1765 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:15:17 EST]]> /Dure_Leon_S_1907-1993 Thu, 06 Oct 2016 12:41:59 EST <![CDATA[Dure, Leon S. (1907–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dure_Leon_S_1907-1993 Leon S. Dure created the concept of freedom of choice of association, a philosophy embraced by segregationists after Massive Resistance—the state policies designed to oppose the desegregation of public schools—faded in 1959. Born in Macon, Georgia, Dure served as managing editor of the Macon Telegraph, White House correspondent for the Washington Post, managing editor of the Richmond Times-Dispatch, and executive news editor of the Twin City Sentinel in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. He retired in 1949 and returned to Virginia, where he lived on a farm in Albemarle County. During the desegregation crisis that followed the U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Dure publicized freedom of choice of association as a way to avoid the large-scale integration of public schools. Students could choose which school to attend, with white students receiving state-tuition grants to attend segregated private schools. While not entirely new, the idea was particularly palatable to suburban white voters. Dure's strategy persisted until the 1960s, when it received two key legal defeats in Griffin v. State Board of Education (1964) and Green v. County School Board of New Kent County (1968). Dure died in Florida in 1993.
Thu, 06 Oct 2016 12:41:59 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_and_the_Practice_of_Law Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:07:34 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and the Practice of Law]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_the_Practice_of_Law Thomas Jefferson's life in the law has been generally overlooked, despite the years he devoted to its practice and the impact it had on the American Revolution (1775–1783) and subsequent generations. Admitted to the Virginia bar in 1765 after more than two years of reading law under the tutelage of George Wythe, Jefferson practiced before the General Court in Williamsburg, specializing in land cases. By the time Edmund Randolph took over his practice in 1774, he had handled more than 900 matters, with clients ranging from common farmers and indentured servants to the most powerful and wealthy of the colony's planter elite. In Bolling v. Bolling (1771) and Blair v. Blair (1772) he became involved in the private, often sensational affairs of the gentry, while in Howell v. Netherland (1770) he attempted to win the freedom of a mixed-race man he believed to be illegally bound to servitude. Jefferson was influenced by an English tradition distinguishing between common law—a tradition preserved by courts through precedent—and natural law, or rights ordained by God. In this way, his legal training left its mark on his revolutionary writings, in particular the "Summary View of the Rights of British America" (1774) and the Declaration of Independence (1776). Following the Revolution, he used these principles to campaign for legal reform in Virginia, drafting, among many other bills, the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786).
Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:07:34 EST]]>
/Paleoindian_Period Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:04:45 EST <![CDATA[Paleoindian Period (16,000–8000 BC)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Paleoindian_Period The Paleoindian Period (16,000–8000 BC) came toward the end of the Ice Age, a time when the climate warmed and the largest mammals became extinct. Likely having originally migrated from Asia, the first people in Virginia were hunter-gatherers who left behind lithic, or stone, tools, often spearheads. At the Cactus Hill Archaeological Site in Sussex County, these date back to 16,000 BC, or well before the better-known Clovis culture. The so-called Paleoamericans likely banded together in groups of thirty to fifty and located themselves near high-quality stone resources, especially in Dinwiddie and Mecklenburg counties. While keeping a base camp, they may have established smaller settlements for more specialized tasks such as tool-making and hunting. The bands probably lacked central leadership, moved often, and traded with one another. Based on the religious practices of the later Virginia Indians, they likely were animists, investing various natural forces with spiritual power.
Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:04:45 EST]]>
/Cactus_Hill_Archaeological_Site Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:02:19 EST <![CDATA[Cactus Hill Archaeological Site]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cactus_Hill_Archaeological_Site Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:02:19 EST]]> /Custalow_George_F_Thunder_Cloud_1865-1949 Fri, 30 Sep 2016 14:24:42 EST <![CDATA[Custalow, George F. "Thunder Cloud" (1865–1949)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custalow_George_F_Thunder_Cloud_1865-1949 George F. "Thunder Cloud" Custalow was the chief of the Mattaponi tribe from 1914 until his death in 1949. Born in King William County in 1865, Custalow instituted educational and religious reform in his community and helped forge Mattaponi tribal identity. (Prior to his efforts, it was mistakenly believed that the Mattaponi were a branch of the Pamunkey, not a separate Powhatan tribe.) Under his leadership, a Mattaponi school opened on the reservation and tribal members founded the Mattaponi Indian Baptist Church. Custalow also campaigned with Pamunkey chief George Major Cook against legislation that restricted Virginia Indians' civil rights even further than the Virginia Act to Preserve Racial Integrity, which passed in 1924, already did. He died on the Mattaponi Indian Reservation on March 18, 1949.
Fri, 30 Sep 2016 14:24:42 EST]]>
/Southern_Horrors_Lynch_Law_in_All_Its_Phases_by_Ida_B_Wells_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:13:35 EST <![CDATA[Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases by Ida B. Wells (1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Southern_Horrors_Lynch_Law_in_All_Its_Phases_by_Ida_B_Wells_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:13:35 EST]]> /_quot_Lynch_Law_Again_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_February_19_1880 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:12:38 EST <![CDATA["Lynch Law, Again," Richmond Dispatch (February 19, 1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Lynch_Law_Again_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_February_19_1880 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:12:38 EST]]> /_quot_Page_Wallace_apos_s_Crime_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_February_3_1880 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:11:47 EST <![CDATA["Page Wallace's Crime," Richmond Dispatch (February 3, 1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Page_Wallace_apos_s_Crime_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_February_3_1880 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:11:47 EST]]> /_quot_From_the_Vicksburg_Register_quot_The_Floridian_July_25_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:11:00 EST <![CDATA["From the Vicksburg Register," The Floridian (July 25, 1835)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_From_the_Vicksburg_Register_quot_The_Floridian_July_25_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:11:00 EST]]> /_quot_Richlands_apos_Lynching_quot_Clinch_Valley_News_February_3_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:10:00 EST <![CDATA["Richlands' Lynching," Clinch Valley News (February 3, 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Richlands_apos_Lynching_quot_Clinch_Valley_News_February_3_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:10:00 EST]]> /U_S_Senate_Resolution_39_June_13_2005 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:08:50 EST <![CDATA[U.S. Senate Resolution 39 (June 13, 2005)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/U_S_Senate_Resolution_39_June_13_2005 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:08:50 EST]]> /Virginia_Mob_New-York_Spectator_August_20_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:07:52 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Mob, New-York Spectator (August 20, 1835)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Mob_New-York_Spectator_August_20_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:07:52 EST]]> /_quot_Peace_and_Quiet_quot_Roanoke_Times_September_22_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:06:01 EST <![CDATA["Peace and Quiet," Roanoke Times (September 22, 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Peace_and_Quiet_quot_Roanoke_Times_September_22_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:06:01 EST]]> /_quot_The_Execution_Yesterday_quot_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_October_22_1864 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:05:01 EST <![CDATA["The Execution Yesterday," Richmond Daily Dispatch (October 22, 1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Execution_Yesterday_quot_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_October_22_1864 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:05:01 EST]]> /_quot_Lynched_quot_Staunton_Spectator_October_3_1882 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:04:03 EST <![CDATA["Lynched!," Staunton Spectator (October 3, 1882)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Lynched_quot_Staunton_Spectator_October_3_1882 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:04:03 EST]]> /_quot_Rev_Dr_Hatcher_apos_s_Surprising_Assertions_quot_Richmond_Planet_June_23_1894 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:02:59 EST <![CDATA["Rev. Dr. Hatcher's Surprising Assertions," Richmond Planet (June 23, 1894)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Rev_Dr_Hatcher_apos_s_Surprising_Assertions_quot_Richmond_Planet_June_23_1894 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:02:59 EST]]> /_quot_Judge_Lynch_and_His_Victims_quot_Richmond_Planet_January_18_1902 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:01:17 EST <![CDATA["Judge Lynch and His Victims," Richmond Planet (January 18, 1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Judge_Lynch_and_His_Victims_quot_Richmond_Planet_January_18_1902 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:01:17 EST]]> /_quot_Lynch_Law_quot_excerpt_from_Governor_Philip_W_McKinney_apos_s_Address_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:57 EST <![CDATA["Lynch Law"; excerpt from Governor Philip W. McKinney's Address to the General Assembly (December 6, 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Lynch_Law_quot_excerpt_from_Governor_Philip_W_McKinney_apos_s_Address_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:57 EST]]> /_quot_Horrible_Tragedy_quot_Raleigh_Register_and_North-Carolina_Gazette_May_24_1836 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:00 EST <![CDATA["Horrible Tragedy," Raleigh Register and North-Carolina Gazette (May 24, 1836)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Horrible_Tragedy_quot_Raleigh_Register_and_North-Carolina_Gazette_May_24_1836 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:00 EST]]> /_quot_Hanged_by_a_Mob_quot_Alexandria_Gazette_April_23_1897 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:57:39 EST <![CDATA["Hanged by a Mob," Alexandria Gazette (April 23, 1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Hanged_by_a_Mob_quot_Alexandria_Gazette_April_23_1897 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:57:39 EST]]> /_quot_The_Lynchers_Were_Convicted_quot_Richmond_Planet_July_8_1899 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:56:43 EST <![CDATA["The Lynchers Were Convicted," Richmond Planet (July 8, 1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Lynchers_Were_Convicted_quot_Richmond_Planet_July_8_1899 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:56:43 EST]]> /_quot_Viewed_by_a_Thousand_People_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_13_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:55:21 EST <![CDATA["Viewed by a Thousand People," Roanoke Times (February 13, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Viewed_by_a_Thousand_People_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_13_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:55:21 EST]]> /_quot_Judge_Lynch_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_12_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:53:57 EST <![CDATA["Judge Lynch!," Roanoke Times (February 12, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Judge_Lynch_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_12_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:53:57 EST]]> /_quot_The_Police_Force_Wakes_Up_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_11_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:52:53 EST <![CDATA["The Police Force Wakes Up," Roanoke Times (February 11, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Police_Force_Wakes_Up_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_11_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:52:53 EST]]> /_quot_Brutal_Attempt_of_a_Negro_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_10_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST <![CDATA["Brutal Attempt of a Negro," Roanoke Times (February 10, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Brutal_Attempt_of_a_Negro_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_10_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST]]> /_quot_Lynch_Law_and_Barbarism_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_August_3_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:50:49 EST <![CDATA["Lynch Law and Barbarism," Richmond Dispatch (August 3, 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Lynch_Law_and_Barbarism_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_August_3_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:50:49 EST]]> /_quot_The_Clifton_Forge_Tragedy_quot_Roanoke_Times_October_20_1891 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:49:43 EST <![CDATA["The Clifton Forge Tragedy," Roanoke Times (October 20, 1891)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Clifton_Forge_Tragedy_quot_Roanoke_Times_October_20_1891 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:49:43 EST]]> /_They_Hanged_Him_Richmond_Dispatch_November_9_1889 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:48:08 EST <![CDATA["They Hanged Him," Richmond Dispatch (November 9, 1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_They_Hanged_Him_Richmond_Dispatch_November_9_1889 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:48:08 EST]]> /Carr_Peter_1770-1815 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 11:01:41 EST <![CDATA[Carr, Peter (1770–1815)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carr_Peter_1770-1815 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 11:01:41 EST]]> /Slave_Housing_in_Virginia Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:15:07 EST <![CDATA[Slave Housing in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Housing_in_Virginia Slave housing in Virginia varied widely depending on the context: whether it was rural or urban, whether it was on an elite plantation or a small farm, and even whether it was located close to or far from the slaveholder's main house. Many of the first Africans who came to Virginia lived in barracks-style housing and other, less-than-permanent accommodations. As the enslaved population grew, however, houses were designed and constructed specifically for black laborers and, in particular, those living in family units. Most slave quarters were constructed of wood, and many were log and earthfast structures with no foundations. Those located closest to elite plantation houses were generally better built, with wooden frames and masonry chimneys and foundations. Separate one or two-room structures, designed to accommodate one- or two-family units, were the most popular house type, although many enslaved laborers slept where they worked—in kitchens, laundries, and stables. Slaves who were hired out in cities sometimes resided in separate "shanty towns." Few intact slave quarters exist in the twenty-first century—likely fewer than 300—and most of those are relatively large and well-built.
Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:15:07 EST]]>
/_On_the_Beauty_and_Fertility_of_America_chapter_14_of_A_Huguenot_Exile_in_Virginia_by_Durand_de_Dauphine_1687 Tue, 20 Sep 2016 11:31:17 EST <![CDATA["On the Beauty and Fertility of America"; chapter 14 of A Huguenot Exile in Virginia by Durand de Dauphiné (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_On_the_Beauty_and_Fertility_of_America_chapter_14_of_A_Huguenot_Exile_in_Virginia_by_Durand_de_Dauphine_1687 Tue, 20 Sep 2016 11:31:17 EST]]> /The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_Thomas_R_Gray_1832 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:21:31 EST <![CDATA[The Confessions of Nat Turner by Thomas R. Gray (1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_Thomas_R_Gray_1832 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:21:31 EST]]> /The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_William_Styron_1967 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:03:45 EST <![CDATA[Confessions of Nat Turner, The (1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_William_Styron_1967 The Confessions of Nat Turner, a novel by William Styron, was published in 1967 and won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1968. The title character is based on the historical Nat Turner, a slave preacher and self-styled prophet who, in August 1831, led the only successful slave revolt in Virginia's history, which in just twelve hours left fifty-five white people in Southampton County dead. (A slave named Gabriel conspired to revolt in 1800, but his plans were discovered before he could carry them out.) The historical Nat Turner, in turn, is largely the product of "The Confessions of Nat Turner, as fully and voluntarily made to Thomas R. Gray," a pamphlet published shortly after Turner's trial and execution in November 1831. Although it played a crucial role in shaping perceptions of the event around the central figure of Turner, the pamphlet itself only reached a small portion of the reading public. The story awaited the Virginia-born Styron, who translated the historical record into a popular medium that commanded the full attention of the reading public and the national media. Despite its awards, however, that attention was not always positive. Published at the height of the Black Power movement and after a long summer of race riots in the United States, Styron's novel was labeled by some civil rights activists as racist, especially because of the author's depiction of Turner lusting after white women, one of whom he eventually kills.
Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:03:45 EST]]>
/_The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_1831 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 13:58:52 EST <![CDATA["Confessions of Nat Turner, The" (1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_1831 The Confessions of Nat Turner, the leader of the late insurrection in Southampton, Va., as fully and voluntarily made to Thomas R. Gray" is a pamphlet published shortly after the trial and execution of Nat Turner in November 1831. The previous August, Turner, a slave preacher and self-styled prophet, had led the only successful slave revolt in Virginia's history, leaving fifty-five white people in Southampton County, Virginia, dead, the slaveholding South convulsed with panic, and the myth of the contented slave in tatters. His confessions, dictated from Turner's jail cell to a Southampton lawyer, have provided historians with a crucial perspective missing from an earlier planned uprising, by Gabriel (also sometimes known as Gabriel Prosser) in 1800, as well as fodder for debate over the veracity of Turner's account. Meanwhile, the book arguably is one of two American literary classics to come from the revolt, the other being The Confessions of Nat Turner, the Pulitzer Prize–winning novel by Virginia-native William Styron, published at the height of the Black Power movement in September 1967. Each of these texts has demonstrated the power of print media to shape popular perceptions of historical fact, even as each raised critical questions of accuracy, authenticity, and community control over historical interpretations of the past.
Wed, 14 Sep 2016 13:58:52 EST]]>
/Rosenwald_Schools Tue, 13 Sep 2016 13:47:27 EST <![CDATA[Rosenwald Schools]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rosenwald_Schools Rosenwald schools were educational facilities built with the assistance of the Rosenwald rural school building program, an initiative to narrow racial schooling gaps in the South by constructing better, more-accessible schools for African Americans. They are called Rosenwald schools because they were partially funded by grants from the Rosenwald Fund, a foundation established by Julius Rosenwald, an Illinois businessman and philanthropist. Between 1912 and 1932, the program helped produce 5,357 new educational facilities for African Americans across fifteen southern states, providing almost 700,000 African American children in rural, isolated communities with state-of-the-art facilities at a time when little to no public money was put toward black education. In Virginia, the initiative helped fund 382 schools and support buildings in seventy-nine counties. Most of these buildings remained in operation until Virginia was forced to comply with the United States Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), which outlawed racial segregation in public schools. In 2002, the National Trust for Historic Preservation placed all surviving Rosenwald schools on its list of America's most endangered historic sites.
Tue, 13 Sep 2016 13:47:27 EST]]>
/Virginia_Convention_of_1864 Thu, 08 Sep 2016 17:11:28 EST <![CDATA[Constitutional Convention, Virginia (1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Convention_of_1864 The Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1864, called by the loyal Restored government meeting in Alexandria during the American Civil War (1861–1865), adopted the Constitution of 1864, which finally accomplished a number of changes that reformers had agitated for since at least the 1820s. It abolished slavery, provided a way of funding primary and free schools, and required voting by paper ballot for state officers and members of the General Assembly. It also put an end to longstanding friction over regional differences by recognizing the creation of West Virginia as a separate state. Members of the convention proclaimed the new constitution in effect, rather than submitting it to voters for approval in a popular referendum. Initially only the areas of northern and eastern Virginia then under Union control recognized the authority of the Constitution of 1864, but after the fall of the Confederacy in May 1865 it became effective for all of Virginia and remained in effect until July 1869.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 17:11:28 EST]]>
/Army_of_Northern_Virginia Thu, 08 Sep 2016 16:59:46 EST <![CDATA[Army of Northern Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Army_of_Northern_Virginia The Army of Northern Virginia was the most successful Confederate army during the American Civil War (1861–1865). With Robert E. Lee at its head, Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson commanding one of its corps, and J. E. B. Stuart leading its cavalry, the army won important victories at Fredericksburg (1862) and Chancellorsville (1863) while the Union Army of the Potomac shuffled through a series of commanders and crises of morale. Lee's army numbered 90,000 at its strongest and was organized into state-specific regiments and brigades, with about 55 percent of its men coming from the Upper South. Most of these soldiers were farmers and the vast majority had direct contact with slavery. By implementing a strategy of aggressively confronting Union armies and inflicting casualties, the army itself suffered high casualties, with more than 30,000 killed in action. In part because of this high toll, which placed it at the center of the South's fight for independence, the Army of Northern Virginia—like its battle flag and its commander—became a symbol of the Confederate nation. One woman lamented, after the army's surrender on April 9, 1865, that "we have depended too much on Gen Lee[,] too little on God, & I believe God has suffered his surrender to show us we can use other means than Gen Lee to affect his ends."
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 16:59:46 EST]]>
/C_S_S_hi_rend_italic_Virginia_hi Wed, 07 Sep 2016 17:38:38 EST <![CDATA[CSS Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/C_S_S_hi_rend_italic_Virginia_hi The CSS Virginia was an ironclad ship in the Confederate navy during the American Civil War (1861–1865). The first American warship of its kind—prior to 1862, all navy vessels were made of wood—it was constructed in order to attack the ever-tightening Union blockade on the Confederacy's major Atlantic ports and harbors. The CSS Virginia's launch in March 1862 provided one of the first truly unmistakable signs of a revolution in naval warfare that would transform the conduct of war at sea during the nineteenth century. It quickly met its match, however, in a hastily constructed, Swedish-engineered Union ironclad, the USS Monitor, at the Battle of Hampton Roads (1862). By April 1862, the Confederacy's 3,500 miles of coastline were largely lost (only Wilmington, North Carolina, and Charleston, South Carolina, remained under Confederate control), and in May of that year, the Virginia was intentionally destroyed.
Wed, 07 Sep 2016 17:38:38 EST]]>
/Confederate_Battle_Flag Wed, 07 Sep 2016 16:11:57 EST <![CDATA[Confederate Battle Flag]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Confederate_Battle_Flag The Confederate battle flag, initially authorized for units of the Confederate armed forces during the American Civil War (1861–1865), has become one of the most recognized, misunderstood, and controversial symbols in American history. Originally designed as a Confederate national flag by William Porcher Miles of South Carolina, it was rejected by the Confederate Congress but subsequently adopted by the Confederate army, which needed a banner that was easily distinguishable from the United States flag. The battle flag transformed into a national symbol as the Army of Northern Virginia, with which it was closely associated, also became an important symbol. It even was incorporated into the Confederacy's second and third national flags. Following the war, proponents of the Lost Cause used the battle flag to represent Southern valor and honor, although it also was implicitly connected to white supremacy. In the mid-twentieth century, the battle flag simultaneously became ubiquitous in American culture while, partly through the efforts of the Ku Klux Klan, becoming increasingly tied to racial violence and intimidation. African Americans conflated the battle flag to opposition to the civil rights movement, while neo-Confederates argued that its meaning had to do with states' rights and southern identity, not racial hatred. The political and social lines of dispute over the flag remain much the same at the beginning of the twenty-first century.
Wed, 07 Sep 2016 16:11:57 EST]]>
/Taylor_James_T_S_1840-1918 Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:59:29 EST <![CDATA[Taylor, James T. S. (1840–1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Taylor_James_T_S_1840-1918 Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:59:29 EST]]> /Lee_Robert_E_in_Memory Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:56:01 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Robert E. in Memory]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Robert_E_in_Memory Robert E. Lee, a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and president of Washington College in Lexington until his death in 1870, is one of the most revered figures in American history. Lee's place in history is complicated, however, and the way that he has been remembered has changed over time. During his own life, Lee modeled himself after the courtly and self-controlled George Washington and cultivated a sense of himself as a character in a drama and a prisoner of fate. After his death, Lee was less likely to be branded a traitor; instead, he became a symbol of the Lost Cause interpretation of the war, transformed into a crucial agent of sectional reconciliation. The Civil War, according to the Lost Cause, was not about slavery but about states' rights and, ultimately, the honor and bravery of white soldiers on both sides. In this regard, Lee served the needs of not just the Confederacy or of the South, but of all America. The civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s encouraged historians to engage a broader social and political canvas when writing about Lee, and this has led some scholars to challenge traditional conclusions about Lee's significance and meaning. Like Washington, Lee is the seminal figure in a transformational moment, but of a different sort. He is the symbol of a vision that failed, and yet also the redeemer of a cause that has lived a long and often tragic afterlife.
Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:56:01 EST]]>
/Biggs_Walter_J_1886-1968 Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:07:58 EST <![CDATA[Biggs, Walter J. (1886–1968)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Biggs_Walter_J_1886-1968 Walter J. Biggs enjoyed success as a popular illustrator for most of his career, and then became an accomplished painter later in life. Growing up in Salem, he attended the New York School of Art (later Parsons The New School for Design) early in the 1900s. His romantic, impressionistic-style works soon began appearing on the covers of major magazines of the period, as well as in books. Biggs won praise for his renderings of the American South, particularly for sympathetic portrayals of African American life. He started working with watercolors in the 1940s, developing a national reputation with competition prizes and exhibitions in New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia. He returned to Salem permanently after retiring as an illustrator late in the 1950s. In 1963 he was inducted into the Society of Illustrators' Hall of Fame and died five years later in Roanoke. In 1986 Roanoke College, which owns a large collection of Biggs's paintings and sketchbooks, dedicated the Walter Biggs Studio in the Olin Hall Student Art Center.
Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:07:58 EST]]>
/Everett_John_R_1918-1992 Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:04:34 EST <![CDATA[Everett, John R. (1918–1992)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Everett_John_R_1918-1992 John R. Everett presided over Hollins College (later Hollins University) from 1950 until 1960. Reportedly the nation's youngest college president when he assumed the office, he established a new curriculum and oversaw the near doubling of Hollins's student body and faculty. Everett also instituted a study abroad program. He left Virginia to become the first chancellor of the Municipal College System of the City of New York and later spent nearly two decades as president of the New School for Social Research (later the New School) in New York City. He died in 1992. A scholarship was established in his name at Hollins following his retirement.
Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:04:34 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_14_1765 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (September 14, 1765)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_14_1765 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_October_31_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:14 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (October 31, 1768)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_October_31_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:14 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_February_1_1772 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:50:27 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (February 1, 1772)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_February_1_1772 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:50:27 EST]]> /Letter_from_Rev_James_Marye_Jr_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_25_1764 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:49:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. James Marye Jr. to Rev. John Waring (September 25, 1764)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_James_Marye_Jr_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_25_1764 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:49:44 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_November_17_1774 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:48:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert Carter Nicholas to Rev. John Waring (November 17, 1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_November_17_1774 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:48:35 EST]]> /Letter_from_Rev_John_Waring_to_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_April_20_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:47:17 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. John Waring to Robert Carter Nicholas (April 20, 1768)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_John_Waring_to_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_April_20_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:47:17 EST]]> /Republican_Party_of_Virginia Wed, 31 Aug 2016 17:53:47 EST <![CDATA[Republican Party of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Republican_Party_of_Virginia The Republican Party is one of two major political parties in Virginia. Although founded in 1854 in opposition to the spread of slavery, the party did not take hold in Virginia until after the American Civil War (1861–1865). Even then, for nearly a century the Republicans were an ineffectual, minority party with only pockets of regional strength. During this period, the conservative Democratic Party dominated politics in Virginia and the rest of the South. After World War II (1939–1945), economic growth, demographic trends, electoral reforms, and policy debates combined to spur a realignment that gradually brought the Virginia parties into line philosophically with their national counterparts. As the center-right party in a conservative-leaning state, the Virginia Republican Party became consistently competitive. Following the mid-1970s, Virginia politics settled into a pattern characterized by active competition between the two major party organizations and their candidates. Partisan fortunes ebbed and flowed, but neither party established durable majority support on a statewide basis. In the twenty-first century Republican candidates in Virginia routinely compete with their Democratic rivals for the support of nonaligned voters (generally called "independents") in addition to mobilizing fellow partisans.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 17:53:47 EST]]>
/Farrar_Joseph_E_1830-1892 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 17:13:59 EST <![CDATA[Farrar, Joseph E. (1830–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farrar_Joseph_E_1830-1892 Joseph E. Farrar was a Richmond builder and civic leader in the decades after the American Civil War (1861–1865). Farrar was born free and held a respected position as a contractor before the abolition of slavery, but he needed a gubernatorial pardon to escape being sold into slavery after being convicted of receiving stolen property. He began his civic involvement less than a month after the fall of Richmond, helping organize the Colored Men's Equal Rights League. Farrar and other leaders established the Virginia Home Building Fund and Loan Association to assist African Americans in purchasing their own homes. He also received contracts from the Freedmen's Bureau to work on school buildings in Richmond. Farrar held leadership positions in a series of Baptist and educational organizations and served on Richmond's common council as a member of the Knights of Labor's reform faction. He remained active in the community until his 1892 death in Richmond.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 17:13:59 EST]]>
/Letter_from_William_Yates_and_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_30_1762 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:42:18 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William Yates and Robert Carter Nicholas to Rev. John Waring (September 30, 1762)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_Yates_and_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_30_1762 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:42:18 EST]]> /Hunter_William_d_1761 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:35:39 EST <![CDATA[Hunter, William (d. 1761)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hunter_William_d_1761 William Hunter was official printer to the Virginia colony (1750–1761), publisher of the Virginia Gazette (1751–1761), deputy postmaster general for the British North American colonies (1753–1761), and justice of the peace on the York County Court (1759–1761). Born in Yorktown, Hunter apprenticed to Virginia's first public printer, William Parks, and upon the latter's death in 1750, took over the position at a higher salary. His tenure was arguably the pinnacle of the colonial-era printing monopoly, with Hunter providing faithful service to the colonial administration. In 1753, he and his friend Benjamin Franklin won appointment as deputy postmasters of the colonies, with Hunter responsible for areas south of Annapolis, Maryland. The next year, Hunter became ill while inspecting postal routes with Franklin, and remained ill for several years, spending some of that time in England. In his absence, the printing office was run by John Stretch, whose loyalties seemed to lean away from the lieutenant governor and toward the General Assembly, creating royal pressure for Hunter to return to Virginia. Hunter's business flourished, but he died suddenly in 1761. His life has been seen as an exemplar of the role of familial connections in Virginia, in that his brother's merchant connections and associates gained through his sisters' marriages proved essential to his success and his legacy.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:35:39 EST]]>
/Pamphlet_Gowan_fl_1779-1807 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:27:56 EST <![CDATA[Pamphlet, Gowan (fl. 1779–1807)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pamphlet_Gowan_fl_1779-1807 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:27:56 EST]]> /Campbell_Christiana_ca_1722-1792 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:24:05 EST <![CDATA[Campbell, Christiana (ca. 1723–1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Campbell_Christiana_ca_1722-1792 Christiana Campbell was a tavern-keeper in Williamsburg from 1755 until the late 1770s. Campbell, who was raised in Williamsburg, opened her tavern to support herself and her two daughters after her husband died in 1752. For more than twenty years she ran one of Williamsburg's most successful businesses. On the eve of the American Revolution (1775–1783), the colony's leaders periodically met at Campbell's tavern to discuss their connections with England and whether they should seek independence. Campbell evidently closed her tavern in the late 1770s, and, at some point after October 8, 1787, relocated to Fredericksburg, where she died in 1792.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:24:05 EST]]>
/Vobe_Jane_by_1733-1787 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:22:49 EST <![CDATA[Vobe, Jane (by 1733–1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Vobe_Jane_by_1733-1787 Jane Vobe operated taverns in Williamsburg (1751–1785) and in Manchester, in Chesterfield County (1786). Little is known of Vobe's life beyond what historians have gleaned from extant records, but her business was one of Williamsburg's most successful. In 1765 a French traveler recorded in his diary that Vobe's establishment was "where all the best people" stay; six years later, Vobe closed her tavern and opened another in 1772 in a different location in the Virginia capital. Politicians and military men often gathered at her tavern to discuss events related to the American Revolution (1775–1783). George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Nelson, and the Baron von Steuben were among her customers. After the Virginia capital moved to Richmond and the Revolution ended, Vobe relocated to Manchester, where she managed a tavern until her death, which was reported in 1786.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:22:49 EST]]>
/Funders Mon, 29 Aug 2016 13:28:55 EST <![CDATA[Funders]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Funders Funders were Virginians who during the 1870s and very early 1880s supported paying the full principal of the state's pre–Civil War public debt at the 6 percent annual rate that the Funding Act of 1871 established or who were willing to reduce the interest rate by a small amount if necessary. Some Funders were Democrats, some were Republicans, and many identified themselves with the state's Conservative Party that formed late in the 1860s in opposition to Congressional Reconstruction. The opponents of the Funders were called Readjusters because they wanted to refinance the debt—adjust, or readjust it—to reduce the rate of interest as much as possible and also to reduce, or repudiate, a portion of the principal and thereby lessen the expense of paying the debt. By the end of the 1870s, many of the state's African Americans supported the Readjusters and opposed the Funders.
Mon, 29 Aug 2016 13:28:55 EST]]>
/Conference_with_President_Andrew_Johnson_June_16_1865 Mon, 29 Aug 2016 10:21:29 EST <![CDATA[Conference with President Andrew Johnson (June 16, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Conference_with_President_Andrew_Johnson_June_16_1865 Five prominent African American men from Richmond met with President Andrew Johnson in the White House, in Washington, D.C., on June 16, 1865. Led by Fields Cook, a former slave and a Baptist minister, they complained about "the wrongs, as we conceive them to be, by which we are sorely oppressed." The men explained that, with the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865) and the abolition of slavery in Virginia, they were now at the mercy of former masters and a law code not equipped to deal with the new circumstances. They articulated several specific grievances: their inability to employ African American ministers in their churches; their lack of full civil rights in Richmond; and the conduct of the U.S. Army and of the civilian government under Governor Francis H. Pierpont and Mayor Joseph Mayo. Although Johnson did not make a formal response to the complaints, he informed the petitioners of changes of civil and military leadership in Richmond that eased their concerns.
Mon, 29 Aug 2016 10:21:29 EST]]>
/Cootes_Frank_G_1879-1960 Wed, 24 Aug 2016 15:55:17 EST <![CDATA[Cootes, F. Graham (1879–1960)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cootes_Frank_G_1879-1960 F. Graham Cootes was a popular illustrator and portraitist during in the twentieth century. Born in Staunton and educated at the University of Virginia, he entered the New York School of Art (later Parsons The New School for Design) in 1902. Cootes opened a Manhattan studio by 1906 and gained success as an illustrator for best-selling books and high-profile magazines. Cootes also established himself as a respected portraitist of prominent figures in New York and Washington, D.C. He semi-retired during the 1920s only to reemerge the following decade after he and his wife lost much of their wealth in the stock market crash. During this second period he produced his most famous work, the official White House portrait of Woodrow Wilson. Cootes kept his connections with his native state, painting portraits of Charlottesville residents, hosting summer art school programs at the University of Virginia, and visiting the Old Dominion often.
Wed, 24 Aug 2016 15:55:17 EST]]>
/Davis_John_A_G_1802-1840 Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:16:53 EST <![CDATA[Davis, John A. G. (1802–1840)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_John_A_G_1802-1840 John A. G. Davis was a law professor at the University of Virginia who was murdered there by a student. Born in Middlesex County, Davis attended the College of William and Mary and then, after marrying a grandniece of Thomas Jefferson, the recently founded University of Virginia. He established a law practice in Albemarle County, helped found a newspaper, and then, in 1830, joined the University of Virginia's faculty as a professor of law. In his publications, Davis defended states' rights and limited government, supporting nullification in 1832. A popular but strict professor, he used his role as faculty chairman in 1836 to help expel about seventy student-militia members, leading to a riot. Four years later, on the anniversary of that riot, two students in masks shot off their weapons outside Davis's residence, Pavilion X. When Davis confronted them, one of the students, Joseph G. Semmes, shot the professor dead. Semmes fled the state and later committed suicide. Davis died two days later, and his murder helped finally to calm years of misbehavior among the university's students.
Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:16:53 EST]]>
/Callender_James_Thomson_1757_or_1758-1803 Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:13:42 EST <![CDATA[Callender, James Thomson (1757 or 1758–1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Callender_James_Thomson_1757_or_1758-1803 James Thomson Callender was a partisan journalist known for attacking Federalists but also his one-time Republican ally, Thomas Jefferson. Born in Scotland, Callender was a Scottish nationalist who published pamphlets critical of the British government. When a warrant was issued for his arrest, he fled first to Ireland and then, in 1793, to Philadelphia. There he wrote newspaper items critical of the administrations of George Washington and John Adams and a pamphlet that exposed an extramarital affair by Alexander Hamilton. After the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798, Callender, who had moved to Richmond by this time, published another pamphlet critical of President Adams. In the spring of 1800 he was tried and convicted of sedition in Richmond and served nine months in jail. When Jefferson was elected president in 1801, Callender expected to be rewarded with a political position. When he was not, he turned on his former ally, accusing the president of having fathered children by his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Callender purchased part ownership of the Richmond Recorder newspaper, but quit after quarrels with his coeditor. He accidentally drowned in the James River in 1803.
Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:13:42 EST]]>
/Cohabitation_Act_of_1866 Thu, 18 Aug 2016 15:05:24 EST <![CDATA[Cohabitation Act of 1866]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cohabitation_Act_of_1866 The Cohabitation Act of 1866, passed by the General Assembly on February 27, 1866, legalized the marriages of formerly enslaved people in Virginia and declared their children to be legitimate. Because slave marriages were neither legally recognized nor protected, Governor Francis H. Pierpont recommended that the General Assembly of the Restored government of Virginia, which had remained loyal to the United States during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and had abolished slavery, pass a law to legalize and protect their existing marriages. With the end of the war, the Restored government's jurisdiction extended across the state, and in 1866 the General Assembly in Richmond passed the law legitimizing such marriages and the children who resulted from them.
Thu, 18 Aug 2016 15:05:24 EST]]>
/Johnson_Henry_1842-1922 Thu, 18 Aug 2016 14:59:51 EST <![CDATA[Johnson, Henry (1842–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Johnson_Henry_1842-1922 Thu, 18 Aug 2016 14:59:51 EST]]> /Bryan_Albert_V_1899-1984 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:57:36 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, Albert V. (1899–1984)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_Albert_V_1899-1984 Albert V. Bryan was a federal district court and circuit court of appeals judge during a crucial period in the fight over public school desegregation. After serving as the commonwealth's attorney in Alexandria from 1928 until 1947, he was appointed a federal judge of the Eastern District of Virginia. Although he supported segregation Bryan stuck closely to legal precedents established by the U.S. Supreme Court. He ruled in favor of continued school segregation in 1952. After Brown v. Board of Education reversed his ruling in 1954, however, Bryan began following the new precedent, though in a manner that slowed implementation. His subsequent decisions on Massive Resistance delayed, but did not stop, desegregation of Virginia schools. In 1961 he was appointed to the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals. Adhering again to Supreme Court precedent, in 1969 Bryan struck down state tuition grants to students attending segregated private schools. He retired from the federal bench in 1971 and died in 1984.
Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:57:36 EST]]>
/Anderson_Peyton_E_ca_1857-1950 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:24:09 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, Peyton E. (ca. 1857–1950)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_Peyton_E_ca_1857-1950 Peyton E. Anderson was a minister and the first African American superintendent of Prince Edward County's rural black schools. Born enslaved near Farmville, after the American Civil War (1861–1865) he committed himself to getting an education and studied ministry at Richmond Theological Institute. He became the superintendent of schools for African Americans in Prince Edward County, where he oversaw the construction of twenty-three rural schoolhouses and developed a curriculum centered on industrial education. For twenty-five years he was also principal of the Virso School, in Prince Edward County. One county superintendent described him as the most versatile schoolteacher he had ever seen. During his career in education, Anderson served as pastor of New Bethel and Shiloh churches, and at his death in 1950 was pastor of Mount Zion Baptist Church.
Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:24:09 EST]]>
/Cole_George_William_d_after_June_10_1880 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:15:41 EST <![CDATA[Cole, George William (d. after June 10, 1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cole_George_William_d_after_June_10_1880 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:15:41 EST]]> /Robinson_John_1825_or_1826-1908 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:11:45 EST <![CDATA[Robinson, John (1825 or 1826–1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robinson_John_1825_or_1826-1908 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:11:45 EST]]> /Christian_James_S_1918-1982 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:06:39 EST <![CDATA[Christian, James S. (1918–1982)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Christian_James_S_1918-1982 James S. Christian represented the city of Richmond in the House of Delegates from 1978 until his death in 1982. A veteran of World War II (1939–1945), he was the first African American from Richmond to report for flight training at the Tuskegee Army Air Base in Alabama. Christian also served in the Korean War (1950–1953). A postal worker for many years, he took accounting courses and opened a bookkeeping business in Richmond's Jackson Ward neighborhood in 1963. Nearly a decade later he joined the city's planning commission and was named its chair in 1976. The next year he won election to the House of Delegates, going on to serve three consecutive terms. A highly successful delegate, Christian was expected to become the House's second African American committee chair of the twentieth century. Instead, he died of bone cancer in 1982.
Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:06:39 EST]]>
/Lipscomb_James_F_1830-1893 Tue, 02 Aug 2016 15:08:39 EST <![CDATA[Lipscomb, James F. (1830–1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lipscomb_James_F_1830-1893 James F. Lipscomb represented Cumberland County in the House of Delegates from 1869 until 1877. Born free in Cumberland, Lipscomb became a landholder after the American Civil War (1861–1865) and in 1869 he won a seat in the General Assembly, the second election in which African Americans could vote in Virginia. Affiliated with the radical wing of the Republican Party and reelected three times, Lipscomb lost his attempt for a fifth term in 1877. He was likely related to John Robinson, who represented Cumberland County in the Convention of 1867–1868 and in the Senate of Virginia. Lipscomb, primarily a farmer, possessed one of the largest African American–owned houses in the county. He also opened a store that stayed in his family until it closed in 1971.
Tue, 02 Aug 2016 15:08:39 EST]]>
/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Cary_amp_Co_May_1_1759 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:14:09 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Robert Cary & Co. (May 1, 1759)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Cary_amp_Co_May_1_1759 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:14:09 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Augustine_Washington_July_18_1755 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:08:18 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Augustine Washington (July 18, 1755)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Augustine_Washington_July_18_1755 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:08:18 EST]]> /Letter_from_John_Robinson_to_George_Washington_September_15_1754 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:06:30 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Robinson to George Washington (September 15, 1754)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Robinson_to_George_Washington_September_15_1754 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:06:30 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Augustine_Washington_May_31_1754 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:05:03 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Augustine Washington (May 31, 1754)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Augustine_Washington_May_31_1754 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:05:03 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_David_Humphreys_July_25_1785 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:02:00 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to David Humphreys (July 25, 1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_David_Humphreys_July_25_1785 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:02:00 EST]]> /Letter_from_John_Adams_to_Benjamin_Rush_April_22_1812 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 16:51:31 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Adams to Benjamin Rush (April 22, 1812)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Adams_to_Benjamin_Rush_April_22_1812 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 16:51:31 EST]]> /Lost_Cause_The Wed, 27 Jul 2016 09:17:55 EST <![CDATA[Lost Cause, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lost_Cause_The The Lost Cause is an interpretation of the American Civil War (1861–1865) that seeks to present the war, from the perspective of Confederates, in the best possible terms. Developed by white Southerners, many of them former Confederate generals, in a postwar climate of economic, racial, and social uncertainty, the Lost Cause created and romanticized the "Old South" and the Confederate war effort, often distorting history in the process. For this reason, many historians have labeled the Lost Cause a myth or a legend. It is certainly an important example of public memory, one in which nostalgia for the Confederate past is accompanied by a collective forgetting of the horrors of slavery. Providing a sense of relief to white Southerners who feared being dishonored by defeat, the Lost Cause was largely accepted in the years following the war by white Americans who found it to be a useful tool in reconciling North and South. The Lost Cause has lost much of its academic support but continues to be an important part of how the Civil War is commemorated in the South and remembered in American popular culture.
Wed, 27 Jul 2016 09:17:55 EST]]>
/Edwards_Thomas_J_Tommy_1922-1969 Tue, 26 Jul 2016 17:31:28 EST <![CDATA[Edwards, Tommy (1922–1969)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edwards_Thomas_J_Tommy_1922-1969 Tommy Edwards was a singer and songwriter best known for his 1958 chart-topping single "It's All in the Game." Edwards showed musical promise early, hosting a Richmond radio show in his teens. By 1943 he was writing songs in New York and scored a hit with "That Chick's Too Young to Fry." Edwards began a recording career that peaked in 1958 with "It's All in the Game." The runaway hit led to a series of charting singles over the next two years and appearances on national television shows. His career declined as his balladeer style fell out of favor with musical trends. His signature song remains a classic years after his death and has been included in many music compilations.
Tue, 26 Jul 2016 17:31:28 EST]]>
/Crab_Orchard_Archaeological_Site Tue, 26 Jul 2016 16:02:46 EST <![CDATA[Crab Orchard Archaeological Site]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crab_Orchard_Archaeological_Site Tue, 26 Jul 2016 16:02:46 EST]]> /Public_School_System_in_Virginia_Establishment_of_the Tue, 26 Jul 2016 13:50:18 EST <![CDATA[Public School System in Virginia, Establishment of the]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Public_School_System_in_Virginia_Establishment_of_the The first statewide system of free public schools in Virginia was established in 1870 after the ratification of a new constitution and was one of the most important and enduring accomplishments of Reconstruction. Prior to the American Civil War (1861–1865), education had been reserved mostly for elite white families; no southern states had public school systems and in Virginia the education of free and enslaved African Americans had been discouraged and, in some forms, made illegal. After the abolition of slavery, the federal Freedmen's Bureau established the first statewide system of schools, but only for African Americans; other, biracial systems were set up, but only in Petersburg, Richmond, and Norfolk. The new constitution created a new statewide system that, in spite of protests by African American members of the General Assembly, segregated black and white students. The first state superintendent, William Henry Ruffner, set about building the system's infrastructure—creating more than 2,800 schools and hiring about 3,000 teachers by August 1871—and building political support for its funding. In debates over how to pay off Virginia's large antebellum debt some politicians advocated reducing funding for public schools, although the system became more stable when the biracial Readjuster Party took over government in 1881, appointed R. R. Farr superintendent, and increased appropriations. By the turn of the century, public schools had attained broad social and political support.
Tue, 26 Jul 2016 13:50:18 EST]]>
/A_True_State_of_the_Smallpox_in_Williamsburg_February_22_1748 Tue, 26 Jul 2016 10:41:10 EST <![CDATA[A True State of the Smallpox in Williamsburg, February 22, 1748]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_True_State_of_the_Smallpox_in_Williamsburg_February_22_1748 Tue, 26 Jul 2016 10:41:10 EST]]> /Tyler_John_1790-1862 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:54:20 EST <![CDATA[Tyler, John (1790–1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tyler_John_1790-1862 John Tyler was the tenth president of the United States. The son of a Virginia governor, Tyler had already been a member of the House of Delegates and the Council of State before being elected to Congress in 1816. After serving as governor of Virginia, the assembly elected him to the United States Senate. A slaveholder and Democrat, he supported states' rights and limited government. He broke with Andrew Jackson early in the 1830s over what he viewed as an alarming increase in federal power. Tyler joined the Whig Party and won the vice presidency in 1840 on a ticket with William Henry Harrison. Following Harrison's death in April 1841, Tyler became the first vice president to assume office after the death of the chief executive. His support of states' rights clashed with his party's prevailing belief in a stronger government, nearly causing the collapse of his administration. Tyler found some success in foreign affairs, but he left the White House in 1845 unpopular and expelled from the Whig Party. As the secession crisis intensified early in 1861, Tyler presided over the ill-fated Peace Conference to head off armed conflict. He served as a delegate to the Virginia convention that addressed the state's response to the crisis, ultimately voting for secession in April 1861. The following November Tyler won election to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before his term began.
Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:54:20 EST]]>
/Lyons_Isaiah_L_1843-1871 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 15:11:45 EST <![CDATA[Lyons, Isaiah L. (1843–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lyons_Isaiah_L_1843-1871 Isaiah L. Lyons served in the Senate of Virginia (1869–1871) and was one of the first African American members of the General Assembly. Born in New Jersey, Lyons was raised in Brooklyn, New York, and worked as a clerk. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served in Virginia with the United States Colored Troops, finally settling in Hampton. In 1869 Lyons, who by then worked as a druggist, won election to the Senate by handily defeating a white candidate, Martin McDevitt. He then became the only African American member to vote against ratifying the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution. Although in the minority, Lyons reasoned that the assembly itself was illegitimate because most of its white members could not take the required oath stating they had been loyal to the United States during the war. He also voted against a provision that required racial segregation in the state's new public schools but eventually supported the bill. Lyons died at his home in Hampton in 1871 from the effects of illnesses acquired during the war.
Mon, 25 Jul 2016 15:11:45 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Holmes_April_22_1820 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:57:24 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Holmes (April 22, 1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Holmes_April_22_1820 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:57:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Mann_Randolph_Jr_April_19_1792 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:27:47 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Thomas Mann Randolph Jr. (April 19, 1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Mann_Randolph_Jr_April_19_1792 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:27:47 EST]]> /The_Election_of_Thomas_Nelson_as_Governor_June_12_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:24:31 EST <![CDATA[The Election of Governor Thomas Nelson; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (June 12, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Election_of_Thomas_Nelson_as_Governor_June_12_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:24:31 EST]]> /The_Rejection_of_Rumors_Surrounding_the_Cowardice_of_Thomas_Jefferson_December_12_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:20:13 EST <![CDATA[An Investigation into the Conduct of Thomas Jefferson; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (December 12, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Rejection_of_Rumors_Surrounding_the_Cowardice_of_Thomas_Jefferson_December_12_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:20:13 EST]]> /Letter_from_Lafayette_to_Thomas_Jefferson_February_21_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:04:46 EST <![CDATA[Letter from the Marquis de Lafayette to Thomas Jefferson (February 21, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Lafayette_to_Thomas_Jefferson_February_21_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:04:46 EST]]> /The_Need_for_a_New_Governor_of_Virginia_May_29_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:59:55 EST <![CDATA[The Need for a New Governor of Virginia; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (May 29, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Need_for_a_New_Governor_of_Virginia_May_29_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:59:55 EST]]> /An_Act_for_speedily_recruiting_the_Virginia_Regiments_on_the_continental_establishment_and_for_raising_additional_troops_of_Volunteers_May_20_1777 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:56:51 EST <![CDATA[An Act for speedily recruiting the Virginia Regiments on the continental establishment, and for raising additional troops of Volunteers (May 20, 1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_speedily_recruiting_the_Virginia_Regiments_on_the_continental_establishment_and_for_raising_additional_troops_of_Volunteers_May_20_1777 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:56:51 EST]]> /An_act_for_the_removal_of_the_seat_of_government_June_18_1779 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:55:21 EST <![CDATA[An act for the removal of the seat of government (June 18, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_the_removal_of_the_seat_of_government_June_18_1779 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:55:21 EST]]> /An_act_for_re-enlisting_the_troops_of_this_state_in_the_continental_army_and_for_other_purposes_October_1799 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:52:38 EST <![CDATA[An act for re-enlisting the troops of this state in the continental army, and for other purposes (October 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_re-enlisting_the_troops_of_this_state_in_the_continental_army_and_for_other_purposes_October_1799 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:52:38 EST]]> /Thomas_Jefferson_s_Election_to_a_Second_Term_as_Governor_an_excerpt_from_theJournal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_2_1780 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:49:38 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Jefferson's Election to a Second Term as Governor; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (June 2, 1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Jefferson_s_Election_to_a_Second_Term_as_Governor_an_excerpt_from_theJournal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_2_1780 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:49:38 EST]]> /The_Constitution_of_Virginia_1776 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:54:32 EST <![CDATA[The Constitution of Virginia (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Constitution_of_Virginia_1776 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:54:32 EST]]> /An_Act_establishing_a_Board_of_War_June_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:48:24 EST <![CDATA[An Act establishing a Board of War (June 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_establishing_a_Board_of_War_June_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:48:24 EST]]> /An_act_for_better_securing_the_payment_of_levies_and_restraint_of_vagrants_and_for_making_provision_for_the_poor_October_1776 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:45:46 EST <![CDATA[An act for better securing the payment of levies and restraint of vagrants, and for making provision for the poor (October 1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_better_securing_the_payment_of_levies_and_restraint_of_vagrants_and_for_making_provision_for_the_poor_October_1776 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:45:46 EST]]> /Thomas_Jefferson_s_Election_to_Governor_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_1_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:33:12 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Jefferson's Election to Governor; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (June 1, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Jefferson_s_Election_to_Governor_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_1_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:33:12 EST]]> /Thomas_Jefferson_s_Acceptance_Speech_for_the_Position_of_Governor_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_2_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:30:24 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Jefferson's Acceptance Speech for the Position of Governor; excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (June 2, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Jefferson_s_Acceptance_Speech_for_the_Position_of_Governor_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_2_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:30:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_Preston_June_15_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:26:32 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William Preston (June 15, 1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_Preston_June_15_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:26:32 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_the_Virginia_Delegates_in_Congress_October_27_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:59:21 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to the Virginia Delegates in Congress (October 27, 1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_the_Virginia_Delegates_in_Congress_October_27_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:59:21 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Lafayette_March_10_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:45:23 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to the Marquis de Lafayette (March 10, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Lafayette_March_10_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:45:23 EST]]> /Remonstrance_to_Congress_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:37:34 EST <![CDATA[Remonstrance to Congress (1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Remonstrance_to_Congress_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:37:34 EST]]> /Letter_from_Edmund_Pendleton_to_James_Madison_March_26_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:34:07 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Edmund Pendleton to James Madison (March 26, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Edmund_Pendleton_to_James_Madison_March_26_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:34:07 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Horatio_Gates_February_17_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:31:36 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Horatio Gates (February 17, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Horatio_Gates_February_17_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:31:36 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_the_Speaker_of_the_House_of_Delegates_May_28_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:25:38 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to the Speaker of the House of Delegates (May 28, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_the_Speaker_of_the_House_of_Delegates_May_28_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:25:38 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_George_Washington_May_28_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:23:13 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to George Washington (May 28, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_George_Washington_May_28_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:23:13 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_James_Monroe_May_20_1782 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:19:41 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to James Monroe (May 20, 1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_James_Monroe_May_20_1782 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:19:41 EST]]> /An_act_to_revive_and_amend_an_act_entitled_An_act_for_giving_farther_powers_to_the_governour_and_council_October_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:14:46 EST <![CDATA[An act to revive and amend an act entitled 'An act for giving farther powers to the governour and council' (October 1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_to_revive_and_amend_an_act_entitled_An_act_for_giving_farther_powers_to_the_governour_and_council_October_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:14:46 EST]]> /Blair_James_ca_1655-1743 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:10:35 EST <![CDATA[Blair, James (ca. 1655–1743)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_James_ca_1655-1743 James Blair was an Anglican minister, a notoriously combative member of the governor's Council (1694–1695; 1696–1697; 1701–1743) who worked successfully to have three governors removed, and, with Francis Nicholson, the cofounder of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg. Born and educated in Edinburgh, Scotland, Blair came to Virginia in 1685 as rector of Henrico Parish. He married, acquired land, and in 1689 became commissary, or the Anglican bishop's representative in America. Blair's clerical convocations in 1690, 1705, and 1719 were notoriously rancorous in part due to his tendency to sympathize more with the laity than his fellow clerics; however, the 1690 meeting proved especially significant for Blair's "Seven Propositions," which led to the founding of the College of William and Mary. As president for life, Blair secured funding and overcame powerful opposition from men like Virginia governor Sir Edmund Andros. In the meantime, Blair consolidated his own power by becoming rector of James City Parish in Williamsburg, and in 1698 he successfully fought to have Andros removed. Over the years, Blair did the same to two more governors while continually expanding his college. By the 1720s he had rebuilt the school after a fire; housed an Indian school, chapel, library, and president's house; drafted the first college statutes; hired the first full-time faculty; and transferred the original charter to the president and masters. Blair died in Williamsburg in 1743.
Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:10:35 EST]]>
/Jack_Jouett_s_Ride_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 13:55:11 EST <![CDATA[Jack Jouett's Ride (1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jack_Jouett_s_Ride_1781 On the night of June 3–4, 1781, Jack Jouett rode about forty miles from Louisa County to Charlottesville to warn state officials of the approaching British Army. The British had been threatening Richmond and central Virginia since the spring, and the General Assembly had fled to Charlottesville. On June 3, British cavalry under Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton assembled in Louisa County to attack Charlottesville. Jouett noticed them, guessed their intentions, and raced ahead to warn Governor Thomas Jefferson, whose term had just ended, and other members of the state government. The assembly escaped to Staunton while Jefferson retreated to first to Monticello and then, eventually, to his second home at Poplar Forest, leaving Virginia without an elected governor for a few days. The General Assembly honored Jouett's actions and he later moved to Kentucky, where he served in that state's government. His ride, meanwhile, achieved legendary status over the years, at least in Virginia. Over the next two centuries, various histories treated it as an important episode of the American Revolution (1775–1783), although some writers confused Jouett with his father of the same name. (John Jouett, the elder, owned the Swan Tavern in Charlottesville.) Historical highway markers commemorating the event were erected both in Virginia and in Kentucky. And in 1940, the General Assembly of Virginia declared June 4 as Jack Jouett Day. In 2001, perhaps forgetting its early action, the assembly declared Jack Jouett Day to be June 3.
Thu, 21 Jul 2016 13:55:11 EST]]>
/Anderson_William_A_1842-1930 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:03:54 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, William A. (1842–1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_William_A_1842-1930 William A. Anderson, who came to be known as the "Lame Lion of the Confederacy," helped establish the Democratic Party's dominance in Virginia during and after the Reconstruction period. Wounded during the American Civil War (1861–1865), he was nominated to the House of Delegates in 1868 as a member of the Conservative Party, which sought to bring back the state's pre-war power structure. In 1883 Anderson was elected to the House of Delegates as a member of the Democratic Party (the successor of the Conservative Party). He helped cement Democratic control over Virginia by engineering the party's acceptance of the Readjusters' successful debt reduction policy and by co-sponsoring a law that gave control of elections to Democrats. In 1900 Anderson became head of the Virginia State Bar Association, and his presidential speech became the basis for the provisions in the Constitution of 1902 that disfranchised African American and poor white voters. (Anderson was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902.) He served as attorney general of Virginia from 1902 to 1910 and in the House of Delegates from 1918 to 1919. Anderson died at his home in Lynchburg in 1930.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:03:54 EST]]>
/Mahone_William_1826-1895 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:02:29 EST <![CDATA[Mahone, William (1826–1895)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mahone_William_1826-1895 William Mahone was a Confederate general, Virginia senator (1863–1865), railroad tycoon, U.S. senator (1881–1887), and leader of the short-lived Readjuster Party. Known by his nickname, "Little Billy," Mahone was, in the words of a contemporary, "short in stature, spare almost to emaciation, with [a] long beard, and keen, restless eyes." He attended the Virginia Military Institute on scholarship, worked as a railroad engineer, and eventually became president of the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he distinguished himself at the Battle of the Crater (1864), leading a successful counterattack that also involved the massacre of surrendered black troops. After the war, Mahone founded the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio Railroad, which, before it failed, served his business interests in Norfolk and Southside Virginia. In 1881, he was elected to the United States Senate as a member of the Readjuster Party, an unlikely coalition of poor whites and African Americans interested in repudiating a portion of the massive state debt and, in so doing, restoring social services such as free public education. One of the most successful biracial political coalitions in the New South, the Readjusters held power until 1886, when Mahone lost his Senate seat. A gubernatorial bid in 1889 failed, and Mahone died in Washington, D.C., in 1895.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:02:29 EST]]>
/Wells_Henry_Horatio_1823-1900 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:01:22 EST <![CDATA[Wells, Henry Horatio (1823–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wells_Henry_Horatio_1823-1900 Henry Horatio Wells, a Republican and a native of New York, served as governor of Virginia from April 1868 until September 1869. After attending school in Detroit, Michigan, where he was raised, Wells practiced law and served in the state legislature. He supported free public schools, temperance, and the abolition of slavery. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Wells served in a Michigan infantry regiment and then as provost marshal of Union-occupied Alexandria. He stayed on in Alexandria after the war, helping to found a railroad company and practicing law. In 1865, he publicly called for military rule of Virginia in order to protect the African American right to vote. When military rule came to pass, General John M. Schofield, commander of the First Military District, appointed Wells governor of Virginia, an office he held until the next year, when a new constitution was ratified and he lost statewide election as a Republican. Wells later served as a U.S. attorney for Virginia (1870–1872) and for the District of Columbia (1875–1880). He died in 1900.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:01:22 EST]]>
/Republican_Party_in_Virginia_During_the_Nineteenth_Century Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:00:28 EST <![CDATA[The Republican Party of Virginia in the Nineteenth Century]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Republican_Party_in_Virginia_During_the_Nineteenth_Century The Republican Party of Virginia was founded in 1856 and by the end of the century had become, with the Democratic Party, one of the state's two main political parties. Most of its earliest members lived in western Virginia. While not necessarily opposing slavery itself, these Republicans opposed both its expansion into the western territories and the political and economic advantages it bestowed on Piedmont and Tidewater Virginians. They also opposed secession in 1861. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), most of antebellum Virginia's Republicans lived in West Virginia. The few who were left had been Unionists but were now divided on questions such as African American civil rights and whether to allow former Confederates back into government. Newly enfranchised African Americans also flocked to the party. In 1869, a coalition of Conservative Party members and moderate Republicans—in opposition to radical Republicans—won all statewide offices. In 1881, 300 African American Republicans met in Petersburg and voted to endorse the Readjuster Party, formed in support of lowering, or "readjusting," the state debt in order to protect services such as free public schools. This alliance gave Readjusters control of the General Assembly, the governorship, and a seat in the U.S. Senate. In an environment of racial tensions, and just days after the Danville Riot of 1883, the Democratic Party (formerly the Conservatives) swept to power. No Republican won statewide office again until 1969.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:00:28 EST]]>
/Readjuster_Party_The Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:59:19 EST <![CDATA[Readjuster Party, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Readjuster_Party_The The Readjuster Party was the shortest-lived and most radical reforming political party in Virginia's history. Founded in February 1879, it won majorities in both houses of the General Assembly in the legislative election that autumn, and its candidates won all the statewide offices in 1881. The party rose to power because of the debt controversy, which involved disagreements about how to pay almost $34 million in state debt accrued before the American Civil War (1861–1865) on internal-improvement projects. By 1871, that number had risen to $45.6 million. The political faction called Funders resisted any reduction on the state debt lest it hurt Virginia's standing with creditors, while the Readjusters, seeing the debt as threatening important state programs such as public schools, sought to "readjust," or reduce the amount of the principal and the rate of interest. With a coalition of white farmers and working men, Democrats, Republicans, and African Americans, and under the leadership of the railroad executive and former Confederate general William Mahone, the party passed the Riddleberger Act of 1882, which reduced the principal of the debt and the interest owed. The next year, however, the Readjuster Party's candidates lost their legislative majorities, and its candidates for statewide office all lost in 1885, after which the party ceased to function.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:59:19 EST]]>
/Field_James_G_1826-1902 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:56:47 EST <![CDATA[Field, James Gaven (1826–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Field_James_G_1826-1902 James Gaven Field was attorney general of Virginia (1877–1882) and a Populist party leader. Born in Culpeper County, he taught school briefly and worked in California before returning to Virginia to study law. He served as the commonwealth's attorney of Culpeper County (1860) before volunteering for the Confederate army at the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865). He was wounded but remained with the Army of Northern Virginia until the surrender at Appomattox. An active Baptist and member of the Conservative Party, he continued to practice law and was appointed attorney general in 1877, arguing before the U.S. Supreme Court, in Ex Parte Virginia (1879), that Congress could not require local officials to allow African Americans on trial juries. Unable to secure a nomination for reelection, Field retired to Albemarle County, although he stayed active in Democratic Party politics. In the 1890s he became a prominent agricultural reformer and presided over the Populist party state convention in 1892. The national convention nominated him for vice president, losing in the general election to Grover Cleveland. Continuing to support Populist candidates in subsequent years, he ran unsuccessfully for a seat in the Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902. He died in Albemarle County in 1902.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:56:47 EST]]>
/Disfranchisement Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:55:25 EST <![CDATA[Disfranchisement]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Disfranchisement Disfranchisement (also called disenfranchisement) is the revocation of the right of suffrage. African American males voted in Virginia for the first time in October 1867, during Reconstruction (1865–1877), when the military governor of the state, John M. Schofield, ordered a referendum on whether to hold a convention to write a new state constitution and to elect delegates to serve in the convention. A majority of white Virginians disapproved of the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1870, which prohibited states from denying the vote to any man because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Ensuring that Virginia elections were set up to express the public opinion rather than suppress it was a task that took decades to complete. It was not until the abolition of the poll tax in the 1960s and adoption of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965 that black men and women registered and voted in appreciable numbers in Virginia outside a few urban precincts and that white men and women began to register and vote in significantly larger percentages than during the first half of the twentieth century.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:55:25 EST]]>
/Debt_Controversy_The_Virginia Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:54:13 EST <![CDATA[Debt Controversy, The Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Debt_Controversy_The_Virginia The Virginia debt controversy involved disagreements about how to pay almost $34 million in state debt accrued between 1822 and 1861. The money had been spent on the construction of canals, toll roads, and railroads, with the expectation that these would contribute toward Virginia's future economic vitality. After the American Civil War (1861–1865) and the creation of West Virginia, Virginia's economy was in tatters. In 1871, the General Assembly passed what came to be known as the Funding Act, which reduced the state debt, held West Virginia responsible for a third of the principal, and allowed interest-bearing coupons on debt bonds to be receivable for taxes. This caused a shortfall in revenue and conflict with West Virginia. In time, two competing parties rose to prominence. The Funders resisted any reduction on the state debt lest it hurt Virginia's standing with creditors, while the Readjusters, seeing the debt as threatening important state programs such as public schools, sought to "readjust," or lower, the principal. With a biracial political coalition, the Readjuster Party captured control of the General Assembly in 1879 and of the governor's office in 1881. In 1882, the assembly passed the Riddleberger Act, which reduced the principal of the debt and the interest owed. The Funders, having reorganized as Democrats, accepted the plan. With prompting from the U.S. Supreme Court, West Virginia agreed in 1919 to pay its third of the debt. Virginia's share of the debt was paid in 1937.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:54:13 EST]]>
/Conservative_Party_of_Virginia Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:52:29 EST <![CDATA[Conservative Party of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Conservative_Party_of_Virginia The Conservative Party of Virginia dominated the state's politics and government for a decade after its founding late in 1867, when it united people who opposed radical Republican reformers in Congress and in the state. In particular, Conservatives opposed giving the right to vote to African American men and denying it to men who had held Confederate political or military office during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Conservatives lost the first battle but won the second, and electoral successes in 1869 gave them the power to enact alternatives to Republican policies. Holding a majority in the General Assembly, the Conservatives helped create the state's first system of free public schools. By the end of the 1870s, however, the party collapsed during the political turmoil about payment of the antebellum state debt, which deeply divided the Conservatives. Some wanted to pay the debt in full, maintaining Virginia's good credit, while others argued for a "readjustment," lest the payments overwhelm other priorities, such as public schools. The party's division allowed a coalition of white and black voters, called Readjusters, and Republicans to gain temporary control of the state government. Following the subsequent collapse of that biracial coalition, many of the white Conservatives joined the reorganized and revived Democratic Party of Virginia.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:52:29 EST]]>
/Davis_Henry_Jackson_1882-1947 Fri, 08 Jul 2016 15:25:38 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Jackson (1882–1947)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Henry_Jackson_1882-1947 Jackson Davis was an educator, educational advisor, and foundation director who served as an important intermediary between African American schools in the South and philanthropic foundations in the North. Throughout his career, he specialized in education in the South, interracial issues, and educational development in the Belgian Congo and Liberia. As a field agent for the General Education Board, Davis worked on behalf of better relations and understanding between whites and African Americans and pioneered the development and promotion of regional centers of education in the South. Davis's relatively moderate position on race relations, however, did not extend to desegregation of public schools.
Fri, 08 Jul 2016 15:25:38 EST]]>
/Langston_John_Mercer_1829-1897 Fri, 08 Jul 2016 13:14:58 EST <![CDATA[Langston, John Mercer (1829–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Langston_John_Mercer_1829-1897 John Mercer Langston served as Virginia's first African American member of Congress (1890–1891) and as the first president of Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Virginia State University). The son of a white Louisa County planter and the woman he freed, Langston grew up in Ohio, where, as an attorney and local office holder, he helped recruit African American troops during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After the war, his involvement with the Freedmen's Bureau as inspector of schools brought him back to Virginia. In 1870 Langston became dean of Howard University's law school and served as acting president of the university from 1873 until 1875. In 1885, the Virginia State Board of Education named Langston president of the new Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute. The new school grew under his leadership, but the Democrat-packed board of visitors did not renew his contract two years later. In 1888 he sought the Republican nomination for Congress, but party leader William Mahone engineered his defeat. Langston ran an independent campaign in which a Democrat was named the winner. Langston disputed the election results, however, and eventually Congress seated him for the final months of his term. He lost reelection and returned to Washington, D.C., where he published an autobiography. He died in Washington in 1897.
Fri, 08 Jul 2016 13:14:58 EST]]>
/Page_Thomas_Nelson_1853-1922 Wed, 06 Jul 2016 09:43:05 EST <![CDATA[Page, Thomas Nelson (1853–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Page_Thomas_Nelson_1853-1922 Thomas Nelson Page was the most prominent writer among several southern local colorists whose poems, stories, and novels idealized the Old South and served as a kind of imaginative precursor to Margaret Mitchell's epic novel Gone with the Wind (1936). In fact, few writers have so lauded Virginia's plantation class as Page, or had so great an impact on the ideology of both Virginia and the American South during the Reconstruction period (1865–1877) that followed the American Civil War (1861–1865). In the context of the great social upheaval following that war, stories like Page's hugely influential "Marse Chan" (1884) promoted the image of an Old South replete with gracious aristocrats and loyal servants and a New South fraught with turmoil but ready for reconciliation with the North. This nostalgic, revisionist version of history was embraced with gusto by both northern and southern readers, and its vestiges remain even today in popular concepts of the South.
Wed, 06 Jul 2016 09:43:05 EST]]>
/Beazley_Roy_C_1902-1985 Fri, 01 Jul 2016 16:43:58 EST <![CDATA[Beazley, Roy C. (1902–1985)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beazley_Roy_C_1902-1985 Roy C. Beazley directed nursing education in various positions at the University of Virginia from 1946 until 1969, and was the first woman at the university to be named professor emerita. Born in Orange County and named for her uncle, Beazley began her career as a teacher but after suffering a serious illness she became interested in nursing. She attended the hospital nursing school at the University of Virginia and, with the exception of a degree earned at Columbia University in 1953, remained in Charlottesville for the rest of her career. She directed the evolution of the nursing education program into the School of Nursing and served as president of the Virginia State Board of Examiners of Nurses from 1959 to 1961. She retired from teaching in 1969 and died in 1985. Later that year she was posthumously awarded the University of Virginia's Distinguished Nursing Alumnae Award.
Fri, 01 Jul 2016 16:43:58 EST]]>
/Newport_Christopher_1561-after_August_15_1617 Tue, 07 Jun 2016 13:58:07 EST <![CDATA[Newport, Christopher (1561–after August 15, 1617)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Newport_Christopher_1561-after_August_15_1617 Christopher Newport was an English privateer, ship captain, and adventurer who helped to establish the first permanent English colony in North America at Jamestown in 1607. Born the son of a shipmaster on the east coast of England, he worked in the commercial shipping trade and, beginning in 1585, as a privateer, or sanctioned pirate, in the war between England and Spain. His assistance in the capture of the Spanish ship Madre de Dios in 1592 won him such wealth and prestige that in 1606 the Virginia Company of London appointed him leader of the voyage to the newly chartered colony. In the first few months, he played a key role in negotiating between Virginia's often-fractious leaders. He also sailed between the colony and England, carrying news and delivering precious supplies. In 1608, he participated in an unsuccessful "coronation" of the Indian chief Powhatan, who refused to submit himself to the English. In 1609, as captain of the Sea Venture, Newport was shipwrecked off the islands of Bermuda, arriving in Virginia the next spring. Newport left the Virginia Company's employment in 1612 and entered the service of the East India Company. He died in Banten (Bantam), Java, sometime after August 15, 1617.
Tue, 07 Jun 2016 13:58:07 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_George_Washington_October_26_1780 Tue, 31 May 2016 15:29:58 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to George Washington (October 26, 1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_George_Washington_October_26_1780 Tue, 31 May 2016 15:29:58 EST]]> /Lumpkin_s_Jail Thu, 26 May 2016 22:36:09 EST <![CDATA[Lumpkin's Jail]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lumpkin_s_Jail Lumpkin's Jail was a slave-trading complex located on Wall Street, in the Shockoe Bottom district of Richmond, which operated from the 1830s until the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). The slave-trader Bacon Tait owned the property first, followed by Lewis A. Collier, who built the so-called jail, which confined enslaved African Americans prior to their sale. Robert Lumpkin purchased the property in 1844 and used the facility to pursue his own slave-trading business, accommodating his clients in a boardinghouse on the premises. Lumpkin also charged slave dealers and owners a daily fee for holding their slaves. Anthony Burns, a runaway slave returned to Richmond under the Fugitive Slave Law, was housed at Lumpkin's for four months under appalling conditions. Lumpkin died in 1866, and his widow, a formerly enslaved woman named Mary, leased the property to a Baptist minister who founded the Colver Institute, a religious school for emancipated African Americans, and held classes in the former jail building. The school eventually became Virginia Union University. The jail was demolished by 1876 and large industrial buildings later occupied the site. Its history was largely forgotten until 2005, when archaeologists began the first phase of an investigation that eventually found evidence of the complex, including the original jail building buried nearly fifteen feet beneath the modern ground level. The archaeological remains were subsequently reburied, and the Lumpkin's Jail site is commemorated as one of seventeen places on the Richmond Slave Trail.
Thu, 26 May 2016 22:36:09 EST]]>
/Judges_of_the_Supreme_Court_of_Virginia Tue, 10 May 2016 14:20:22 EST <![CDATA[Judges of the Supreme Court of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judges_of_the_Supreme_Court_of_Virginia Tue, 10 May 2016 14:20:22 EST]]> /Boyle_Sarah_Patton_1906-1994 Mon, 09 May 2016 12:46:07 EST <![CDATA[Boyle, Sarah-Patton (1906–1994)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boyle_Sarah_Patton_1906-1994 Sarah-Patton Boyle was one of Virginia's most prominent white civil rights activists during the 1950s and 1960s and author of the widely acclaimed autobiography The Desegregated Heart: A Virginian's Stand in Time of Transition (1962). Her desegregation efforts began in 1950 when she wrote to Gregory Swanson welcoming him as the University of Virginia's first black law student. Through her experience with Swanson, her views on desegregation evolved from being a proponent of gradual desegregation to a leading and often controversial white voice for immediate desegregation in public schools and in higher education. Her 1955 article for the Saturday Evening Post, titled "Southerners Will Like Integration," prompted a fierce backlash that included having a cross burned in her Charlottesville yard. Boyle did not moderate her views, however, and worked closely with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), earning praise from Martin Luther King Jr., Lillian Smith, and others, as well as numerous awards and a measure of national fame. The intensity of her political involvement triggered a deep depression, however, and she eventually became disillusioned with the civil rights movement, retiring from activism in 1967. In 1983, she authored a memoir that contemplated her experience dealing with age discrimination.
Mon, 09 May 2016 12:46:07 EST]]>
/Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_1785 Fri, 06 May 2016 12:34:19 EST <![CDATA[Notes on the State of Virginia (1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_1785 Notes on the State of Virginia, by Thomas Jefferson, is at once a compendium of information about the state and a sweeping commentary on natural history, society, politics, education, religion, slavery, liberty, and law. Many consider it the most important American book written before 1800. Jefferson originally composed the work in 1781 in answer to queries posed by a French diplomat, and then revised and expanded it into a description and defense of the young United States as interpreted through a Virginia lens. The book is divided into twenty-three chapters, largely taken from the diplomat's queries, though Jefferson reordered and renumbered them. Notes was first published in Paris in 1785 in an edition of 200. Both a French translation, published in 1786, and the widely circulated London edition of 1787 incorporated important structural changes and a detailed map. Notes on the State of Virginia wrested the interpretation of the young American nation from European critics and intellectuals and offered an eloquent indigenous voice. It profoundly influenced European understanding of the United States, as well as American views of Virginia. It established Jefferson's international reputation as a serious scientist, a man of letters, and the principal spokesman for his "country," whether Virginia or the United States; his discursive text, ranging over the entire continent, implicitly blurred the distinction between the two. As the most detailed and influential portrait of any state or region of the United States for generations, Notes ensured that Virginia would be a primary focus of future studies of the American republic. The book contains Jefferson's most powerful indictments of slavery; it is also a foundational text of racism.
Fri, 06 May 2016 12:34:19 EST]]>
/Farmer_Frances_1909-1993 Mon, 02 May 2016 16:05:42 EST <![CDATA[Farmer, Frances (1909–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farmer_Frances_1909-1993 Frances Farmer was a law librarian and the first female law professor at the University of Virginia. Born in Charlotte County, Farmer studied history and then law before becoming a law librarian at the University of Richmond in 1938 and the University of Virginia in 1942. She took charge of cataloguing and then greatly expanding the School of Law's collection, helping to develop the school's alumni association as a fund-raising tool. In 1959, she served a one-year term as president of the American Association of Law Libraries. Four years later she was elected to the general faculty and, in 1969, made a full professor. During her tenure the law library grew from fewer than 40,000 to more than 300,000 volumes. Farmer retired in 1976 and died in 1993.
Mon, 02 May 2016 16:05:42 EST]]>
/Ruffner_William_H_1824-1908 Fri, 29 Apr 2016 15:56:36 EST <![CDATA[Ruffner, William Henry (1824–1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ruffner_William_H_1824-1908 William Henry Ruffner was the designer and first superintendent of Virginia's public school system and later served as principal of the State Female Normal School (later Longwood University). Born in Lexington and a graduate of Washington College (later Washington and Lee University), he spent the years before the American Civil War (1861–1865) as a Presbyterian minister and farmer in Rockingham County. Ruffner owned slaves, and he advocated the gradual emancipation and colonization of the state's African Americans. He raised funds for the American Colonization Society. After the Constitution of 1869 mandated the creation of public schools, the General Assembly elected Ruffner the state's first superintendent of public instruction. During his twelve-year tenure Ruffner gave Virginia's public school system a lasting foundation and as he defended the system from vigorous opposition and the shortfalls generated by the state's crippling debt. In 1884 he became principal of the new State Female Normal School, where he served for three years. Ruffner spent his later years teaching geology, writing about the history of Washington and Lee University, and advocating the school system he helped create. He died at his daughter's home in Asheville, North Carolina, in 1908.
Fri, 29 Apr 2016 15:56:36 EST]]>
/Blaettermann_George_1782-1850 Thu, 28 Apr 2016 08:12:34 EST <![CDATA[Blaettermann, George (1782–1850)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blaettermann_George_1782-1850 Thu, 28 Apr 2016 08:12:34 EST]]> /Medicine_in_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War Wed, 27 Apr 2016 17:14:33 EST <![CDATA[Medicine in Virginia during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Medicine_in_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War The medicine practiced in Virginia by the Union and Confederate armies during the American Civil War (1861–1865) was state of the art for its day and an important factor in the ability of both governments to raise and maintain armies in the field. More than twice as many soldiers died of disease than from combat-related injuries. Still, despite many nineteenth-century misconceptions about the causes and treatments of disease, three out of four soldiers survived their illnesses. This was due in part to widespread vaccination for smallpox, isolation of most contagious diseases, and especially the recognition of the importance of cleanliness and sanitation. As the war dragged on, combat injuries became more prevalent and the work of surgeons became more important. Surgery, though unsterile, saved lives through amputation. Such procedures were done, for the most part, with adequate pain control and some form of anesthesia. To care for the wounded, both sides established a system of hospitals, ranging from makeshift field hospitals and interim "corps hospitals" (used by Confederates), to large, fixed general hospitals such as the sprawling Chimborazo Hospital in Richmond. It was often painful and dangerous for the wounded to be transported from the battlefield to the hospital, but in the end the quality of medical care they received was generally high and led to important medical advances during the postwar period and twentieth century.
Wed, 27 Apr 2016 17:14:33 EST]]>
/Fitzgerald_H_R_1873-1931 Wed, 27 Apr 2016 12:29:40 EST <![CDATA[Fitzgerald, H. R. (1873–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fitzgerald_H_R_1873-1931 H. R. Fitzgerald served as president of the Dan River Mills from 1918 until his death in 1931. Born in Danville the son of T. B. Fitzgerald, one of the company's founders, Fitzgerald was deaf for most of his adult life. By 1908 he had become secretary-treasurer of Dan River Mills; a decade later he was president of one of the largest cotton mills in the United States. Taking over at a time when the company's profits were in decline, Fitzgerald instituted scientific management in sales, helped to found a trade association, the Cotton-Textile Institute, and introduced Industrial Democracy, a representative system for airing worker grievances and giving them a limited voice in mill operations. In 1930, Industrial Democracy ceased and about 4,000 mill workers went on strike. Fitzgerald refused offers of mediation from the state and federal governments, and after four months the strikers gave up. Just three and a half weeks later, however, in February 1931, Fitzgerald died of a heart attack, perhaps from the stress of the strike.
Wed, 27 Apr 2016 12:29:40 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_and_His_Family Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:04:45 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and His Family]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_His_Family Thomas Jefferson regularly commented on the importance of family. In 1789 he wrote to his brother Randolph that "no society is so precious as that of one's own family" and—in another letter, to Francis Willis—that he longed for domestic tranquility within the "bosom" of his family. Jefferson was raised at Shadwell, his father's Albemarle County plantation, with nine siblings. The absence of extant letters between Jefferson and his parents has led some historians to suggest a frosty relationship, but his letters to siblings suggest that the family was, in fact, close and loving. Jefferson married Martha Wayles Skelton in 1772, and by all accounts the two were very much in love. Of their six children, only two—Martha and Mary (later Maria)—survived to adulthood. The elder Martha Jefferson died a few months after giving birth in 1782, and Jefferson's daughters, and later his grandchildren, became the focus of his domestic life. While president in 1802, his family life attracted public attention when the Richmond journalist James Thomson Callender accused him of fathering children with his slave—and his wife's likely half-sister—Sally Hemings. Many historians now accept that Jefferson fathered Hemings's six children. His later years were marked by family strife, including a feud between his two sons-in-law and alcohol-fueled violence perpetrated by the husband of one of his granddaughters. Debts also accumulated, but Jefferson maintained his home at Monticello as a refuge for family, and they surrounded him there on his death in 1826.
Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:04:45 EST]]>
/Gabriel_s_Conspiracy_1800 Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:02:35 EST <![CDATA[Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gabriel_s_Conspiracy_1800 Gabriel's Conspiracy was a plan by enslaved African American men to attack Richmond and destroy slavery in Virginia. Although thwarted, it remains one of the half-dozen most important insurrection plots in the history of North American slavery. Named after an enslaved blacksmith who emerged as the most significant leader of the plot, Gabriel's Conspiracy originated during the spring and summer of 1800 in a Henrico County neighborhood north of Richmond and extended primarily across Hanover County into Caroline County and south toward Petersburg. Two slave men betrayed the plot just hours before a torrential rainstorm prevented the conspirators from gathering on the night of August 30, 1800. In response, Virginia authorities arrested and prosecuted more than seventy enslaved men for insurrection and conspiracy. Twenty-six of those found guilty were hanged and eight more were transported, or sold outside of the state, while another suspected conspirator committed suicide before his arraignment. A small number of free blacks were also implicated and one was prosecuted. The alleged involvement of two Frenchmen in the plot provided fodder for Federalist attacks on Thomas Jefferson's candidacy for the presidency that year. The aborted uprising also provoked refinements in the state's slave laws at the next meeting of the General Assembly, including the adoption of transportation as an alternative to capital punishment for some slave offenders and calls for an end to private manumissions and for the deportation of free blacks.
Thu, 21 Apr 2016 16:02:35 EST]]>
/Dobie_Armistead_M_1881-1962 Thu, 21 Apr 2016 15:50:31 EST <![CDATA[Dobie, Armistead M. (1881–1962)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dobie_Armistead_M_1881-1962 Armistead M. Dobie served as the second dean of the University of Virginia School of Law (1932–1939), a judge of the Western District of Virginia (1939), and a judge on the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals (1939–1956). Born in Norfolk, he was educated at the University of Virginia and briefly practiced law in Saint Louis, Missouri, before joining the faculty of his alma mater. During World War I (1914–1918), he served twice in France. After returning to the University of Virginia, he introduced the case method of instruction and authored the Handbook of Federal Jurisdiction and Procedure (1928). A talented speaker with a shrill voice, Dobie was a popular presence at the university, as a witty lecturer and a speaker at football pep rallies. His time on the federal bench was marked by a ruling in favor of true equality between black and white schools in Corbin et al. v. County School Board of Pulaski County, Virginia, et al. (1949). In 1952, he was one of three judges that upheld racial segregation in public education in Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County. A long battle with depression forced Dobie's retirement in 1956; he died in Charlottesville in 1962.
Thu, 21 Apr 2016 15:50:31 EST]]>
/Clayton_John_1656_or_1657-1725 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:42:16 EST <![CDATA[Clayton, John (1656 or 1657–1725)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clayton_John_1656_or_1657-1725 John Clayton conducted key observations of Virginia's flora and fauna while helping secure the Church of England's authority. The Oxford graduate and clergy member left England to become rector of Jamestown's James City Parish. Clayton, known for his scientific observations, took an interest in the natural world of Virginia and recorded his observations of numerous natural phenomena. John Brickell later plagiarized his works when writing his Natural History of North-Carolina (1737). Clayton, known for his intellectual sermons, became Virginia's commissary, or first personal representative of the bishop of London. From his position, he aggressively converted dissenters. Clayton returned to England in 1686.
Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:42:16 EST]]>
/Chilton_Edward_1658-1707 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:36:45 EST <![CDATA[Chilton, Edward (1658–1707)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chilton_Edward_1658-1707 Edward Chilton served as attorney general of Virginia and was the coauthor of The Present State of Virginia, and the College (printed in 1727). He arrived in Virginia by 1682, when he served as a clerk for the governor's Council and the General Assembly. He also acquired several thousand acres of land. In 1694 Chilton returned to England, where he became a barrister. He remained involved with Virginia affairs and testified before the Board of Trade about conditions in the colony in 1696. The following year Chilton, along with James Blair and Henry Hartwell, prepared a report on the colony titled The Present State of Virginia, and the College. He requested and acquired the position of Barbados's attorney general in 1699. He died in Portsmouth, England, in 1707.
Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:36:45 EST]]>
/Dunglison_Robley_1798-1869 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:30:09 EST <![CDATA[Dunglison, Robley (1798–1869)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dunglison_Robley_1798-1869 Robley Dunglison was a medical educator and an author who was among the first faculty members of the University of Virginia. Born in England, he studied medicine in London, Edinburgh, Paris, and Germany, but found himself bored with general practice. In 1824 he accepted an offer to teach at the newly founded University of Virginia, becoming the first professional full-time professor of medicine in the United States. (Most professors also practiced medicine, but Dunglison's contract prohibited it.) He also served as Thomas Jefferson's consulting physician and attended the former president's death at Monticello in 1826. While in Charlottesville, Dunglison published his landmark work, Human Physiology (1832), and a medical dictionary. He taught at Virginia for nine years before accepting a position at the University of Maryland and then, three years after that, at Jefferson Medical College, in Philadelphia, where he stayed for the rest of his career. Dunglison died in 1853.
Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:30:09 EST]]>
/Farr_R_R_1845-1892 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:27:43 EST <![CDATA[Farr, R. R. (1845–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farr_R_R_1845-1892 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:27:43 EST]]> /Carrington_Isaac_H_1827-1887 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:21:51 EST <![CDATA[Carrington, Isaac H. (1827–1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carrington_Isaac_H_1827-1887 Isaac H. Carrington served as provost marshal of Richmond during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born in Richmond to an influential family, Carrington practiced law in Pittsylvania County before the war. He served in various staff and administrative positions in the Confederate army before, in 1863, the Confederate Congress appointed him a commissioner of prisoners in Richmond. The next year the secretary of war named him Richmond's provost marshal with responsibility for issuing passports to all persons leaving the city. Just prior to the Union occupation of Richmond in 1865, Carrington set fire to military stores in the city, but despite taking precautions, the fire spread and destroyed much of the capital. He was later exonerated on charges of misappropriating funds sent by the U.S. government for prisoner relief. After the war Carrington practiced corporate law, served on the University of Virginia board of visitors (1873–1875), and served as president of the Richmond Bar Association (1886–1887). He died in 1887.
Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:21:51 EST]]>
/Don_LuA Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:55:46 EST <![CDATA[Don Luís de Velasco / Paquiquineo (fl. 1561–1571)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Don_LuA Paquiquineo, later Don Luís de Velasco, was a Virginia Indian who encountered Spanish explorers on the Chesapeake Bay in 1561 and returned to Spain with them, either voluntarily or as a captive. There, he appeared before King Philip II and was granted permission to lead a Catholic mission back to the Chesapeake, a land the Spaniards believed the Indians called Ajacán. A brief stop in Mexico City turned into a years-long stay after Paquiquineo became ill. During that time he converted to Christianity, taking the name of the viceroy of New Spain (present-day Mexico), Don Luís de Velasco. After two failed attempts to return home with Dominican missionaries, Don Luís sailed again to Spain, where he joined a group of Jesuit priests, and finally landed on the James River in September 1570—more than nine years after he had left. He initially aided the Jesuits, but quickly reunited with his family and, in February 1571, led an ambush that killed the missionaries save for an altar boy, Alonso de Olmos. While contemporary Spanish chroniclers demonized Paquiquineo, at least one modern scholar has suggested that the violence may have been a symbolic and predictable reaction to violations of the Indians' gift-exchange economy. In 1572 the Spanish dispatched soldiers to Ajacán. They hanged a handful of Indians but did not find Paquiquineo, who subsequently disappeared from history. Based on Jamestown-era rumors, some historians have argued that Paquiquineo and Opechancanough were the same person.
Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:55:46 EST]]>
/Letter_from_John_C_Underwood_to_Thomas_Bayne_Norfolk_Post_October_2_1865 Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:21:13 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John C. Underwood to Thomas Bayne, Norfolk Post (October 2, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_C_Underwood_to_Thomas_Bayne_Norfolk_Post_October_2_1865 Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:21:13 EST]]> /Thomas_s_Administrator_v_Bettie_Thomas_Lewis_June_16_1892 Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:13:59 EST <![CDATA[Thomas's Administrator v. Bettie Thomas Lewis (June 16, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_s_Administrator_v_Bettie_Thomas_Lewis_June_16_1892 Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:13:59 EST]]> /_Bettie_Thomas-Lewis_from_the_Richmond_Times_June_19_1892 Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:04:57 EST <![CDATA["Bettie Thomas-Lewis" from the Richmond Times (June 19, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Bettie_Thomas-Lewis_from_the_Richmond_Times_June_19_1892 Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:04:57 EST]]> /Eppes_John_Wayles_1772-1823 Thu, 14 Apr 2016 16:59:39 EST <![CDATA[Eppes, John Wayles (1772–1823)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Eppes_John_Wayles_1772-1823 John Wayles Eppes was a member of the House of Delegates (1801–1803), the U.S. House of Representatives (1803–1811, 1813–1815), and the U.S. Senate (1817–1819). Related through his mother to Martha Wayles Skelton, the wife of Thomas Jefferson, Eppes was close to Jefferson. He lived with him in Philadelphia while Jefferson served as secretary of state and secretly copied for him James Madison's notes on the Constitutional Convention of 1787. In 1797 he married Jefferson's daughter Maria (also Mary or Polly) Jefferson. Eppes served four terms in Congress before being unseated by John Randolph of Roanoke, with whom he had a difficult relationship. Once on the floor of the House, Randolph called Eppes a liar and the two almost fought a duel. On another occasion, Eppes acted as a second to a fellow congressman who shot another congressman in a duel. Eppes regained his seat from Randolph in 1813 but lost it again in 1815. Two years later the General Assembly elected him to the U.S. Senate, although ill health forced him to resign in 1819. Eppes died at his Mill Brook estate, in Buckingham and Cumberland counties, in 1823.
Thu, 14 Apr 2016 16:59:39 EST]]>
/Bruce_Philip_Alexander_1856-1933 Thu, 14 Apr 2016 16:26:30 EST <![CDATA[Bruce, Philip Alexander (1856–1933)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bruce_Philip_Alexander_1856-1933 Philip Alexander Bruce was a historian whose five-volume account of seventeenth-century Virginia history continues to be cited as an important work of scholarship. Born in Charlotte County into an accomplished family, Bruce studied law at the University of Virginia and at Harvard but found his calling in scholarship. He wrote briefly for the Richmond Times before joining the Virginia Historical Society and, in 1893, helping to found its quarterly journal, the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. Her served as the magazine's first editor from 1893 until 1898. Bruce's own work often focused on social and economic history, seeking the origins of the New South while often marginalizing African Americans. His five volumes on seventeenth-century Virginia, published between 1896 and 1910, included two on economic history, one on social life, and two on institutions such as the church, the courts, and the General Assembly. Bruce also served as the University of Virginia's centennial historian, writing a five-volume history of the school's founding and first hundred years. He died in 1933 at his home in Charlottesville.
Thu, 14 Apr 2016 16:26:30 EST]]>
/Winder_John_H_1800-1865 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 17:13:17 EST <![CDATA[Winder, John H. (1800–1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Winder_John_H_1800-1865 John H. Winder was a Confederate general who served as provost marshal of Richmond (1862–1864) and commissary general of Confederate prisons (1864–1865) during the American Civil War (1861–1865). A career military officer, Winder served with distinction during both the Second Seminole War (1835–1842) and the Mexican War (1846–1848), but faced criticism from Union officials and, subsequently, historians for his management of Richmond's wartime prisons and, beginning in June 1864, the notorious Andersonville Prison in Georgia. Described by his biographer as "short-tempered" and "aloof," Winder was responsible for the Castle Thunder, Belle Isle, and Libby prisons when they became infamous in the North for their poor conditions. While he was at Andersonville, the mortality rate of Union prisoners surged as a result of overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, and poor rations. Winder's defenders argue that he struggled with an inefficient Confederate bureaucracy and scarce resources, and that he instituted policies, late in the war, that reduced the number of prisoner deaths. He died of a heart attack in February 1865; his subordinate at Andersonville, Henry H. Wirz, was hanged later that year.
Thu, 07 Apr 2016 17:13:17 EST]]>
/Cocke_William_1672-1720 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:58:52 EST <![CDATA[Cocke, William (1672–1720)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cocke_William_1672-1720 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:58:52 EST]]> /Allen_Joseph_ca_1836-after_1905 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:54:57 EST <![CDATA[Allen, Joseph (ca. 1836–after 1905)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allen_Joseph_ca_1836-after_1905 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:54:57 EST]]> /Indian_Enslavement_in_Virginia Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:25:04 EST <![CDATA[Indian Enslavement in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indian_Enslavement_in_Virginia Indians were enslaved in Virginia by settlers and traders from shortly after the founding of Jamestown until the end of the eighteenth century, peaking late in the seventeenth century and providing a workforce for English plantations and households. By this time the Atlantic slave trade was at its peak, flooding Virginia with cheaper African labor. African slavery took nearly a century to develop, however, and in the meantime those white Virginians who required men and women to work as servants or in tobacco fields mostly relied on indentured servants and enslaved Indians. Europeans sold guns for slaves in an existing indigenous trading market, and encouraged allied tribes to provide the slaves by targeting Indian groups on the periphery of English settlements (similar to African participation in the capture of slaves in Africa). While there are examples of continued enslavement of Indians throughout the early settlement period, mass enslavement typically coincided with the upheaval of war that led to Indian prisoners who could be sold as slaves. Virginia's laws were neither clear nor effective with respect to the enslavement of Indians, at times banning the practice and at other times encouraging it. Some scholars argue that Indian enslavement had declined by 1800 because Indians were prone to illness or escape, but others maintain that it was only when Indians, wracked by war and enslavement, could not provide a sufficient quantity of cheap workers that English colonists turned primarily to chattel African slavery. American Indians were most clearly deemed free by Virginia law early in the 1800s, and Indians who were unable to gain their freedom often became assimilated within the predominantly African slave communities.
Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:25:04 EST]]>
/Smith_John_bap_1580-1631 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:14:40 EST <![CDATA[Smith, John (bap. 1580–1631)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_John_bap_1580-1631 Captain John Smith was a soldier and writer who is best known for his role in establishing the Virginia colony at Jamestown, England's first permanent colony in North America. A farmer's son, Smith was a soldier of fortune in Europe before he joined the Virginia Company of London expedition of 1606–1607. At Jamestown, Smith served on the local council; explored and mapped the Chesapeake Bay; established a sometimes-contentious relationship with Powhatan, the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco; and was president of the colony from September 1609 to September 1610. He was unpopular among his fellow colonists, however, who forced his return to England in October 1610. Smith never returned to Virginia, but he did travel to and map a portion of the northeast coast of North America, which he named New England. Much of what is known about Smith's life comes from his own detailed and informative accounts of his experiences. Although many of his contemporaries considered him a braggart and he almost certainly embellished his own accomplishments, his narratives provide invaluable insights into English and native life during the Virginia colony's formative years.
Thu, 07 Apr 2016 16:14:40 EST]]>
/Keyes_Frances_Parkinson_1885-1970 Thu, 07 Apr 2016 13:02:15 EST <![CDATA[Keyes, Frances Parkinson (1885–1970)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Keyes_Frances_Parkinson_1885-1970 Frances Parkinson Keyes was a prolific journalist, editor, memoirist, and biographer, but was most well known as a bestselling novelist. Problematic for some critics because of her popular and accessible prose, Keyes captivated fiction readers from the 1940s well into the 1960s, writing about politics, murder, religion, and life in the South. Today, however, few of her novels remain in print.
Thu, 07 Apr 2016 13:02:15 EST]]>
/Archaeology_at_Mount_Vernon Fri, 01 Apr 2016 08:27:02 EST <![CDATA[Mount Vernon, Archaeology at]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Archaeology_at_Mount_Vernon Archaeology at Mount Vernon, the Fairfax County plantation home of George Washington, began in the 1930s and has continued over the subsequent decades. As part of research and renovation efforts undertaken by the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, excavations have sought to uncover evidence of daily life on the property during the eighteenth century. In 1987, the association, which has owned and operated the estate since 1860, hired a full-time archaeologist. Since then, archaeological digs at the Mansion House Farm have taken place at the main slave quarter, known as the House for Families, and the blacksmith shop (1987–1990), the fruit garden and nursery (1988–1991), the South Grove trash dump, or midden (1990–1993), the dung repository (1992–1994), and the Upper Garden (2005–2010). Extensive work has also been conducted at the distillery, located near the outlying gristmill (1999–2005). These investigations have turned up a rich array of artifacts and other kinds of evidence attesting to the lives of the Washington family and their enslaved laborers, including the size and nature of structures in which they lived and worked, the tools they manufactured and used, and the foods they ate.
Fri, 01 Apr 2016 08:27:02 EST]]>
/Fitzgerald_T_B_1840-1929 Thu, 31 Mar 2016 18:01:02 EST <![CDATA[Fitzgerald, T. B. (1840–1929)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fitzgerald_T_B_1840-1929 T. B. Fitzgerald helped to found and served as the longtime president of the Riverside Cotton Mills, in Danville. Born in Halifax County, he served briefly in the Confederate army during the American Civil War (1861–1865) before being discharged for illness. In 1882, he was a founder of the Riverside Cotton Mills, a company that provided contracts to a construction business Fitzgerald had established a decade earlier. Over the next several decades, the business and Danville both grew rapidly, and Fitzgerald invested in real estate and lumber and helped establish the Danville College for Young Ladies and the Danville Street Car Company. In 1895, he became president of the newly chartered Dan River Power and Manufacturing Company, which merged with the cotton mills in 1909, eventually becoming Dan River Mills. Fitzgerald, who remained on the company board for the rest of his life, died in his Danville home in 1929.
Thu, 31 Mar 2016 18:01:02 EST]]>
/Dinsmore_James_1771_or_1772-1830 Thu, 31 Mar 2016 17:44:06 EST <![CDATA[Dinsmore, James (1771 or 1772–1830)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dinsmore_James_1771_or_1772-1830 James Dinsmore served as Thomas Jefferson's master carpenter for more than a decade. Born in Ireland, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1798 and began work for Jefferson soon after. Living and working at Monticello, in Albemarle County, he was responsible for much of the house's woodwork and furniture. In 1809, he and John Neilson oversaw the expansion of James Madison's Orange County plantation, Montpelier. The two worked on some of Virginia's most noted architecture, including the University of Virginia's Rotunda, Jefferson's retreat at Poplar Forest, in Bedford County, and John Hartwell Cocke's Upper Bremo home, in Fluvanna County. Late in his career Dinsmore designed and constructed Estouteville, a mansion south of Charlottesville, noted for its Tuscan exterior porticoes and great interior hall with an elaborate Doric frieze. Dinsmore drowned in 1830.
Thu, 31 Mar 2016 17:44:06 EST]]>
/Hamner_Earl_Jr_1923- Fri, 25 Mar 2016 08:22:33 EST <![CDATA[Hamner, Earl Jr. (1923–2016)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hamner_Earl_Jr_1923- Earl Hamner Jr. was a writer of novels, television shows, and movies, most notably the popular semiautobiographical television series The Waltons (1972–1981). Born in Nelson County, Hamner served in the Army during World War II (1939–1945) before attending Northwestern University and the University of Cincinnati. He then worked in radio and televion, writing scripts for The Twilight Zone and novels based on his Virginia upbringing. Hamner's hardscrabble experiences growing up in a large family in depression-era Schuyler informed his 1961 novel Spencer's Mountain, and its film adaptation starring Henry Fonda and Maureen O'Hara. In 1972 it was adapted for television as The Waltons, each episode of which famously ended with family members wishing one another goodnight. Hamner also created the series Falcon Crest, which ran from 1981 to 1990. He died in Los Angeles in 2016.
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 08:22:33 EST]]>
/University_of_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War_The Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:49:10 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia During the Civil War, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War_The The University of Virginia, near Charlottesville, remained open during the American Civil War (1861–1865), graduating few students and struggling to maintain its facilities. At the start of the war, its students strongly supported secession, and more than 500 of the school's 600 enrollees in 1861 eventually served in the Confederate military. More than 2,000 alumni joined them, and by 1865, 500 men associated with the university had died in the conflict. A few graduates fought for the Union, including Bernard Gaines Farrar Jr., who became a general of U.S. volunteers. Only a few dozen students attended the university in any given year during the war, and the university was unsuccessful in preventing some of those from being drafted into Confederate service in 1863. The university's facilities, meanwhile, suffered from lack of use and upkeep. The Rotunda building briefly held patients of the Charlottesville General Hospital, a military medical center whose superintendent, J. L. Cabell, was a faculty member. In March 1865, Union cavalrymen under George A. Custer briefly occupied the university, but damage proved minimal. After the war, enrollment levels took decades to recover, while the university did much to honor those students who had fought and died for the Confederacy. By contrast, Unionists were largely ignored.
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:49:10 EST]]>
/Cocke_John_Hartwell_1780-1866 Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:41:33 EST <![CDATA[Cocke, John Hartwell (1780–1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cocke_John_Hartwell_1780-1866 John Hartwell Cocke was a farmer whose plantation, Bremo, in Fluvanna County, was both architecturally and scientifically innovative. He also was a reformer who advocated temperance, the end of tobacco production in central Virginia, and the colonization of the state's slaves. Closely involved with the founding of the University of Virginia, he served on the school's board of visitors from 1819 until 1856. Born in Surry County, Cocke inherited Bremo and moved to the estate in 1809. There he worked out new methods of scientific farming and helped to found the Agricultural Society of Albemarle. He designed, or helped to design, various parts of Bremo, as well as buildings elsewhere in Fluvanna County. After the death of his first wife in 1816, Cocke embraced evangelical Christianity, which informed his work on behalf of temperance causes—he served as president of state and national temperance unions—and against the cultivation of tobacco. Despite owning slaves himself, he thought slavery to be against God's will and argued that removing African Americans to Africa was the best solution to the institution's various evils. Cocke's opposition to abolitionism and his support of the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865) caused his views to become pro-slavery over time. He died at Bremo in 1866.
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:41:33 EST]]>
/Cocke_Philip_St_George_1809-1861 Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:35:28 EST <![CDATA[Cocke, Philip St. George (1809–1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cocke_Philip_St_George_1809-1861 Philip St. George Cocke was a wealthy plantation owner in Powhatan County and in Mississippi, who accumulated hundreds of slaves and thousands of acres of land. He became a leading advocate of agricultural interests, serving as president of the Virginia State Agricultural Society from 1853 to 1856, and promoting agricultural education. Cocke served as a lieutenant in the United States Army during the South Carolina Nullification Crisis in 1832, and in 1860, organized a cavalry troop in response to John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry. When volunteers were combined into the Confederate army following the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865), Cocke's rank was reduced from brigadier general to colonel. He took offense and later complained bitterly when Confederate general Pierre G. T. Beauregard did not praise him enough during the First Battle of Manassas (1861). In a state of despondency and mental anguish over what he regarded as poor treatment by General Robert E. Lee and others, he committed suicide on December 26, 1861.
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:35:28 EST]]>
/Cabell_Joseph_C_1778-1856 Thu, 24 Mar 2016 08:08:30 EST <![CDATA[Cabell, Joseph C. (1778–1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cabell_Joseph_C_1778-1856 Joseph C. Cabell was member of the House of Delegates (1808–1810, 1831–1835) and the Senate of Virginia (1810–1829) and served as president of the James River and Kanawha Company (1835–1846). He also served as rector of the University of Virginia from 1834 to 1836 and again from 1845 to 1856. Born in Amherst County, Cabell studied law, including under St. George Tucker, whose stepdaughter he later married. Rather than practice, he embarked on a political career as a Jeffersonian Republican. He made little mark in the General Assembly, however, until in 1815 his friend Thomas Jefferson tapped him to lead the legislative fight to charter and fund Central College, or what later became the University of Virginia. Cabell successfully argued both for the need of a state university and for its establishment near Charlottesville. After his retirement from the assembly, Cabell leveraged his interest in economic development into leadership of the James River and Kanawha Company, which sought to build a canal between Richmond and the Ohio River. The canal reached only as far as Buchanan, in Botetourt County, and Cabell resigned the company's presidency in 1846. He died at his plantation in Nelson County a decade later.
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 08:08:30 EST]]>
/Richmond_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 22 Mar 2016 09:31:03 EST <![CDATA[Richmond during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Richmond_During_the_Civil_War Richmond, Virginia, was the capital of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865). It also served as the capital of Virginia, although when the city was about to fall to Union armies in April 1865, the state government, including the governor and General Assembly, moved to Lynchburg for five days. Besides being the political home of the Confederacy, Richmond was a center of rail and industry, military hospitals, and prisoner-of-war camps and prisons, including Belle Isle and Libby Prison. It boasted a diversified economy that included grain milling and iron manufacturing, with the keystone of the local economy being the massive Tredegar ironworks. From the start of war, Confederate citizens flocked to the capital seeking safety and jobs, leading to periodic civil unrest, manifested most notably in the Bread Riot of April 1863. Because of its economic and political importance as well as its location near the United States capital, Richmond became the focus for most of the military campaigns in the war's Eastern Theater. In a sense, its success—especially in mobilizing, outfitting, and feeding the Confederate armies—predestined it to near-destruction in 1865. Just as ironic, that destruction was largely caused by Confederates, although images of the city's ruins have become iconic representations of the cost of war.
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 09:31:03 EST]]>
/Association_for_the_Preservation_of_Virginia_Antiquities Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:58:17 EST <![CDATA[Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Association_for_the_Preservation_of_Virginia_Antiquities Organized in 1889, the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities (APVA), currently known as APVA/Preservation Virginia, was the nation's first statewide historic preservation organization. Spearheaded by an elite mix of female antiquarians and their "gentlemen advisers," it became a sanctioned instrument of conservatives who strove to counter social and political changes after the American Civil War (1861–1865) by emphasizing southern history and tradition. The APVA enshrined old buildings, graveyards, and historical sites—many of which were forlorn, if not forgotten—and exhibited them as symbols of Virginia's identity. As the national preservation movement evolved, the APVA became less overtly political and now identifies itself as a professional organization dedicated to preserving and promoting the Commonwealth's heritage.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:58:17 EST]]>
/Dinwiddie_Robert_1692-1770 Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:48:41 EST <![CDATA[Dinwiddie, Robert (1692–1770)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dinwiddie_Robert_1692-1770 Robert Dinwiddie was a member of the governor's Council from 1742 to 1751 and then lieutenant governor of Virginia from 1751 to 1758. Born into a Scottish merchant family, Dinwiddie began his public career in Bermuda, where he worked as an Admiralty agent and collector of customs before earning a seat on the colony's governor's Council. In 1738, the Crown appointed Dinwiddie surveyor general for the southern part of America, and he lived in in Virginia from 1741 until 1745. He returned in 1751, this time as lieutenant governor and immediately shocked the colony by instituting a fee of one pistole for signing and sealing every patent conferring legal title to land. The House of Burgesses loudly objected and sent representatives to London. In 1754, the Crown found a compromise, upholding Dinwiddie's fee but only on patents of 100 acres or more. Controversy followed Dinwiddie into the French and Indian War (1754–1763). His policy of corporate and imperial advancement led to conflict with the French and the defeat of Virginia forces under George Washington at Fort Necessity in 1754. The politics of the resulting war made governing difficult for Dinwiddie, and he resigned in 1758, soon after defying a British order, handed down by Governor John Campbell, fourth earl of Loudoun, that put an embargo on all colonial exports. Dinwiddie returned to England and died there in 1770.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:48:41 EST]]>
/Flemings_L_R_d_1937 Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:26:19 EST <![CDATA[Flemings, L. R. (d. 1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Flemings_L_R_d_1937 L. R. Flemings was an African American justice of the peace in Lancaster County from about 1887 until 1937; records are not complete, but it is possible he served in office continuously during these years. Whatever the case, he likely was the longest-serving black public official in Virginia's history prior to the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Born free in that county sometime between 1857 and 1861, Flemings was a storekeeper when he first won election as justice of the peace. He served four-year terms in the majority-black county for at least thirty-two years despite widespread efforts in Virginia to disfranchise African American men, especially after passage of the Constitution of 1902. In 1912, Flemings was named registrar of vital statistics in Lancaster County, serving for more than a decade. He also served as a coroner, a member of the county grand jury, and a delegate to the Republican Party state convention in 1896. Flemings died in Lancaster County in 1937.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:26:19 EST]]>
/Fitzhugh_George_1806-1881 Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:22:49 EST <![CDATA[Fitzhugh, George (1806–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fitzhugh_George_1806-1881 George Fitzhugh was a proslavery writer best known for two books: Sociology for the South; or the Failure of Free Society (1854) and Cannibals All! or, Slaves Without Masters (1857). Born in Prince William County and raised in King George County, Fitzhugh studied law before marrying and establishing a practice in Caroline County. In the years before the American Civil War (1861–1865), Fitzhugh distinguished himself for his aggressive and provocative defenses of slavery. In Fitzhugh's writings, Virginia slaveholders presided over a society that was more free than in factory towns in the North and where enslaved African Americans were well treated and even better off enslaved. He argued for the benefits of slavery in general, regardless of the slave's skin color, although he also asserted the moral inferiority of black people. In addition to publishing book-length arguments, Fitzhugh traveled widely, including in the North, where he sometimes debated abolitionists. In order to pay for his travels and publishing, Fitzhugh, ironically, may have had to sell many of his slaves. Before the war he worked in Washington, D.C., briefly, during the war for the Confederate Treasury Department in Richmond, and after the war for the Freedmen's Bureau. He later moved to Kentucky and then Texas, where he died in 1881.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:22:49 EST]]>
/Burns_Anthony_1834-1862 Mon, 21 Mar 2016 09:26:59 EST <![CDATA[Burns, Anthony (1834–1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burns_Anthony_1834-1862 Anthony Burns was a fugitive slave from Virginia who, while living in Boston in 1854, became the principal in a famous court case brought in an effort to extradite him back to the South. Born in Stafford County, Burns was the property of the merchant Charles F. Suttle, who later hired him out to William Brent, of Falmouth. In 1854, Burns escaped slavery and traveled to Boston, where he wrote a letter back to one of his brothers. Intercepted by Suttle, the letter revealed Burns's whereabouts, and Suttle and Brent themselves traveled to Boston and claimed Burns under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. The subsequent rendition trial sparked the interest of antislavery activists, and an attempt at freeing Burns by force killed a federal marshal. Burns eventually lost his case and was sold to a man in North Carolina. Boston activists later purchased his freedom, however, and he attended school in Ohio and lectured on his experiences. He ended up in Canada, where he died in 1862 from health problems related to his post-trial confinement.
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 09:26:59 EST]]>
/Brent_George_ca_1640-by_1_September_1700 Thu, 10 Mar 2016 17:09:37 EST <![CDATA[Brent, George (ca. 1640–by 1700)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brent_George_ca_1640-by_1_September_1700 George Brent was a prominent Catholic who served as acting attorney general of Virginia. His family suffered during the English Civil Wars, and early in the 1660s Brent left for Maryland. By 1670 he had settled near relatives in Stafford County, Virginia, where he became a successful attorney, businessman, tobacco planter, and land speculator. Brent held public office despite the strictures against office holding by Catholics and was the colony's acting attorney general from 1686 until 1688, when he was elected to the House of Burgesses. After England's Glorious Revolution unleashed anti-Catholic sentiments in the colonies, Brent's public career came to an end. During the 1690s he served as an agent for the Northern Neck proprietors, granting himself and his friends large tracts of land. At the time of his death by September 1700, he owned more than 15,000 acres in Virginia.
Thu, 10 Mar 2016 17:09:37 EST]]>
/Lafayette_James_ca_1748-1830 Thu, 10 Mar 2016 16:57:07 EST <![CDATA[Lafayette, James (ca. 1748–1830)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lafayette_James_ca_1748-1830 James Lafayette was a spy during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Born a slave about 1748, he was a body servant for his owner, William Armistead, of New Kent County, in the spring of 1781. At the time, Armistead served as state commissary of military supplies, and his position allowed Lafayette—then known only by his first name—access to the front lines of war. Lafayette's race made it easy for him to pass between lines, and he began serving as a double agent, spying for the Americans while pretending to spy for the British. After the war, the marquis de Lafayette attested in writing to James Lafayette's service, and the former spy petitioned the General Assembly for his freedom, which was granted in 1787. Around this time he took the surname Lafayette. Late in 1818 Lafayette petitioned for and won a military pension. He lived on forty acres of land he purchased in New Kent County, traveling to Richmond twice a year to collect his pension. He reportedly greeted the marquis de Lafayette on the Frenchman's tour of Virginia in 1824. James Lafayette died in Baltimore in 1830.
Thu, 10 Mar 2016 16:57:07 EST]]>
/Clark_Adèle_1882-1983 Thu, 10 Mar 2016 11:31:57 EST <![CDATA[Clark, Adèle (1882–1983)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clark_Adèle_1882-1983 Adèle Clark was a founding member of the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia, the chair of the Virginia League of Women Voters (1921–1925, 1929–1944), the social director of women at the College of William and Mary (1926), a New Deal–era field worker, and an accomplished artist and arts advocate. A native of Alabama, Clark attended schools in Richmond and later studied art in New York. She taught art in Richmond and established a training studio, while also working as a political activist. In 1909, she helped to found the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia and when women won the right to vote in 1920, she worked to educate women voters and to influence Congress and the General Assembly on issues of special interest to women. During the Great Depression, she served as the state director of the Federal Art Project (1936–1942). In her later years, Clark spoke for the desegregation of public schools and against the poll tax. She opposed the proposed Equal Rights Amendment in 1973. Clark died in Richmond in 1983.
Thu, 10 Mar 2016 11:31:57 EST]]>
/Carter_Maybelle_1909-1978 Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:46:19 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Maybelle (1909–1978)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Maybelle_1909-1978 Maybelle Carter was a member of the Carter Family, a trio that helped to pioneer what became known as country music. Born in Scott County, in Southwest Virginia, she grew up playing music and learning traditional Appalachian songs and tunes. She also developed a distinctive style of guitar playing that combined rhythmic chords and thumb-plucked melody that was dubbed the "Carter lick." With her first cousin Sara Carter and Carter's husband, A. P. Carter, Maybelle Carter formed the Carter Family, recording for the first time at the Bristol Sessions of 1927. The group made nearly 300 records in a career that lasted until the early 1940s, and for several years they performed on ultrahigh-frequency border radio. These broadcasts could be heard across North America and helped make the group nationally famous. After the Carter Family disbanded in 1943, Maybelle Carter continued to perform with her three daughters, as Mother Maybelle and the Carter Sisters. She joined the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville, Tennessee, and later toured with Johnny Cash, her daughter June Carter's third husband. Later in life Carter continued to perform and appear on television and came to be known as the Mother of Country Music. She died in 1978.
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:46:19 EST]]>
/Carter_Sara_1898-1979 Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:42:29 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Sara (1898–1979)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Sara_1898-1979 Sara Carter was a member of the Carter Family, a trio that helped to pioneer what became known as country music. Born and raised in Southwest Virginia, Sara Dougherty sang and played the autoharp from an early age. In 1915, she married the salesman A. P. Carter, who sang bass and collected and arranged songs. With Maybelle Carter—Sara Carter's first cousin and the wife of A. P. Carter's brother—the couple formed the Carter Family, recording for the first time at the Bristol Sessions of 1927. The group made nearly 300 records in a career that lasted until the early 1940s, and for several years they performed on ultrahigh-frequency border radio. These broadcasts could be heard across North America and helped make the group nationally famous. With the Carter Family's success, Sara Carter's marriage became strained. In 1933 she and A. P. Carter separated; three years later they divorced but continued to perform together. In 1941, she remarried and the next year moved to California, leaving her three children in Virginia with A. P. Carter. Sara Carter spent the rest of her life in California, reuniting briefly with her former husband in the 1950s to perform with two of their children. In 1966 she recorded an album with Maybelle Carter. Sara Carter died in 1979 and was buried near her first husband in Virginia.
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:42:29 EST]]>
/Carter_A_P_1891-1960 Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:39:55 EST <![CDATA[Carter, A. P. (1891–1960)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_A_P_1891-1960 A. P. Carter was a song collector and member of the Carter Family, a trio that helped to pioneer what became known as country music. Born in Scott County, in Southwest Virginia, Carter worked as a carpenter and traveling salesman before marrying Sara Dougherty in 1915. Carter's true passion had always been music, and with his new wife, who sang and played the autoharp, he began to perform and audition to make recordings. With Maybelle Carter—Sara Carter's first cousin and the wife of A. P. Carter's brother—the couple formed the Carter Family, recording for the first time at the Bristol Sessions of 1927. The group made nearly 300 records in a career that lasted until the early 1940s, and for several years they performed on ultrahigh-frequency border radio. These broadcasts could be heard across North America and helped make the group nationally famous. Many of the songs the Carter Family performed had been collected and arranged by A. P. Carter, who often spent weeks at a time combing the Virginia countryside for material, absences that, along with the fame, took a toll on his marriage. He and Sara Carter divorced in 1936 but continued to record together until 1941. The next year she moved to California, leaving behind their three children. With the Carter Family dissolved, A. P. Carter returned to Scott County, where he opened a general store, reuniting briefly with his former wife in the 1950s to perform with two of their children. Carter died in 1960 and was buried near Sara Carter in Virginia.
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:39:55 EST]]>
/Blackwell_James_Heyward_ca_1864-1931 Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:37:03 EST <![CDATA[Blackwell, James H. (ca. 1864–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blackwell_James_Heyward_ca_1864-1931 James H. Blackwell served as a principal of and helped develop the high school curriculum for Manchester's first African American school. Blackwell was raised in the city (later annexed by Richmond) and worked under the tutelage of Anthony Binga, a prominent pastor. He was one of three teachers selected when Binga was named principal of the school, and Blackwell ultimately succeeded his mentor. After Richmond absorbed Manchester in 1910, city rules stipulated that no African American could serve as principal. Blackwell also helped create two financial service companies, though they met with limited success. He died in 1931. In 1951 the school where he taught was named for him, and in turn the institution gave its name to the Richmond neighborhood of Blackwell.
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:37:03 EST]]>
/Bonnycastle_Charles_1796-1840 Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:33:31 EST <![CDATA[Bonnycastle, Charles (1796–1840)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bonnycastle_Charles_1796-1840 Charles Bonnycastle was a professor of natural philosophy and mathematics at the University of Virginia from 1825 until his death in 1840. Born in England, Bonnycastle was the son of a mathematics professor at the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. Bonnycastle himself attended the academy and contributed to his father's noted textbook. In 1824 he accepted an offer to join the faculty at the newly established University of Virginia, teaching natural philosophy and later mathematics and engineering. Bonnycastle proved an effective teacher, using updated pedagogy designed to engage beginning students and, in 1834, publishing his own textbook, Inductive Geometry. He died in 1840.
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:33:31 EST]]>
/Savage_Thomas_ca_1595-before_September_1633 Mon, 29 Feb 2016 11:05:43 EST <![CDATA[Savage, Thomas (ca. 1595–before September 1633)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Savage_Thomas_ca_1595-before_September_1633 Thomas Savage (sometimes spelled Salvage or Savadge) was an English interpreter of Indian languages. At age thirteen, he arrived at Jamestown in 1608 to work as a laborer, but was instead given by Captain Christopher Newport to Powhatan, the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco, a political alliance of twenty-eight to thirty-two Algonquian-speaking Virginia Indian groups. Savage remained with the Indians for almost three years, during which time he learned their language and became familiar with their customs. According to contemporary accounts, Savage was well treated and well liked by Powhatan, who often sent the boy to Jamestown to deliver messages to the English. After the outbreak of the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614), however, Savage feared for his safety among the Indians, and in 1610 he escaped to Jamestown. He remained in Virginia, where he established a successful career as an interpreter and settled on the Eastern Shore. He died in or before September 1633.
Mon, 29 Feb 2016 11:05:43 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Architecture Thu, 25 Feb 2016 16:31:40 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and Architecture]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Architecture Thomas Jefferson was a passionate student of architecture whose designs are among the most influential in the early history of the United States. As a student at the College of William and Mary he purchased his first book on the subject and later assembled one of the largest libraries on architecture in America. He was particularly influenced by the classical style of Andrea Palladio, who emphasized symmetry, proportion, and the use of columns. These principles then came to define the architecture of the early United States, first in Richmond, with Jefferson's design of the State Capitol, and then in Washington, D.C., where he influenced decisions on the design of the U.S. Capitol and the White House. Jefferson is perhaps best known for his homes—Monticello, in Albemarle County, and Poplar Forest, in Bedford County—which became laboratories for Jefferson's design interests and his many influences. Monticello, in particular, brought together Jefferson's obsessions with classical forms and his admiration for contemporary France. During his retirement, Jefferson established the University of Virginia, creating a distinctive, U-shaped design of connected pavilions and a domed Rotunda circling a long, narrow green space. Along with Monticello, the university is considered to be one of the highlights of American architecture and cemented Jefferson's legacy as a designer.
Thu, 25 Feb 2016 16:31:40 EST]]>
/Barter_Theatre Thu, 25 Feb 2016 16:23:31 EST <![CDATA[Barter Theatre]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barter_Theatre The Barter Theatre, located in the Blue Ridge highlands of Abingdon, Virginia, was founded by Robert Porterfield in 1933 and designated the State Theater of Virginia in 1946. It is the longest-running professional Equity theater in the nation. (The Actors' Equity Association is a live-theater labor union.) Opening its doors in the midst of the Great Depression, Barter earned its name by allowing patrons to pay the admission price with produce, dairy products, or livestock. The shows were sometimes forced to compete with the noise that accompanied bartered livestock. On occasion, the theater also paid playwrights, such as Tennessee Williams and Thornton Wilder, Virginia hams for their works rather than standard royalties. George Bernard Shaw, a vegetarian, demanded to be paid in spinach. The theater expanded in 1961, opening a second stage across the street, and has earned a national reputation through touring companies and its association with many prominent and influential actors, including Gregory Peck, Ernest Borgnine, and Kevin Spacey. The Barter Theatre won a Tony Award in 1948 for Best Regional Theater.
Thu, 25 Feb 2016 16:23:31 EST]]>
/Brodnax_William_H_ca_1786-1834 Thu, 25 Feb 2016 15:53:08 EST <![CDATA[Brodnax, William H. (ca. 1786–1834)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brodnax_William_H_ca_1786-1834 William H. Brodnax was a member of the House of Delegates (1818–1819, 1830–1833) and of the Virginia constitutional convention of 1829. A native of Brunswick County, he studied and then practiced law in Petersburg and lived on a 1,600-acre plantation in Dinwiddie County. During the constitutional convention, he supported policies that extended white male suffrage while retaining most political advantages enjoyed by eastern Virginians over their western counterparts. As a brigadier general of the state militia, he led the welcoming escort of the marquis de Lafayette in 1824 and, in 1831, commanded the forces that put down Nat Turner's Rebellion. During the debate on slavery in the ensuing session of the General Assembly, he chaired a select committee and proposed a plan to colonize the state's free and enslaved African Americans. A member of the Whig Party and a supporter of states' rights, he died of cholera in 1834.
Thu, 25 Feb 2016 15:53:08 EST]]>
/Ely_Mound_Archaeological_Site Mon, 22 Feb 2016 13:50:05 EST <![CDATA[Ely Mound Archaeological Site]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ely_Mound_Archaeological_Site Mon, 22 Feb 2016 13:50:05 EST]]> /Cash_June_Carter_1929-2003 Thu, 18 Feb 2016 17:09:39 EST <![CDATA[Cash, June Carter (1929–2003)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cash_June_Carter_1929-2003 June Carter Cash was a country and folk singer and the wife of Johnny Cash. Born in southwestern Virginia, she was the daughter of Maybelle Carter, who with her first cousin Sara Carter and Carter's husband, A. P. Carter, performed with the pioneering country group the Carter Family. June Carter and her two sisters began singing with the group on the radio in 1939 and later as part of Mother Maybelle and the Carter Sisters. Carter often supplemented her music with large doses of humor, drawing on broad caricatures of her rural upbringing. Her satirical version of "Baby, It's Cold Outside," recorded in 1949 with the duo Homer and Jethro, reached No. 9 on the country chart. The next year Carter joined the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville, Tennessee, and late in 1961, along with her family, accompanied the country star Johnny Cash on tour. Although both were married, Cash and Carter soon became romantically linked and were married in 1968. They won two Grammy Awards for their performances together: for "Jackson" in 1968 and "If I Were a Carpenter" in 1970. Both suffered from drug addiction, and while their marriage and careers suffered at times, they remained together. In 2000, Carter Cash won a Grammy Award for her second solo album, Press On. She died in May 2003 and her husband followed in September of that year.
Thu, 18 Feb 2016 17:09:39 EST]]>
/Cottrell_Sally_d_1875 Wed, 10 Feb 2016 13:44:56 EST <![CDATA[Cole, Sally Cottrell (d. 1875)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cottrell_Sally_d_1875 Sally Cottrell was an enslaved maid and seamstress. Born sometime around 1800, she served as a maid to Ellen Wayles Randolph at Monticello from 1809 until 1824, after which Randolph married and moved to Boston. Cottrell was then hired out to a University of Virginia professor, who later purchased her with the intention of freeing her. It is unclear whether Cottrell was ever officially freed, but by early 1828 she was working on her own as a seamstress. She was baptized in Charlottesville in 1841, married in 1846, and died in 1875. She had no children.
Wed, 10 Feb 2016 13:44:56 EST]]>
/Emmet_John_Patten_1796-1842 Thu, 04 Feb 2016 16:14:00 EST <![CDATA[Emmet, John Patten (1796–1842)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Emmet_John_Patten_1796-1842 John Patten Emmet was a chemistry professor at the University of Virginia from 1825 until his death in 1842. Born in Ireland, he was the nephew of the Irish nationalist Robert Emmet. He came to the United States with his family in 1805 and attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. After studying medicine and developing an interest in chemistry, Emmet accepted a faculty position at the University of Virginia as chair of the School of Natural History. He appeared to thrive in Charlottesville, even in the midst of student unrest that forced a pair of colleagues to resign, and purchased land on which he built a house, Morea, of his own design. There he planted gardens and experimented with silkworm cultivation. Emmet's health had always been frail, however, dating back to childhood bouts with smallpox, measles, and whooping cough. In 1842, ill health forced him to take a leave of absence from which he never returned. He died that year at the New York home of one of his brothers.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 16:14:00 EST]]>
/George_I_1660-1727 Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:41:12 EST <![CDATA[George I (1660–1727)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_I_1660-1727 George I was king of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 until his death in 1727, and of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (also known as Hanover, after its capital), in present-day northern Germany, from 1698 until his death. The first of three Hanoverian monarchs in Britain, George I gained the throne after several royal deaths and a newly established accession order intended to secure a Protestant monarchy. He never fully learned to speak English and instead conducted government affairs mostly in French and his native German. His frequent trips to Hanover, as well as his controversial treatment of his ex-wife, caused many to scorn the foreign king. In the colonies, however, his reign was more applauded. Although the development of the British constitution by 1714 ensured that George I had little direct involvement in Virginia affairs, his almost thirteen years on the throne came during several defining developments in the colony's history: the transformation from indentured servitude to slavery as the primary source of plantation labor, the shift from sweet-scented to Oronoco tobacco as the dominant tobacco crop, and the beginning of what historians have called the "golden age" of Virginia politics. All of these developments can be attributed to the broader policies and people George I had at least a modest role in promoting. Historians often cite the peaceful royal succession following his sudden death in 1727 as his most significant legacy.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:41:12 EST]]>
/Breckinridge_James_1763-1833 Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:33:36 EST <![CDATA[Breckinridge, James (1763–1833)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Breckinridge_James_1763-1833 James Breckinridge was member of the House of Delegates (1789–1791, 1796–1802, 1806–1808, 1819–1821, 1823–1824), the U.S. House of Representatives (1809–1817), and the board of visitors of the University of Virginia (1819–1833). Born near what is now Fincastle in what was then southern Augusta County, Breckinridge came from a powerful family. (His brother John Breckinridge served in the U.S. Senate and as U.S. attorney general.) After serving during the Revolutionary War (1775–1783), Breckinridge studied law under George Wythe, then opened a practice in Fincastle and began his long political career. He served several terms in the House of Delegates before being elected to Congress as a Federalist in 1809. Although he opposed war with Britain in 1812 he led the militia as a brigadier general, helping to shore up defenses around Washington, D.C., and Baltimore. Breckinridge served four terms in the House of Representatives and then returned to the House of Delegates in 1819. That same year he was appointed to the board of visitors of the newly established University of Virginia, serving until his death. Breckinridge lived on a large farm, Grove Hill, in Botetourt County, but also speculated in land and had a diverse set of business interests. He died at Grove Hill in 1833.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:33:36 EST]]>
/Cabell_J_L_1813-1889 Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:27:10 EST <![CDATA[Cabell, J. L. (1813–1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cabell_J_L_1813-1889 J. L. Cabell was a medical educator and public health advocate. Likely born in Nelson County, he attended the University of Virginia and received his medical degree from the University of Maryland in Baltimore. In 1837, he became a professor of anatomy and surgery at the University of Virginia, teaching for more than fifty years, until 1889. In 1859, Cabell published a treatise arguing that all people, even those of supposedly inferior races, descended from a single creation. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Cabell served as the surgeon in charge of the Confederate military hospitals in Charlottesville and Danville. After the war, he helped to found the Medical Society of Virginia and served as its president from 1876 to 1877. He was the first president of the Virginia State Board of Health, and in 1879 became president of the new National Board of Health. Cabell died in 1889.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:27:10 EST]]>
/Slave_Clothing_and_Adornment_in_Virginia Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:22:03 EST <![CDATA[Slave Clothing and Adornment in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Clothing_and_Adornment_in_Virginia Slave clothing and adornment varied across time and across Virginia. In West Africa, where many American slaves originated, clothing was minimal, and even that was generally stripped from newly enslaved people just prior to the Middle Passage. In Virginia, slaves were outfitted with European clothing they often found to be constricting and uncomfortable. The fabrics used for construction tended to be inferior, with their owners using whatever was most cost-effective. Homespun Virginia cloth and imported osnaburg fabric (made from flax and hemp) were common in the eighteenth century. By the nineteenth century, with the rise of cotton production, blends such as jean cloth became more common and allowed owners to provide slaves clothing that was untailored and ready-made. The most common practice was to distribute clothes in twice-a-year allotments, with liveried (uniformed) and domestic slaves receiving higher-quality clothing than field slaves, who wore the plainest and coarsest clothing. Children wore simple gowns. Boys transitioned to breeches, or short pants, and then to long pants and girls wore adult dresses when they began to menstruate. Plain leather shoes and sometimes hats were also included in allotments, while women, reflecting West African traditions, sometimes wore cloth head wraps. To aid in running away, some slaves stole better clothes while others saved money and purchased or, in some instances, earned better attire.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:22:03 EST]]>
/Jennings_Paul_1799-1874 Wed, 03 Feb 2016 08:16:04 EST <![CDATA[Jennings, Paul (1799–1874)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jennings_Paul_1799-1874 Paul Jennings is the author of A Colored Man's Reminiscences of James Madison (1865), a memoir about his service as an enslaved footman in the White House. Born at the Madison plantation, Montpelier, Jennings lived in the president's house during James Madison's two terms as president and, in his narrative, recounts his role in rescuing Gilbert Stuart's 1796 portrait of George Washington before the arrival of British soldiers during the War of 1812. His version of these events gives Dolley Madison a less prominent role than most subsequent histories. Jennings served James Madison until the former president's death in 1836, after which Jennings lived at Dolley Madison's in Washington, D.C. For a time he worked in the White House again, for President James K. Polk. Madison sold Jennings in 1846, and six months later, Senator Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, purchased and freed Jennings, who then went to work for Webster. In 1848, Jennings was involved in the Pearl incident, a plot to smuggle seventy-seven slaves to freedom aboard the schooner Pearl. The plot was betrayed and the slaves captured, but the authorities never learned of Jennings's involvement. In January 1863, while working for the federal Department of the Interior, Jennings published his memoir in a magazine with the help of John Brooks Russell, a clerk in his office. The Reminiscences were privately published in book form in 1865. Jennings married three times and fathered five children. He died at his home in Washington, D.C., in 1874.
Wed, 03 Feb 2016 08:16:04 EST]]>
/New_Market_Battle_of Tue, 02 Feb 2016 14:13:30 EST <![CDATA[New Market, Battle of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/New_Market_Battle_of Tue, 02 Feb 2016 14:13:30 EST]]> /University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_July_5-6_1865 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:14:31 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Board of Visitors Minutes (July 5–6, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_July_5-6_1865 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:14:31 EST]]> /Central_College_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_October_7_1817 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:12:44 EST <![CDATA[Central College Board of Visitors Minutes (October 7, 1817)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Central_College_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_October_7_1817 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:12:44 EST]]> /University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_October_4-5_1824 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:11:23 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Board of Visitors Minutes (October 4–5, 1824)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_October_4-5_1824 Tue, 02 Feb 2016 11:11:23 EST]]> /Slavery_at_the_University_of_Virginia Tue, 02 Feb 2016 10:55:46 EST <![CDATA[Slavery at the University of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slavery_at_the_University_of_Virginia The University of Virginia utilized the labor of enslaved African Americans from the earliest days of its construction, in 1817, until the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). Most of the university's first enslaved laborers were rented from local landowners and worked alongside whites and free blacks in performing all the tasks associated with building what the school's founder, Thomas Jefferson, called the Academical Village. In March 1825, the first students arrived and African Americans transitioned to working in the pavilions, hotels, and the Rotunda; maintaining classrooms, laboratories, and the library; ringing the bell; and serving the daily needs of students and faculty. While faculty were allowed to bring personal slaves on Grounds, as the university campus was called, students were not—a reflection, perhaps, of Jefferson's view that slavery raised the young in habits of tyranny. Students nevertheless tended to treat the university's slaves poorly, at times even attacking them. The university's response to such behavior was inconsistent. Although the men who founded the university were ambivalent about slavery, over time students and faculty alike tended to take a harder line in favor of the institution. When the slaves were freed in 1865, the faculty was not, as a group, inclined to help them. The university hired many of its former slaves to work their previous jobs but never articulated a formal policy regarding the newly freed men and women.
Tue, 02 Feb 2016 10:55:46 EST]]>
/Munford_Mary-Cooke_Branch_1865-1938 Fri, 29 Jan 2016 10:41:20 EST <![CDATA[Munford, Mary-Cooke Branch (1865–1938)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Munford_Mary-Cooke_Branch_1865-1938 Mary-Cooke Branch Munford was an advocate of woman suffrage, interracial cooperation, education, health, and labor reforms. Armed with a pedigree that connected her to some of the wealthiest families of Virginia, she threw herself into such "unfeminine" pursuits as education reform and civil rights. She helped to found the Richmond Education Association, was the first woman to serve on the city's school board, was a member of the University of Virginia's board of visitors, and was the first woman to serve on the College of William and Mary's board of visitors. Munford also served on the board of the National Urban League, was a founding member of the Virginia Inter-Racial League, and became a trustee at the historically black Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee.
Fri, 29 Jan 2016 10:41:20 EST]]>
/Hamor_Ralph_bap_1589-by_October_11_1626 Thu, 28 Jan 2016 16:40:19 EST <![CDATA[Hamor, Ralph (bap. 1589–by October 11, 1626)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hamor_Ralph_bap_1589-by_October_11_1626 Ralph Hamor was a secretary of the Virginia colony, member of the governor's Council, and author of A True Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia (1615). Baptized Raphe Hamor, he used that given name his entire life, although later references to him most often used a modernized spelling. Hamor was educated at Oxford and possibly Cambridge, and soon became involved in the Virginia Company of London, sailing to the colony in 1609. He served as its secretary until June 1614, when he likely returned to London. There he wrote A True Discourse, which offered the first published account of the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, as well as Rolfe's cultivation of tobacco, the martial administration of Sir Thomas Dale, and the establishment of the city of Henrico. As such, Hamor's book became an essential source for understanding Virginia, both then and now. He returned to Virginia in 1617 and prospered, joining the governor's Council in 1621, surviving the Indian attacks of 1622, and subsequently participating in the sometimes violent interactions with Virginia Indians that constituted the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632). He was tangentially involved in some of the controversy that surrounded the demise of the Virginia Company and remained on the Council until his death in 1626.
Thu, 28 Jan 2016 16:40:19 EST]]>
/AN_ACT_to_restrict_the_jurisdiction_of_the_Court_of_Claims_July_4_1864 Wed, 27 Jan 2016 09:23:46 EST <![CDATA[AN ACT to restrict the jurisdiction of the Court of Claims (July 4, 1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/AN_ACT_to_restrict_the_jurisdiction_of_the_Court_of_Claims_July_4_1864 Wed, 27 Jan 2016 09:23:46 EST]]> /Dillard_James_Hardy_1856-1940 Wed, 20 Jan 2016 09:54:09 EST <![CDATA[Dillard, J. H. (1856–1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dillard_James_Hardy_1856-1940 J. H. Dillard was an educator and reformer who, early in the twentieth century, became the best-known and most-active white proponents of improved educational opportunities for African Americans in the South. Born either in Southampton County or Nansemond County, he studied law before becoming a teacher. In 1894, he became a dean at Tulane University, in New Orleans. In 1908, he was elected president of the board of the Anna T. Jeanes Foundation, established to help the education of African Americans in the South by paying teacher salaries and investing in buildings and equipment. He returned to Virginia in 1913, working for the Jeanes Fund and as the president of the John F. Slater Fund, which had a similar mission, until he resigned both positions in 1931. By this time, the South had 305 so-called Jeanes teachers in fourteen states, with Virginia claiming more teachers than any other state. Dillard engaged in other work on behalf of interracial cooperation, establishing the University Commission on Southern Race Questions in 1912. In 1930, two historically black universities in New Orleans combined to form Dillard University, named in his honor. Dillard died at his home in Charlottesville in 1940.
Wed, 20 Jan 2016 09:54:09 EST]]>
/Cowan_George_R_1837-1904 Tue, 12 Jan 2016 17:24:16 EST <![CDATA[Cowan, George R. (1837–1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cowan_George_R_1837-1904 George R. Cowan represented Russell and Buchanan counties at the Convention of 1867–1868. The son of a General Assembly member, Cowan served with Confederate forces during the American Civil War (1861–1865) until wounds led to an 1862 furlough. On the first day of 1863 he was elected Russell County's clerk and held the position until 1869. In 1867 he earned one of three spots as a delegate for the convention that would write a new state constitution. Described as "unreconstructed," he voted with the Conservatives on key issues, such as opposing the racial integration of public schools and challenging efforts to disfranchise white Virginians who had supported secession or the Confederacy. Cowan did not vote to adopt the new constitution, but along with other Conservatives did sign a public address protesting most of its provisions. By 1894 he had moved to the Oklahoma Territory and by 1904 was living in Colorado Springs, Colorado, where he died.
Tue, 12 Jan 2016 17:24:16 EST]]>
/Cedar_Mountain_Battle_of Tue, 12 Jan 2016 17:17:39 EST <![CDATA[Cedar Mountain, Battle of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cedar_Mountain_Battle_of Tue, 12 Jan 2016 17:17:39 EST]]> /Davis_Noah_1804-1867 Tue, 12 Jan 2016 11:47:08 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Noah (1804–1867)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Noah_1804-1867 Noah Davis was a Baptist minister and author of an emancipation narrative, A Narrative of the Life of Rev. Noah Davis, a Colored Man, published in 1859. Born into slavery in Madison County, Davis learned farming and carpentry and joined the Baptist church in Fredericksburg, which elected him a deacon. In 1847, white Baptists paid for Davis's freedom (he had already raised some of the money) and hired him as a missionary to African Americans in Baltimore. The next year he established the Second Colored Baptist Church in that city and over the next decade raised the money to free his family, who were in danger of being sold. His memoir was published in part to earn funds for that effort. In 1863, Davis attended the American Baptist Missionary Convention in Washington, D.C., and there met with President Abraham Lincoln, requesting he be allowed to preach to African American troops. In 1866, his church united with another, and Davis died the next year, in Baltimore.
Tue, 12 Jan 2016 11:47:08 EST]]>
/Bigelow_v_Forrest_December_1869 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:55:31 EST <![CDATA[Bigelow v. Forrest (December 1869)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bigelow_v_Forrest_December_1869 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:55:31 EST]]> /McVeigh_v_United_States_1871 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:54:29 EST <![CDATA[McVeigh v. United States (1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/McVeigh_v_United_States_1871 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:54:29 EST]]> /Speech_by_John_C_Underwood_January_16_1868 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:51:04 EST <![CDATA[Speech by John C. Underwood (January 16, 1868)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_John_C_Underwood_January_16_1868 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:51:04 EST]]> /Underwood_v_McVeigh_April_23_1873 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:47:02 EST <![CDATA[Underwood v. McVeigh (April 23, 1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Underwood_v_McVeigh_April_23_1873 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:47:02 EST]]> /Letter_from_John_C_Underwood_in_the_New_York_Times_January_6_1857 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:45:59 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John C. Underwood in the New York Times (January 6, 1857)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_C_Underwood_in_the_New_York_Times_January_6_1857 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:45:59 EST]]> /_Standing_Interrogatories_Southern_Claims_Commission_1874 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 11:34:26 EST <![CDATA["Standing Interrogatories," Southern Claims Commission (1874)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Standing_Interrogatories_Southern_Claims_Commission_1874 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 11:34:26 EST]]> /Depositions_for_the_Claim_of_William_James_March_20_1872 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 11:30:49 EST <![CDATA[Depositions for the Claim of William James (March 20, 1872)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Depositions_for_the_Claim_of_William_James_March_20_1872 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 11:30:49 EST]]> /Depositions_for_the_Claim_of_Benjamin_Summers_February_6_1872 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 11:29:00 EST <![CDATA[Depositions for the Claim of Benjamin Summers (February 6, 1872)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Depositions_for_the_Claim_of_Benjamin_Summers_February_6_1872 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 11:29:00 EST]]> /Bowser_Mary_Richards_fl_1846-1867 Fri, 08 Jan 2016 17:33:03 EST <![CDATA[Bowser, Mary Richards (fl. 1846–1867)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowser_Mary_Richards_fl_1846-1867 Fri, 08 Jan 2016 17:33:03 EST]]> /Richmond_During_the_Colonial_Period Fri, 08 Jan 2016 17:31:16 EST <![CDATA[Richmond during the Colonial Period]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Richmond_During_the_Colonial_Period Richmond was the most prominent of the towns that emerged at the fall line of the James River during Virginia's colonial period. As early as 1608, the English settlers eyed a community near the seven-mile-long series of rapids that divided the head of navigation at the river's downstream end and the calm stretch of water upriver from it. The area provided a series of strategic advantages: as a port, as a location for mills, and as a transitional territory between the Tidewater-based Powhatan Indians and the Monacan Indians of the Piedmont. The English attempted to settle there with limited success in the first half of the seventeenth century, but the establishment of Fort Charles after 1644 and the end of the Third Anglo-Powhatan War (1644–1646) brought increased English settlement. In 1679 the General Assembly expanded William Byrd's landholdings around the falls, hoping to stabilize the area further. Within a few years Byrd transformed the location into an international trading center. Byrd's son of the same name established the town of Richmond on the north side of the James River in 1733; the General Assembly formally recognized the town in 1742. Benefitting from its prime location and strengthened by nearby communities such as Westham on the west side of the falls and Rocky Ridge across the river, Richmond served as a key port for Virginia's interior and emerged as an industrial location by the advent of the American Revolution (1775–1783).
Fri, 08 Jan 2016 17:31:16 EST]]>
/An_Act_for_raising_levies_and_recruits_to_serve_in_the_present_expedition_against_the_French_on_the_Ohio_October_1754 Thu, 07 Jan 2016 13:12:34 EST <![CDATA[An Act for raising levies and recruits to serve in the present expedition against the French, on the Ohio (October 1754)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_raising_levies_and_recruits_to_serve_in_the_present_expedition_against_the_French_on_the_Ohio_October_1754 Thu, 07 Jan 2016 13:12:34 EST]]> /Buckland_William_1734-by_December_15_1774 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 15:26:17 EST <![CDATA[Buckland, William (1734–by December 15, 1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Buckland_William_1734-by_December_15_1774 William Buckland was a builder and architect best known for his work on George Mason's Gunston Hall, in Fairfax County. Born in England, Buckland trained as a joiner and carpenter before coming to Virginia as the indentured servant of Thomson Mason in 1755. He worked on the interior detailing of Gunston Hall for the next four years. Buckland moved to Richmond County in 1761, where he purchased a farm and likely continued to work as a builder, although the specifics of his work have largely been lost. Mentions of Buckland in the Carter and Tayloe papers suggest he may have contributed design and construction to Sabine Hall, home of Landon Carter, and Mount Airy, home of John Tayloe II. In 1771, Buckland moved to Annapolis, Maryland, and there designed the Hammond-Harwood House and the courthouse in Caroline County. He died in 1774.
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 15:26:17 EST]]>
/An_Act_for_better_regulating_and_training_the_Militia_August_1755 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:32:27 EST <![CDATA[An Act for better regulating and training the Militia (August 1755)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_better_regulating_and_training_the_Militia_August_1755 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:32:27 EST]]> /An_act_for_regulating_and_disciplining_the_Militia_May_5_1777 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:28:31 EST <![CDATA[An act for regulating and disciplining the Militia (May 5, 1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_regulating_and_disciplining_the_Militia_May_5_1777 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:28:31 EST]]> /Proclamation_412_Calling_Forth_Volunteers_to_Serve_in_the_War_with_Spain_April_23_1898 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:25:37 EST <![CDATA[Proclamation 412: Calling Forth Volunteers to Serve in the War with Spain (April 23, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Proclamation_412_Calling_Forth_Volunteers_to_Serve_in_the_War_with_Spain_April_23_1898 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:25:37 EST]]> /Proclamation_415_Calling_Forth_Additional_Volunteers_to_Serve_in_the_War_with_Spain_May_25_1898 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:23:45 EST <![CDATA[Proclamation 415: Calling Forth Additional Volunteers to Serve in the War with Spain (May 25, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Proclamation_415_Calling_Forth_Additional_Volunteers_to_Serve_in_the_War_with_Spain_May_25_1898 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:23:45 EST]]> /_Hard_Times_in_the_Sixth_Virginia_RichmondPlanet_December_24_1898 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:18:39 EST <![CDATA["Hard Times in the Sixth Virginia," Richmond Planet (December 24, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Hard_Times_in_the_Sixth_Virginia_RichmondPlanet_December_24_1898 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:18:39 EST]]> /Byrd_William_1674-1744 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 09:22:29 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, William (1674–1744)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_William_1674-1744 William Byrd, sometimes referred to as William Byrd II of Westover to distinguish him from relatives of the same name, was a planter, a surveyor, a member of the governor's Council (1709–1744), and a man of letters. Born in Virginia, Byrd was educated and practiced law in England. He returned to Virginia in 1705, after the death of his father. Shortly afterward he was appointed to the governor's Council, and in the 1720s he served as the London agent of the House of Burgesses. He helped survey the boundary between Virginia and North Carolina and established the town of Richmond on the north side of the James River. He was also a prolific writer, and is perhaps best known today for his diaries and the manuscript narratives of his surveying, both of which are frequently anthologized in textbooks of American literature. Byrd typified both the values of British colonial gentry and the ethos of an emerging American identity invested in the improvement of the self and of the colonial commonwealth.
Wed, 06 Jan 2016 09:22:29 EST]]>
/_Negro_Officers_Richmond_Dispatch_June_5_1898 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 15:48:42 EST <![CDATA["Negro Officers," Richmond Dispatch (June 5, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Negro_Officers_Richmond_Dispatch_June_5_1898 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 15:48:42 EST]]> /_At_Work_for_the_Prizes_Washington_Post_May_27_1887 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 15:40:38 EST <![CDATA["At Work for the Prizes," Washington Post (May 27, 1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_At_Work_for_the_Prizes_Washington_Post_May_27_1887 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 15:40:38 EST]]> /Resolution_of_the_U_S_House_of_Representatives_January_30_1866 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 14:58:23 EST <![CDATA[Resolution of the U.S. House of Representatives (January 30, 1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Resolution_of_the_U_S_House_of_Representatives_January_30_1866 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 14:58:23 EST]]> /_Loyal_War_Claims_New_York_Times_February_3_1879 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 14:55:06 EST <![CDATA["'Loyal' War Claims," New York Times (February 3, 1879)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Loyal_War_Claims_New_York_Times_February_3_1879 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 14:55:06 EST]]> /Southern_Claims_Commission_in_Virginia_The Fri, 18 Dec 2015 09:34:32 EST <![CDATA[Southern Claims Commission in Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Southern_Claims_Commission_in_Virginia_The The Southern Claims Commission was created by Congress on March 3, 1871, to compensate southern Unionists for property appropriated by the Union army during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Although claims for reimbursement had been made since early in the war, many in Congress had resisted authorizing their payment. They feared fraud and dismissed the sincerity of Unionism in the South. Once former Confederate states began to be readmitted to the Union, however, pressure mounted and the law passed. The act required the president to appoint three commissioners to "receive, examine, and consider the justice and validity" of claims for "stores and supplies" taken by the Union army in the Confederate states. The commissioners reported their decisions on each claim to Congress for approval and appropriation. Because the Union presence was so extensive in the state, Virginians submitted 3,197 claims, the second largest number after Tennessee. The claims from Virginia suggest the wide diversity of Unionism in the state during the war. White men often expressed their loyalty by opposing secession, while African Americans sought freedom from slavery and women worked within their traditional gender roles to assist the Union war effort. Over time, the Southern Claims Commission lost support and was seen as divisive. It finished its work in 1880.
Fri, 18 Dec 2015 09:34:32 EST]]>
/Ex_Parte_Virginia_1880 Fri, 18 Dec 2015 09:10:43 EST <![CDATA[Ex Parte Virginia (1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ex_Parte_Virginia_1880 In Ex Parte Virginia, decided on March 1, 1880, the U.S. Supreme Court confirmed congressional authority to enforce African Americans' rights to serve on juries in state courts. The case began when a Pittsylvania County judge named James D. Coles was indicted in a U.S. district court for violating the federal Civil Rights Act of 1875 by excluding black men from juries. Ex Parte Virginia was handed down on the same day as two other important decisions: Strauder v. West Virginia, which declared that states could not limit jury service to white men, and Virginia v. Rives, which prohibited federal courts from claiming jurisdiction over a state case when the state court excluded African Americans from the jury. In Ex Parte Virginia, the Supreme Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which guarantees citizens equal protection under the law, authorized Congress to require that states not exclude African Americans from juries. In these three related cases, the Supreme Court broadly interpreted the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments and declared that their purpose was to prohibit states from limiting the civil rights of African American citizens or treating them in a different or inferior manner from white citizens. Following the ruling, many state judges found other means to exclude African Americans from jury service.
Fri, 18 Dec 2015 09:10:43 EST]]>
/Methodists_in_Early_Virginia Thu, 17 Dec 2015 16:13:39 EST <![CDATA[Methodists in Early Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Methodists_in_Early_Virginia Methodists had only a small presence in Virginia at the beginning of the American Revolution (1775–1783), but by the time of the American Civil War (1861–1865) they had become, along with the Baptists, one of the state's dominant denominations. Organized at the University of Oxford in the 1730s by John Wesley and a group of fellow students, Methodism came to Virginia in the mid-1700s. Robert Williams arrived in the colony in 1772 and soon formed Virginia's first Methodist circuit. The Brunswick Circuit, as it was called, hosted major revivals in 1775–1776, a time in which the colony's Methodist population almost doubled. Following John Wesley's lead, many Methodists were antislavery and, during the Revolution, loyal to the British government. In 1784, the group formed its own national church, the American Methodist Episcopal Church, and a second major revival occurred in Virginia from 1785 until 1788. Thousands of converts were won over by the promise of forgiveness of sins and a style of worship that emphasized trances, dreams, visions, and bodily movement. By the time of the Second Great Awakening, the Methodists, although still hosting revivals in Virginia, had become more politically and socially mainstream. Their presence transformed Virginia religion, however, by helping to usher in an era free from state-sponsored religion.
Thu, 17 Dec 2015 16:13:39 EST]]>
/Gunston_Hall Thu, 17 Dec 2015 16:11:05 EST <![CDATA[Gunston Hall]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gunston_Hall Gunston Hall is the stately Georgian home of Virginia lawmaker George Mason in Fairfax County on the Potomac River. Mason inherited the land on which Gunston Hall is located from his father in 1735; construction on the house began in 1754. Completed in 1759, Gunston Hall was one of the finest homes in colonial America. While the house's exterior is typical of most Chesapeake plantation homes, the elegant interior reflects the full range of English rococo style, showing French, neoclassical, and chinoiserie influences, and stood out at a time when the prevailing building style was most often described as "neat and plain." The house's innovative architectural flourishes and intricate woodwork can be attributed to its English architect, William Buckland, and master carver, William Bernard Sears. Mason farmed part of the Gunston Hall grounds, growing tobacco and wheat, among other crops, and raising livestock. A slave community called Log Town stood at some distance from the house. Today, Gunston Hall is owned by the Commonwealth of Virginia and operated by the National Society of the Colonial Dames of America.
Thu, 17 Dec 2015 16:11:05 EST]]>
/African_American_Militia_Units_in_Virginia_1870-1899 Mon, 14 Dec 2015 16:21:37 EST <![CDATA[African American Militia Units in Virginia (1870–1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/African_American_Militia_Units_in_Virginia_1870-1899 African American militia units served as part of the Virginia state militia, the Virginia Volunteers, from 1872 until 1899. Although the General Assembly had long prohibited the arming of both enslaved and free blacks, African Americans still fought in all American wars from the French and Indian War (1754–1763) to the American Civil War (1861–1865). The first black militia unit to form in Virginia after the Civil War was the Attucks Guard, in Richmond. Established in 1870, the group joined the Virginia Volunteers two years later. By 1884, there were nineteen black companies, composed mostly of laboring men who sought recreational opportunities and social advancement. Faced with the high cost of membership—men provided their own uniforms—and poor discipline, membership dwindled to just eight companies by 1895. Between 1886 and 1895, black companies were called up five times, including in 1887, when Governor Fitzhugh Lee became the only southern governor to activate an all-black militia unit to help suppress a violent longshoremen's strike. During the Spanish-American War (1898), Virginia raised the all-black 6th Virginia Volunteers and contributed about a third of the men of the all-black 10th U.S. Volunteers, or so-called Immunes, a regiment of soldiers believed to be resistant to tropical diseases. The men of both regiments challenged the racist treatment they received while stationed in the Deep South, and the negative publicity that resulted led the governor to leave black companies out of the reconstituted Virginia Volunteers beginning in 1899.
Mon, 14 Dec 2015 16:21:37 EST]]>
/_Frivolous_Reasons_Richmond_Planet_June_11_1898 Mon, 14 Dec 2015 14:25:33 EST <![CDATA["Frivolous Reasons," Richmond Planet (June 11, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Frivolous_Reasons_Richmond_Planet_June_11_1898 Mon, 14 Dec 2015 14:25:33 EST]]> /Underwood_John_C_1809-1873 Sun, 13 Dec 2015 13:03:45 EST <![CDATA[Underwood, John C. (1809–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Underwood_John_C_1809-1873 John C. Underwood was one of the most conspicuous antislavery activists in Virginia during the 1850s, one of the first members of the Republican Party in Virginia, a federal judge from 1863 to 1873, and the president of the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868. Born in New York, Underwood practiced law before moving to Virginia. There his condemnations of slavery were such that his wife, a cousin of the future Confederate general Thomas J. Jackson, worried for his safety. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), President Abraham Lincoln appointed Underwood a federal judge for the eastern district of Virginia. His actions on the bench often appeared to be politically motivated and included repeated efforts to confiscate the estates of Confederates in order to destroy slavery and apply what he called "retributive justice." After the war, he admitted that he could pack a jury, if necessary, to convict the former Confederate president, Jefferson Davis, of treason. He also publicly endorsed African American suffrage and full citizenship rights for freedpeople. Toward that end, he served as president of the constitutional convention that met in 1867–1868, during which he argued, unsuccessfully, that women, too, should be granted full suffrage rights. Underwood remained on the bench in his later years, earning a reputation as an outspoken radical and one who was often contemptuous of his critics. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1873.
Sun, 13 Dec 2015 13:03:45 EST]]>
/Underground_Railroad_in_Virginia Thu, 10 Dec 2015 13:57:57 EST <![CDATA[Underground Railroad in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Underground_Railroad_in_Virginia The Underground Railroad in Virginia was a series of secret networks, often working independently of one another and manned by both free blacks and whites, designed to help enslaved African Americans escape to the North and to Canada. Such networks were less necessary in the earliest days of slavery in Virginia because runaways tended to stay relatively close to home. Only after the American Revolution (1775–1783), when northern states outlawed slavery and a new domestic trade began to send thousands of enslaved men, women, and children into the Deep South, did fugitive slaves cross state lines in great numbers. Federal fugitive slave laws in 1793 and 1850 made such escapes more difficult but they also led to the development of the Underground Railroad, a term that had gained popular currency by the 1840s. Quakers in Philadelphia, New York, and North Carolina, burning with antislavery zeal, aided kidnapped African Americans and fugitive slaves and, in concert with free blacks and even some slaves, began to develop networks by which to smuggle them to freedom. With the largest slave population, Virginia also had among the greatest number of fugitives. They left mostly by sea, with some remaining in the North and others joining black communities in Canada. While it remains up for debate exactly how many escaped, slaveholders regularly complained of financial losses. Only the abolition of slavery ended the Underground Railroad's work.
Thu, 10 Dec 2015 13:57:57 EST]]>
/Contract_and_Recommendation_for_William_Buckland_1755_1759 Wed, 09 Dec 2015 09:56:17 EST <![CDATA[Contract and Recommendation for William Buckland (1755; 1759)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Contract_and_Recommendation_for_William_Buckland_1755_1759 Wed, 09 Dec 2015 09:56:17 EST]]> /Chenery_Christopher_T_1886-1973 Mon, 07 Dec 2015 14:32:35 EST <![CDATA[Chenery, Christopher T. (1886–1973)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chenery_Christopher_T_1886-1973 Christopher T. Chenery was a public utilities executive and horse breeder, whose thoroughbred Secretariat won the Triple Crown (the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, and the Belmont Stakes) in 1973. Born in Richmond, Chenery grew up riding horses before working as an engineer in the West and in Chicago. He founded and served as president of the Federal Water Service Corporation and when it was superseded by the board of the Southern Natural Gas Company, served as the company's chairman. He also formed and led the Offshore Company, which drilled for oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Chenery's passion, however, was thoroughbred horses. In 1955, he helped to found the Greater New York Association to promote racing and bought a family farm in Caroline County to breed horses. Between 1939 and 1972 his thoroughbreds won more than $8.5 million on the track, but his most famous was Secretariat. Horse of the Year in 1972 and 1973, Secretariat won the Triple Crown in the latter year, just after Chenery's death. In 1985, Chenery was inducted into the Virginia Sports Hall of Fame.
Mon, 07 Dec 2015 14:32:35 EST]]>
/Gosnold_Bartholomew_1571-August_22_1607 Mon, 07 Dec 2015 14:17:21 EST <![CDATA[Gosnold, Bartholomew (1571–1607)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gosnold_Bartholomew_1571-August_22_1607 Bartholomew Gosnold was one of the leading figures of the English settlement at Jamestown, helping to organize the Virginia Company of London and landing in Virginia with the first group of adventurers in 1607. Born in Suffolk, on the eastern coast of England, in 1571, he joined Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex, on his expedition to the Azores in 1595. Upon his return to England, Gosnold became interested in colonizing North America, planting about twenty colonists in New England in 1602. Although the colony failed, Gosnold is credited for making the first documented European visit to Cape Elizabeth and for naming Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. He used family connections to recruit members for the Virginia Company of London, with Captain John Smith describing Gosnold as "one of the first movers" of the Virginia colony. For political reasons, perhaps, Gosnold did not command the voyage west, but he served on the colony's Council once he arrived and helped bring bickering factions together. He died of disease on August 22, 1607. A grave that archaeologists uncovered at Jamestown in 2003 was initially thought to have belonged to Gosnold, but scholars are no longer certain.
Mon, 07 Dec 2015 14:17:21 EST]]>
/Burwell_Lewis_1711_or_1712-1756_gt Mon, 30 Nov 2015 17:32:40 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lewis (1711 or 1712–1756)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lewis_1711_or_1712-1756_gt Lewis Burwell, often referred to as President Lewis Burwell to distinguish him from others of the same name, was a member of the governor's Council (1743–1756) and served as acting governor of Virginia for a year beginning in November 1750. Born in Gloucester County to a prominent family that included Robert "King" Carter, Burwell was educated in England before returning to Virginia and serving in the House of Burgesses (1742). The next year, George II appointed him to the Council, and in 1750, he became the body's senior member. With the governor and lieutenant governor away from Virginia at the time, this made him president, or acting governor. During his year as president, the General Assembly never met, but Burwell did commission the Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia. Ill health limited his role in later years, and he died in 1756.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 17:32:40 EST]]>
/Davis_Westmoreland_1859-1942 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:37:26 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Westmoreland (1859–1942)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Westmoreland_1859-1942 Westmoreland Davis was a lawyer and agriculturist who served as governor of Virginia from 1918 to 1922. Born abroad, his family moved to Richmond when he was still young and he attended the Virginia Military Institute and the University of Virginia before studying law in New York. He practiced there until 1903, when he purchased Morven Park, a large estate in Loudoun County. There he studied farming, lobbied on behalf of agricultural groups, and published the Southern Planter magazine from 1912 until his death. Despite lacking experience in electoral politics, Davis won election as governor in 1917, as a Democrat. He presided over the creation of a state highway system and negotiated a truce between union and non-union coal miners in southwestern Virginia. He identified with the Progressive movement and distrusted the Democratic machine run by Thomas Staples Martin, Claude A. Swanson, and, later, Harry F. Byrd Sr. He attempted to break the organization by running against Swanson for the U.S. Senate but lost, and later campaigned against the poll tax which was, in effect, campaigning against the power of the Byrd Organization. Davis died in 1942.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:37:26 EST]]>
/Teamoh_George_1818-after_1887 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:34:53 EST <![CDATA[Teamoh, George (1818–after 1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Teamoh_George_1818-after_1887 George Teamoh represented Portsmouth and Norfolk County at the Convention of 1867–1868 and in the Senate of Virginia (1869–1871). Born enslaved, Teamoh secretly learned to read in his youth and worked in Portsmouth's shipyards. After his wife was sold, one of his owners helped him escape from a ship. Teamoh returned to Virginia after the American Civil War (1861–1865), and he quickly became involved in local politics and labor issues. He won election to the Convention called to create a new state constitution, and then served a term in the General Assembly's upper house. Republican Party infighting cost him his political career. He returned to the Norfolk shipyards and died sometime after 1887. His autobiography, God Made Man, Man Made the Slave, was published in 1990.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:34:53 EST]]>
/_Griffin_Men_Did_Their_Duty_in_Checking_Drunken_Negroes_Atlanta_Constitution_March_10_1899 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:15:49 EST <![CDATA["Griffin Men Did Their Duty in Checking Drunken Negroes," Atlanta Constitution (March 10, 1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Griffin_Men_Did_Their_Duty_in_Checking_Drunken_Negroes_Atlanta_Constitution_March_10_1899 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:15:49 EST]]> /_The_Griffin_Episode_Atlanta_Constitution_March_19_1899 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 14:28:17 EST <![CDATA["The Griffin Episode," Atlanta Constitution (March 19, 1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Griffin_Episode_Atlanta_Constitution_March_19_1899 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 14:28:17 EST]]> /Anglo-Powhatan_War_Second_1622-1632 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 12:01:39 EST <![CDATA[Anglo-Powhatan War, Second (1622–1632)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anglo-Powhatan_War_Second_1622-1632 The Second Anglo-Powhatan War was fought from 1622 until 1632, pitting English colonists in Virginia against the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Tsenacomoco, led by Opitchapam and his brother (or close kinsman) Opechancanough. After the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614), which ended with the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, the English colony began to grow. The headright system begun in 1618 granted land to new immigrants who, in turn, sought to make their fortunes off tobacco. As English settlements pressed up the James River and toward the fall line, Indian leaders devised a plan to push them back and, in so doing, assert their supremacy over the newcomers. On March 22, 1622, Opechancanough led a series of coordinated surprise attacks that concentrated on settlements upriver from Jamestown and succeeded in killing nearly a third of the English population. Perhaps assuming that the English were sufficiently humiliated, he did not pursue a final destruction of the colony. What followed, then, was a ten-year war in which the English repeatedly attacked the Indian food supply. After the conflict's only full-scale battle, fought in 1624, colonists estimated that they had destroyed enough food to feed 4,000 men for a year. Peace finally arrived in 1632, but by then the balance of power in Virginia had tipped toward the English. The colonial population had grown significantly and Opechancanough's power waned.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 12:01:39 EST]]>
/Powhatan_d_1618 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:47:51 EST <![CDATA[Powhatan (d. 1618)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Powhatan_d_1618 Powhatan, whose given name was Wahunsonacock, was the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco, a political alliance of Virginia Indians whose core six groups all settled along the James, Mattaponi, and Pamunkey rivers. Introduced to the Jamestown colonists in 1607 as Powhatan, he was for a decade the most powerful point of contact for the English; in 1614, the marriage of his daughter, Pocahontas, to John Rolfe, helped end, at least temporarily, years of war. Coming to power in Powhatan, the Powhatan Indians' principal frontier town on the James River, Wahunsonacock likely was raised much as any other Algonquian-speaking Indian would have been—learning archery and hunting from the men of his village. By 1607, he was paramount chief of Tsenacomoco, having expanded it, through a combination of force and diplomacy, to between twenty-eight and thirty-two tribes and petty chiefdoms. Powhatan negotiated with the English, and especially John Smith, attempting to reach accommodation with the colonists and, when he could not, attempting to intimidate or kill them. In 1609, he moved his capital from Werowocomoco to Orapax, which was farther west, and intensified his efforts to kill Smith and expel the English. Pocahontas's marriage ended that stage of the conflict, and relations were peaceful until Powhatan's death in 1618. When his brother, Opechancanough, became leader of Tsenacomoco, he launched the attack that inaugurated the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632).
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:47:51 EST]]>
/Pocahontas_d_1617 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:38:59 EST <![CDATA[Pocahontas (d. 1617)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pocahontas_d_1617 Pocahontas was the daughter of Powhatan, paramount chief of an alliance of Virginia Indians in Tidewater Virginia. An iconic figure in American history, Pocahontas is largely known for saving the life of the Jamestown colonist John Smith and then romancing him—although both events are unlikely to be true. She did meet Smith several times, sometimes serving as Powhatan's silent figurehead and a symbolic liaison between the chief and the English colonists; she was not, however, a "princess" or a diplomat in any modern sense. Sometime around 1610, she married an Indian named Kocoum, and in 1613 she was captured by the English and confined at Jamestown, where she converted to Christianity and married the colonist John Rolfe. The marriage, approved by Powhatan, brought an end to the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614) and set the stage for Pocahontas's visit to London in 1616. At the request of the Virginia Company of London, she met both King James I and the bishop of London, after which she reunited briefly with Smith. Early in her return voyage to Virginia, she became ill and died at Gravesend in March 1617. In the centuries since, Pocahontas's life has slipped into myth, serving to represent Virginia's early claim to be the foundation-place of America. Many elite Virginians, meanwhile, have tenuously claimed her as a relative, even leading to a "Pocahontas clause" in the Racial Integrity Act of 1924.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:38:59 EST]]>
/Rolfe_John_d_1622 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:30:10 EST <![CDATA[Rolfe, John (d. 1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rolfe_John_d_1622 John Rolfe served as secretary and recorder general of Virginia (1614–1619) and as a member of the governor's Council (1614–1622). He is best known for having married Pocahontas in 1614 and for being the first to cultivate marketable tobacco in Virginia. Joined by his first wife, whose name is unknown, Rolfe sailed on the Sea Venture, a Virginia-bound ship that wrecked off the islands of Bermuda in 1609. There his wife gave birth to a daughter, but mother and child soon died. In Virginia, Rolfe turned to experimenting with tobacco, a plant first brought to England from Florida. The Virginia Indians planted a variety that was harsh to English smokers, so Rolfe developed a Spanish West Indies seed, Nicotiana tabacum, that became profitable and, indeed, transformed the colony's economy. In 1614, Rolfe married Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco. The marriage helped bring an end to the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614), but Pocahontas died in 1617 while visiting England with Rolfe and their son, Thomas. While in England, Rolfe penned A True Relation of the state of Virginia Lefte by Sir Thomas Dale Knight in May Last 1616 (1617), promoting the interests of the Virginia Company of London. Back in Virginia, he married Joane Peirce about 1619 and had a daughter, Elizabeth. He died in 1622.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:30:10 EST]]>
/Bucke_Richard_1581_or_1582-ca_1624 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:27:53 EST <![CDATA[Bucke, Richard (1581 or 1582–ca. 1624)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bucke_Richard_1581_or_1582-ca_1624 Richard Bucke was an Anglican minister who came to Jamestown in 1610, may have performed the marriage ceremony for Pocahontas and John Rolfe in 1614, and in 1619 opened with prayer the first legislative assembly in Virginia. Born and educated in England, Bucke was delayed on his way to Virginia by a storm and spent almost ten months in Bermuda. For a time he was the only minister in Jamestown, and his experiences in the colony seem to have been difficult. His date of death appears to have been around 1624.
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:27:53 EST]]>
/Governors_of_Virginia Tue, 24 Nov 2015 13:06:09 EST <![CDATA[Governors of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Governors_of_Virginia Tue, 24 Nov 2015 13:06:09 EST]]> /Indians_in_Virginia Mon, 23 Nov 2015 11:36:25 EST <![CDATA[Indians in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indians_in_Virginia Indians have lived in the area now known as Virginia for thousands of years. Their histories, ancestral connections, and traditions are intertwined with the 6,000 square miles of Tidewater land the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Virginia called Tsenacomoco. The early inhabitants of Virginia were hunter-gatherers who followed the migratory patterns of animals. Over time, and as the region warmed, they settled into towns along riverbanks and outlined their homelands, developing intimate, balanced relationships with the animals, plants, and geographic formations. They hunted, fished, and farmed, and developed complex social and religious systems and vast trade networks. By the early 1600s, Virginia Indians lived in three broad cultural groups based on the language families found in the area: Algonquian, Iroquoian, and Siouan. Scholars know most about the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Tsenacomoco, who eventually grouped together into a paramount chiefdom. Led by Powhatan, the polity ultimately included twenty-eight to thirty-two small chiefdoms and tribes, stretching from the James to the Potomac rivers and encompassing much of Virginia's coastal plain. In 1607, Englishmen arrived and changed Indian life forever. In the midst of a severe drought, the colonists' demands for food and their inability to fully understand Indian cultural practices led in part to three protracted and violent conflicts over four decades, ending in 1646 with the Algonquian-speaking Indians largely subject to English rule. The General Assembly set aside land for the former tribes of Tsenacomoco, although in subsequent years some Indians were forced to move and some groups became dispersed. In the years that followed, they contributed to the developing American culture while working to maintain their own traditions during difficult periods of disease, hunger, forced relocations, and restrictive colonial and later statewide policies that curtailed their rights to travel unmolested through lands now occupied by settlers, to visit their traditional hunting and fishing grounds, and to testify in court on their own behalf. At the beginning of the twentieth century, a cultural renaissance bloomed and some scholars began to study Indian history more closely. At the same time, the General Assembly did much to deny Indian identity, including passing in 1924 the Act to Preserve Racial Integrity, which criminalized interracial marriage and separated Virginians into two simplified racial categories: white and colored. These wrongs were addressed in part by the Supreme Court's decision in Loving v. Virginia (1967) and by state legislation in the late 1980s that allowed Virginia Indians to change the racial designation on their birth certificates without cost. Virginia Indians in the twenty-first century actively cultivate their own culture while educating others about their history.
Mon, 23 Nov 2015 11:36:25 EST]]>
/Olive_Branch_Petition_1775 Fri, 20 Nov 2015 08:03:56 EST <![CDATA[Olive Branch Petition (1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Olive_Branch_Petition_1775 Fri, 20 Nov 2015 08:03:56 EST]]> /Pierpont_Francis_H_1814-1899 Thu, 19 Nov 2015 14:38:03 EST <![CDATA[Pierpont, Francis Harrison (1814–1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pierpont_Francis_H_1814-1899 Francis Harrison Pierpont was a lawyer, early coal industrialist, governor of the Restored government of Virginia during the American Civil War (1861–1865), governor of Virginia (1865–1868) during the first years of Reconstruction (1865–1877), and a state senator representing Marion County in West Virginia (1869–1870). Pierpont was an antislavery member of the Whig Party and delegate to the First and Second Wheeling Conventions in 1861, during which Unionist politicians in western Virginia resisted the state's vote to secede by establishing the Restored government of Virginia. The second convention unanimously elected him governor. Although never actually governor of West Virginia, he is still remembered as one of the state's founding fathers.
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 14:38:03 EST]]>
/Pendleton_Alexander_S_1840-1864 Thu, 19 Nov 2015 14:27:45 EST <![CDATA[Pendleton, Alexander Swift (1840–1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pendleton_Alexander_S_1840-1864 Alexander Swift Pendleton was a Confederate staff officer in the Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Nicknamed Sandie, he was best known for his service under Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, who died following the Battle of Chancellorsville (1863), but he also served under Jackson's successors Richard S. Ewell and Jubal A. Early. Henry Kyd Douglas, a fellow member of Jackson's staff, called him "the most brilliant staff officer in the Army of Northern Virginia and the most popular with officers and men."
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 14:27:45 EST]]>
/Emory_and_Henry_College_During_the_Civil_War Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:44:05 EST <![CDATA[Emory and Henry College during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Emory_and_Henry_College_During_the_Civil_War Emory and Henry College, located in the town of Emory in Washington County, is the oldest college in southwestern Virginia and was attended by the future Confederate cavalry general J. E. B. Stuart. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the school was closed while many of its students fought in the Confederate army, and the Confederate government used its buildings to establish the Emory Confederate States Hospital. After the nearby Battle of Saltville in October 1864, wounded Union soldiers, including members of the 5th U.S. Colored Cavalry, were treated there. On the morning of October 3, Confederate soldiers reportedly killed several black troopers and their white lieutenant in what has come to be known as the "Saltville Massacre."
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:44:05 EST]]>
/Sigel_Franz_1824-1902 Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:42:58 EST <![CDATA[Sigel, Franz (1824–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sigel_Franz_1824-1902 Franz Sigel was a Union general during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born in Germany and a leader of the failed insurrections of 1848, Sigel rallied German-Americans to the Union cause in 1861 with the slogan, "I goes to fight mit Sigel." As a general, however, he was only modestly successful and his relationship with his superiors was so contentious that he resigned from the army twice before returning; only his ties to the politically important German-American constituency saved him. In addition, those ties allowed him to be promoted to command of the Department of West Virginia in 1864, but he led his troops to a disastrous defeat at the Battle of New Market on May 15, 1864, against Confederate forces that included cadets from the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington. When a Confederate army under Jubal A. Early was able to reach the outskirts of Washington, D.C., a month later, Sigel was relieved of command and he resigned from the army a year later.
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:42:58 EST]]>
/Shoes_at_Gettysburg Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:41:06 EST <![CDATA[Shoes at Gettysburg]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Shoes_at_Gettysburg One of the most persistent legends surrounding the Battle of Gettysburg (1863), which took place during the American Civil War (1861–1865), is that it was fought over shoes. Ten weeks after the battle, Confederate general Henry Heth, a Virginian whose troops were the first to engage on July 1, filed a now-famous report in which he explained why he had sent a portion of his division into the small Pennsylvania town. "On the morning of June 30," Heth wrote, "I ordered Brigadier General [Johnston] Pettigrew to take his brigade to Gettysburg, search the town for army supplies (shoes especially), and return the same day." That parenthetical phrase "shoes especially" has taken on a life of its own over the years. A 1997 newsletter of the American Podiatric Medical Association is typical—it claimed, perhaps due to its interest in foot health, that footwear was the battle's causa belli, adding, "There was a warehouse full of boots and shoes in the town."
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:41:06 EST]]>
/Kemper_James_Lawson_1823-1895 Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:39:52 EST <![CDATA[Kemper, James Lawson (1823–1895)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Kemper_James_Lawson_1823-1895 James Lawson Kemper was a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865), who later served as governor of Virginia (1874–1877). Kemper volunteered in the Mexican War (1846–1848), but returned to his civilian life as a lawyer. He served five terms in the Virginia House of Delegates (1853–1863), including time as Speaker of the House (1861–1863). There he garnered a reputation for honesty and attention to duty. Kemper volunteered for service in 1861, and with his promotion in June 1862 became the Confederacy's youngest brigade commander. Badly wounded at Gettysburg in July 1863, Kemper oversaw the Virginia Reserve Forces for the remainder of the war. He helped found the Conservative Party during Reconstruction (1865–1877). Soundly defeating the Republican candidate in the 1873 gubernatorial race, Kemper found himself, as governor, at odds with previous supporters over his progressive stance on civil rights, prison reform, and public school improvements. Still suffering from his wound, Kemper retired to his law practice, and died in Orange County in 1895.
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:39:52 EST]]>
/Guerrilla_Warfare_in_Virginia_during_the_Civil_War Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:36:19 EST <![CDATA[Guerrilla Warfare in Virginia during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Guerrilla_Warfare_in_Virginia_during_the_Civil_War Although guerrilla warfare did not ravage Virginia to the extent that it did some other Confederate states during the American Civil War (1861–1865), nevertheless it did play a significant role in shaping the nature of the conflict. Guerrilla fighters, by definition, are combatants who operate outside the formal constraints of the military and, therefore, outside the laws of war. In Virginia, guerrillas took up arms as a natural response to Union invasion—especially where conventional Confederate troops were too few or too distant to oppose the enemy—and as a favored means of intimidating perceived enemies within small, usually rural, communities. What resulted, first in Unionist northwestern Virginia and then in Confederate Virginia, was often a "neighborhood" war, where residents brutally fought one another, rather than outsiders, for local control. Partisan leaders such as John D. Imboden and John Singleton Mosby made names for themselves, the latter described as having "danced on the nerves of opponents where they were most vulnerable." At times, however, the conflict's violence, which sometimes included terrorist tactics directed at civilians, seemed to rage out of control and alarmed Confederate authorities. Where the authorities had once encouraged the guerrillas, by 1862 they sought to bring them under Confederate control, creating sanctioned "partisan rangers." Efforts to rein in the guerrilla fighters were only partially successful.
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:36:19 EST]]>
/Lee_Mary_Anna_Randolph_Custis_1807-1873 Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:30:05 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Mary Randolph Custis (1807–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Mary_Anna_Randolph_Custis_1807-1873 Mary Randolph Custis Lee was an artist, author, and early antislavery activist. The great-granddaughter of Martha Washington, she enjoyed virtually unequalled social status throughout her life. Tutored in history and philosophy, she became acquainted with the early republic's leaders, who visited her father's estate, Arlington. Following her mother's lead, she fought slavery, and helped to ease the lives of her own family's slaves. Her uncle's death in 1830 prompted a religious awakening, and marriage the next year to Robert E. Lee put her in the position of being an army wife, a somewhat uncomfortable role for someone of her background. She followed her husband to his various outposts, sketching her travels and becoming an artist of some note. While her connection to Lee did not immediately augment her social standing, when he led the Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War (1861–1865), she was accorded further deference. Mary Custis Lee had not supported secession, but she was a devoted Confederate, her grace under pressure making her a symbol of quiet strength in wartime Richmond. At the end of her life, she was embittered by the Union occupation of her beloved Arlington and felt betrayed by her family's former slaves. She died in 1873.
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:30:05 EST]]>
/Charlottesville_During_the_Civil_War Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:20:34 EST <![CDATA[Charlottesville during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Charlottesville_During_the_Civil_War Charlottesville provided the Confederate war effort with swords, uniforms, and artificial limbs during the American Civil War (1861–1865). It was also home to a 500-bed military hospital that employed hundreds of the town's residents, cared for more than 22,000 patients, and was superintended by Dr. J. L. Cabell, a professor of medicine at the nearby University of Virginia. In the summer of 1861, the 19th Virginia Infantry Regiment was organized, recruiting most of its members from Charlottesville and Albemarle County. The unit served with the Army of Northern Virginia all the way through to the Appomattox Campaign (1865), including at Pickett's Charge (1863), where it lost 60 percent of its men. African Americans, both enslaved and free, who composed a majority of the town and county's population, were the subject of heightened white fears of violence, their movements controlled by a curfew. In 1863, black members of the biracial First Baptist Church established the Charlottesville African Church. Although the war's fighting stayed mostly to the east and west, a raid led by Union general George A. Custer was stopped just north of the city in the spring of 1864. Early the next year, town leaders surrendered Charlottesville to Custer, preventing the community's destruction.
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:20:34 EST]]>
/First_Rockbridge_Artillery Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:15:35 EST <![CDATA[First Rockbridge Artillery]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/First_Rockbridge_Artillery The First Rockbridge Artillery was organized on April 29, 1861, in Lexington, Virginia, and served throughout the duration of the American Civil War (1861–1865), firing its first shot in anger at the First Battle of Manassas on July 21, 1861, and fighting in most major battles of the Army of Northern Virginia until its surrender at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. Initially led by Lexington rector and West Point graduate William N. Pendleton, the battery quickly became renowned for its daring and firmness under fire as part of the Stonewall Brigade. Pendleton, with ecclesiastical panache, named the first four tubes of the battery "Matthew," "Mark," "Luke," and "John."
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:15:35 EST]]>
/Second_Charter_of_Virginia_1609 Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:13:14 EST <![CDATA[Second Charter of Virginia (1609)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Second_Charter_of_Virginia_1609 Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:13:14 EST]]> /Darden_Colgate_W_1897-1981 Mon, 09 Nov 2015 15:53:48 EST <![CDATA[Darden, Colgate W. (1897–1981)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Darden_Colgate_W_1897-1981 Colgate W. Darden was a member of the House of Representatives (1933–1937, 1939–1941), governor of Virginia (1942–1946), and president of the University of Virginia (1947–1959). He also served in the House of Delegates (1930–1933), representing the city of Norfolk. Born in Southampton County, he studied at the University of Virginia and was injured in a plane crash during World War I (1914–1918). He completed his education after the war and was elected as a Democrat to the House of Delegates in 1929 and to Congress in 1934. Never an enthusiastic legislator, he ran for governor in 1941 as a member of the political machine run by Harry F. Byrd Sr. Darden mobilized the state for World War II (1939–1945) and helped guide through the General Assembly reforms of the correctional system and mental hospitals and an increase in funding for public schools. Considered a highly effective executive, Darden declined to run for the U.S. Senate and instead accepted the presidency of the University of Virginia. He worked to make it a more democratic institution, encouraging the enrollment of public-school students and broadening the university's reach to Southwest and Northern Virginia. During his presidency, but only under court order, graduate programs were racially integrated, and he broke with the Byrd Organization over its Massive Resistance to public-school desegregation. Darden retired in 1959 and died in 1981. The University of Virginia Darden School of Business was named in his honor.
Mon, 09 Nov 2015 15:53:48 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Religion Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:41:46 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and Religion]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Religion Thomas Jefferson was deeply but unconventionally religious. An empiricist, he believed that a rational and benevolent God was evident in the beauty and order of the universe. He professed "Christianism," a belief in the morals taught by Jesus of Nazareth, but he rejected Jesus's divinity, resurrection, the atonement, and biblical miracles. As such, Jefferson's beliefs resisted conventional labels, and in 1819 he suggested to a correspondent that "I am of a sect by myself, as far as I know." Jefferson meticulously cut up four copies of the Gospels (in English, French, Greek, and Latin), retaining only selected passages, without miracles, to create The Jefferson Bible, his own book for spiritual guidance and solace. Jefferson's career was also marked by religious controversy. He was denounced as an "arch-infidel" in the presidential election of 1800, and his efforts to prevent the appointment of a minister to teach religion at the University of Virginia, one of the first state-owned colleges in the United States, met strong resistance. Jefferson embraced god-given human rights and opposed their abridgment by government. He is known as one of the founders of American religious freedom, and his phrase "a wall of separation between Church & State" has been viewed as emblematic by historians and by the modern United States Supreme Court.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:41:46 EST]]>
/Petersburg_Convention_of_March_14_1881 Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:37:55 EST <![CDATA[Petersburg Convention of March 14, 1881]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petersburg_Convention_of_March_14_1881 On March 14, 1881, almost 300 African American men representing Republicans in a majority of the cities and counties of Virginia met in convention in Petersburg. The purpose of the convention was to decide whether their party should cooperate with or endorse the new Readjuster Party in the important 1881 general election, in which the voters would elect a new General Assembly and a new governor. By day's end, most delegates agreed to a statement of principles that endorsed supporting Virginia's Readjusters while remaining loyal to the national Republican Party. The convention marked an important turning point in the state's political history. With African American support, the Readjusters won majorities in the House of Delegates and the Senate of Virginia and were able to pass reform laws, refinance the debt, and increase funding for public schools.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:37:55 EST]]>
/Daniel_John_Warwick_1842-1910 Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:36:45 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, John Warwick (1842–1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_John_Warwick_1842-1910 John Warwick Daniel served as a member of the House of Delegates (1869–1872), of the Senate of Virginia (1875–1881), of the House of Representatives (1885–1887), of the U.S. Senate (1887–1910), and of the Convention of 1901–1902. Daniel earned the nickname "The Lame Lion of Lynchburg" after the American Civil War (1861–1865), when he suffered an injury that required him to use a crutch for the rest of his life. A gifted writer and orator, Daniel memorialized the Confederate war effort and spoke out against Reconstruction. He began his political career as a Conservative, became a prominent Funder late in the 1870s, and then in the 1880s helped rebuild the Democratic Party. At the Convention of 1901–1902, called to revise the state constitution, Daniel chaired the important Committee on the Elective Franchise. At first advocating less-onerous suffrage restrictions, he ultimately pushed for a more aggressive path that disfranchised most African Americans in Virginia, along with large numbers of poorer white citizens. Daniel spent his last years as an elder statesman of the Democratic Party, and died in 1910.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:36:45 EST]]>
/Bolling_Stith_1835-1916 Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:34:40 EST <![CDATA[Bolling, Stith (1835–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bolling_Stith_1835-1916 Stith Bolling was a politician whose fluid party affiliation illustrates the churning coalitions in Virginia after the American Civil War (1861–1865). Bolling began his professional career as a clerk and a few years later joined the Confederate cavalry. Rising to captain, he eventually led the largest cavalry company commander under Confederate general J. E. B. Stuart. In 1869 Bolling won election to the House of Delegates as part of a Conservative Party–moderate Republican coalition and captured a second term as a Conservative. He moved to Petersburg, where he joined William Mahone's Readjuster movement, which evolved from a Conservative faction to a short-lived party aligned with the Republicans. Both he and Mahone joined the Republicans after the Readjusters collapsed. Unlike Mahone he retained his popularity among whites and held high positions in the United Confederate Veterans' Army of Northern Virginia Department. Bolling died in Petersburg in 1916.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:34:40 EST]]>
/Buck_v_Bell_1927 Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:31:32 EST <![CDATA[Buck v. Bell (1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Buck_v_Bell_1927 In Buck v. Bell, decided on May 2, 1927, the U.S. Supreme Court, by a vote of 8 to 1, affirmed the constitutionality of Virginia's law allowing state-enforced sterilization. After being raised by foster parents and allegedly raped by their nephew, the appellant, Carrie Buck, was deemed feebleminded and promiscuous. In 1924, Buck was committed to the Virginia State Colony for Epileptics and Feeble-Minded, near Lynchburg, and there ordered sterilized. The Virginia law allowing the procedure had been passed in 1924 and responded to fifty years of scholarly debate over whether certain social problems, including shiftlessness, poverty, and prostitution, were inherited and ultimately could be eliminated through selective sterilization. Looking to test the law's legality before engaging in widespread sterilization, the colony superintendent, Albert S. Priddy, made sure his order was appealed. The Amherst County Circuit Court and the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals both ruled in the colony's favor, and in 1927 the U.S. Supreme Court agreed. In an infamous opinion, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. noted that Carrie Buck, her mother, and her daughter were all suspected of being feebleminded, declaring, "Three generations of imbeciles are enough." The opinion was never overturned and led to a marked increase in sterilizations across the United States. At the Nuremberg Trials, Nazi defendants cited Buck v. Bell in their own defense. Virginia repealed the law in 1974 and in 2002 apologized to its victims.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:31:32 EST]]>
/Racial_Integrity_Laws_of_the_1920s Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:27:31 EST <![CDATA[Racial Integrity Laws (1924–1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Racial_Integrity_Laws_of_the_1920s Racial integrity laws were passed by the General Assembly to protect "whiteness" against what many Virginians perceived to be the negative effects of race-mixing. They included the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which prohibited interracial marriage and defined as white a person "who has no trace whatsoever of any blood other than Caucasian"; the Public Assemblages Act of 1926, which required all public meeting spaces to be strictly segregated; and a third act, passed in 1930, that defined as black a person who has even a trace of African American ancestry. This way of defining whiteness as a kind of purity in bloodline became known as the "one drop rule." These laws arrived at a time when a pseudo-science of white superiority called eugenics gained support by groups like the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, which argued that the mixing of whites, African Americans, and Virginia Indians could cause great societal harm, despite the fact that the races had been intermixed since European settlement. From his position as the state registrar of vital statistics, Walter A. Plecker micromanaged the racial classifications of Virginians, often worrying that blacks were attempting to pass as white. Virginia Indians were particularly incensed by the laws, and by Plecker in particular, because the state seemed intent on removing any legal recognition of Indian identity in favor of the broader category "colored." After one failed try, lawmakers largely achieved this goal in 1930, drawing negative reaction from the black press. The Racial Integrity Act remained on the books until 1967, when the U.S. Supreme Court, in Loving v. Virginia, found its prohibition of interracial marriage to be unconstitutional. In 2001, the General Assembly denounced the act, and eugenics, as racist.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:27:31 EST]]>
/Colston_Raleigh_Edward_1825-1896 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 10:05:44 EST <![CDATA[Colston, Raleigh Edward (1825–1896)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colston_Raleigh_Edward_1825-1896 Raleigh Edward Colston was a Confederate officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born in Paris, France, Colston attended the Virginia Military Institute (1843–1846) and after graduation taught at his alma mater. In December 1859 Colston served as adjutant of the VMI detachment sent to Charles Town to supervise the hanging of John Brown. Throughout the war Colston commanded several different regiments, brigades, and districts, and rose in the Confederate army from colonel to brigadier general. In June 1862, after fighting in battles at Williamsburg and Seven Pines, he contracted "Peninsular" fever, jaundice, and malaria, and was placed on leave. He recovered to fight at the battles of Chancellorsville (1863) and Petersburg (1864). Following the war, Colston lectured about his friend and former VMI colleague Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, and served as principal at two North Carolina military schools. Colston moved to Egypt in 1873 to teach at a military college and lead expeditions for the Egyptian army. His poor health, however, caused him to return to the United States, where he worked as a teacher and writer at various schools until he was too ill to do so. Colston died on July 29, 1896.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 10:05:44 EST]]>
/DeJarnette_Joseph_Spencer_1866-1957 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 10:01:06 EST <![CDATA[DeJarnette, Joseph S. (1866–1957)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/DeJarnette_Joseph_Spencer_1866-1957 Joseph S. DeJarnette was a physician and eugenicist who performed hundreds of involuntary sterilizations at Western State Hospital in Staunton. DeJarnette's early career fit the reform ethos of the Progressive period and he modernized treatment of patients as superintendent of the hospital. He also began to advocate for forced sterilizations, which he believed would improve society. DeJarnette testified in the landmark case Buck v. Bell (1927), in which the U.S. Supreme Court upheld Virginia's sterilization statute. He took pride in the state's aggressive approach to sterilization, but felt the state was not acting fast enough and publicly admired Nazi Germany's more ambitious plan. DeJarnette defended sterilization and racial segregation until his death in 1957. In 2001 the General Assembly denounced and expressed regret over Virginia's eugenics program.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 10:01:06 EST]]>
/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:59:11 EST <![CDATA[Daniels, Edward D. (1828–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Edward D. Daniels was an agricultural reformer, newspaper editor, and an active member of the Republican Party. The Massachusetts-born Daniels worked as a geologist in Wisconsin, helped mount expeditions to establish abolitionist colonies in Kansas, served in the U.S. Army, and was involved in manufacturing in the Midwest before settling in Virginia in 1868, at his doctor's recommendation. That same year he bought Gunston Hall, the onetime home of George Mason, and tried to transform the plantation into a cooperative community of independent farmers and artisans. He hired African American laborers, instructed them in scientific farming techniques, and paid them relatively high wages. The venture was not profitable, however, and he sold the property in 1891, retaining a small piece of land for himself. Daniels extended his ambitions for reform into politics: he edited and published the Richmond Evening State Journal in support of the Republican Party, twice ran for office (and was twice defeated), and supported the nascent Readjusters. Daniels's financial troubles often thwarted his reform efforts, but a primary school for black children that he helped found survived into the 1920s. He died at his farm near Gunston Hall in 1916 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:59:11 EST]]>
/Daniel_Wilbur_Clarence_Dan_1914-1988 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:57:28 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Dan (1914–1988)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Wilbur_Clarence_Dan_1914-1988 Dan Daniel represented Danville in the House of Delegates (1960–1969) and served as representative from Virginia in the United States Congress (1969–1988). Prior to his election to public office, he served as the state and then national commander of the American Legion (1951; 1956), a platform he used to lobby for veterans' rights and benefits. A conservative whose views on integration aligned with those of United States senator Harry F. Byrd Sr., Daniel supported Massive Resistance and voted in favor of keeping the poll tax. During his nineteen years in Congress, he worked to strengthen national defense, supported United States president Richard M. Nixon during the Watergate scandal, and helped write the Omnibus Anti-Drug Act of 1985. On January 19, 1988, Daniel announced that he would not seek reelection to Congress due to his struggle with heart disease. He died four days later of an aortic dissection at the University of Virginia Medical Center in Charlottesville.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:57:28 EST]]>
/Daniel_Raleigh_Travers_1805-1877 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:55:14 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Raleigh T. (1805–1877)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Raleigh_Travers_1805-1877 Raleigh T. Daniel helped establish the Conservative Party in 1867. Daniel spent his antebellum political career as a Whig, winning a House of Delegates seat from Richmond in 1841. The Whig majority in the General Assembly selected Daniel to the first of two terms on the Council of State, a body that advised the governor, in 1845. He supported Constitutional Union candidate John Bell in the 1860 presidential election. After the American Civil War (1861–1865) he sought to promote white supremacy and marshal opposition to Republicans and radicals, especially from newly franchised African Americans. Daniel helped found the Conservative Party in 1867 and sat as its first chair until 1873. He returned to the House of Delegates in 1871 and was elected the state's attorney general two years later. During his four-year term as the Virginia government's top lawyer, he resisted federal efforts to protect African American voting rights.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:55:14 EST]]>
/Corbin_Percy_Casino_1888-1952 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:52:19 EST <![CDATA[Corbin, Percy C. (1888–1952)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Corbin_Percy_Casino_1888-1952 Percy C. Corbin was a civil rights activist. A lawsuit he filed on behalf of his son, Corbin et al. v. County School Board of Pulaski County, Virginia, et al. (1950), led to one of only six successful lawsuits supported by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in its legal campaign to equalize school facilities before Brown v. Board of Education (1954). A Texas native and physician, Corbin established his practice in the town of Pulaski, where he helped combat an influenza outbreak in 1918 and attracted both black and white clients. Corbin fought to equalize school facilities and was active in the local black community. He died in 1952.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:52:19 EST]]>
/Copeland_Walter_Scott_1856-1928 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:50:49 EST <![CDATA[Copeland, Walter S. (1856–1928)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Copeland_Walter_Scott_1856-1928 Walter S. Copeland owned or co-owned important newspapers across Virginia including the Danville Register, Richmond Evening Leader, Roanoke Times, and Newport News Daily Press. Held in high esteem by his journalistic peers, he served four terms as president of the Virginia Press Association. Copeland supported Progressive reforms to improve welfare and education programs for poor whites, which he viewed as necessary for social order. He opposed the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s and supported what later became Hampton University. Yet Copeland became a strong backer of harsh segregation laws in his later years. He joined forces with John Powell, founder of the Anglo-Saxon Clubs, and supported the 1924 Virginia Act to Preserve Racial Integrity. Two years later Copeland and his newspapers crusaded for what became the Massenburg Bill, the strongest segregation law in the United States.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:50:49 EST]]>
/Chappell_John_Taylor_1845-1915 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:48:31 EST <![CDATA[Chappell, John T. (1845–1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chappell_John_Taylor_1845-1915 John T. Chappell was a labor leader who helped guide the Knights of Labor during the organization's peak in Richmond. He served in the Confederate army and navy during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and later recounted his wartime experiences in a nonheroic style that focused on the common soldier. While working as a carriage painter after the war Chappell joined both fraternal and labor organizations. By the mid-1880s he emerged as a leader of the Knights of Labor in Richmond. Elected a city alderman in 1886, he and other white progressives allied themselves with African Americans whose interests were increasingly associated with the Knights of Labor. He was also instrumental in opening membership in the Knights' building association to African Americans. The labor union's power eventually declined locally and nationally, however, as the Knights divided along lines of race, occupational skill, and religion. Chappell remained with the Knights until the local withdrew from the national organization and became the Socialist Educational Club of Richmond in 1898. Chappell died suddenly of an aneurysm in 1915.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:48:31 EST]]>
/Carpenter_Miles_Burkholder_1889-1985 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:44:24 EST <![CDATA[Carpenter, Miles B. (1889–1985)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carpenter_Miles_Burkholder_1889-1985 Miles B. Carpenter was a prominent twentieth-century folk artist. In 1912 Carpenter purchased a factory in the Sussex County town of Waverly, which he turned into a lumber mill. He later added a sawmill and ice business to his enterprise. Carpenter began woodcarving in 1941 but had little time to spend on his work until he closed his lumber mill in the 1950s. The artist began sculpting animals and then people, utilizing both whittling and assemblage. By the 1970s Carpenter's work drew the attention of collectors, and he began exhibiting his works in one-man shows. His autobiography Cutting the Mustard was published in 1982.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:44:24 EST]]>
/Campbell_Preston_White_1874-1954 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:42:53 EST <![CDATA[Campbell, Preston W. (1874–1954)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Campbell_Preston_White_1874-1954 Preston W. Campbell was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902, commonwealth's attorney for Washington County (1911–1914), a judge of the Twenty-third Circuit (1914–1924), and a judge on the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals (1924–1946), serving as the court's chief justice from 1931 until his retirement. Born in Abingdon, Campbell studied law there and practiced in the town for fourteen years. At the Convention of 1901–1902, called in large part to disenfranchise Virginia's blacks and poor whites, he supported the depoliticizing of county school superintendents but spoke little during the proceedings. As a Supreme Court justice he penned 528 opinions, the most memorable of which was his solo dissent in Staples v. Gilmer (1945). Campbell argued that in calling a constitutional convention, the General Assembly could not place limits on what the delegates considered. Campbell retired from the bench in 1946 and died in 1954.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:42:53 EST]]>
/Cameron_William_Evelyn_1842-1927 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:41:05 EST <![CDATA[Cameron, William E. (1842–1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cameron_William_Evelyn_1842-1927 William E. Cameron was a veteran of the American Civil War (1861–1865), a journalist, a governor of Virginia (1882–1886), and a member of the Convention of 1901–1902. Cameron served in the Confederate army during the war, then worked as a journalist in Petersburg and Richmond, supporting the Conservative Party. Beginning in 1876, he was elected to three consecutive two-year terms as the mayor of Petersburg. Later in the 1870s he began to side with the Readjusters, a faction that sought to adjust the payment of Virginia's prewar debt. He won the governorship as a nominee of the Readjuster-Republican coalition in 1881. Cameron and the Readjusters issued a series of reforms, including repealing the poll tax, but his aggressive use of political patronage angered voters and his opponents. The revived Democratic Party, capitalizing on white supremacy and the electorate's unease over Cameron's tactics, took over the General Assembly in 1883. Cameron left politics after completing his term, but was elected in 1901 to a state constitutional convention. He played an influential role, advocating provisions that strengthened the governor's authority to discharge subordinate officials; defending legislative election of judges; and supporting reinstating the poll tax and other restrictions that disfranchised African American voters. Cameron returned to journalism in 1906, editing the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot until 1919. He died in Louisa County in 1927.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:41:05 EST]]>
/Butts_Evelyn_Thomas_1924-1993 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:38:31 EST <![CDATA[Butts, Evelyn Thomas (1924–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Butts_Evelyn_Thomas_1924-1993 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:38:31 EST]]> /Button_Robert_Young_1899-1977 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:32:31 EST <![CDATA[Button, Robert Y. (1899–1977)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Button_Robert_Young_1899-1977 Robert Y. Button was Virginia's attorney general from 1962 to 1970. The Culpeper native was among the many small-town attorneys who contributed to the success of Harry F. Byrd Sr.'s Democratic political machine. Button served for fifteen years in the Senate of Virginia, where he backed the Byrd Organization's policies of Massive Resistance and fiscal conservatism. During his two terms as attorney general his office defended Virginia's racial segregation laws, legislative reapportionment, voter registration procedures, and the poll tax. Most notably, his assistants lost in the landmark cases Griffin et al. v. County School Board of Prince Edward County et al. (1964), which invalidated the practice of closing county schools and funding private segregated academies, and Loving v. Virginia (1967), which invalidated Virginia's law against interracial marriages.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:32:31 EST]]>
/Butt_Israel_LaFayette_1848-1916 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:30:20 EST <![CDATA[Butt, Israel L. (1848–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Butt_Israel_LaFayette_1848-1916 Israel L. Butt played a key role in expanding and overseeing the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Virginia during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Born in Norfolk County, Butt escaped slavery and joined the Union army, where he learned to read and underwent a religious experience. He was ordained in 1881 and graduated with a theology degree from what later became Hampton University. Butt ministered and oversaw different districts of the denomination. Through his work, he became a school principal and served as a trustee or board member of educational institutions in Virginia, North Carolina, and Ohio. Butt researched and wrote History of African Methodism in Virginia, or Four Decades in the Old Dominion, which was published in 1908.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:30:20 EST]]>
/Burch_Thomas_Granville_1869-1951 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:24:44 EST <![CDATA[Burch, T. G. (1869–1951)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burch_Thomas_Granville_1869-1951 T. G. Burch was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1931–1946) and briefly served in the U.S. Senate (1946). As a congressman he represented an eight-county district in southern Virginia along the North Carolina border. Reapportionment added a ninth county beginning with the 74th Congress. A colleague of the conservative Democratic U.S. senator Harry F. Byrd, Burch was briefly considered by Byrd and his advisers as a gubernatorial candidate for the 1937 election; however, Burch's unorthodox plan for teacher pay upset the Byrd Organization, which removed him from the inner circle of Virginia politics.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:24:44 EST]]>
/Buck_Carrie_Elizabeth_1906-1983 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:23:07 EST <![CDATA[Buck, Carrie (1906–1983)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Buck_Carrie_Elizabeth_1906-1983 Carrie Buck was the first person involuntarily sterilized under Virginia's eugenics laws. In 1920 her mother was diagnosed as feebleminded—a diagnosis based less on a medical finding than on the doctors' perception of her sexual behavior—and committed to the Virginia State Colony for Epileptics and Feeble-Minded in Lynchburg. Buck moved in with a foster family and in 1923 became pregnant, claiming that the foster family's nephew raped her. The teenager was similarly deemed epileptic and feebleminded and placed at the colony after she gave birth in 1924. The colony's superintendent decided to use Buck as a test case for the state's new sterilization law. In Buck v. Bell (1927), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Virginia's law was constitutional and that Buck should be sterilized. Her sterilization was the first of approximately 8,300 performed under state law between 1927 and 1972. After her release from the colony Buck, in sharp contrast to her diagnosis, lived an active life until her death in 1983.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:23:07 EST]]>
/Brown_Thomas_Henry_1864-1952 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:20:21 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Thomas H. (1864–1952)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Thomas_Henry_1864-1952 Thomas H. Brown was a civic leader of African American communities in Petersburg and Hopewell. A child laborer, Brown worked his way up the social and financial ladder by joining civic associations and learning the undertaker's trade. In 1893, he organized the People's Memorial Cemetery Association to save Petersburg's African American cemetery from deteriorating conditions and a possible foreclosure. Brown opened a funeral home in Hopewell about 1916 and remained involved with the locality during its World War I boom years. He was a civic leader in Petersburg and across the state for the rest of his life, continuing his involvement with the cemetery. The burial ground fell into disrepair after his death in 1952 but was revived after Petersburg took possession of it in 1986. Four years later People's Memorial Cemetery formally opened as a city-owned historic site.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:20:21 EST]]>
/Brown_Edward_Wellington_d_1929 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:18:00 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Edward W. (d. 1929)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Edward_Wellington_d_1929 Edward W. Brown was a politician, editor, and minister. Born into slavery, he became his church's clerk at age twelve and later taught school in Prince George County. Brown was among the last successful African American politicians in the nineteenth century, serving as the county's commissioner of revenue from 1887 to 1895. He moved to Richmond the year after he left office, where he worked for the Grand Fountain United Order of True Reformers, a fraternal beneficiary organization. Eventually becoming editor of its weekly newspaper, the Reformer, Brown promoted the order's various enterprises while condemning the new segregation laws. The organization's finances collapsed in 1910, causing the removal of its officers. Brown became a Baptist preacher, but left the ministry in the mid-1920s to join his son's real estate and insurance agency in Norfolk. He died in 1929.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:18:00 EST]]>
/Brooks_Albert_Royal_c_1817-1881 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:13:41 EST <![CDATA[Brooks, Albert R. (c. 1817–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brooks_Albert_Royal_c_1817-1881 Albert R. Brooks was a Richmond businessman who thrived before the American Civil War (1861–1865) despite his enslavement. In the antebellum years Brooks took advantage of the common though illegal practice of earning wages for his work, which he then invested in an eating house and a prosperous hack and livery stable. Between 1862 and 1865 Brooks managed to purchase his freedom, his wife's, and that of most of their children. After the war Brooks became a community leader. He helped halt the revival of slavery-era pass laws that governed African American movement in the city and sat on the racially mixed jury that considered Jefferson Davis's treason charges. He was also active in the state's nascent Republican Party. Brooks retreated from political activity in 1868, possibly worried that his white customers would boycott his businesses, but continued to support universal suffrage, equal justice, public education, black uplift, and civil rights. Brooks died in 1881 and is probably buried in Richmond's Union Mechanics Cemetery.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:13:41 EST]]>
/Bristow_Joseph_Allen_1838-1903 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:11:33 EST <![CDATA[Bristow, Joseph A. (1838–1903)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bristow_Joseph_Allen_1838-1903 Joseph A. Bristow was a Republican member of the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902. The Middlesex County Confederate veteran developed an interest in oyster harvesting and took out a patent for deepwater tongs with an associate. He joined the Republican Party and later supported the Readjusters who wished to reduce the antebellum state debt. Becoming one of Readjuster leader William Mahone's chief local organizers, Bristow remained the most important Republican in the county for more than thirty years. After unsuccessful attempts at being elected a presidential elector and a congressman, he won a seat to the state constitutional convention from the district of Essex and Middlesex counties. One of only a dozen Republicans in the convention and the only one from east of the mountains, he voted against the restrictive voter-registration provisions that the convention adopted and against the adoption of the constitution. Bristow's resolution that naturally occurring oyster beds be held as a public trust did evolve into a section of the new constitution.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:11:33 EST]]>
/Braxton_Carter_Moore_1836-1898 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:05:20 EST <![CDATA[Braxton, Carter M. (1836–1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Braxton_Carter_Moore_1836-1898 Carter M. Braxton was a civil engineer, businessman, and a Confederate artillery officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). A Norfolk native, he fought in the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia's major campaigns, from the Seven Days' Battles outside Richmond in 1862 to the Gettysburg Campaign in 1863 and the Overland Campaign in 1864. One account claimed that he had seven horses shot from under him, but he was never wounded in the fighting. Following the war, he published a map of the battlefield at Fredericksburg. In June 1866 Braxton became president of the Fredericksburg and Gordonsville Railroad, and later formed his own engineering construction firm, Braxton, Chandler, and Marye, in Newport News. Braxton also founded a railway company and was vice president of both a bank and a gas company. He died of Bright's disease in Newport News in 1898.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:05:20 EST]]>
/Bragg_George_Freeman_1863-1940 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:02:48 EST <![CDATA[Bragg, George F. (1863–1940)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bragg_George_Freeman_1863-1940 George F. Bragg was born into slavery and later became a journalist and Episcopal minister. Dismissed from divinity school, he began his public career working for Readjuster leader William Mahone and establishing the weekly Petersburg Lancet. Bragg left politics in 1884 after divisiveness within the Readjuster Party. He returned to the seminary in 1885 and a few years later took over a struggling Norfolk congregation. Within five years he turned it into a self-supporting church. In 1888 he was ordained a priest at Saint Luke's Episcopal Church in Norfolk, making him only the twelfth black Episcopal priest in the United States. Bragg moved to Baltimore, Maryland, in 1891 where he revived another church, edited a monthly newspaper, the Church Advocate, and wrote books and pamphlets. He died in Baltimore in 1940.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:02:48 EST]]>
/Bowden_Thomas_Russell_1841-1893 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:59:56 EST <![CDATA[Bowden, Thomas R. (1841–1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowden_Thomas_Russell_1841-1893 Thomas R. Bowden served as Virginia's attorney general from 1863 to 1869, first under the Restored government of Virginia and then, after the American Civil War (1861–1865), under the postwar government of Virginia. Bowden was a member of a prominent Unionist family in Williamsburg that left the town along with Union troops in 1862. The next year he won election as attorney general for the part of Virginia recognized by the United States. When the Confederacy collapsed in Virginia, he moved to Richmond and served as attorney general for the state. He and the rest of the Republican ticket lost in 1869 and soon thereafter he moved to Washington, D.C. He died in 1893.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:59:56 EST]]>
/Bland_James_William_D_1844-1870 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:52:25 EST <![CDATA[Bland, J. W. D. (1844–1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_James_William_D_1844-1870 J. W. D. Bland was a highly respected African American politician during his brief career. Born free and educated, voters in Appomattox and Prince Edward counties elected him one of their delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868. He served on three major committees and reached out to conservative whites by opposing test oaths and disfranchisement for former Confederates. He was elected to the Senate of Virginia in 1869, where he became a conciliatory figure in a racially volatile era. Focusing on education, he sponsored a successful bill that established Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University). The next year Bland was among a large crowd attending a session of the Supreme Court of Appeals in the State Capitol. The floor collapsed, killing him and about sixty other observers.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:52:25 EST]]>
/Bland_Edward_David_1848-1927 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:49:12 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Edward D. (1848–1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Edward_David_1848-1927 Edward D. Bland served three terms in the House of Delegates and played a role in maintaining the volatile coalition between the Republicans and Readjusters. Bland was born a slave and eventually settled in Prince George County as a shoemaker. Known for his speaking, he became involved in local Republican politics. He advocated the alliance between his party and the Readjusters, and he ran for the General Assembly in 1879 with nomination of the former and de facto backing of the latter. The unwieldy partnership dominated Virginia politics for four years, and Bland won reelection in 1881 and again in 1883 even though a white supremacy campaign helped cause the Readjusters to collapse. He declined reelection for a fourth term, but remained a Republican organizer in the area. He died on his farm in Prince George County in 1927. In 1954, a housing project in Hopewell was named in his honor.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:49:12 EST]]>
/Blair_Robert_William_1873-1924 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:46:24 EST <![CDATA[Blair, Robert W. (1873–1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_Robert_William_1873-1924 Robert W. Blair was one of the few Republicans who served in the Convention of 1901–1902, opposing the new constitution's strict restrictions on voting rights for African Americans and lower-income whites. Blair began his legal career working with his father, Francis S. Blair, a former attorney general of Virginia. He soon became the chairman of Wythe County's Republican Party. He ran for the locality's seat in the convention, winning by twenty-three votes. Blair and the eleven other members of his party had little influence as the new state government was formed by the overwhelming Democratic majority. The Republicans nominated Blair for lieutenant governor in 1901, but he withdrew his candidacy since he was too young to hold the position. About five years later his work took him out of state, and he settled in the Detroit area and drowned in the Detroit River in 1924.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:46:24 EST]]>
/Blair_Lewis_Harvie_1834-1916 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:37:15 EST <![CDATA[Blair, Lewis H. (1834–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_Lewis_Harvie_1834-1916 Lewis . Blair, a Richmond businessman and economics expert, authored The Prosperity of the South Dependent upon the Elevation of the Negro (1889), a book that called on white southerners to treat African Americans with respect and offer them quality education. Blair hailed from a prominent family and worked as an army clerk in Texas and Michigan and a dry goods clerk in Richmond. His record during the American Civil War (1861–1865) was undistinguished, but after the conflict he excelled in business. Blair started a grocery business in Richmond and owned one of the largest real-estate businesses in the city. In addition, he became a respected writer on economic issues and was outspoken on the question of race relations. In Blair's mind, the two were related: the fair treatment and education of African Americans would improve the economic outlook of the South. Such views were more well received nationally than in Richmond, and in later years Blair reversed his stance, arguing that blacks should be subordinate to whites. He wrote privately that this change was the result of "experience and observation." Blair married twice and died in Richmond in 1916. He is buried in Hollywood Cemetery.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:37:15 EST]]>
/Blair_Francis_Simpson_1839-1899 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:35:05 EST <![CDATA[Blair, Francis S. (1839–1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_Francis_Simpson_1839-1899 Francis S. Blair helped found the short-lived Readjuster Party and served as Virginia's attorney general from 1882 to 1886. A veteran of the American Civil War (1861–1865), he established himself as a successful attorney in Wytheville. Blair, who preferred to be called Frank, entered politics as a populist. He clashed with the state's conservative political establishment, enthusiastically attacking foes for their strict plan to pay Virginia's pre–Civil War debt and their campaign to drive African Americans out of politics. The Readjusters, a coalition of reform-minded Democrats, Republicans, and black voters, sought to readjust the way the state paid its deficit. The new political force nominated Blair for attorney general in 1881. He was the leading vote-getter for the victorious ticket, and the party accomplished all of its main goals almost immediately. The quick success undermined the Readjusters' long-term future, and Blair lost his reelection bid in 1885. He returned to Wytheville and died in 1899.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:35:05 EST]]>
/Black_Aline_Elizabeth_1906-1974 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:30:56 EST <![CDATA[Black, Aline E. (1906–1974)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Aline_Elizabeth_1906-1974 Aline E. Black was a teacher known primarily as a principal in a civil rights court case. A graduate of what became Virginia State University, Black began teaching science in Norfolk city schools in 1924. As an African American, she received a substantially smaller salary than a comparably qualified white teacher. In 1939 she agreed to be the plaintiff in a lawsuit filed in Norfolk to challenge this double standard. The school board fired Black in retaliation for her suit, but another plaintiff continued the case and in 1940 the United States Supreme Court upheld a lower court's ruling that teacher salaries were protected by the Fourteenth Amendment. Black was rehired by the school board in 1941. She continued to teach in Norfolk until her retirement in 1973; she died a year later.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:30:56 EST]]>
/Bell_John_Hendren_1883-1934 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:29:12 EST <![CDATA[Bell, John H. (1883–1934)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bell_John_Hendren_1883-1934 John H. Bell was a prominent eugenicist and physician in Virginia. A member of the American Medical Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Virginia Academy of Science, and the Medical Society of Virginia, Bell advocated the forced sterilization of people believed to be incompetent. Appointed superintendent of the State Colony for Epileptics and Feeble-Minded, in Lynchburg, Bell became a principal in the lawsuit arranged by the former superintendent to test Virginia's 1924 legislation allowing for forced sterilization. Carrie Elizabeth Buck, a patient at the colony, had been selected for the test case. In its landmark ruling in Buck v. Bell, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of Virginia's law. Bell performed the operation on Buck himself. Bell continued to produce pamphlets defending eugenics until his death.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:29:12 EST]]>
/Banks_William_Lester_1911-1986 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:27:31 EST <![CDATA[Banks, W. Lester (1911–1986)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Banks_William_Lester_1911-1986 W. Lester Banks was a civil rights activist. Born in Lunenburg County, Banks served as a school principal in Halifax and Charles City counties before seeing action in the Pacific during World War II (1939–1945). Embarking on a long career to combat segregation in 1943, Banks became the first executive secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's Virginia State Conference in 1947. Working behind the scenes, Banks played a significant role in the desegregation of Virginia schools and other public facilities. He retired in 1976 and the following year moved to California, where he died in 1986.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:27:31 EST]]>
/Atwell_Joseph_Sandiford_1831-1881 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:20:50 EST <![CDATA[Atwell, Joseph S. (1831–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Atwell_Joseph_Sandiford_1831-1881 Joseph S. Atwell was the first black Episcopal priest in the Diocese of Virginia. The Barbados-born Atwell graduated from the Philadelphia Divinity School in 1866. The following year the Diocese of Kentucky named him its first black deacon. In 1868 the Virginia Episcopal Church's governing body recruited Atwell to preside over Saint Stephen's Church in Petersburg, ordaining him a priest the following year. Though he helped his church grow in size and wealth, he chafed under restrictions that put his ministry under the Committee on Colored Congregations. In 1873 he left Virginia for Saint Stephen's Church of Savannah, Georgia, and eventually took over historic Saint Philip's Church in New York City. He died there in 1881.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:20:50 EST]]>
/Anderson_Joseph_Reid_1813-1892 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:17:17 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, Joseph R. (1813–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_Joseph_Reid_1813-1892 Joseph R. Anderson was an iron manufacturer and Confederate army officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). In 1848 he purchased the Tredegar Iron Company, the largest producer of munitions, cannon, railroad iron, steam engines, and other ordnance for the Confederate government during the Civil War. One of Anderson's most notable decisions was to introduce slaves into skilled industrial work at the ironworks, and by 1864, more than half the workers at Tredegar were bondsmen. Anderson served as a brigadier general for the Confederate army, and fought and was wounded during the Seven Days' Battles. He resigned his commission in the Confederate Army in 1862 to resume control of the ironworks, and after the war, Anderson was a strong proponent for peace, hoping to keep the Union army from taking possession of the ironworks. He failed, but regained control of Tredegar after he was pardoned by U.S. president Andrew Johnson in 1865. By 1873 Anderson had doubled the factory's prewar capacity, and its labor force exceeded 1,000 men, many of them black laborers and skilled workmen who received equal pay with white workers. Though Tredegar failed to make the transition from iron to steel production late in the nineteenth century, the company survived into the 1980s. Anderson was a well-known member of the Richmond community, serving multiple terms on the Richmond City Council and in the House of Delegates before and after the war.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:17:17 EST]]>
/Aiken_Archibald_Murphey_1888-1971 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:14:40 EST <![CDATA[Aiken, Archibald M. (1888–1971)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Aiken_Archibald_Murphey_1888-1971 Archibald M. Aiken was a lawyer and judge of the Danville Corporation Court who opposed desegregation. During the Danville civil rights protests of 1963 Aiken gained national notoriety after confronting the demonstrators and issuing an injunction to ban most forms of public protest in the city. He convened a special grand jury, which indicted three protest leaders for conspiring to incite "the colored population of the State to acts of violence and war against the white population." Controversial, stubborn, and outspoken, Aiken continued to fight against integration throughout the 1960s. He died of a heart attack in 1971.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:14:40 EST]]>
/Carver_William_d_1676 Thu, 29 Oct 2015 07:51:39 EST <![CDATA[Carver, William (d. 1676)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carver_William_d_1676 Thu, 29 Oct 2015 07:51:39 EST]]> /Indentured_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Wed, 28 Oct 2015 15:08:38 EST <![CDATA[Indentured Servants in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indentured_Servants_in_Colonial_Virginia Indentured servants were men and women who signed a contract (also known as an indenture or a covenant) by which they agreed to work for a certain number of years in exchange for transportation to Virginia and, once they arrived, food, clothing, and shelter. Adults usually served for four to seven years and children sometimes for much longer, with most working in the colony's tobacco fields. With a long history in England, indentured servitude became, during most of the seventeenth century, the primary means by which Virginia planters filled their nearly inexhaustible need for labor. At first, the Virginia Company of London paid to transport servants across the Atlantic, but with the institution of the headright system in 1618, the company enticed planters and merchants to incur the cost with the promise of land. As a result, servants flooded into the colony, where they were greeted by deadly diseases and often-harsh conditions that killed a majority of newcomers and left the rest to the mercy of sometimes-cruel masters. The General Assembly passed laws regulating contract terms, as well as the behavior and treatment of servants. Besides benefiting masters with long indentures, these laws limited servant rights while still allowing servants to present any complaints in court. By the end of the seventeenth century, the number of new servants in Virginia had dwindled, and the colony's labor needs were largely met by enslaved Africans.
Wed, 28 Oct 2015 15:08:38 EST]]>
/Beach_S_Ferguson_1828-1893 Wed, 28 Oct 2015 15:00:03 EST <![CDATA[Beach, S. Ferguson (1828–1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beach_S_Ferguson_1828-1893 S. Ferguson Beach was a member of the Convention of 1864 and a U.S. attorney. Born in Connecticut, he taught school before moving to Alexandria, where he opened a law practice. During the American Civil War (1861–1865) Beach was an outspoken Unionist. In 1864 he was one of seventeen delegates, and the only attorney, elected to the Convention of 1864, called by the Restored government to draft a new state constitution. Although records indicate that he was a slave holder himself in 1860, Beach voted in favor of a provision to abolish slavery. Later that year Beach argued in court that, according to Virginia law, an African American should not be allowed to testify against his white client. Beach's political views tended in favor of African American civil rights, however, and after the war he became a Republican. In 1868, President Andrew Johnson appointed Beach U.S. attorney for the district of Virginia, and in that position he successfully argued before the U.S. Supreme Court on behalf of former Confederates whose property had been seized and auctioned during the Civil War. These cases helped force the federal government to pay the family of Robert E. Lee for the seized Arlington estate. Beach died in Baltimore in 1893.
Wed, 28 Oct 2015 15:00:03 EST]]>
/Anderson_Sherwood_1876-1941 Wed, 28 Oct 2015 09:27:38 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, Sherwood (1876–1941)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_Sherwood_1876-1941 Sherwood Anderson was a poet, novelist, essayist, businessman, and newspaper editor most often associated with the American Midwest. His notable collection of related short stories, Winesburg, Ohio (1919), examined small-town life in the late 1800s. Anderson moved in the highest of American literary circles, entertaining—and to some extent even influencing—such writers as William Faulkner (about whom Anderson wrote the short story "A Meeting South") and Ernest Hemingway, who parodied Anderson in his debut novel The Torrents of Spring (1926). Anderson moved to southwestern Virginia in 1926, where he spent the rest of his years chronicling life in the depression-era South.
Wed, 28 Oct 2015 09:27:38 EST]]>
/Pickett_s_Charge Wed, 28 Oct 2015 08:45:14 EST <![CDATA[Pickett's Charge]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pickett_s_Charge Pickett's Charge was the climax of the Battle of Gettysburg (1863), and one of the most famous infantry attacks of the American Civil War (1861–1865). Lasting about an hour on the afternoon of July 3, 1863, it pitted 12,000 Confederates—including three brigades of Virginians under George E. Pickett—against half that number of Union troops. On July 2, Robert E. Lee had unsuccessfully attacked the Union flanks; in what even some of his own men perceived as a desperate gambit, he now attacked the center, asking his troops to cross an open field nearly three-quarters of a mile long. They were bloodily repulsed, losing half their number. Controversy resulted, as Confederate veterans struggled to lay claim to honor and glory, pitting Virginians against North Carolinians in efforts to explain why the attack had failed. Many Southerners came to believe the charge represented the "High Water Mark" of Confederate hopes for independence, a view cultivated by proponents of the Lost Cause interpretation of the Civil War. Meanwhile, twentieth-century popular culture transformed Pickett into a soldier as "gallant and graceful as a knight of chivalry riding to a tournament," in the words of his wife, LaSalle Corbell Pickett. And films like Gettysburg (1993) glorified the attack even while historians continued to debate Lee's decision, sometimes comparing it to Union general Ulysses S. Grant's equally futile attacks at Cold Harbor in Hanover County in 1864.
Wed, 28 Oct 2015 08:45:14 EST]]>
/Labor_in_Virginia_During_the_Twentieth_Century Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:46:12 EST <![CDATA[Labor in Virginia during the Twentieth Century]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Labor_in_Virginia_During_the_Twentieth_Century The history of labor in Virginia during the twentieth century reflects both the ever-changing nature of the workplace and the endurance of Virginians' long-held ideas about race, culture, and work. These powerful forces profoundly affected the choices and fortunes of workingmen and -women, black and white. They influenced hiring, wages, and seniority. They shaped the organization and evolution of companies and labor unions alike. And, like Virginia, they changed as the twenty-first century approached. One idea proved especially durable. It was the belief that the necessary maintenance of the social, political, and economic status quo depended on a combination of unorganized, low-wage labor and racial segregation, if not outright white supremacy. Employee and employer alike often embraced this antiunion, pro-apartheid approach to the age of industrialization and it shaped the development of the southern workforce. In Virginia, the vestiges of that ideology survived for most of the twentieth century.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:46:12 EST]]>
/Poverty_and_Poor_Relief_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:41:24 EST <![CDATA[Poverty and Poor Relief during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Poverty_and_Poor_Relief_During_the_Civil_War Poverty and poor relief, especially in times of acute food shortages, were major challenges facing Virginia and Confederate authorities during the American Civil War (1861–1865). At first, most Confederates were confident that hunger would not be a problem for their nation. Southern farms and black slaves were expected to produce ample quantities of food while white men fought to secure independence. The reality, however, was quite different. The suffering of soldiers' families and the lower classes in cities resulted in a bread riot in the Confederate capital at Richmond, stimulated desertion from the army, and threatened the entire war effort. Governments at the local, state, and federal level responded with unprecedented efforts to control prices, supply provisions, and ease suffering, and yet neither the Confederate government nor the Virginia state government found a way to take effective action against inflation, speculation, or extortion. Direct relief, free markets, city-sponsored stores, and other innovative measures came into being. Nevertheless, these efforts proved inadequate, and the very idea of being dependent on charity was unsatisfactory to the yeoman class. Consequently, the problems of poverty seriously undermined the war effort in Virginia and throughout the Confederacy.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:41:24 EST]]>
/Newspapers_in_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War_Confederate Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:40:28 EST <![CDATA[Newspapers in Virginia during the Civil War, Confederate]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Newspapers_in_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War_Confederate Confederate newspapers in Virginia during the American Civil War (1861–1865) served as vital, if often flawed, sources of reporting on the conflict, as organs of national propaganda, and as venues in which to attack or defend the administration of Confederate president Jefferson Davis. At the start of the war, nearly every town in Virginia boasted a newspaper, with four dailies in Richmond alone. (A fifth began publishing in 1863.) These papers were staunchly partisan: the Richmond Enquirer endorsed the Democratic Party, the Richmond Whig cheered on the largely defunct Whig Party, and the Staunton Vindicator endorsed secession. During the war, they updated their readers on the Confederacy's military progress and relied on Northern papers when their own reporting failed. Along with its rivals, the Enquirer trumpeted victories and downplayed defeats, blurring the line between news and propaganda. The Richmond Examiner, meanwhile, under the editorship of John M. Daniel, became the loudest organ of dissent in the Confederate capital, its criticisms of President Davis turning more intense and more personal as the war dragged on. Propaganda from Virginia newspapers helped prop up Southern spirits early in the war, and it is likely that their political attacks eventually helped depress Confederate morale.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:40:28 EST]]>
/Wilderness_During_the_Civil_War_The Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:32:53 EST <![CDATA[Wilderness during the Civil War, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wilderness_During_the_Civil_War_The The Wilderness of Spotsylvania was a tightly forested area nearly twelve miles wide by six miles long; it was located south of the Rappahannock and Rapidan rivers, ten miles west of Fredericksburg, in Spotsylvania County, Virginia. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), two major battles were fought there: Chancellorsville, in May 1863, where Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson famously outflanked Union forces under Joseph Hooker; and the Wilderness, in May 1864, where the Union's new general-in-chief, Ulysses S. Grant, initiated the Overland Campaign. The topography of the Wilderness—dense woods and thick undergrowth broken up by a number of small clearings—made the maneuvering of large armies particularly difficult and the experience of fighting claustrophobic. In both battles, burst shells ignited the woods, burning wounded soldiers. At Chancellorsville, Jackson was killed by a volley from his own men and, a year later, Confederate general James Longstreet was wounded, also by friendly fire.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:32:53 EST]]>
/Washington_College_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:31:45 EST <![CDATA[Washington College during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_College_During_the_Civil_War Washington College in Lexington, Rockbridge County, Virginia, was a small but lively liberal arts college in the Shenandoah Valley. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), its students largely supported Virginia's secession from the Union while its older faculty members, including the Presbyterian clergyman Dr. George Junkin, the father-in-law of future Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, were staunch Unionists. A company of infantry formed at the school became part of the Stonewall Brigade. In June 1864, during the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864, Union general David Hunter entered Lexington and ransacked the college. In an effort to rejuvenate the college following the war, the Board of Trustees hired former Confederate general Robert E. Lee to serve as college president, which he did until his death in 1870.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:31:45 EST]]>
/Virginia_Soldiers_Confederate_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:30:42 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Soldiers (Confederate) during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Soldiers_Confederate_During_the_Civil_War Approximately 155,000 Virginia men served in Confederate forces during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Another 32,000 served in Union forces; most of these came from the counties that today comprise the state of West Virginia, while a number of West Virginia troops were recruited from the neighboring states of Ohio and Pennsylvania. The total number of men eligible for military service in the state was 224,000. When those areas of Union-controlled Virginia are subtracted, the total drops to 174,000, making the enlistment rate in Confederate Virginia 89 percent. This represents a remarkable mobilization of resources and demonstrates how the Civil War represented an all-consuming experience for those who lived through it. Virginia sent more men to fight for the Confederacy than did any other state. Though Virginia soldiers served in all branches and participated in all theaters of war, a significant majority of them fought within the boundaries of their own state.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:30:42 EST]]>
/Unionism_in_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:29:09 EST <![CDATA[Unionism in Virginia during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Unionism_in_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War Unionists in Virginia supported the United States government during the secession crisis, the American Civil War (1861–1865), or both. Representing a minority of white Virginians and an overwhelming majority of both free and enslaved African Americans, Unionists articulated their beliefs through a range of actions. Some explicitly supported the ideals of the Union; others defined their Unionism as a rejection of slavery. Many Virginians feared the economic consequences of secession, while African Americans saw Unionism as an opportunity for personal liberty. Just prior to the war, Unionism had been particularly strong in Virginia, but by the time the question of secession was put to a referendum, Unionist influence had declined sharply. Most Unionists lived in the state's western counties, although their antipathy to secession had less to do with slavery than with the undemocratic political advantages enjoyed by slave owners. Unionists flourished in Union-occupied areas of Northern Virginia and fought guerrilla actions in Southwest Virginia. Ethnicity and religion played an important role in formulating Unionist or anti-Confederate actions, with pacifist Germans sometimes refusing to serve in the Confederate armed forces. In Richmond, Unionists formed a spy network, and across the state slaves deprived the Confederacy of critical labor by running away. All of these efforts contributed to the eventual Confederate defeat.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:29:09 EST]]>
/Potomac_River_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:28:05 EST <![CDATA[Potomac River during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Potomac_River_During_the_Civil_War The Potomac River, which is located in Maryland with Virginia on its southern shore, extends 383 miles from the Appalachian Mountains to the Chesapeake Bay and serves as the geographical boundary between the states of Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia, and the District of Columbia. From the colonial period until well into the nineteenth century, it was an important navigation route and helped facilitate exploration inland from the coast. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Potomac traced the border between the Union and the Confederacy and lent its name to the most important Union army, the Army of the Potomac. Throughout the war, the river functioned largely as it always had—as an avenue for transport.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:28:05 EST]]>
/Gordonsville_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:26:49 EST <![CDATA[Gordonsville during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gordonsville_During_the_Civil_War Gordonsville, Virginia, in Orange and Louisa counties, was founded as a stop on a stagecoach route and the site of a tavern. By the time of the American Civil War (1861–1865), it was a key railroad stop connecting the Shenandoah Valley and the Confederate capital at Richmond, and as such, it attracted attention from both Confederate and Union troops. The Exchange Hotel in Gordonsville was also used by the Confederacy as an important military hospital.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:26:49 EST]]>
/Virginia_Military_Institute_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:25:22 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Military Institute during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Military_Institute_During_the_Civil_War The Virginia Military Institute (VMI) is a state-funded military academy founded in 1839. Located in the Shenandoah Valley town of Lexington, it was only the second governmental military academy in the United States, after the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York (founded in 1802), and represented increased educational opportunity for non-elite southern men. Future Confederate generals Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and John McCausland were VMI instructors during John Brown's raid on the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry in 1859, and they led cadets to his execution in Charles Town, where they helped to provide security. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), approximately 1,800 VMI graduates served (including 19 in the U.S. Army), with about 250 of them killed in action. Cadets famously were called to fight in the Battle of New Market, contributing to the Confederate victory on May 15, 1864. In June, Union general David Hunter ordered the school burned, and the cadets relocated to Richmond, where they helped to defend the Confederate capital.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:25:22 EST]]>
/Lexington_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:23:59 EST <![CDATA[Lexington during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lexington_During_the_Civil_War The town of Lexington is the seat of Rockbridge County in the Shenandoah Valley. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), it was home to Washington College (now Washington and Lee University) and the Virginia Military Institute. Although not of great strategic importance, the town nevertheless smoldered in the atmosphere of war long before many other Virginian communities felt the conflict. In November 1859, a detachment of its resident corps of cadets from the Virginia Military Institute was deployed to Charles Town (in what is now West Virginia) to provide security at the execution of the infamous John Brown for his raid on Harpers Ferry. Unionist sentiments prevailed, however, until U.S. president Abraham Lincoln's call for troops, when many of Lexington's male citizens enlisted in service of the Confederate States of America. Events such as the burial of Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and Union general David Hunter's fiery raid brought the quiet mountain town momentary attention from the wider world, but the demands of the Civil War also siphoned its resources on a daily basis.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:23:59 EST]]>
/Convict_Labor_During_the_Colonial_Period Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:14:45 EST <![CDATA[Convict Labor during the Colonial Period]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Convict_Labor_During_the_Colonial_Period In 1615, English courts began to send convicts to the colonies as a way of alleviating England's large criminal population. This practice was unpopular in the colonies and by 1697 colonial ports refused to accept convict ships. In response, Parliament passed the Transportation Act of 1718 to create a more systematic way to export convicts. Instead of relying on merchants to make arrangements on their own to ship felons to the colonies, the British government subsidized the shipment of convicts through a network of merchants, giving a contract for the service to one individual at a time. Between 1700 and 1775, approximately 52,200 convicts sailed for the colonies, more than 20,000 of them to Virginia. Most of these convicts landed and were settled along the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers. Although many were unskilled and thus put to work in agriculture, particularly tobacco production, others with skills were sold to tradesmen, shipbuilders, and iron manufacturers, and for other similar occupations. Convict laborers could be purchased for a lower price than indentured white or enslaved African laborers, and because they already existed outside society's rules, they could be more easily exploited. Nevertheless, Virginia tried repeatedly to pass laws to prevent England from sending convicts, though those laws were overturned by the Crown. At the beginning of the American Revolution (1775–1783), colonial ports virtually ceased accepting convict ships. By 1776, when the last boatload of convicts arrived on the James River, many of the convicts had served their seven-to-fourteen-year terms and returned to Great Britain, while others had become honest citizens and blended into Virginia's colonial economy.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:14:45 EST]]>
/Bermuda_Hundred_During_the_Colonial_Period Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:13:37 EST <![CDATA[Bermuda Hundred during the Colonial Period]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bermuda_Hundred_During_the_Colonial_Period Bermuda Hundred was established by Sir Thomas Dale in 1613 at the confluence of the James and Appomattox rivers. Virginia Indians had occupied the site for at least 10,000 years before Dale planted a settlement there. The term "hundred" comes from the English practice of locating ten towns, or tithings (groups of ten families), at a settlement. One of Bermuda Hundred's most famous residents was John Rolfe, who may have grown his first marketable tobacco there—Nicotiana tabacum, a West Indian plant with which he had been experimenting since 1612. Rolfe may have lived there with his wife Pocahontas, the daughter of the Powhatan Indians' paramount chief, Powhatan. The population of Bermuda Hundred, like that of other early English settlements in Virginia, was nearly wiped out by a massive assault orchestrated by one of Powhatan's successors, Opechancanough. The settlement survived, however, becoming one of Virginia's first ports in 1691, the site of a tobacco inspection in 1731, and the site of a new ferry to City Point in 1732. In 1738, the General Assembly considered Bermuda Hundred for the colony's new capital. After 1780, when Richmond became the new capital of Virginia, Bermuda Hundred began to decline.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:13:37 EST]]>
/Dance_During_the_Colonial_Period Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:10:53 EST <![CDATA[Dance during the Colonial Period]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dance_During_the_Colonial_Period Dancing was the dominant pastime of colonial Virginians of all classes, though it was a special occupation of the planter elite. As the Virginia colony stabilized late in the seventeenth century, its inhabitants attempted to model their emerging culture after that of England, where dancing was hugely popular. Soon dancing began to take place in plantation homes, taverns, and halls built for the express purpose of hosting formal parties. A market developed for professional instructors, or dance masters, who were expected to know the latest dances from Europe. Dancing served a recreational, social, and political purpose; being a skilled dancer was an indication of good breeding, while balls gave men and women the opportunity to express themselves through their dress, partner, and choice of dance. Most dances fell into two main categories: "fancy" dances, such as minuets, allemandes, and hornpipes; and "country" dances. Country dances were simpler to learn and more egalitarian, as each dancing couple interacted with every other couple on the floor. Enslaved persons and lower-class whites held their own informal dance parties where they often performed jigs and reels—more loosely structured dances derived from the traditions of Africans and Scots, respectively—which were adapted by the upper class. By the 1790s, dancing schools had grown in number and in popularity, and lessons became available to Virginians of various classes. At about this time, the gentry class began to feel more ambivalent toward the more democratic country dances, which threatened social discord and even blurred racial boundaries in a culture that was becoming increasingly defensive of its slave system.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:10:53 EST]]>
/Baltimore_and_Ohio_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:09:11 EST <![CDATA[Baltimore and Ohio Railroad during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Baltimore_and_Ohio_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, an early leader in the transportation revolution, provided the country with a more efficient means of travel. The rail line's construction began on July 4, 1828, and eventually expanded into thirteen states. In 1861 the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad maintained 188 miles in Virginia and independently offered a direct connection to both eastern and western Virginia. The railroad was primarily northern with only a portion of its line in northern Virginia. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the once-vast and continuous line was broken into sections and was subject to a number of raids by both Union and Confederate forces.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:09:11 EST]]>
/Virginia_Central_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War_The Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:08:08 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Central Railroad during the Civil War, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Central_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War_The The Virginia General Assembly chartered the Louisa Railroad, the predecessor of the Virginia Central Railroad, in 1836. The line's eastern terminus was at Hanover Junction (present-day Doswell), about twenty miles north of Richmond, where it joined the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad (RF&P), and Charlottesville was the western terminus. Construction proceeded slowly, and in 1850, after the line had been extended westward of Louisa County, the name was changed to the Virginia Central Railroad. At first, the railroad had shared track to Richmond with the RF&P, but in 1851 it began constructing its own line to the city. Eventually the western terminus was extended to Covington in the Allegheny Mountains, linking the line with the Covington and Ohio Railroad. By the time of the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Virginia Central Railroad was about two hundred miles long, from Richmond to Covington, and traversed the heart of the state.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:08:08 EST]]>
/Richmond_Fredericksburg_and_Potomac_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:07:01 EST <![CDATA[Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Richmond_Fredericksburg_and_Potomac_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War The Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad (RF&P) was a strategically important rail line linking the Potomac River near the United States capital at Washington, D.C., and the Confederate capital at Richmond during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Incorporated in 1834, the railroad was seized by Confederates after Virginia seceded in April 1861, but struggled to maintain its lines under the increased traffic of men and matèriel. The Union army captured a portion of the railroad at Aquia Creek, and engineers led by Herman Haupt engaged in sometimes astonishing feats of engineering—laying three miles of track in three days, for instance, and constructing a 400-foot-long bridge in nine days. Throughout the war, portions of the railroad were destroyed and rebuilt, and Confederates found it increasingly difficult to keep up with repairs for lack of equipment and labor. By the end of the war, its lines were almost completely unusable, but within two months of Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House, service between Richmond and Hamilton's Crossing in Spotsylvania County was restored.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:07:01 EST]]>
/Virginia_State_Capitol_During_the_Civil_War_The Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:02:58 EST <![CDATA[Virginia State Capitol during the Civil War, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_State_Capitol_During_the_Civil_War_The The State Capitol on Capitol Square in Richmond served as the center of political power and civic ceremonies for both Virginia and the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865). The building was the meeting place for the Virginia Convention of 1861 and wartime sessions of the General Assembly and the Confederate Congress. Robert E. Lee accepted command of Virginia's military and naval forces there in April 1861. President Jefferson Davis was inaugurated on Capitol Square in February 1862 and Governor William "Extra Billy" Smith was inaugurated inside the Capitol in January 1864. Political speeches, military drills, band concerts, and public assemblies for celebration and protest occurred on the Capitol grounds throughout the war. Several prominent Confederate leaders lay in repose inside the Capitol. Capitol Square became a safe refuge for city residents during the Evacuation Fire in April 1865 and the Capitol itself quickly became a headquarters for Union authorities in the early phase of the military occupation of Richmond.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:02:58 EST]]>
/Military_Organization_and_Rank_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:01:56 EST <![CDATA[Military Organization and Rank during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Military_Organization_and_Rank_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:01:56 EST]]> /Richmond_and_Danville_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:00:48 EST <![CDATA[Richmond and Danville Railroad during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Richmond_and_Danville_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War The Richmond and Danville Railroad, which connected the Confederate capital at Richmond with Southside Virginia, was an instrumental supply route for the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865). The railroad began construction in 1848 and maintained 140 miles in Virginia, holding one of the largest rolling stocks. The line moved southwest from Richmond to the city of Danville, Virginia, near the North Carolina border. While this railroad's tracks did not exceed the state's boundaries, it did provide connections to various sections of Virginia, particularly Southwest Virginia, through the Richmond and Petersburg and South Side railroads. Though the Richmond and Danville suffered immense damage during the Civil War, the Confederacy continuously used the railroad until Confederate general Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox in April 1865.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 16:00:48 EST]]>
/Hard_War_in_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:59:53 EST <![CDATA[Hard War in Virginia during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hard_War_in_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War Hard war describes the systematic and widespread destruction of Confederate civilians' property at the hands of Union soldiers in the final two years of the American Civil War (1861–1865). At the war's beginning, the dominant thinking of Union generals Winfield Scott and George B. McClellan had emphasized conciliation. They believed that the war should be fought in a way that encouraged Unionism in the South and did not preclude a peace short of overwhelming casualties. Repeated Union military failures in Virginia in 1861 and 1862, however, led to hard-war policies aimed at crushing civilians' will to resist, as well as their ability to deliver services and supplies to the Confederate armies. In Virginia, hard war was practiced by Union generals David Hunter and Philip H. Sheridan during the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864. Although Union soldiers practiced more restraint than legend or the Lost Cause credits them for, the Valley was largely burned and many of its residents made refugees. Confederate generals Jubal A. Early and John A. McCausland retaliated that same year during raids into Maryland and Pennsylvania, but opportunities for a Confederate hard war were few.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:59:53 EST]]>
/Southside_Railroad Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:58:37 EST <![CDATA[South Side Railroad during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Southside_Railroad The South Side Railroad, completed in 1854, was one of the most important supply routes in southern Virginia during the American Civil War (1861–1865). With tracks laid east to west across the state, the railroad began at City Point in Hopewell on the James River and extended westward through Petersburg, Burkeville, Farmville, Appomattox Station, and finally Lynchburg, in western Virginia, for a total of about 132 miles. The South Side Railroad was imperative to the Confederate army for the transport of food, military supplies, and troops throughout the war. Behind the lines of battle, the South Side line saw little damage for the first few years of the war; as the conflict moved south in 1864 and 1865, however, the railroad incurred heavy damage from both the Confederate and Union army as each sought to cut the supply lines of the other.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:58:37 EST]]>
/Shenandoah_Valley_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:57:30 EST <![CDATA[Shenandoah Valley during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Shenandoah_Valley_During_the_Civil_War The Shenandoah Valley in western Virginia stretches about 140 miles north to south between the Allegheny Mountains on the west and the Blue Ridge Mountains on the east. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the strategically important Valley was the site of two major campaigns and numerous battles and represents, in microcosm, many of the military, social, and cultural factors that ultimately explain why the Union won and the Confederacy lost the war. Confederate control of the Shenandoah helped prolong the Confederate war effort until 1864, while the region provided sustenance to Confederate stomachs and succored Confederate nationalism. When those connections were destroyed by Union general Philip H. Sheridan and his Valley Campaign in the autumn of 1864—a campaign that culminated in what residents called "the Burning," and that also helped U.S. president Abraham Lincoln win re-election—victory for the Union and defeat for the Confederacy were all but assured. The Valley, meanwhile, was largely stripped, but for years it had been steeped in mythology—known as the "Granary of the Confederacy," it was considered the very heart of the South. That mythology would survive Sheridan and even the war.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:57:30 EST]]>
/Popular_Literature_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:55:18 EST <![CDATA[Popular Literature during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Popular_Literature_During_the_Civil_War With the formation of the Confederacy at the beginning of the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Southern literary establishment foresaw the dawning of a new literature. Southern audiences would no longer, in the words of the editor of the Richmond-based Southern Illustrated News, be compelled to read "the trashy productions of itinerant Yankees." Instead, he predicted, the region would enjoy "Southern books, written by Southern gentlemen, printed on Southern type, and sold by Southern publishing houses." And, indeed, by the end of 1862 that newspaper made the claim that the Richmond firm of West & Johnson had published more books from original manuscripts during the past year "than any firm in Yankee land." Nevertheless, the output of belles letters in the Confederacy was what historian Elisabeth Muhlenfeld has characterized as "the perennial poor relation of Southern literature."
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:55:18 EST]]>
/Military_Executions_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:54:22 EST <![CDATA[Military Executions during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Military_Executions_During_the_Civil_War More soldiers were executed during the American Civil War (1861–1865) than in all other American wars combined. Approximately 500 men, representing both North and South, were shot or hanged during the four-year conflict, two-thirds of them for desertion. The Confederate Articles of War (1861) specified that "all officers and soldiers who have received pay, or have been duly enlisted in the services of the Confederate States, and shall be convicted of having deserted the same, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as, by sentence of a court-martial, shall be inflicted." The General Orders of the War Department (1861, 1862, 1863) directed that those men convicted of desertion were "to be shot to death with musketry, at such time and place as the commanding General may direct."
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:54:22 EST]]>
/Manassas_Gap_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:53:27 EST <![CDATA[Manassas Gap Railroad during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Manassas_Gap_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War The Manassas Gap Railroad was chartered in 1849 and served as a short but crucial line for both Confederate and Union forces during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Although it had just seventy-seven miles of track, the railroad also connected points near the United States capital to the Shenandoah Valley, which made the line strategically important. Nearly thirty miles southwest of Washington, D.C., at Manassas Junction the tracks intersected the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, continued west into the Valley via the Blue Ridge Mountain pass known as Manassas Gap, and then went west through Strasburg, to terminate at Mount Jackson. Consequently, this railroad linked the Orange and Alexandria with other rail lines in northern and central Virginia, while its western terminus was in the Valley. The line also showed the strategic advantage railroads played in changing the tide of battle, highlighted during the First Battle of Manassas on July 21, 1861.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:53:27 EST]]>
/James_River_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:52:35 EST <![CDATA[James River during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/James_River_During_the_Civil_War The James River begins where the Cowpasture and Jackson rivers join in the western part of Virginia. It flows approximately 340 miles, passing over the falls at Richmond, and on to Hampton Roads. The James ranks near the Mississippi River in its significance during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and in importance to the Confederacy. Using the James River and Kanawha Canal system, boats moved materials such as pig iron and coal from Virginia's Shenandoah Valley and Piedmont regions to the capital. After the loss of Norfolk, Richmond became the state's major port, naval base, and shipbuilding facility. South and east of Richmond the James saw significant combat, including actions between the Confederate and Union navies. In addition, the river aided large-scale movement of Union troops and military supplies.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:52:35 EST]]>
/Family_Life_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:51:29 EST <![CDATA[Family Life during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Family_Life_During_the_Civil_War Family life in Virginia and across the South suffered devastating effects during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Few households, whether slave or free, or located in the Tidewater, Piedmont, or mountainous Southwest, could remain insulated from a war fought on their lands and in their towns. Many families were uprooted as they witnessed the destruction of their homes and landholdings. Most profoundly, all families dealt with the ordeal of separation. The war pulled white families apart in unprecedented ways, as a large proportion of men enlisted and fully one in five white men who fought for the Confederacy died. And while the chaos of war similarly dispersed the state's large population of African Americans, it also offered a chance for those families to overcome the longstanding separations wrought by slavery.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:51:29 EST]]>
/Confederate_Impressment_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:50:39 EST <![CDATA[Impressment during the Civil War, Confederate]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Confederate_Impressment_During_the_Civil_War Impressment was the informal and then, beginning in March 1863, the legislated policy of the Confederate government to seize food, fuel, slaves, and other commodities to support armies in the field during the American Civil War (1861–1865). The tax-in-kind law, passed a month later, allowed the government to impress crops from farmers at a negotiated price. Combined with inflationary prices and plummeting morale following military defeats, impressment sparked vocal protests across the South. Discontent was exacerbated by what was perceived as the government's haphazard enforcement of the law, its setting of below-market prices, and its abuse of labor. As a result, citizens hoarded goods and in some cases even impersonated impressment agents in an effort to steal commodities.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:50:39 EST]]>
/City_Point_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:49:47 EST <![CDATA[City Point during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/City_Point_During_the_Civil_War City Point (now Hopewell), located in central Virginia at the confluence of the James and Appomattox rivers, was the site of Union general-in-chief Ulysses S. Grant's field headquarters during the Petersburg Campaign at the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). Founded in 1613 and incorporated as a town in 1826, City Point was a tiny, out-of-the-way place before the war, with few homes or businesses. But once the Union Army of the Potomac fought its way south to Petersburg late in the spring of 1864, City Point became a crucial Union port and supply hub. At least 100,000 Union troops and 65,000 animals were supplied out of the town, and in August 1864, a member of the Confederate Secret Service detonated a time bomb on a docked barge, hoping to disrupt work at the port. As many as fifty-eight people were killed, but the wharf was soon rebuilt and service to the front continued. City Point also was the site of the sprawling Depot Field Hospital, which served 29,000 patients. After the war, the United States government established City Point National Cemetery, and in 1983, the National Park Service reconstructed a cabin that had served as General Grant's headquarters on its original location.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:49:47 EST]]>
/Martinsburg_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:48:47 EST <![CDATA[Martinsburg during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Martinsburg_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War Martinsburg, Virginia (now West Virginia), the county seat of Berkeley County, was in 1860 the Shenandoah Valley's second largest town, with a population of 3,364. Located in the northern portion of the valley, Martinsburg enjoyed a booming economy because of its location along the paved Valley Pike and because it was a major depot along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The same strategic location that made Martinsburg economically prosperous prior to the American Civil War (1861–1865), however, also spelled its wartime demise. The town changed hands between Confederate and Union forces thirty-seven times, was the site of two battles, and played host for a time to the intrigue of Confederate spy Belle Boyd, who was born there.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:48:47 EST]]>
/Harpers_Ferry_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:45:36 EST <![CDATA[Harpers Ferry during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harpers_Ferry_During_the_Civil_War Harpers Ferry, in what is now West Virginia, lies at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers and serves as the gateway to the Shenandoah Valley. Before and during the American Civil War (1861–1865), this small, isolated town was an economically thriving community with great strategic importance because of its location along the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and its firearms industry—including the United States Arsenal and Armory and Hall's Rifle Works. In 1859, Harpers Ferry emerged onto the national stage when the radical abolitionist John Brown and a small band of followers raided the armory in an attempt to ignite a slave insurrection. The town also became an object of intense military interest immediately after Virginia's secession in April 1861, during the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1862, the Maryland Campaign of 1862, and the Valley Campaign of 1864.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:45:36 EST]]>
/Free_Blacks_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:44:32 EST <![CDATA[Free Blacks during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Free_Blacks_During_the_Civil_War Free blacks in Virginia numbered 58,042 on the eve of the American Civil War (1861–1865), or about 44 percent of the future Confederacy's free black population. Of the slave states, only Maryland had a larger population, with 83,942. Free blacks were concentrated in Virginia's cities. According to the 1860 census, the greatest number, 3,244, resided in Petersburg, followed by Richmond with 2,576, Alexandria with 1,415, and Norfolk with 1,046. Free blacks included men and women of African descent who were born free or who gained their freedom before the war through manumission. Virginia officially required freed slaves to leave the state after 1806, but many remained in violation of the law. Of course, many more African Americans became free during the war, escaping the fighting as refugees or claiming legal freedom through the Emancipation Proclamation (1863). Although Confederate propagandists insisted that free blacks would support the Confederate cause, their service was often rendered only by the threat of violence. In the meantime, concerns about their loyalty combined with their disproportionate wartime suffering contributed to Virginia's internal divisions and exposed the weaknesses of Confederate ideology.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:44:32 EST]]>
/Fort_Monroe_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:43:17 EST <![CDATA[Fort Monroe during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fort_Monroe_During_the_Civil_War Fort Monroe is a military installation located in Hampton Roads, Virginia, on the Peninsula overlooking the Chesapeake Bay. It was the only federal military installation in the Upper South to remain under United States control throughout the American Civil War (1861–1865). Early in the war, the fort became an outpost of freedom within the Confederacy when Union commanders used it to house refugee slaves. The fort also headquartered the Union Department of Virginia and North Carolina, and several significant military campaigns and combined operations were launched from the installation. Most notably, it served as the staging area for Union major general George B. McClellan's ill-fated Peninsula Campaign of 1862. After the war, the fort served as a destination for another brand of fugitive. Following his capture in May 1865 until his bail bond was accepted two years later, Confederate president Jefferson Davis was imprisoned at Fort Monroe.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:43:17 EST]]>
/Desertion_Confederate_during_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:42:23 EST <![CDATA[Desertion (Confederate) during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Desertion_Confederate_during_the_Civil_War Desertion occurs when soldiers deliberately and permanently leave military service before their term of service has expired. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), both the Union and Confederate armies were plagued by deserters, whose absence depleted the strength of their respective forces. Historians traditionally have distinguished between "stragglers"—those soldiers who leave with the intention of returning—and deserters, who are absent without leave, or AWOL, for thirty days or more. The reasons soldiers left, meanwhile, included poor equipment, food, and leadership. Some acts of desertion have also been described as a form of political protest. Confederate Virginians fled military service at a rate of between 10 and 15 percent, more or less comparable to the desertion rate among Union troops, which stood between 9 and 12 percent. Prior to mid-1862, desertion was lightly punished if at all, but following the Confederate Conscription Act of April 1862, enforcement was often harsh and included execution.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:42:23 EST]]>
/Culpeper_County_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:41:23 EST <![CDATA[Culpeper County during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Culpeper_County_During_the_Civil_War With a population of 12,063, Culpeper was the forty-seventh largest of Virginia's 148 counties in 1860. More than half of that population was African American, including 6,675 slaves. The majority of citizens in this prosperous community—its principal commercial crop being wheat—had wished to avoid war. The county voted by a margin of one vote for John Bell and the Constitutional Union party over John C. Breckinridge and the Southern Democrats in the U.S. presidential election of 1860. Like most of Virginia, however, Culpeper endorsed secession on May 23, 1861, a month after U.S. president Abraham Lincoln called on the state for volunteers to put down the rebellion. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the men of Culpeper served most prominently in five Confederate regiments: the 7th, 11th, and 13th Virginia Infantry, and the 4th and 6th Virginia Cavalry.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:41:23 EST]]>
/Religion_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:39:06 EST <![CDATA[Religion during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Religion_During_the_Civil_War As many as two-thirds of all Virginians attended a Protestant church before the American Civil War (1861–1865). These men and women witnessed intense conflict within their congregations and denominational councils before, during, and after the war. All Virginia churchgoers saw their congregations torn asunder at least once during the sectional conflict, whether in the process of dividing from Northern churches before the war, when they sent their sons to fight, or upon the secession of black members from biracial communities. On a more ideological level, even many Virginians who were not connected with a particular church interpreted the Civil War in religious terms. All Virginians who faced death in the field or on forced labor projects—or who experienced the deaths of loved ones—wondered why God permitted such extraordinary suffering. In addition, white Virginians found Union victory a disturbing challenge to their belief that God had favored both slavery and the Confederacy. Black Virginians, on the other hand, found Union victory a resounding affirmation that God had heard their prayers.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:39:06 EST]]>
/Lynchburg_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:35:15 EST <![CDATA[Lynchburg during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lynchburg_During_the_Civil_War Lynchburg, Virginia, is located just east of the Blue Ridge Mountains on the banks of the James River, where its founder, John Lynch, established a ferry service in 1757. On the eve of the American Civil War (1861–1865), Lynchburg was Virginia's sixth-largest city and a major transportation center, with access to the James River and Kanawha Canal, as well as the Virginia and Tennessee, the South Side, and the Orange and Alexandria railroads. In addition, the city was a major manufacturer of plug tobacco and, by the 1850s, the second-wealthiest city per capita in the United States. During the war, Lynchburg women established the Ladies' Relief Hospital, and the Confederate military made the city a major hub of supplies and transport, which Union troops attempted to disrupt at the Battle of Lynchburg in June 1864. After the fall of Richmond in April 1865, the state government relocated to Lynchburg briefly, only to return after Robert E. Lee's surrender a few miles to the east at Appomattox.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:35:15 EST]]>
/Winchester_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:34:15 EST <![CDATA[Winchester during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Winchester_During_the_Civil_War Located in the Shenandoah Valley, Winchester was the most contested town in the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865), changing hands more than seventy times and earning its reputation (in the words of a British observer) as the shuttlecock of the Confederacy. Three major battles were fought within town limits and four others nearby. In 1862, Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson won a victory there during the Shenandoah Valley Campaign that solidified his reputation as the Confederacy's first hero. Following Jackson's death in May 1863, Richard S. Ewell took over his corps and, on the way to Gettysburg, scooped up the Union garrison at Winchester, suggesting to many that he might have the stuff to replace the fallen Stonewall. The Third Battle of Winchester (1864) was a Union victory, part of Union general Philip H. Sheridan's successful Valley Campaign against Jubal A. Early. The war, meanwhile, brought huge changes for the town's residents, including rampant inflation, often harsh measures imposed by occupiers, and the destruction of slavery. By 1865, the town was largely destroyed.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:34:15 EST]]>
/Staunton_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:33:22 EST <![CDATA[Staunton during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Staunton_During_the_Civil_War Staunton, Virginia, the seat of Augusta County, was a key target in two major campaigns during the American Civil War (1861–1865), and remained strategically important throughout the entire war. With a population of about 4,000 in 1860, Staunton was situated at a vital transportation crossroads in the Shenandoah Valley, and the Confederacy sought to utilize and protect its infrastructure and wealth from the recurrent threat of destruction by Union forces. Various Confederate leaders, including the generals Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and Richard S. Ewell, used the town as their headquarters, and it served almost continuously as an army depot, quartermaster and commissary post, and training camp. Union troops targeted Staunton for more than two years before they were able to break the Confederates' protective hold and lay waste to much of the town and miles of nearby railroad track.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:33:22 EST]]>
/Speculation_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:32:19 EST <![CDATA[Speculation during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speculation_During_the_Civil_War Speculation, which involved driving up prices on desperately needed consumer goods, was both rampant and roundly condemned in the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Along with conscription, the so-called Twenty Slave Law, and impressment, speculation helped to undermine support for the war among the less wealthy, in particular. Appalled at soaring prices, Virginians looked for explanations. The Union blockade of the Atlantic coast was partly to blame, and so was the Confederate Congress. Beholden to a states' rights philosophy and suspicious of a strong federal government, lawmakers refused to levy the taxes necessary to finance the war, thus guaranteeing high inflation. The victims of that inflation, however, preferred to point fingers at greedy speculators, or "extortioners." Such individuals certainly existed, but government attempts to regulate or punish them were either not forthcoming or proved to be ineffective. Accusations of speculation, meanwhile, were sometimes accompanied by anti-Semitism, challenges of patriotism, and, in one instance, arson.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:32:19 EST]]>
/Danville_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:30:21 EST <![CDATA[Danville during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Danville_During_the_Civil_War Danville, Virginia, in Pittsylvania County, is situated on the banks of the Dan River just three miles from the North Carolina border. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), its relative remoteness spared its citizens from many of the hardships experienced by other Virginians. It successfully converted its pre-war tobacco industry–related buildings into a variety of facilities that supported the Confederate war effort, such as hospitals, factories, and prisons. Because of their relative prosperity throughout the war years, Danville's residents extended charitable assistance to the families of soldiers and other needy individuals. The same isolation and wealth that protected Danville throughout the war made it the object of widespread interest at the end of the war. After the fall of Richmond on April 2, Confederate president Jefferson Davis and his cabinet relocated to Danville, and following Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House, many homeward-bound Confederate troops found the town an attractive passing-through point. Union forces occupied the town briefly at war's end, leaving by the end of 1865.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:30:21 EST]]>
/Centreville_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:29:22 EST <![CDATA[Centreville during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Centreville_During_the_Civil_War Centreville is an unincorporated community in Fairfax County, Virginia, settled by the English in the 1720s. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), its elevated topography and its proximity to Washington, D.C., made Centreville attractive to both the Union and Confederate armies. So, too, did the junction of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad with the Manassas Gap line, a few miles to the southwest, which allowed the village to be used as a supply depot throughout the war. The First Battle of Manassas (1861) and the Second Battle of Manassas (1862) were fought nearby, and the Confederate partisan John S. Mosby used the village as a base during the war.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:29:22 EST]]>
/Petersburg_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:28:03 EST <![CDATA[Petersburg during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petersburg_During_the_Civil_War Petersburg, located in south central Virginia, was the second-largest city in the state at the outset of the American Civil War (1861–1865). Originally sharing the conservative political stance of most business-oriented cities in the Upper South, Petersburg's white citizens eagerly embraced the Confederate cause after Virginia's Convention of 1861 voted to secede in April 1861. The city hosted a variety of Confederate installations, particularly hospitals, and served as headquarters for a number of Confederate military departments that bore responsibility for southern Virginia and eastern North Carolina. Petersburg experienced its first nearby combat in the spring of 1864 during the Bermuda Hundred Campaign and then became the focal point of the Petersburg Campaign between June 1864 and April 1865. The city capitulated to Union forces on April 3, 1865, initiating the Appomattox Campaign and just six days before Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House, ninety miles west of Petersburg.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:28:03 EST]]>
/Women_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:26:51 EST <![CDATA[Women during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Women_During_the_Civil_War Although women were not permitted to bear arms on the battlefront, they made invaluable contributions to and were deeply affected by the American Civil War (1861–1865). This was particularly true of women living in Virginia, since they witnessed more battles than did the women of any other state engaged in the conflict. The removal of hundreds of thousands of men from their homes, farms, and businesses necessitated the vastly increased participation of women, both black and white, in areas that they had been previously discouraged, if not forbidden, from pursuing. Differences of race and class, however, sometimes sharply divided their views and experiences. Some devoted everything they had to the service of the Confederacy, while others openly rebelled against it. The end of the war brought the collapse of both the Confederate government and slave society, and while freedom created a new commonality between the races and between women and men, it challenged them to redefine themselves and their society. In the words of diarist Lucy Buck from Front Royal, "We shall never any of us be the same as we have been."
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:26:51 EST]]>
/Saltville_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:25:47 EST <![CDATA[Saltville during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Saltville_During_the_Civil_War Saltville is a small town that lies mostly in Smyth County in southwestern Virginia, between the Holston River and the Tennessee and Virginia Railroad. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Saltville was of strategic importance for two reasons: the railroad provided an important link between the eastern and western theaters of the war, and the town's salt mines were crucial in supplying provisions for the Confederate army. As such, Saltville was the target of numerous Union raids. It was also the site of a battle on October 2, 1864, when outnumbered Confederate cavalry troops repulsed the advance of Union troops, including members of the 5th U.S. Colored Cavalry, under the command of General Stephen G. Burbridge. The next day, according to some accounts, Confederate soldiers killed a number of the wounded black troopers, who were being held as prisoners of war at nearby Emory and Henry College. The notorious and still-disputed incident is known as the "Saltville Massacre."
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:25:47 EST]]>
/Photography_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:24:49 EST <![CDATA[Photography during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Photography_During_the_Civil_War During the course of the American Civil War (1861–1865), more than 3,000 individual photographers made war-related images. From Southerners' first pictures of Fort Sumter in April 1861 to Alexander Gardner's images of Richmond's ruined cityscape in April 1865, photographers covered nearly every major theater of military operations. They documented battlefields, soldiers' activities and movements, and the destructive effects the conflict had on civilians. Virginia and Virginians figured prominently in Civil War–era photography. Brothers Daniel and David Bendann, who began their careers in Richmond, for example, photographed noted Confederates, including Robert E. Lee, while scores of wartime images featured Virginia landmarks and landscapes.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:24:49 EST]]>
/Mourning_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:23:53 EST <![CDATA[Mourning during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mourning_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:23:53 EST]]> /Weather_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:21:20 EST <![CDATA[Weather during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Weather_During_the_Civil_War Weather was influential in shaping events during the American Civil War (1861–1865). For instance, concerns about weather helped determine overall strategy as well as tactics on the battlefield. Generals looked to the skies to decide when to begin spring campaigns, cursed at flooded rivers for impeding progress, and pushed their men to endure the extremes of the Southern climate. Weather also colored the war experience for soldiers and civilians. Becoming a veteran soldier meant being seasoned by the weather as much as being transformed by combat. Meanwhile, men and women in Virginia and across the nation religiously recorded meteorological events in diaries, letters, and newspapers, knowing how decisive this force of nature, so completely beyond human control, could be on wartime events.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:21:20 EST]]>
/Slavery_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:20:10 EST <![CDATA[Slavery during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slavery_During_the_Civil_War Virginia had the largest population of enslaved African Americans of any state in the Confederacy, and those slaves responded to the American Civil War (1861–1865) in a variety of ways. Some volunteered to assist the Confederate war effort, while many others were forced to support the Confederacy, working on farms and in factories and households throughout Virginia. Thousands escaped to the Union army's lines, earning their freedom and forcing the United States to develop a uniform policy regarding emancipation. Others remained on their home plantations and farms but took advantage of the war to gain some measure of autonomy for their families. Slaves' wartime actions most often exhibited their strong desire for freedom, and even those who chose not to escape frequently welcomed the Union army as liberators.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 15:20:10 EST]]>
/Great_Migration_The Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:53:32 EST <![CDATA[Great Migration, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Great_Migration_The The Great Migration refers to the relocation of hundreds of thousands of African Americans from the rural areas of the South to urban areas in the North during the years between 1915 and 1930. Although many of those who left the rural South migrated to southern urban areas, most migrants moved to cities in the North. It was the largest movement northward and into cities that had occurred among African Americans to that point in history. The United States' entrance into World War I in 1917 played an important role in this movement, as the demand for additional labor grew in war-related industries at the same time that white workers were siphoned off to serve in the armed forces. Immigration also slowed dramatically, removing another source of labor for American industry. African American labor was one of the key alternative sources sought by these industries to enable them to respond to the growing demand for war-related goods. Industrial jobs that had not been previously available to African Americans now became accessible in greater quantity and variety. This flood of African American migrants dramatically changed the demography of many cities in both the North and South, as the percentage of African American residents exploded. Cities like New York; Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Chicago, Illinois, saw their African American populations grow by 50 percent or more during this period. This population surge placed great pressure on the municipal services and housing supply of these cities. It created growing tension between residents as they competed for places to live and for jobs, particularly after the war ended. As a consequence, the Great Migration pushed issues of race more to the forefront in the North. It also heightened these issues for the South as concern increased about the loss of workers in rural areas and the presence of growing African American populations in some of its cities. The movement added greater impact to a statement made by the African American intellectual W. E. B. Du Bois, who posited in 1903 that one of the critical issues of the twentieth century would be the question of the color line.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:53:32 EST]]>
/Barr_Stringfellow_1897-1982 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:42:27 EST <![CDATA[Barr, Stringfellow (1897–1982)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barr_Stringfellow_1897-1982 Stringfellow Barr was an author and educator who, while teaching at St. John's College in Annapolis, Maryland, helped to create the Great Books curriculum, which introduced college students to the Western literary canon. He taught at the University of Virginia (1924–1937), edited the Virginia Quarterly Review (1931–1937), and taught classics at Rutgers University.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:42:27 EST]]>
/Armistead_Lewis_A_1817-1863 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:37:59 EST <![CDATA[Armistead, Lewis A. (1817–1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Armistead_Lewis_A_1817-1863 Lewis A. Armistead was a Confederate general in the Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Decorated for bravery during the Mexican War (1846–1848), the West Point dropout and widower earned a reputation as a tough, soft-spoken, and highly respected leader at such battles as Seven Pines (1862), Antietam (1862), and Malvern Hill (1862), and was known to his friends, ironically, as "Lo," short for Lothario. At Gettysburg, on July 3, 1863, he helped to lead the frontal assault that came to be known as Pickett's Charge. When Armistead, at the head of his brigade, reached the stone wall on Cemetery Ridge that protected the Army of the Potomac's Second Corps, he was shot and wounded more than once. The Union troops who fired the fatal shots happened to be commanded by one of Armistead's closest friends, Winfield Scott Hancock. His death was immortalized in the 1993 film Gettysburg and has come to symbolize the Lost Cause-influenced "brother versus brother" view of the war so celebrated in American culture.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:37:59 EST]]>
/Pickett_LaSalle_Corbell_1843-1931 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:35:25 EST <![CDATA[Pickett, LaSalle Corbell (1843–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pickett_LaSalle_Corbell_1843-1931 LaSalle Corbell Pickett was a prolific author and lecturer, and the third wife of George E. Pickett, the Confederate general best known for his participation in the doomed frontal assault known as Pickett's Charge during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After her husband's death in 1875, she traveled the country to promote a highly romanticized version of his life and military career that was generally at odds with the historical record. George Pickett emerged from the war with a strained relationship with Robert E. Lee—whom he partly blamed for the destruction of his division at Gettysburg (1863)—and accused of war crimes. But in his wife's history, Pickett and His Men (1899), this not-always-competent soldier was transformed into the ideal Lost Cause hero, "gallant and graceful as a knight of chivalry riding to a tournament." This image largely stuck in the American consciousness, leaving historians to spend much of the next century attempting to separate Pickett from his myth.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:35:25 EST]]>
/Pickett_George_E_1825-1875 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:34:20 EST <![CDATA[Pickett, George E. (1825–1875)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pickett_George_E_1825-1875 George E. Pickett was a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and one of the most controversial leaders in the Army of Northern Virginia. Described by his admirers as swashbuckling, he was famous for his tailored uniforms, gold spurs, and shoulder-length brown hair. (His contemporary admirers were relatively few in number, however, and this image of Pickett is likely more myth than fact.) Confederate general James Longstreet commented on his friend's "wondrous pulchritude and magnetic presence" and is said to have mentored Pickett, who was last in his class at West Point. At Gettysburg (1863), Pickett's name became permanently linked, in both fact and myth, with Pickett's Charge, the doomed frontal assault on the battle's third day. He had little responsibility for the attack's planning or its failure, and the loss of his division, which he partly blamed on Robert E. Lee, devastated him. Accused of war crimes for executing twenty-two Union prisoners in 1864, Pickett ended the war broken and in bad health. His reputation, however, was thoroughly rehabilitated after his death by his third wife, LaSalle Corbell Pickett, whose writings turned the often incompetent general into an idealized Lost Cause hero.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:34:20 EST]]>
/Spencer_Anne_1882-1975 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:31:13 EST <![CDATA[Spencer, Anne (1882–1975)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Spencer_Anne_1882-1975 Anne Spencer was a poet, a civil rights activist, a teacher, a librarian, and a gardener. While fewer than thirty of her poems were published in her lifetime, she was an important figure of the black literary movement of the 1920s—the Harlem Renaissance—and only the second African American poet to be included in the Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry (1973). Noted for iambic verse preoccupied with biblical and mythological themes, Spencer found fans in such Harlem heavyweights as James Weldon Johnson, who commented on her "economy of phrase and compression of thought." In addition to her writing, Spencer helped to found the Lynchburg chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). She was also an avid gardener and hosted a salon at her Lynchburg garden, which attracted prominent figures of the Harlem Renaissance. Her former residence is now a museum that is open to the public.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:31:13 EST]]>
/Stuart_Flora_Cooke_1836-1923 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:25:10 EST <![CDATA[Stuart, Flora Cooke (1836–1923)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Stuart_Flora_Cooke_1836-1923 Flora Cooke Stuart was the wife of Confederate general J. E. B. Stuart and the daughter of Union general Philip St. George Cooke. She met Stuart, a dashing subordinate of her father, while living in the Kansas Territory in the 1850s, and after marrying, the two settled in Virginia. Secession, however, split their family, with Cooke, a respected cavalryman, remaining in the United States Army and Stuart eventually becoming chief of cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia. "He will regret it but once & that will be continually," Stuart said of his father-in-law's decision; he even renamed his and Flora's months'-old son, Philip St. George Cooke Stuart, after himself, James Ewell Brown Stuart Jr. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Flora Stuart spent as much time as possible in camp with her husband, and chafed at the generous attention he received from admiring women in Virginia and across the South. When Stuart died after being wounded at the Battle of Yellow Tavern (1864), she donned mourning garb and wore it for the remaining fifty-nine years of her life. During that time, she served as headmistress of a women's school in Staunton that was subsequently named for her. She later moved to Norfolk, where she died in 1923.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:25:10 EST]]>
/Taylor_Peter_1917-1994 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:22:26 EST <![CDATA[Taylor, Peter (1917–1994)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Taylor_Peter_1917-1994 Peter Taylor was a short-story writer and author of the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel A Summons to Memphis (1986). During a writing career that spanned six decades, much of which was spent in Charlottesville, he established himself as a master of short fiction, displaying elegance and lucidity of style in examining family life in the New South. Many early stories were published in the New Yorker, and after joining the faculty at the University of Virginia in 1967, Taylor experienced a mid-life second flowering and produced the fiction for which he is best remembered. In 1978, he was awarded the Gold Medal for the Short Story by the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. Wider public notice followed, although it may still have been true, as he proclaimed himself, that he was "the best-known unknown writer in America."
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:22:26 EST]]>
/Jamestown_Ter-Centennial_Exposition_of_1907 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:18:18 EST <![CDATA[Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition of 1907]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jamestown_Ter-Centennial_Exposition_of_1907 The Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition, marking the three hundredth anniversary of the founding of Jamestown and the Virginia colony by settlers from England, was held in Norfolk, Virginia, from April 26 to November 30, 1907. The event was one in a series of large fairs and expositions held across the United States, beginning with the 1893 World's Columbian Exhibition in Chicago, which commemorated the four hundredth anniversary of Christopher Columbus's landing in America. Such events were designed as international showcases for arts and technology and were often linked to important anniversaries in order to highlight the notion of historical "progress." More than its predecessors, the Jamestown exhibition emphasized athletics and military prowess, the latter drawing some protests. Among many dignitaries who visited the exposition were U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, the author Mark Twain, the educator Booker T. Washington, representatives from more than twenty nations abroad, and a number of foreign naval ships. Although the exhibition on African Americans was considered to be particularly successful, the event in general was a financial fiasco, plagued by poor management, overly ambitious plans, insufficient resources, and tight deadlines. The naval display, however, was impressive enough that in 1917 the exposition's site became home to Naval Air Station Hampton Roads (later Naval Station Norfolk).
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:18:18 EST]]>
/McCausland_John_A_1836-1927 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:15:29 EST <![CDATA[McCausland, John A. (1836–1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/McCausland_John_A_1836-1927 John A. McCausland was a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Known as "Tiger John," the former mathematics professor was hailed as a hero by the citizens of Lynchburg, Virginia, for repulsing an attack by the Union general David Hunter in June 1864. A month later, however, McCausland was condemned as a villain by the citizens of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, for acting on the orders of Jubal A. Early and burning their Cumberland Valley town in retaliation for Union actions in the Shenandoah Valley. The incident followed the famously unreconstructed McCausland through the rest of his long life, forcing him to leave the country for a time after the surrender at Appomattox, and becoming the headline of his many obituaries in 1927.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:15:29 EST]]>
/Benga_Ota_ca_1883-1916 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:14:22 EST <![CDATA[Benga, Ota (ca. 1883–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Benga_Ota_ca_1883-1916 Ota Benga was a Pygmy from the Congo who traveled to the United States several times as an adult before finally settling in Lynchburg, Virginia. After his wife and two children were killed and he was sold into slavery, Benga's freedom was purchased by the Presbyterian missionary Samuel P. Verner. The two became friends, and Benga is believed to be the first African Pygmy to reside permanently in the United States. After appearing at the Saint Louis World's Fair in 1904, Benga spent three weeks exhibited in a cage with apes at the Bronx Zoo in New York City, upsetting Benga and causing a public outcry. He spent three years in a Brooklyn, New York, orphanage before relocating to Lynchburg to attend the Virginia Theological Seminary and College. In Lynchburg, he befriended the seminary's president, his wife, and their kids, as well as the poet Anne Spencer. Benga's attempts at assimilation ultimately failed, however, and he committed suicide on March 20, 1916. He was nearly forgotten until 1992, when the publication of a definitive biography brought him international attention and renewed popularity. For many, Benga personifies the shameful exploitation of African people by European colonial powers, as well as the historical use of science and anthropology to support racism and ethnocentrism.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:14:22 EST]]>
/Julia_Magruder_1854-1907 Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:12:27 EST <![CDATA[Magruder, Julia (1854–1907)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Julia_Magruder_1854-1907 Julia Magruder was the author of sixteen novels, many short stories, and a number of essays on social issues. In her writings throughout her life, she often defended the South against outside criticism. Born in Charlottesville, Virginia, she lived most of her life in Washington, D.C., but traveled widely in Europe and had a vast circle of friends that included her cousin, Helen Magruder, who became Lady Abinger of Inverlochy Castle, Scotland; and the Virginia novelist Amélie Rives. Magruder's novels, mostly written for young female readers seeking marriage and romance, usually follow a heroine who must overcome slight obstacles to marry her true love.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:12:27 EST]]>
/Grand_Fountain_of_the_United_Order_of_True_Reformers Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:10:06 EST <![CDATA[Grand Fountain of the United Order of True Reformers]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Grand_Fountain_of_the_United_Order_of_True_Reformers The Grand Fountain of the United Order of True Reformers was an African American fraternal organization that became the largest and most successful black business enterprise in the United States between 1881 and 1910. William Washington Browne founded and organized the Grand Fountain in Richmond in January 1881. A former slave, veteran of the Union army during the American Civil War (1861–1865), teacher, and Methodist minister, Browne created the Grand Fountain with a renewed purpose and energy out of the languishing Grand United Order of True Reformers, which began in the 1870s in Alabama and Kentucky. Where the original order taught temperance and provided members with sick and death benefits, Browne's vision expanded into an enterprise that cultivated a growing black middle class by offering services that included a savings bank, a real estate company, a retirement home, and a youth and children's division that taught discipline, thrift, and business skills. Although the Grand Fountain operated until 1934, it was never the same after 1910, when an embezzlement scandal and a number of large loan defaults caused the bank to close its doors. Despite the organization's downfall, the order left a powerful legacy because it provided employment and business opportunities to African Americans and helped to establish community leaders and business networks amidst a period of Jim Crow laws and strict racial segregation in Virginia.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:10:06 EST]]>
/Loving_v_Virginia_1967 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 14:22:25 EST <![CDATA[Loving v. Virginia (1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Loving_v_Virginia_1967 In Loving v. Virginia, decided on June 12, 1967, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously struck down Virginia's law prohibiting interracial marriages as a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. The appellants, Richard and Mildred Loving, of Caroline County, had married in Washington, D.C., in June 1958 and then returned to Virginia, where they were arrested. After pleading guilty, they were forced to leave the state. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed motions and appeals on their behalf beginning in 1963, and after the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals ruled against the Lovings in 1966, the U.S. Supreme Court heard their arguments. The case came after nearly 300 years of legislation in Virginia regulating interracial marriage and carefully defining which citizens could legally claim to be white. Two U.S. Supreme Court cases, Pace v. Alabama (1883) and Maynard v. Hill (1888), upheld the constitutionality of such laws. In 1924, the Act to Preserve Racial Integrity banned interracial marriage in Virginia while defining a white person as someone who had no discernible nonwhite ancestry. It was this law that the U.S. Supreme Court ruling said denied Virginians' "fundamental freedom" to marry. Loving v. Virginia is a landmark case, both in the history of race relations in the United States and in the ongoing political and cultural dispute over the proper definition of marriage.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 14:22:25 EST]]>
/When_Marriages_No_Void_for_Want_of_Authority_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:43:45 EST <![CDATA[When Marriages Not Void for Want of Authority (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/When_Marriages_No_Void_for_Want_of_Authority_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:43:45 EST]]> /Person_Performing_Ceremony_of_Marriage_Between_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:41:57 EST <![CDATA[Person Performing Ceremony of Marriage Between; How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Person_Performing_Ceremony_of_Marriage_Between_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:41:57 EST]]> /Celebrating_Marriage_without_License_or_etc_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:40:33 EST <![CDATA[Celebrating Marriage without License, or, etc.; How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Celebrating_Marriage_without_License_or_etc_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:40:33 EST]]> /Marriage_of_White_Person_with_Colored_Person_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:38:35 EST <![CDATA[Marriage of White Person with Colored Person, How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Marriage_of_White_Person_with_Colored_Person_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:38:35 EST]]> /Marriage_within_Prohibited_Degrees_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:36:42 EST <![CDATA[Marriage within Prohibited Degrees, How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Marriage_within_Prohibited_Degrees_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:36:42 EST]]> /_An_ACT_providing_additional_protection_for_the_slave_property_of_citizens_of_this_commonwealth_1856 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:34:33 EST <![CDATA["An ACT providing additional protection for the slave property of citizens of this commonwealth" (1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_providing_additional_protection_for_the_slave_property_of_citizens_of_this_commonwealth_1856 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:34:33 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_amend_an_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_1795 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:29:48 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to amend an act, intituled, 'An act to reduce into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes, and for other purposes'" (1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_amend_an_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_1795 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:29:48 EST]]> /Preservation_of_Racial_Integrity_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:24:27 EST <![CDATA[Preservation of Racial Integrity (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Preservation_of_Racial_Integrity_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:24:27 EST]]> /General_Provisions_as_to_Slaves_1860 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:14:52 EST <![CDATA[General Provisions as to Slaves (1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/General_Provisions_as_to_Slaves_1860 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:14:52 EST]]> /An_act_declaring_what_persons_shall_be_deemed_mulattoes_October_1785 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:10:57 EST <![CDATA[An act declaring what persons shall be deemed mulattoes (October 1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_declaring_what_persons_shall_be_deemed_mulattoes_October_1785 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:10:57 EST]]> /An_act_declaring_who_shall_not_bear_office_in_this_country_October_1705 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:07:33 EST <![CDATA[An act declaring who shall not bear office in this country (October 1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_declaring_who_shall_not_bear_office_in_this_country_October_1705 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:07:33 EST]]> /Surnames_by_Counties_and_Cities_of_Mixed_Negroid_Virginia_Families_Striving_to_Pass_as_Indian_or_White_by_Walter_A_Plecker_ca_1943 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:04:19 EST <![CDATA[Surnames, by Counties and Cities, of Mixed Negroid Virginia Families Striving to Pass as "Indian" or White by Walter A. Plecker (ca. 1943)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Surnames_by_Counties_and_Cities_of_Mixed_Negroid_Virginia_Families_Striving_to_Pass_as_Indian_or_White_by_Walter_A_Plecker_ca_1943 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:04:19 EST]]> /Letter_from_Walter_A_Plecker_to_Turner_McDowell_September_27_1937 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:01:10 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Walter A. Plecker to Turner McDowell (September 27, 1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Walter_A_Plecker_to_Turner_McDowell_September_27_1937 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:01:10 EST]]> /Letter_from_Walter_A_Plecker_to_Local_Registrars_et_al_December_1943 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:51:21 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Walter A. Plecker to Local Registrars, et al. (December 1943)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Walter_A_Plecker_to_Local_Registrars_et_al_December_1943 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:51:21 EST]]> /_The_Quakers_an_excerpt_from_A_Key_toUncle_Tom_s_Cabin_1896 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:46:39 EST <![CDATA["The Quakers"; an excerpt from A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin (1896)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Quakers_an_excerpt_from_A_Key_toUncle_Tom_s_Cabin_1896 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:46:39 EST]]> /_Tales_of_Oppression_by_Isaac_T_Hopper_National_Anti-Slavery_Standard_March_25_1841 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:40:05 EST <![CDATA["Tales of Oppression" by Isaac T. Hopper, National Anti-Slavery Standard (March 25, 1841)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Tales_of_Oppression_by_Isaac_T_Hopper_National_Anti-Slavery_Standard_March_25_1841 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:40:05 EST]]> /Letters_between_King_Philip_III_and_Don_Pedro_de_Zuniga_1609-1610 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:34:39 EST <![CDATA[Letters between King Philip III and Don Pedro de Zúñiga (1609–1610)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letters_between_King_Philip_III_and_Don_Pedro_de_Zuniga_1609-1610 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:34:39 EST]]> /Letters_between_King_Philip_III_and_Don_Pedro_de_Zuniga_1607-1608 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:33:37 EST <![CDATA[Letters between King Philip III and Don Pedro de Zúñiga (1607–1608)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letters_between_King_Philip_III_and_Don_Pedro_de_Zuniga_1607-1608 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:33:37 EST]]> /_An_act_for_suppressing_outlying_slaves_1691 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:31:10 EST <![CDATA["An act for suppressing outlying slaves" (1691)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_suppressing_outlying_slaves_1691 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:31:10 EST]]> /Law_Prohibiting_Indentured_Servants_from_Hiring_Themselves_Out_1642-1643 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:29:23 EST <![CDATA[Law Prohibiting Indentured Servants from Hiring Themselves Out (1643)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Law_Prohibiting_Indentured_Servants_from_Hiring_Themselves_Out_1642-1643 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:29:23 EST]]> /The_Duties_of_Servants_and_Masters_an_excerpt_from_The_Whole_Duty_of_Man_1658 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:27:55 EST <![CDATA[The Duties of Servants and Masters; an excerpt from The Whole Duty of Man (1658)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Duties_of_Servants_and_Masters_an_excerpt_from_The_Whole_Duty_of_Man_1658 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:27:55 EST]]> /A_Black_Indentured_Servant_Sues_for_His_Freedom_1675 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:25:33 EST <![CDATA[A Black Indentured Servant Sues for His Freedom (1675)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Black_Indentured_Servant_Sues_for_His_Freedom_1675 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:25:33 EST]]> /Indenture_between_the_Four_Adventurers_of_Berkeley_Hundred_and_Robert_Coopy_of_North_Nibley_1619 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:22:21 EST <![CDATA[Indenture between the Four Adventurers of Berkeley Hundred and Robert Coopy of North Nibley (1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indenture_between_the_Four_Adventurers_of_Berkeley_Hundred_and_Robert_Coopy_of_North_Nibley_1619 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:22:21 EST]]> /_How_long_Servants_without_Indentures_shall_Serve_1657-1658 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:19:34 EST <![CDATA["How long Servants without Indentures shall Serve" (1658)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_How_long_Servants_without_Indentures_shall_Serve_1657-1658 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:19:34 EST]]> /Laws_Concerning_Indentured_Servants_1619 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:17:39 EST <![CDATA[Laws Concerning Indentured Servants (1619)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Laws_Concerning_Indentured_Servants_1619 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:17:39 EST]]> /_Eight_hundred_choise_persons_an_excerpt_from_A_Declaration_of_the_Supplies_intended_to_be_sent_to_Virginia_1620 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:11:49 EST <![CDATA["Eight hundred choise persons"; an excerpt from A Declaration of the Supplies intended to be sent to Virginia by the Virginia Company of London (1620)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Eight_hundred_choise_persons_an_excerpt_from_A_Declaration_of_the_Supplies_intended_to_be_sent_to_Virginia_1620 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:11:49 EST]]> /_The_people_of_America_crye_oute_unto_us_an_excerpt_from_Discourse_on_Western_Planting_by_Richard_Hakluyt_the_younger_1584 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:09:56 EST <![CDATA["The people of America crye oute unto us"; an excerpt from Discourse on Western Planting by Richard Hakluyt (the younger) (1584)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_people_of_America_crye_oute_unto_us_an_excerpt_from_Discourse_on_Western_Planting_by_Richard_Hakluyt_the_younger_1584 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:09:56 EST]]> /_An_Acte_towching_dyvers_Orders_for_Artificers_Laborers_Servantes_of_Husbandrye_and_Apprentises_1563 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:08:16 EST <![CDATA["An Acte towching dyvers Orders for Artificers Laborers Servantes of Husbandrye and Apprentises" (1563)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Acte_towching_dyvers_Orders_for_Artificers_Laborers_Servantes_of_Husbandrye_and_Apprentises_1563 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:08:16 EST]]> /Woman_Suffrage_in_Virginia Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:03:36 EST <![CDATA[Woman Suffrage in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Woman_Suffrage_in_Virginia The woman suffrage movement, which sought voting rights for women, began in Virginia as early as 1870. In 1909, its most vocal supporters organized around the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia, which joined with national groups in an effort to change state and local laws and pass an amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The Nineteenth Amendment, which gave women the right to vote, was passed in Congress in 1919 and ratified by the states a year later. Virginia, however, delayed its ratification until 1952. By then, women had been voting and, slowly, winning elected office in the state for more than 30 years.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:03:36 EST]]>
/The_Abolition_of_Slavery_in_Virginia Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:59:54 EST <![CDATA[The Abolition of Slavery in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Abolition_of_Slavery_in_Virginia The abolition of slavery in Virginia occurred by 1865, with the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865) and the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The U.S. Census of 1860 reported that almost half a million Virginians lived in slavery; five years later they were all free. For these men, women, and children, the end of their enslavement was a momentous event that occurred at different times and places and under unique circumstances depending on where they were. Many freed themselves by escaping into areas, such as Fort Monroe or the grounds of Arlington House, controlled by the Union army. The Emancipation Proclamation declared all slaves in Virginia to be free but could only be enforced in those places controlled by the Union army. The proclamation excepted that part of Virginia that became West Virginia. Its Constitution of 1863 included a provision for the gradual abolition of slavery, but its legislature abolished slavery in February 1865. The Restored government of Virginia, which remained loyal to the Union during the war, also created a new constitution, this one in 1864, that abolished slavery. It effectively freed few people, however.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:59:54 EST]]>
/Fifteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:47:32 EST <![CDATA[Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fifteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution The Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified on February 3, 1870, and granted the right to vote to African American men. It was the third of three amendments adopted during Reconstruction that profoundly altered American society, government, and politics. The Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished and prohibited slavery in the wake of the American Civil War (1861–1865), was ratified in December 1865, and the Fourteenth Amendment, which defined citizenship and guaranteed the rights of citizens, was ratified in July 1868. Specifically, the Fifteenth Amendment prevented the federal and state governments from using race or former servitude as an excuse not to allow its citizens to vote. At the time of the amendment's ratification in 1870, African Americans had already legally voted in Virginia, but during the next generation, with the use of a poll tax and other methods, that right would be chipped away. In 1901–1902, delegates to the state constitutional convention openly debated the best way to disfranchise blacks while not technically violating the Fifteenth Amendment. They largely succeeded and black voting rights were not fully restored until the 1960s.
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/Fourteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:44:33 EST <![CDATA[Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fourteenth_Amendment_to_the_U_S_Constitution The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified on July 9, 1868, defined citizenship and guaranteed the rights of citizens. It was the second of three amendments adopted during Reconstruction that profoundly altered American society, government, and politics. The Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished and prohibited slavery in the wake of the American Civil War (1861–1865), was ratified in December 1865, and the Fifteenth Amendment, which granted the vote to African American men, was ratified in February 1870. The Fourteenth Amendment made all native-born men and women citizens and guaranteed them equal protection under the law. It included provisions to protect men's right to vote while abridging the rights of former Confederates. The General Assembly of Virginia refused to ratify the amendment until ratification became a precondition of regaining representation in Congress. The assembly voted in favor of the amendment on October 8, 1869, more than a year after it had become part of the Constitution. In Ex Parte State of Virginia (1880), the U.S. Supreme Court cited the Fourteenth Amendment when ruling that a Danville judge did not have the right to exclude African American men from serving on juries.
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/African_Americans_and_Politics_in_Virginia_1865-1902 Wed, 21 Oct 2015 13:19:27 EST <![CDATA[African Americans and Politics in Virginia (1865–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/African_Americans_and_Politics_in_Virginia_1865-1902 African Americans were deeply involved in Virginia politics from the American Civil War (1861–1865) until the first years of the twentieth century. Prior to 1865, Virginia law had restricted the vote to adult white men. With the abolition of slavery, African American men began to lobby for their full rights as citizens. In Norfolk, in May 1865, they even cast votes for the first time, although local electoral boards refused to count them. The first election in which black men voted and those votes were counted was for delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868, to which they elected two dozen of their own. Beginning in 1869, African Americans began to be elected to the General Assembly, mostly as Republica