Encyclopedia Virginia http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Barron_Samuel_1809-1888 Mon, 09 Dec 2019 17:02:48 EST Barron, Samuel (1809–1888) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barron_Samuel_1809-1888 Mon, 09 Dec 2019 17:02:48 EST]]> /Burns_Anthony_The_Trial_of_1854 Wed, 20 Nov 2019 17:23:06 EST <![CDATA[Burns, Anthony, The Trial of (1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burns_Anthony_The_Trial_of_1854 The trial of Anthony Burns, a fugitive slave from Virginia, occurred in Boston, Massachusetts, during the spring of 1854. Hired out in Richmond, Burns had saved money and stowed away on a ship to Boston, where he worked in a clothing store. A letter home to his brother unintentionally revealed his location, and when it was intercepted, Burns's owner, Charles F. Suttle, traveled north and claimed Burns under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Approved as part of the Compromise of 1850, the law was designed to strengthen federal protections for southerners attempting recover slaves who had fled to free states. Members of the Boston Vigilance Committee, a group of antislavery activists who were committed to resisting the law, made an attempt to free Burns from custody. The rescue effort was unsuccessful, and a guard was killed in the process. In the trial, Burns's lawyers argued that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional and that Burns was not actually the man whom Suttle claimed to own. On June 1, 1854, Judge Edward Greely Loring ruled against Burns, who was afterward transported to Norfolk, Virginia, on a U.S. Revenue Cutter. Antislavery activists later purchased his freedom, and he became a minister, dying in Canada in 1862. None of those responsible for the guard's death was convicted, and many southerners believed that, in spite of the Fugitive Slave Act's successful enforcement, the Burns affair proved that northerners could not be trusted to fulfill their constitutional obligations.
Wed, 20 Nov 2019 17:23:06 EST]]>
/Driggus_Emanuel_fl_1645-1685 Wed, 20 Nov 2019 14:23:52 EST <![CDATA[Driggus, Emanuel (fl. 1645–1685)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Driggus_Emanuel_fl_1645-1685 Wed, 20 Nov 2019 14:23:52 EST]]> /Lewis_and_Clark_Expedition_The Wed, 20 Nov 2019 10:32:04 EST <![CDATA[Lewis and Clark Expedition, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_and_Clark_Expedition_The The Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) was a federally funded venture to explore the North American West. The expedition's principal objective was to survey the Missouri and Columbia rivers, locating routes that would connect the continental interior to the Pacific Ocean. The Louisiana Purchase of 1803, in which the United States acquired some 828,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River, facilitated the mission, allowing the explorers unprecedented access to land that had previously been owned by Spain and then France. President Thomas Jefferson invested his time, energy, and political capital into this project and took direct charge of its initial planning and organization. The expedition is named for its commanders, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Under their leadership the group of thirty-three, known as the Corps of Discovery, succeeded in reaching the Pacific and returning safely despite considerable challenges, ranging from navigating unfamiliar terrain to maintaining good relations with the numerous Indian tribes that lived in the Louisiana Territory. Along the way, the expedition gathered invaluable scientific, ethnographic, and cartographic information, creating a detailed written record of the journey in a series of journals.
Wed, 20 Nov 2019 10:32:04 EST]]>
/Adams_Pauline_1874-1957 Fri, 25 Oct 2019 10:43:59 EST <![CDATA[Adams, Pauline (1874–1957)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Adams_Pauline_1874-1957 Pauline Adams was an Irish-born suffrage activist who took an extraordinarily active role in her community for a woman at that time. Born in 1874, Adams arrived in the United States during the 1890s. She married a physician in 1898 and they soon settled in Norfolk. There, she served as president of the Norfolk League, a National American Woman Suffrage Association affiliate. Her militant approach to securing suffrage alienated many other women in the area. Although she supported the United States' entry into World War I (1914–1917) and sold War Bonds, she was arrested and jailed at the Occoquan Workhouse after waving suffrage banners in front of President Woodrow Wilson during a selective service parade. After the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, Adams became a lawyer and remained active in politics. She died in 1957.
Fri, 25 Oct 2019 10:43:59 EST]]>
/Clark_George_Rogers_1752-1818 Wed, 23 Oct 2019 18:02:33 EST <![CDATA[Clark, George Rogers (1752–1818)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clark_George_Rogers_1752-1818 George Rogers Clark was a member-elect of the Virginia Convention of 1776 and a soldier and officer who served in the Revolutionary War. Clark began his career as a surveyor and claimed land in the Ohio River Valley, about 130 miles downriver from Fort Pitt. He became a captain in the militia in 1774 and by 1777 had become the ranking militia officer in Kentucky County. Starting in 1778, Clark led American military forces in a series of raids against British-controlled outposts north of the Ohio River. His actions reinforced Virginia's claim, and hence the claim of the United States, to the region north of the Ohio River—land that had long been known and settled by Indian nations. Clark led, and in one case personally helped fund, expeditions that obliterated well-established Shawnee towns. In 1784, the U.S. Congress appointed Clark one of the commissioners to manage negotiations with the Indians in what was by then known as the Northwest Territory. He helped force the terms of the treaty signed at Fort MacIntosh in January 1785, when four Indian nations signed over to the United States most of their lands north of the Ohio River, and a year later he concluded a treaty with the Shawnee that granted the United States sovereignty over all lands ceded by Great Britain. In 1786 Clark—by this time plagued by rumors of his excessive drinking—led an expedition against the Wabash Indians, but his troops mutinied. In financial ruin, and with his military career on the decline, Clark unsuccessfully pursued a series of projects that might help relieve his debt and petitioned the Virginia General Assembly and the U.S. Congress for financial relief. He spent his final years impoverished and infirm, suffering strokes in 1809 and 1813. Following another stroke, he died at Locust Grove, in Jefferson County, Kentucky, in 1818.
Wed, 23 Oct 2019 18:02:33 EST]]>
/Dixon_George_L_1818-1907 Wed, 23 Oct 2019 17:46:45 EST <![CDATA[Dixon, George L. (1818–1907)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dixon_George_L_1818-1907 George Lewis Dixon was a Baptist minister in the Fredericksburg area. Born with slave status, he and his family fled from Fredericksburg to Washington, D.C., during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After the war ended, Dixon returned to Fredericksburg, where he was elected pastor of Shiloh Baptist Church and was active in the local Republican Party. Dixon was representative of a unique generation of African American leaders, largely self-educated preachers, who inspired their communities to rebuild and expand antebellum churches and adapt them to the changing needs of their communities in a post-slavery society. He died in 1907.
Wed, 23 Oct 2019 17:46:45 EST]]>
/U_S_Presidential_Election_of_1800 Thu, 17 Oct 2019 14:46:48 EST <![CDATA[U.S. Presidential Election of 1800]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/U_S_Presidential_Election_of_1800 The U.S. presidential election of 1800, in which Thomas Jefferson was elected the nation's third president, resulted in the first peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another in United States history. Political parties formed after the U.S. Constitution was adopted in 1788, with Federalists, led by Alexander Hamilton, favoring a strong federal government and banking system, and Democratic-Republicans, led by Jefferson and James Madison, preferring the balance of power to remain in the states. These disputes came to a head when a Federalist Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798, which, among other things, criminalized criticism of Congress and the president. The legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia passed resolutions threatening the nonenforcement of what they perceived as unconstitutional laws, but that move was broadly unpopular. By 1800, political rhetoric had become particularly vicious, with the parties accusing one another of all manner of religious and civil abominations. In the end, the Democratic-Republicans prevailed in the Electoral College, but their intended candidates for president and vice president, Jefferson and Aaron Burr, tied with 73 votes each. After six days of contentious debate, the lame duck U.S. House of Representatives, controlled by Federalists, voted for Jefferson. The election, which Jefferson called the "revolution of 1800," paved the way for a more accessible, even populist style of government in the future.
Thu, 17 Oct 2019 14:46:48 EST]]>
/Polish_Settlers_at_Early_Jamestown Wed, 16 Oct 2019 15:48:31 EST <![CDATA[Polish Settlers at Early Jamestown]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Polish_Settlers_at_Early_Jamestown The first Polish settlers arrived at Jamestown on or about October 1, 1608, aboard the ship Mary and Margaret. Virginia Company of London records identify "8 Dutchmen and Poles," possibly four of each. The Poles were skilled workers brought to the colony for their ability to produce glass, pitch, tar, and other materials in an attempt by the Virginia Company to develop commercial activity and local industries in Virginia. Most likely Protestants, they shared in the privations and dangers of daily life at Jamestown, and on one occasion, according to Captain John Smith, appear to have rescued him from an attack by Virginia Indians. Despite this, they did not enjoy the same rights as Englishmen and at one point refused to work in protest. The colony's leaders subsequently granted them such rights and they returned to work, agreeing to take on apprentices. In 1623 a Polish man called Molasco filed a grievance against the Crown for money owed him and other Poles. Despite winning his argument, however, he had difficulty collecting from the Virginia Company.
Wed, 16 Oct 2019 15:48:31 EST]]>
/Randolph_Virginia_Estelle_1870-1958 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 12:13:16 EST <![CDATA[Randolph, Virginia Estelle (1870–1958)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Randolph_Virginia_Estelle_1870-1958 Virginia Estelle Randolph, born of formerly enslaved parents in Richmond, was a pioneering educator, community health advocate, organizational leader, and humanitarian. Educated within the public schools of Richmond, Randolph embarked on a career in education that spanned nearly sixty years. She reportedly began her teaching career in Goochland County in or around 1890 and retired as supervisor of black schools in Henrico County in 1949. Her 1894 appointment as teacher of a one-room school for black children in Henrico County proved pivotal in her development of innovative approaches to integrating industrial arts into the academic curriculum. Her commitment to her community and education galvanized interracial cooperation in broadening access to educational opportunities and healthcare well beyond her region. Her efforts culminated in her selection as the first countywide Jeanes Supervising Industrial Teacher in the South in 1908. In this role, she traveled weekly to each of the black schools in Henrico County to train teachers and build community support. She also trained educators throughout Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia. The Virginia E. Randolph Training School was built and named in her honor in 1915. In 1926, Randolph received the William E. Harmon Award for Distinguished Achievement in the field of education. She garnered international acclaim as her methods grew to be used throughout rural areas of the entire American South and the British colonies in Africa. She died in 1958.
Sat, 12 Oct 2019 12:13:16 EST]]>
/Gunston_Hall Wed, 09 Oct 2019 10:53:14 EST <![CDATA[Gunston Hall]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gunston_Hall Gunston Hall is the stately Georgian home of Virginia lawmaker George Mason in Fairfax County on the Potomac River. Mason inherited the land on which Gunston Hall is located from his father in 1735; construction on the house began in 1754. Completed in 1759, Gunston Hall was one of the finest homes in colonial America. While the house's exterior is typical of most Chesapeake plantation homes, the elegant interior reflects the full range of English rococo style, showing French, neoclassical, and chinoiserie influences, and stood out at a time when the prevailing building style was most often described as "neat and plain." The house's innovative architectural flourishes and intricate woodwork can be attributed to its English architect, William Buckland, and master carver, William Bernard Sears. Enslaved workers farmed part of the Gunston Hall grounds, growing tobacco and wheat, among other crops, and raising livestock. Log Town, a community of enslaved people, stood at some distance from the house. Today, Gunston Hall is owned by the Commonwealth of Virginia and operated by the National Society of the Colonial Dames of America.
Wed, 09 Oct 2019 10:53:14 EST]]>
/Bryan_Albert_V_1899-1984 Wed, 09 Oct 2019 10:11:46 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, Albert V. (1899–1984)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_Albert_V_1899-1984 Albert V. Bryan was a federal district court and circuit court of appeals judge during a crucial period in the fight over public school desegregation. After serving as the commonwealth's attorney in Alexandria from 1928 until 1947, he was appointed a federal judge of the Eastern District of Virginia. Although he supported segregation Bryan stuck closely to legal precedents established by the U.S. Supreme Court. He ruled in favor of continued school segregation in 1952. After Brown v. Board of Education reversed his ruling in 1954, however, Bryan began following the new precedent, though in a manner that slowed implementation. His subsequent decisions on Massive Resistance delayed, but did not stop, desegregation of Virginia schools. In 1961 he was appointed to the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals. Adhering again to Supreme Court precedent, in 1969 Bryan struck down state tuition grants to students attending segregated private schools. He retired from the federal bench in 1971 and died in 1984.
Wed, 09 Oct 2019 10:11:46 EST]]>
/Virginia_s_First_Africans Tue, 08 Oct 2019 14:36:00 EST <![CDATA[Africans, Virginia's First]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_s_First_Africans Virginia's first Africans arrived at Point Comfort, on the James River, late in August 1619. There, "20. and odd Negroes" or more from the English ship White Lion were sold in exchange for food and some were transported to Jamestown, where they were sold again. Three or four days later another English ship, the Treasurer, arrived in Virginia, where its captain sold two or three additional Africans. Historians have long believed these Africans to have come to Virginia from the Caribbean, but Spanish records suggest they had been captured in a Spanish-controlled area of West Central Africa. They probably were Kimbundu-speaking people, and many of them may have had at least some knowledge of Catholicism. While aboard the São João Bautista bound for Mexico, they were stolen by the White Lion and the Treasurer. Once in Virginia, they were dispersed throughout the colony. The number of Africans in Virginia increased to thirty-two by 1620, but then dropped sharply by 1624, likely because of the effects of disease and perhaps because of the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632). Evidence suggests that many were baptized and took Christian names, and some, like Anthony and Mary Johnson, won their freedom and bought land. In 1628, after a shipload of about 100 Angolans was sold in Virginia, the number of Africans in the colony rose dramatically.
Tue, 08 Oct 2019 14:36:00 EST]]>
/Governor_s_Council_The Mon, 07 Oct 2019 17:13:01 EST <![CDATA[Governor's Council, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Governor_s_Council_The The governor's Council, also known as the Council of State or simply the Council, consisted of about a dozen of colonial Virginia's wealthiest and most prominent men. Beginning in the 1630s the Crown appointed Council members, although from 1652 to 1660 the General Assembly elected the members. Crown appointments were lifetime appointments. From 1625, when Virginia became a royal colony, until the outbreak of the American Revolution (1775–1783), the Council members advised the royal governor or his deputy, the lieutenant governor, on all executive matters. The Council and the governor together constituted the highest court in the colony, known initially as the Quarter Court and later as the General Court. The Council members also served as members of the General Assembly; from the first meeting of the assembly in 1619 until 1643 the governor, Council members, and burgesses all met in unicameral session. After 1643 the Council members met separately as the upper House of the General Assembly. The Virginia Constitution of 1776 effectively abolished the governor's Council and distributed its executive, judicial, and legislative functions to three separate bodies of men.
Mon, 07 Oct 2019 17:13:01 EST]]>
/Armistead_John_fl_1650s-1690s Mon, 07 Oct 2019 17:11:16 EST <![CDATA[Armistead, John (fl. 1650s–1690s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Armistead_John_fl_1650s-1690s John Armistead was a member of the governor's Council of Virginia late in the seventeenth century. A planter in Gloucester County, he also entered into several successful business ventures. Becoming active in politics, Armistead sat on the county court and served as sheriff. He opposed the tobacco cutting riots and favored English policies put in place after Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677). Armistead twice represented Gloucester in the House of Burgesses before the governor appointed him to the Council in 1688. Armistead relinquished his seat in 1691 when he refused to take the oaths to the new monarchs William and Mary. Although restored to his place later in the decade, Armistead did not rejoin the Council. His date of death is unknown.
Mon, 07 Oct 2019 17:11:16 EST]]>
/Robinson_John_1705-1766 Mon, 07 Oct 2019 16:52:30 EST <![CDATA[Robinson, John (1705–1766)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robinson_John_1705-1766 John Robinson, one of the most powerful political leaders in colonial Virginia, served as Speaker of the House of Burgesses and treasurer from 1738 to 1766. His death revealed mismanagement of funds and led to a significant political crisis. Born in Middlesex County, Robinson attended school at the College of William and Mary and may have studied law. He first won election to the House of Burgesses in 1728 and began his long stint as Speaker a decade later. He ran the General Assembly's lower chamber along the lines of a modern floor leader and protected the House's interests against powerful opposition from lieutenant governors, the chief executives during his time. Though highly respected for his political acumen and his strengthening of the House of Burgesses, Robinson took two actions late in his career that hurt his reputation among historians. First, he opposed the Virginia Resolves in 1765, notably accusing Patrick Henry of speaking treasonous words against King George III. Second, he mishandled government funds while treasurer by augmenting his loans to Virginia's indebted elites with old paper money slated for destruction. Though these loans possibly kept the colony's economy from collapsing, a later investigation showed that the treasury accounts were more than £100,000 in arrears. Robinson's death in 1766 revealed the extent of his debt to the colony, which wasn't fully paid by his estate until 1781.
Mon, 07 Oct 2019 16:52:30 EST]]>
/Madison_Ambrose_ca_1696-1732 Mon, 07 Oct 2019 16:50:02 EST <![CDATA[Madison, Ambrose (ca. 1696–1732)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Madison_Ambrose_ca_1696-1732 Ambrose Madison was a merchant and planter. The grandfather of President James Madison, he was murdered by three enslaved people shortly after moving to the estate that would become Montpelier. Born in King and Queen County, he acquired land and dealt in large sums of money from a young age. His father-in-law, a surveyor, had long been interested in the Piedmont region of Virginia and acquired land in the part of Spotsylvania County that later became Orange County. In 1723 he gave 4,675 acres to his two sons-in-law, including Madison, who sent a team of mostly enslaved people west to clear the land and plant tobacco. In the spring of 1732 Madison and his family moved to the estate, which he called Mount Pleasant. A few months later, however, he fell ill and died. Three enslaved people were convicted of poisoning him and one was executed.
Mon, 07 Oct 2019 16:50:02 EST]]>
/Lee_William_fl_1768-1810 Tue, 17 Sep 2019 11:41:45 EST <![CDATA[Lee, William (fl. 1768–1810)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_William_fl_1768-1810 William Lee was the enslaved valet of George Washington for nearly two decades. Purchased by Washington in 1768, when he was at least sixteen years old, Lee was assigned to household work at Mount Vernon and accompanied Washington when he traveled, including during the American Revolution (1775–1783). The war made Lee, who often rode alongside Washington, well-known to both American and British soldiers. Although Lee was initially taken to New York at the start of Washington's first presidential term in 1789, old injuries to his knees limited his mobility. Lee appears to have married twice and had at least one child, whose identity is unknown. In 1790 he was sent back to Virginia and assigned to make shoes for the plantation. Washington valued Lee's service and loyalty. In his 1799 will, he ordered that Lee be freed immediately at his death and provided a $30 annual pension. As a free man, Lee remained at Mount Vernon until his own death, which sources suggest to have come either in 1810 or 1828.
Tue, 17 Sep 2019 11:41:45 EST]]>
/Maggie_Lena_Walker_1864-1934 Tue, 17 Sep 2019 11:04:35 EST <![CDATA[Walker, Maggie Lena (1864–1934)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Maggie_Lena_Walker_1864-1934 Maggie Lena Walker was an African American entrepreneur and civic leader who broke traditional gender and discriminatory laws by becoming the first Black woman to establish and become president of a bank in the United States—the Saint Luke Penny Savings Bank in Richmond. As of 2010, when it was known as Consolidated Bank and Trust Company, it was the oldest continually African American–operated bank in the United States. In her role as grand secretary of the Independent Order of Saint Luke, Walker also was indispensable in organizing a variety of enterprises that advanced the African American community while expanding the public role of women. Although as an African American woman in the post–Civil War South she faced social, economic, and political barriers in her life and business ventures, Walker, by encouraging investment and collective action, achieved tangible improvements for African Americans.
Tue, 17 Sep 2019 11:04:35 EST]]>
/Equal_Suffrage_League_of_Virginia_1909-1920 Thu, 12 Sep 2019 15:55:59 EST <![CDATA[Equal Suffrage League of Virginia (1909–1920)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Equal_Suffrage_League_of_Virginia_1909-1920 The Equal Suffrage League of Virginia was an organization of white women dedicated to securing for women the right to vote. Aligned with the national woman suffrage movement, the league worked for more than ten years lobbying the public and the General Assembly alike, until its efforts paid off when three-fourths of the United States state legislatures ratified the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920. The league failed, however, to persuade the Virginia General Assembly, which did not vote to ratify until 1952.
Thu, 12 Sep 2019 15:55:59 EST]]>
/Woman_Suffrage_in_Virginia Thu, 12 Sep 2019 15:50:50 EST <![CDATA[Woman Suffrage in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Woman_Suffrage_in_Virginia The woman suffrage movement, which sought voting rights for women, began in Virginia as early as 1870. In 1909, its most vocal supporters organized around the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia, which joined with national groups in an effort to change state and local laws and pass an amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The Nineteenth Amendment, which gave women the right to vote, was passed in Congress in 1919 and ratified by the states a year later. Virginia, however, delayed its ratification until 1952. By then, women had been voting and, slowly, winning elected office in the state for more than 30 years.
Thu, 12 Sep 2019 15:50:50 EST]]>
/Hamor_Ralph_bap_1589-by_October_11_1626 Wed, 04 Sep 2019 15:06:49 EST <![CDATA[Hamor, Ralph (bap. 1589–by October 11, 1626)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hamor_Ralph_bap_1589-by_October_11_1626 Ralph Hamor was a secretary of the Virginia colony, member of the governor's Council, and author of A True Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia (1615). Baptized Raphe Hamor, he used that given name his entire life, although later references to him most often used a modernized spelling. Hamor was educated at Oxford and possibly Cambridge, and soon became involved in the Virginia Company of London, sailing to the colony in 1609. He served as its secretary until June 1614, when he likely returned to London. There he wrote A True Discourse, which offered the first published account of the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, as well as Rolfe's cultivation of tobacco, the martial administration of Sir Thomas Dale, and the establishment of the city of Henrico. As such, Hamor's book became an essential source for understanding Virginia, both then and now. He returned to Virginia in 1617 and prospered, joining the governor's Council in 1621, surviving the Indian attacks of 1622, and subsequently participating in the sometimes violent interactions with Virginia Indians that constituted the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632). He was tangentially involved in some of the controversy that surrounded the demise of the Virginia Company and remained on the Council until his death in 1626.
Wed, 04 Sep 2019 15:06:49 EST]]>
/Burwell_Lewis_bap_1622-c_1652 Wed, 04 Sep 2019 15:00:01 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lewis (bap. 1622–ca. 1652)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lewis_bap_1622-c_1652 Wed, 04 Sep 2019 15:00:01 EST]]> /Leader_The_Partisan_1836 Wed, 28 Aug 2019 16:32:43 EST <![CDATA[Partisan Leader, The (1836)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Leader_The_Partisan_1836 The Partisan Leader; a Tale of the Future (1836), published in two volumes, is the second and best-known of the three novels by Beverley Tucker, a law professor and an outspoken advocate of states' rights, secession, and slavery. A fierce opponent of President Andrew Jackson and his vice president, Martin Van Buren, Tucker set his book in the future, in which Van Buren has just won a fourth term as president and the states in the Deep South have seceded. Around this scenario Tucker weaves an adventure and romance involving the Trevor family and two Virginia-born army officers, one of whom eventually finds himself at the head of a guerrilla force fighting federal troops in southwestern Virginia. Published under the pseudonym Edward William Sidney, The Partisan Leader was distributed in an attempt to affect the outcome of the 1836 presidential election, but Van Buren won it easily. Tucker's work found few readers, and critics split along political lines, with many disconcerted by the author's prediction of the republic's end. Modern commenters have noted the novel's prescience in its outline of secession and civil war. In 1861, at the beginning of the American Civil War (1861–1865), The Partisan Leader was republished in New York City, this time under Tucker's name and as evidence of a secessionist plot going back decades. A Confederate edition was published in Richmond the next year.
Wed, 28 Aug 2019 16:32:43 EST]]>
/George_Balcombe_1836 Wed, 28 Aug 2019 14:58:24 EST <![CDATA[George Balcombe (1836)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_Balcombe_1836 George Balcombe (1836), published in two volumes, is one of three novels by Beverley Tucker, a lawyer, judge, and essayist whose most famous work, The Partisan Leader, was published the same year. Born and raised in Virginia, Tucker lived in Missouri before returning home to be close to his ailing half-brother, John Randolph of Roanoke. This novel, written in the years after Randolph's death in 1833, introduces a conflict over an inheritance that roughly parallels Tucker's own experiences with Randolph's will. In George Balcombe, William Napier sets off from Virginia for Missouri in search of a mysterious man named Montague who appears to have usurped Napier's inheritance from his grandfather. Along the way he meets the titular character, drawn by Tucker as a classic and virtuous Virginia gentleman, who helps him retrieve his money and eventually win the heart of his cousin. Tucker develops archetypal heroes and villains as social and political models for his readers, while giving special attention to articulating, through Balcombe, theories regarding the natural subordination of women and black people. Edgar Allan Poe praised George Balcombe, "upon the whole, as the best American novel." Modern critics, however, have generally dismissed its quality and importance.
Wed, 28 Aug 2019 14:58:24 EST]]>
/Underground_Railroad_in_Virginia Wed, 21 Aug 2019 16:37:13 EST <![CDATA[Underground Railroad in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Underground_Railroad_in_Virginia The Underground Railroad in Virginia was a series of secret networks, often working independently of one another and manned by both free blacks and whites, designed to help enslaved African Americans escape to the North and to Canada. Such networks were less necessary in the earliest days of slavery in Virginia because runaways tended to stay relatively close to home. Only after the American Revolution (1775–1783), when northern states outlawed slavery and a new domestic trade began to send thousands of enslaved men, women, and children into the Deep South, did fugitive slaves cross state lines in great numbers. Federal fugitive slave laws in 1793 and 1850 made such escapes more difficult but they also led to the development of the Underground Railroad, a term that had gained popular currency by the 1840s. Quakers in Philadelphia, New York, and North Carolina, burning with antislavery zeal, aided kidnapped African Americans and fugitive slaves and, in concert with free blacks and even some slaves, began to develop networks by which to smuggle them to freedom. With the largest slave population, Virginia also had among the greatest number of fugitives. They left mostly by sea, with some remaining in the North and others joining black communities in Canada. While it remains up for debate exactly how many escaped, slaveholders regularly complained of financial losses. Only the abolition of slavery ended the Underground Railroad's work.
Wed, 21 Aug 2019 16:37:13 EST]]>
/Anderson_Sambo_ca_1760-1845 Thu, 15 Aug 2019 17:45:54 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, Sambo (ca. 1760–1845)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_Sambo_ca_1760-1845 Sambo Anderson was an enslaved carpenter at Mount Vernon, George Washington's Fairfax County plantation. Born in Africa, Anderson endured the Middle Passage to America as a child and was purchased by Washington. In 1781, when he was estimated to be about twenty years old, Anderson attempted to escape on a British warship anchored in the Potomac River during the American Revolution (1775–1783), but he was recaptured. Back at Mount Vernon, he married Agnes, a field worker, with whom he had at least seven children. As a carpenter, Anderson was involved in a vast array of work to build and repair the plantation's infrastructure and equipment. He was manumitted, or freed, by George Washington's will in 1801, but his wife and children had not been owned by Washington but by the estate of Martha Custis Washington's late husband; as a result, they remained enslaved. Anderson continued living at Mount Vernon, supporting himself by hunting and selling wild game. His venture was successful enough to help him purchase the freedom of several family members. He became a prominent figure in the local community, evidenced by the obituary published upon his death in 1845.
Thu, 15 Aug 2019 17:45:54 EST]]>
/Claiborne_Nathaniel_Herbert_1775-1859 Wed, 14 Aug 2019 17:02:58 EST <![CDATA[Claiborne, Nathaniel Herbert (1775–1859)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Claiborne_Nathaniel_Herbert_1775-1859 Wed, 14 Aug 2019 17:02:58 EST]]> /Letter_from_Kate_M_Gordon_to_Roberta_Wellford_January_11_1916 Tue, 06 Aug 2019 09:01:18 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Kate M. Gordon to Roberta Wellford (January 11, 1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Kate_M_Gordon_to_Roberta_Wellford_January_11_1916 Tue, 06 Aug 2019 09:01:18 EST]]> /Lynching_in_Virginia Mon, 05 Aug 2019 16:13:45 EST <![CDATA[Lynching in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lynching_in_Virginia Lynching involves the extralegal punishment of perceived wrongdoing by a mob. Lynching became pervasive in the American South late in the nineteenth century and, at its height, from 1880 to 1930, killed at least eighty-six men in Virginia, all but fifteen of them African Americans. Many historians believe the term can be traced to Charles Lynch, a Bedford County militia colonel during the American Revolution (1775–1783) who punished captured Loyalists outside the law. Although a regular feature of the Revolution, mob violence spiked during the 1830s in response to immigration and tensions over slavery. In the South, meanwhile, slavery had long encouraged violence against African Americans, implicating even non-slaveholding whites who were often called upon to search for escaped slaves. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), these two traditions—mob violence and violence against African Americans—joined to create an epidemic of lynchings that killed probably as many as 4,000 people from 1880 until the mid-twentieth century; the large majority of those victims were African Americans living in the South. White Virginians, who lynched the fewest number of people of any southern state, justified the practice by demonizing African Americans and arguing that the courts provided insufficient protection against their supposed criminal tendencies. Blacks and whites understood lynching as a means of enforcing white supremacy. Vocal black critics, such as the editor John Mitchell Jr., encouraged armed defense but were ignored by white lawmakers. In the 1920s, after a rash of mob violence, Virginia passed the South's first antilynching law, although no white person was ever convicted under the legislation.
Mon, 05 Aug 2019 16:13:45 EST]]>
/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 Mon, 05 Aug 2019 16:05:10 EST <![CDATA[Anti-Lynching Law of 1928]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 The Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, signed by Virginia governor Harry Flood Byrd Sr. on March 14, 1928, was the first measure in the nation that defined lynching specifically as a state crime. The bill's enactment marked the culmination of a campaign waged by Louis Isaac Jaffé, the editor of the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, who responded more forcefully than any other white Virginian to an increase in mob violence in the mid-1920s. Jaffé's efforts, however, which earned him a Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing in 1929, came to fruition only after the state's political and business leadership recognized that mob violence was a threat to their efforts to attract business and industry. Ironically, no white person was ever convicted of lynching an African American under the law.
Mon, 05 Aug 2019 16:05:10 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_to_Robert_E_Lee_May_26_1862 Mon, 05 Aug 2019 10:35:56 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee Jr. to Robert E. Lee (May 26, 1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_to_Robert_E_Lee_May_26_1862 Mon, 05 Aug 2019 10:35:56 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_to_Mary_Anna_Randolph_Custis_Lee_December_12_1870 Mon, 05 Aug 2019 10:30:56 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee Jr. to Mary Randolph Custis Lee (December 12, 1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_to_Mary_Anna_Randolph_Custis_Lee_December_12_1870 Mon, 05 Aug 2019 10:30:56 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_to_Mary_Randolph_Custis_Lee_July_30_1863 Mon, 05 Aug 2019 10:26:56 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee Jr. to Mary Randolph Custis Lee (July 30, 1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_to_Mary_Randolph_Custis_Lee_July_30_1863 Mon, 05 Aug 2019 10:26:56 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_to_Eleanor_Agnes_Lee_July_15_1864 Mon, 05 Aug 2019 10:12:42 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee Jr. to Eleanor Agnes Lee (July 15, 1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_to_Eleanor_Agnes_Lee_July_15_1864 Mon, 05 Aug 2019 10:12:42 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_to_Mildred_Childe_Lee_February_16_1865 Mon, 05 Aug 2019 09:45:10 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee Jr. to Mildred Childe Lee (February 16, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_to_Mildred_Childe_Lee_February_16_1865 Mon, 05 Aug 2019 09:45:10 EST]]> /Clark_Adèle_1882-1983 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 17:11:51 EST <![CDATA[Clark, Adèle (1882–1983)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clark_Adèle_1882-1983 Adèle Clark was a founding member of the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia, the chair of the Virginia League of Women Voters (1921–1925, 1929–1944), the social director of women at the College of William and Mary (1926), a New Deal–era field worker, and an accomplished artist and arts advocate. A native of Alabama, Clark attended schools in Richmond and later studied art in New York. She taught art in Richmond and established a training studio, while also working as a political activist. In 1909, she helped to found the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia and when women won the right to vote in 1920, she worked to educate women voters and to influence Congress and the General Assembly on issues of special interest to women. During the Great Depression, she served as the state director of the Federal Art Project (1936–1942). In her later years, Clark spoke for the desegregation of public schools and against the poll tax. She opposed the proposed Equal Rights Amendment in 1973. Clark died in Richmond in 1983.
Thu, 01 Aug 2019 17:11:51 EST]]>
/Thompson_Ida_Mae_1866-1947 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 16:26:43 EST <![CDATA[Thompson, Ida Mae (1866–1947)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thompson_Ida_Mae_1866-1947 Ida Mae Thompson was an important figure in Virginia's woman suffrage movement, not for her political work but for her recordkeeping. First as a member of the Equal Suffrage League, the organization that led the effort to win women the right to vote, and then as a member of the League of Women Voters, Thompson collected and preserved the movement's history.
Thu, 01 Aug 2019 16:26:43 EST]]>
/Slavery_at_the_College_of_William_and_Mary Fri, 26 Jul 2019 09:48:25 EST <![CDATA[Slavery at the College of William and Mary]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slavery_at_the_College_of_William_and_Mary The College of William and Mary utilized the labor of enslaved African Americans from the earliest days of its construction, in 1695, until the beginning of the American Civil War (1861–1865), when the school suspended classes. Enslaved laborers built the college's main building, the Brafferton, and the President's House, and later performed the duties of taking care of the school, its professors, and its students. Besides those it directly enslaved, the college depended on the forced labor of those being hired out from other owners. Although documentation of their lives is scarce, it's clear they kept student rooms and classrooms clean, served meals, shined shoes, rang the bell, ran errands, cut wood,performed maintenance and repairs, and gardened. Enslaved people were subject to often harsh discipline and abuse by faculty, staff, and students, who often viewed them as lazy, incompetent, and inferior to whites. During the American Revolution (1775–1783), many slaves were sold when the college's finances became precarious. From about 1760 into the early Federalist period, intellectual skepticism about slavery was strong, but by the middle of the nineteenth century, a proslavery ideology had taken hold and was promulgated. In 2009, the College of William and Mary established the Lemon Project, charged with documenting the institution's complicity in slavery and its aftereffects. The college officially apologized for that complicity in 2018.
Fri, 26 Jul 2019 09:48:25 EST]]>
/Bouldin_Thomas_Tyler_d_1834 Thu, 25 Jul 2019 15:31:18 EST <![CDATA[Bouldin, Thomas Tyler (d. 1834)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bouldin_Thomas_Tyler_d_1834 Thu, 25 Jul 2019 15:31:18 EST]]> /Bouldin_James_Wood_ca_1792-1854 Thu, 25 Jul 2019 15:28:49 EST <![CDATA[Bouldin, James Wood (ca. 1792–1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bouldin_James_Wood_ca_1792-1854 James Wood Bouldin was a member of the House of Delegates (1825–1826) and the U.S. House of Representatives (1834–1839). Born in Charlotte County, he practiced law there and served one term in the General Assembly. Then, in 1834, his brother died unexpectedly while serving in Congress and Bouldin was pressed into service as his replacement. A Democrat and ally of the Andrew Jackson administration, he won election against Beverley Tucker, finishing his brother's term and serving two more after that. In Washington he sat on the Committee on the District of Columbia (1835–1839) and vigorously opposed the abolition of slavery in the District. He also supported the independence and eventual statehood of Texas. Bouldin died in 1854.
Thu, 25 Jul 2019 15:28:49 EST]]>
/Archer_William_Segar_1789-1855 Thu, 25 Jul 2019 15:05:23 EST <![CDATA[Archer, William Segar (1789–1855)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Archer_William_Segar_1789-1855 William Segar Archer was a member of the House of Delegates (1812–1814, 1818–1819), the U.S. House of Representatives (1820–1835), and the U.S. Senate (1841–1847). Born in Amelia County and educated at the College of William and Mary, Archer began his political career early and represented his constituents as a conservative, states' rights Republican. He supported President Andrew Jackson but broke with him over his handling of the Nullification Crisis of 1832–1833. By the 1840s he had joined the Whig Party, and as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee he opposed the annexation of Texas but favored the expansion of slavery into the Southwest. He lost elections to be a delegate at the constitutional conventions of 1829–1830 and 1850 and generally opposed their attempts at democratic reform. He died in 1855.
Thu, 25 Jul 2019 15:05:23 EST]]>
/Ashe_Arthur_1943-1993 Wed, 10 Jul 2019 11:36:45 EST <![CDATA[Ashe, Arthur (1943–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ashe_Arthur_1943-1993 Arthur Ashe was a professional tennis player, broadcaster, author, and activist. Known for his on-court grace and low-key demeanor, he was the first black men's tennis champion at the U.S. Open and Wimbledon, the first African American to play for and captain the U.S. Davis Cup team, and the first black man inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame. Yet it was and remains Ashe's legacy outside of professional tennis for which he is most noted. He was the first and only African American to have a statue of his likeness erected on Richmond's historic Monument Avenue and one of the most prominent athletes of any race to die from AIDS.
Wed, 10 Jul 2019 11:36:45 EST]]>
/Hodges_John_Q_1841-after_June_13_1900 Wed, 03 Jul 2019 09:51:35 EST <![CDATA[Hodges, John Q. (1841–after June 1, 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hodges_John_Q_1841-after_June_13_1900 Wed, 03 Jul 2019 09:51:35 EST]]> /Hodges_Charles_E_1819-after_April_29_1910 Wed, 03 Jul 2019 09:49:58 EST <![CDATA[Hodges, Charles E. (1819–after April 15, 1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hodges_Charles_E_1819-after_April_29_1910 Charles E. Hodges was a member of the House of Delegates (1869–1871) from Norfolk County. Born in Princess Anne County, the son of free African Americans, he learned to read and write and, with his brothers Willis A. Hodges and William Johnson Hodges, became an outspoken abolitionist. In 1850 he was swindled out of land, and the next year he moved to Brooklyn, New York, where he became a Baptist preacher. He returned to Virginia during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and in 1869 won election to the General Assembly, voting to ratify the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution and unsuccessfully opposing segregation in the new statewide public school system. In his later years, Hodges served as a Baptist preacher in what later became the city of Chesapeake and, in 1873, won a three-year term as justice of the peace in Norfolk County. He died sometime after being counted in the federal census of 1910.
Wed, 03 Jul 2019 09:49:58 EST]]>
/Slave_Literacy_and_Education_in_Virginia Mon, 24 Jun 2019 08:18:07 EST <![CDATA[Slave Literacy and Education in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Literacy_and_Education_in_Virginia A relatively small number of enslaved African Americans in Virginia learned to read and write, either on their own or at the behest of their masters. As many as 5 percent of slaves may have been literate by the start of the American Revolution (1775–1783), their educations often tied to religious instruction. Many slaveholders viewed Christian teaching as their duty, and converts to the Church of England were required to be literate enough to read a catechism. The Anglican bishop Edmund Gibson and the minister Dr. Thomas Bray both promoted slave education in America with the Associates of Dr. Bray founding a number of schools, including in Williamsburg and Fredericksburg. Virginia law never explicitly prohibited the education of slaves, but in the years after Gabriel's Conspiracy (1800), the General Assembly made it more difficult. Elite whites worried that slaves who could read and write could travel through white society more easily and be exposed to ideas of freedom, making them more inclined to rebel. The gathering of slaves for the purpose of education was prohibited, so individuals stole away to learn on their own, often at great personal risk. During the antebellum period, the percentage of literate slaves had doubled to 10 percent. The laws became even stricter after Nat Turner's Revolt in 1831—Turner was a literate preacher—but during and after the American Civil War (1861–1865) freedpeople quickly established their own schools. Literacy rates rose to 30 percent and then, by 1910, to as high as 70 percent.
Mon, 24 Jun 2019 08:18:07 EST]]>
/Revolt_Nat_Turner_s_1831 Tue, 18 Jun 2019 15:06:01 EST <![CDATA[Turner's Revolt, Nat (1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Revolt_Nat_Turner_s_1831 On the evening of August 21–22, 1831, an enslaved preacher and self-styled prophet named Nat Turner launched the most deadly slave revolt in the history of the United States. Over the course of a day in Southampton County, Turner and his allies killed fifty-five white men, women, and children as the rebels made their way toward Jerusalem, Virginia (now Courtland). Less than twenty-four hours after the revolt began, the rebels encountered organized resistance and were defeated in an encounter at James Parker's farm. Following this setback, Turner and other rebels scrambled to reassemble their forces. The next day, a series of defeats led to the effective end of the revolt. Whites quickly and brutally reasserted their control over Southampton County, killing roughly three dozen blacks without trials. Within a few days of the revolt, white leaders in Southampton became increasingly confident that the revolt had been suppressed and worked to limit the extralegal killing of blacks. Instead, white leaders made sure that the remaining suspected slaves were tried, which also meant that the white slave owners would receive compensation from the state for condemned slaves, a benefit that the state did not extend to slave owners who owned suspected rebels killed without trials. This effort, which reached a climax with the declaration of martial law in Southampton a week after the revolt began, meant that Southampton court system would ultimately decide what to do with suspected slave rebels. Trials began on August 31, 1831, and the majority of trials were completed within a month. By the time that the trials were finished the following spring, thirty slaves and one free black had been condemned to death. Of these, nineteen were executed in Southampton: Governor John Floyd, following the recommendations of the court in Southampton, commuted twelve sentences. Turner himself had eluded whites throughout September and into October when two slaves spotted him close to where the revolt began. Once detected, Turner was forced to move, but he was unable to elude the renewed manhunt. He was captured on October 30. While in jail awaiting trial, Turner spoke freely with whites about the revolt. Local lawyer Thomas R. Gray approached Turner with a plan to take down his confessions. The Confessions of Nat Turner was published within weeks of the Turner's execution on November 11, 1831, and remains one of the most important sources for historians working on slavery in the United States. The revolt had important ramifications outside of Southampton, as several southern communities feared that slaves in their community were part of the revolt. In Richmond, Thomas Jefferson Randolph—the grandson of Thomas Jefferson—tried but failed to convince the General Assemblyto enact a plan that would have put the state on the path to gradual emancipation. Abolitionists remembered the revolt as an important example of both slaves' hate for the system of slavery and their bravery. The cultural legacy of the revolt is still vibrant; the revolt remains the clearest example of overt resistance in the United States to the system of slavery.
Tue, 18 Jun 2019 15:06:01 EST]]>
/Great_Awakening_in_Virginia_The Tue, 18 Jun 2019 14:59:02 EST <![CDATA[Great Awakening in Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Great_Awakening_in_Virginia_The The Great Awakening was the most significant cultural upheaval in colonial America. The term refers to a series of religious revivals that began early in the eighteenth century and led, eventually, to the disestablishment of the Church of England as the official church during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Triggered by the preaching of the Anglican itinerant George Whitefield, the Great Awakening began in New England and the Middle Colonies, where thousands converted to an evangelical faith centered on the experience of the "new birth" of salvation. It also featured intense, emotional scenes of penitential sinners and new converts being filled, as they saw it, with the Holy Spirit, with associated outcries, visions, dreams, and spirit journeys. The Great Awakening's effects in Virginia developed slowly, beginning early in the 1740s. By the 1760s, evangelical Presbyterians and Baptists were making major inroads among Virginians, and challenging the established church in the colony. Perhaps the most notable historical result of the Great Awakening in Virginia was the end of the state's establishment of religion, which was ultimately accomplished through the Act for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786). The cause of religious freedom was championed politically by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, but it depended on the popular support of legions of evangelicals, especially Baptists.
Tue, 18 Jun 2019 14:59:02 EST]]>
/Tucker_Beverley_1784-1851 Mon, 17 Jun 2019 10:00:48 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, Beverley (1784–1851)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_Beverley_1784-1851 Beverley Tucker was a law professor, an advocate of slavery and states' rights, and a writer who is best known for his novel The Partisan Leader (1836), a prediction of civil war that proved remarkably prescient. Born in Chesterfield County to a prominent slaveholding family, Tucker was educated at the College of William and Mary and then read law before opening a practice in Charlotte County. From 1816 to 1833, Tucker lived in Missouri, where he established a settlement for slaveholders and, in response to sectional strife over slavery in the territories, publicly argued for states' rights and secession. In 1834, he was appointed a professor of law at William and Mary, a position previously held by his father, St. George Tucker, and that year delivered a major lecture there in defense of slavery. Over time Beverley Tucker became a leading architect of proslavery ideology and he often employed extreme rhetoric, once publicly referring to his opponents as "bloated vampyres," for instance. In 1836, he published The Partisan Leader, a fictional piece of political propaganda, timed to influence the presidential election, that in many respects anticipated the American Civil War (1861–1865). In 1850, Tucker served as a delegate to the Nashville Convention, a meeting of southern states, during which he called for a new slaveholding republic that stretched from the American South to Cuba and Jamaica. Tucker died in 1851.
Mon, 17 Jun 2019 10:00:48 EST]]>
/Pleasants_Robert_1723-1801 Tue, 11 Jun 2019 14:10:15 EST <![CDATA[Pleasants, Robert (1723–1801)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pleasants_Robert_1723-1801 Robert Pleasants was an antislavery activist who founded the Virginia Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and sued to enforce the manumission of his family's slaves as called for in his father's and half-brother's wills. The resulting case, Pleasants v. Pleasants (1799), is the largest legal case in U.S. history involving the manumission of enslaved people. Born in Henrico County to a wealthy slaveholding Quaker family, Pleasants was educated in Philadelphia before returning home to help tend the family's business interests. He encouraged his father and half-brother to write wills in the 1770s freeing their slaves contingent on the passage of a Virginia law in which such a manumission became legal. When such a law was passed, in 1782, surviving family members did not fulfill their responsibilities, causing Pleasants to sue and leading to the eventual freedom of at least 400 men, women, and children. Pleasants founded and served as president of the Virginia Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery from 1790 until his death in 1801, providing legal support to persons claiming to be wrongfully enslaved and submitting petitions against slavery and the transatlantic slave trade to the General Assembly and the U.S. Congress. Upon his death, Pleasants bequeathed Gravelly Hills, a 350-acre estate in Henrico County, to his former slaves as well as endowing a school for their descendants that operated until 1821.
Tue, 11 Jun 2019 14:10:15 EST]]>
/Peirce_William_d_btw_1645_and_1647 Fri, 24 May 2019 09:48:41 EST <![CDATA[Peirce, William (d. btw. 1645 and 1647)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Peirce_William_d_btw_1645_and_1647 Fri, 24 May 2019 09:48:41 EST]]> /Angela_fl_1619-1625 Thu, 23 May 2019 16:51:44 EST <![CDATA[Angela (fl. 1619–1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Angela_fl_1619-1625 Thu, 23 May 2019 16:51:44 EST]]> /Knights_of_the_Horse-Shoe_The_1845 Thu, 23 May 2019 15:35:33 EST <![CDATA[Knights of the Horse-Shoe, The (1845)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Knights_of_the_Horse-Shoe_The_1845 The Knights of the Horse-Shoe: A Traditionary Tale of the Cocked Hat Gentry in the Old Dominion (1845), published in two volumes, is the third and final work of William Alexander Caruthers, a physician who helped originate the romantic Virginia novel and who died of tuberculosis in 1846. First serialized in 1841 in the pages of the Magnolia: or Southern Monthly under the title The Knights of the Golden Horse-Shoe, the book is an action-adventure story and romance that focuses on the exploits of the band of adventurers who in 1716 accompanied Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood on an expedition to the crest of the Blue Ridge Mountains. It is widely considered to be the best of Caruthers's novels and was the first full-length book, fiction or nonfiction, devoted to this historical event. Knights presents a Spotswood with a large and drama-filled family—the historical governor actually was a bachelor—including a son who has an illicit relationship with an Indian woman and a tutor who is not who he says he is. Plot turns include a murder, a kidnapping, a marriage, and, finally, the expedition, which redeems Spotswood's leadership. Little is known about the book's critical reception at the time of its release, but modern scholars have focused on finding connections between the characters' romantic relationships and Caruthers's views on western expansion.
Thu, 23 May 2019 15:35:33 EST]]>
/Caruthers_William_Alexander_1802-1846 Thu, 23 May 2019 15:34:15 EST <![CDATA[Caruthers, William Alexander (1802–1846)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Caruthers_William_Alexander_1802-1846 William Alexander Caruthers is regarded as the first important Virginia novelist and one of earliest practitioners of the romantic tradition in the South. Trained as a physician, he wrote three southern-based novels in the mid-1830s: The Kentuckian in New-York; or, The Adventures of Three Southerns, by a Virginian (1834), Cavaliers of Virginia; or, The Recluse of Jamestown. An Historical Romance of the Old Dominion (1834–1835), and The Knights of the Golden Horse-Shoe, a Traditionary Tale of the Cocked Hat Gentry in the Old Dominion (1845). Aspiring to become a writer of national significance, Caruthers could not move beyond identification as a sectional historian and romancer of the Old Dominion. Ignored in his home state for decades, he was eventually recognized as the originator of what became known as the Virginia novel. He contracted tuberculosis and died on August 29, 1846, at a Georgia health resort.
Thu, 23 May 2019 15:34:15 EST]]>
/Kentuckian_in_New-York_The_1834 Thu, 23 May 2019 15:33:24 EST <![CDATA[Kentuckian in New-York, The (1834)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Kentuckian_in_New-York_The_1834 The Kentuckian in New-York; or, the Adventures of Three Southerns, by a Virginian (1834), published in two volumes, is the first of three novels by William Alexander Caruthers, a physician who helped originate the romantic Virginia novel and who died of tuberculosis in 1846. A genre-bending epistolary comedy, The Kentuckian follows the travels of several men who attended college together in Virginia. They all seek to explore different parts of the country in order to overcome the sectional differences then threatening to divide America. In New York, a South Carolinian falls in love, while in South Carolina, a Virginian does the same, helping to avert a slave rebellion at the same time. The novel ends with weddings meant to symbolize the eternal union of North, South, and West. Contemporary reviews tended to be favorable to the extent to which reviewers were not threatened by The Kentuckian's adherence to the tropes of sectional difference, while more nationalist editors were hostile. Modern critics have found Caruthers's work most interesting as an early example of what one termed the "intersectional novel."
Thu, 23 May 2019 15:33:24 EST]]>
/Virginia_The_Cavaliers_of_1834-1835 Thu, 23 May 2019 15:32:07 EST <![CDATA[Cavaliers of Virginia, The (1834–1835)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_The_Cavaliers_of_1834-1835 The Cavaliers of Virginia; or, The Recluse of Jamestown. An Historical Romance of the Old Dominion (1834–1835), published in two volumes, is the second of three novels by William Alexander Caruthers, a physician who helped originate the romantic Virginia novel and who died of tuberculosis in 1846. An action-adventure story and romance set in Jamestown during Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), the novel uses the backdrop of colonial Virginia to tell its story, making characters of such noted figures as Nathaniel Bacon and Sir William Berkeley but in general not following the history. Unlike the historical Bacon, the novel's character is the ward of a Virginia aristocrat who vies for the hand of that aristocrat's daughter. At the same time, an Indian "princess" covets Bacon, even during conflict with the English invaders. These romantic tribulations overlap with political discontent within the colony, which erupts in open warfare between Bacon and his men and the governor and his followers. Caruthers drew on the myth of the Virginia Cavalier—a dashing and gentlemanly hero—in his portrayal of Bacon, and the novel was well received by reviewers, better than either of the author's other two novels. Modern-day scholars have debated the book's use of history and the Cavalier archetype but otherwise have not paid it more than cursory attention.
Thu, 23 May 2019 15:32:07 EST]]>
/Coalter_John_1769-1838 Thu, 23 May 2019 14:21:37 EST <![CDATA[Coalter, John (1769–1838)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Coalter_John_1769-1838 John Coalter was a judge of the Virginia Court of Appeals (1811–1831) and a member of the Convention of 1829–1830. Born in Augusta County and educated at Liberty Hall in Lexington, he studied law under George Wythe at the College of William and Mary. He tutored the children of Wythe's protégé, St. George Tucker, and later married Tucker's daughter. Coalter served on the General Court from 1809 until 1811, hearing civil cases in the western part of the state. In 1811, he was appointed to the Court of Appeals, the state's highest court, filling a vacancy made by the resignation of Tucker. He compiled a solid but unspectacular record over twenty years, a time when Spencer Roane, with whom Tucker had clashed, led the court and other judges followed. In 1817, Coalter served on a committee that revised the state's laws. In 1829, he was elected to fill a vacancy among delegates at the Convention of 1829–1830, which revised the Virginia constitution. He opposed many of the proposed reforms, including reducing property requirements for suffrage, but he voted with the majority for the constitution. Coalter retired from the court in 1831, living his remaining years at Chatham Manor, overlooking Fredericksburg. He died in 1838.
Thu, 23 May 2019 14:21:37 EST]]>
/Atkinson_W_1796-1849 Wed, 22 May 2019 15:11:19 EST <![CDATA[Atkinson, W. (1796–1849)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Atkinson_W_1796-1849 Wed, 22 May 2019 15:11:19 EST]]> /Bayly_Thomas_Monteagle_1775-1834 Wed, 22 May 2019 14:56:38 EST <![CDATA[Bayly, Thomas Monteagle (1775–1834)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bayly_Thomas_Monteagle_1775-1834 Wed, 22 May 2019 14:56:38 EST]]> /Key_Elizabeth_fl_1655-1660 Wed, 22 May 2019 14:53:55 EST <![CDATA[Key, Elizabeth (fl. 1655–1660)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Key_Elizabeth_fl_1655-1660 Wed, 22 May 2019 14:53:55 EST]]> /Powell_Guy_d_by_November_19_1900 Wed, 22 May 2019 14:34:08 EST <![CDATA[Powell, Guy (d. by November 19, 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Powell_Guy_d_by_November_19_1900 Guy Powell was a member of the Senate of Virginia (1875–1879) and of the House of Delegates (1881–1883). Born enslaved in Brunswick County, he worked as a laborer and then studied to be a Baptist minister at the Richmond Institute. He ministered in Brunswick, Greensville, and Southampton counties and took leadership roles in statewide church groups. In 1875, Powell won election to the Senate of Virginia but did not speak often. During his term, he and several other delegates publicly protested poor treatment and bad accommodations at a local hotel. In March 1881, he attended a convention of African American Republicans in Petersburg that voted to affiliate with the Readjuster Party, and later that year Powell won election to the House of Delegates, representing Brunswick County. After one term he moved to Southampton County, purchasing land there and continuing to preach. He died in 1900.
Wed, 22 May 2019 14:34:08 EST]]>
/Bracken_John_bap_1747-1818 Thu, 16 May 2019 17:31:32 EST <![CDATA[Bracken, John (bap. 1747–1818)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bracken_John_bap_1747-1818 Thu, 16 May 2019 17:31:32 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_Michie_to_David_Watson_December_21_1797 Wed, 15 May 2019 08:41:51 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert Michie to David Watson (December 21, 1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_Michie_to_David_Watson_December_21_1797 Wed, 15 May 2019 08:41:51 EST]]> /Free_Blacks_in_Colonial_Virginia Mon, 13 May 2019 11:18:53 EST <![CDATA[Free Blacks in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Free_Blacks_in_Colonial_Virginia Mon, 13 May 2019 11:18:53 EST]]> /Slave_Sale_Advertisement_Virginia_Gazette_November_28_1777 Fri, 10 May 2019 13:48:49 EST <![CDATA[Slave Sale Advertisement, Virginia Gazette (November 28, 1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Sale_Advertisement_Virginia_Gazette_November_28_1777 Fri, 10 May 2019 13:48:49 EST]]> /Royal_Charter_of_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_February_8_1693 Thu, 09 May 2019 16:01:30 EST <![CDATA[Royal Charter of the College of William and Mary (February 8, 1693)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Royal_Charter_of_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_February_8_1693 Thu, 09 May 2019 16:01:30 EST]]> /John_Mitchell_Jr_1863-1929 Mon, 06 May 2019 08:03:41 EST <![CDATA[Mitchell, John Jr. (1863–1929)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_Mitchell_Jr_1863-1929 John Mitchell Jr. was a prominent newspaper editor, politician, banker, and civil rights activist. Born enslaved near Richmond, Mitchell attended the Richmond Colored Normal School and taught for a year before he and other black teachers were fired by a new Democratic school board. He then went into journalism, in 1884 becoming editor of the Richmond Planet, an African American weekly newspaper. Mitchell used the Planet to promote civil rights, racial justice, and racial pride. As an editor and an activist, he became a key figure in the antilynching movement and played an instrumental role in organizing the Richmond streetcar boycott of 1904. Mitchell's bold protest against racial injustice, which at times included calls to take up arms in self-defense, earned him his reputation as "the Fighting Editor." In addition to his work on the Richmond Planet, Mitchell served on the Richmond city council from 1888 to 1896 before founding the Mechanics Savings Bank in 1901. His work at the bank brought him more into the political and social mainstream but its collapse in 1922 led him to be convicted on charges of fraud and theft. The conviction was later overturned but left him destitute. When the state Republican Party excluded most black delegates from its convention, Mitchell unsuccessfully ran for governor on a "Lily Black" ticket. He remained editor of the Richmond Planet until his death in 1929.
Mon, 06 May 2019 08:03:41 EST]]>
/Fithian_Philip_Vickers_1747-1776 Thu, 02 May 2019 17:16:51 EST <![CDATA[Fithian, Philip Vickers (1747–1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fithian_Philip_Vickers_1747-1776 Philip Vickers Fithian tutored the children of Robert Carter III at his Westmoreland County mansion and is best known for the diary he kept detailing life in colonial Virginia. Born in New Jersey, he experienced a religious conversion in 1766, after which he attended a Presbyterian academy and college, preparing for the ministry. While tutoring the Carter children, he kept an account of plantation life in Virginia on the eve of the American Revolution (1775–1783), one that provided insights on slavery, religion, and society and has long been consulted and cited by historians. Fithian returned home to New Jersey after a year and for a year traveled the Pennsylvania and Virginia backcountry as a Presbyterian missionary, keeping a journal during this time as well. In June 1776 he was appointed chaplain of a battalion of New Jersey infantry died in camp later that year in New York.
Thu, 02 May 2019 17:16:51 EST]]>
/Swallow_Barn_1832 Thu, 02 May 2019 17:07:00 EST <![CDATA[Swallow Barn (1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Swallow_Barn_1832 Swallow Barn; or, a Sojourn in the Old Dominion (1832), published in two volumes, is the first book-length work of John Pendleton Kennedy, a Maryland lawyer who later served in Congress and as secretary of the Navy. Ambivalent about whether he wanted his book to be a novel, Kennedy created a difficult-to-categorize story about the manners and customs of Virginian plantation-dwellers and slaveholders. Set near Martinsburg, the story focuses on two abutting plantations—Swallow Barn and the Brakes—and the long-running legal conflict between the owners. A secondary plot involving a courtship eventually unites the families and helps lead to the final resolution of the conflict. Upon its release, Swallow Barn enjoyed popular success, although the critics, even when sensing promise in Kennedy, found it to be too derivative of the work of Washington Irving. Modern critics who have considered it—they are few—have commented on its romantic treatment of slavery and its early interest in contrasting northern and southern culture, accomplished through the lens of a New York–born narrator.
Thu, 02 May 2019 17:07:00 EST]]>
/The_Virginia_Cavalier Mon, 29 Apr 2019 09:34:16 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Cavalier, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Virginia_Cavalier The Virginia Cavalier is a concept that attaches the qualities of chivalry and honor to the aristocratic class in Virginia history and literature. Its origin lies in the seventeenth century, when leading Virginians began to associate themselves with the Royalists, or Cavaliers, who fought for and remained loyal to King Charles I during the English Civil Wars (1642–1648). The myth gained popularity in nineteenth-century southern literature by authors such as George Tucker, William Alexander Caruthers, John Esten Cooke, and Mary Johnston, whose work presented a romanticized masculine portrait of the elite authority in Virginia in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries and expressed nostalgia for Virginia's supposedly aristocratic origins. Tying into a history that progressed from patriarchal to paternal, the Cavalier myth reinforced the illusion of benevolent male authority during the antebellum and post–Civil War periods, and is still present in modern iconography depicting Virginia's past. By circulating a version of Virginia history that is dominated by the ruling class, the Cavalier myth marginalizes the role that other groups played in the state's social development and disregards the growth of the institution of slavery under an ethos of supposed honor and benevolence.
Mon, 29 Apr 2019 09:34:16 EST]]>
/Virginia_The_Influenza_Pandemic_in_1918-1919 Mon, 22 Apr 2019 13:57:29 EST <![CDATA[Influenza Pandemic in Virginia, The (1918–1919)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_The_Influenza_Pandemic_in_1918-1919 In 1918–1919 a new and deadly type of influenza spread across the United States and around the world. It raged through Virginia from the autumn of 1918 through the spring of 1919, spreading through cities, small towns, isolated rural areas, and military camps. By the time it waned, the epidemic had claimed the lives of at least 16,000 Virginians. The virus, which probably originated in Kansas, was brought to Virginia by military personnel arriving in the state to take ships to Europe, where World War I (1914–1918) was being fought. From bases such as Camp Lee, near Petersburg, it easily jumped to cities and their civilian populations, causing high fever, nausea, and aches, and often leading to severe pneumonia. Authorities prohibited public gatherings and the Red Cross distributed cloth masks, but viral infections were unknown to medical science at the time and are often untreatable regardless. Doctors and nurses were driven to exhaustion caring for their patients, while in rural areas without access to hospitals the weight of coping fell on family members. Federal and state governments, including in Virginia, generally downplayed the severity of the epidemic so as not to cause panic or a downturn in wartime morale. In Richmond, the city turned an unused high school into a whites-only emergency hospital and later opened one for African Americans. In Charlottesville the schools closed. Because of the Great Depression and World War II (1939–1945), the epidemic faded from public memory until early in the twenty-first century.
Mon, 22 Apr 2019 13:57:29 EST]]>
/Griggs_Nathaniel_M_d_1919 Tue, 16 Apr 2019 15:08:44 EST <![CDATA[Griggs, Nathaniel M. (d. 1919)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Griggs_Nathaniel_M_d_1919 Tue, 16 Apr 2019 15:08:44 EST]]> /Fairfax_Ferdinando_1769-1820 Tue, 16 Apr 2019 14:37:14 EST <![CDATA[Fairfax, Ferdinando (1769–1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fairfax_Ferdinando_1769-1820 Ferdinando Fairfax was the author of a plan to gradually emancipate enslaved people in the United States and resettling them in Africa. Born in Fairfax County to a Virginia gentry family, he was the godson of George Washington and Martha Custis Washington. The first president introduced Fairfax into society and, after the death of his uncle, he inherited land in England and Virginia, including the family seat of Belvoir. Over the years, Fairfax manufactured brick, sold timber, raised sheep, and operated ironworks, a tavern, and other businesses. He helped build a market house in Charles Town in what became West Virginia and attempted to found a newspaper there. In 1790, possibly as a result of a religious conversion, he published a plan to emancipate and colonize enslaved African Americans in Virginia and the United States. That plan never came into being, although Fairfax freed at least some of his own slaves and made arrangements for the eventual freedom of others. He died in 1820.
Tue, 16 Apr 2019 14:37:14 EST]]>
/Black_Baptists_in_Virginia_1865-1902 Tue, 16 Apr 2019 14:31:25 EST <![CDATA[Black Baptists in Virginia (1865–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Baptists_in_Virginia_1865-1902 Most religious African Americans after the American Civil War (1861–1865) belonged to Baptist churches. Even prior to the abolition of slavery, Baptists, black and white, came closer to the principle of the equality of all believers than many other religious bodies. Even white Baptists recognized in principle the idea that African Americans were full members of the church, though whites generally did not consent to the ordination of their black counterparts. Once free, African American Baptists became even more assertive in forming churches and organizing independent local and state associations. These groups gave a platform to African American views of the world, from the theological to the political, and an avenue by which connections could be made both domestically and abroad. For instance, black Baptists in Virginia sought educational and humanitarian support from white Baptists in the North while at the same time, in part through the Baptist Foreign Mission Convention, created in 1880, establishing missions in West Africa. This strategy eventually caused a rift between those black Baptists (so-called independents) who balked at asking white Baptists for help, and others (so-called cooperationists) who argued that they should rise above racial differences. Taking advantage of their numbers and influence, Baptist groups also lobbied hard for black civil rights. And for a time black men voted and regularly held office in Virginia. But by 1902, and the ratification of a new state constitution, such rights were effectively eliminated. In the difficult years to come, Virginia's black Baptists relied on their now well-established institutions to pursue their social and political interests.
Tue, 16 Apr 2019 14:31:25 EST]]>
/Wise_John_S_1846-1913 Thu, 04 Apr 2019 18:23:50 EST <![CDATA[Wise, John S. (1846–1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wise_John_S_1846-1913 John S. Wise was a member of the House of Representatives (1883–1885), a judge, and, late in his career, a writer of novels and history. Born in Brazil the son of Henry A. Wise, who went on to serve as governor of Virginia, John Wise grew up in Accomack County. He attended the Virginia Military Institute and fought at the Battle of New Market (1864) during the American Civil War (1861–1865) before earning a law degree at the University of Virginia and following his father into politics. In the 1870s he became a follower of William Mahone and joined his Readjuster Party, which allied with African Americans and supported reducing the principal and interest on the state's antebellum debt . After losing to his cousin George D. Wise in 1880, Wise won a seat in Congress in 1882, serving one term, serving as a U.S. attorney for a year in the interim. An outspoken politician who fought at least one duel, Wise lost the governor's race to Fitzhugh Lee in 1885, leaving Virginia and its toxic political atmosphere three years later to practice law in New York. There he wrote novels, including one in the voice of his favorite hunting dog, a memoir, and an account of his political career. He retired in 1907 and died six years later.
Thu, 04 Apr 2019 18:23:50 EST]]>
/Eppes_Richard_1824-1896 Thu, 04 Apr 2019 18:19:58 EST <![CDATA[Eppes, Richard (1824–1896)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Eppes_Richard_1824-1896 Richard Eppes was a wealthy planter, slaveholder, Confederate soldier, and wartime surgeon whose detailed diaries have provided historians insights into the lives of elite Virginians of his time. Born at his family's plantation in Prince George County, Eppes was educated in Petersburg and at the University of Virginia, the College of William and Mary, and the University of Pennsylvania, before traveling in the Middle East. It was during that trip that he began his lifelong habit of recording his experiences in a diary. Eppes found high earnings in his plantations where his father had not, and treated the enslaved men, women, and children who labored for him with a strict, sometimes violent paternalism. At the Convention of 1861 he supported remaining in the Union, but when the American Civil War (1861–1865) began he joined a cavalry regiment, serving during the Peninsula Campaign (1862) before hiring a replacement. He later served as a surgeon at a Petersburg hospital while Union general Ulysses S. Grant used his property as his headquarters while laying siege to the city. After the war, Eppes returned to farming and died in 1896. His Appomattox Manor later became a unit of Petersburg National Battlefield, while his diaries were published in twenty-one volumes.
Thu, 04 Apr 2019 18:19:58 EST]]>
/Members_of_the_Virginia_State_Corporation_Commission Fri, 29 Mar 2019 11:11:28 EST <![CDATA[Members of the Virginia State Corporation Commission]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Members_of_the_Virginia_State_Corporation_Commission Fri, 29 Mar 2019 11:11:28 EST]]> /Baskervill_Britton_1863-1892 Fri, 29 Mar 2019 10:57:24 EST <![CDATA[Baskervill, Britton (1863–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Baskervill_Britton_1863-1892 Britton Baskervill represented Mecklenburg County for one term in the General Assembly (1887–1888). Born enslaved, he acquired an education after the American Civil War (1861–1865) and taught school as one of his occupations. In 1887 Republican Party leader William Mahone engineered Baskervill's nomination as the party's candidate to the House of Delegates. The African American majority among the county's electorate provided Baskervill an easy victory over his Democratic opponent in the general election. He stood by Mahone in 1888 when most African Americans supported the independent congressional candidacy of John Mercer Langston. A year later, however, Baskervill lost Mahone's political support and with it the Republican Party's nomination for the seat in 1889. Baskervill returned to teaching and farming, never again holding public office.
Fri, 29 Mar 2019 10:57:24 EST]]>
/Robert_Edward_Lee_Sculpture Wed, 20 Mar 2019 15:30:36 EST <![CDATA[Robert Edward Lee Sculpture]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robert_Edward_Lee_Sculpture The Robert Edward Lee sculpture depicts the Confederate general astride his horse, Traveller, and serves as the centerpiece of a park in downtown Charlottesville. The work of two artists, one of whom died midway through the project, the bronze statue on a granite pedestal was commissioned in 1917 as a gift to the city of Charlottesville from the philanthropist Paul Goodloe McIntire. It was unveiled on May 21, 1924, in conjunction with the annual reunions of the Virginia divisions of the United Confederate Veterans and the Sons of Confederate Veterans. The last of three statues given to the city by McIntire, the sculpture was created at a time when the City Beautiful Movement had popularized monuments around the country, many of which honored Confederate heritage. It also was a time of strict segregation and racial violence, suggesting to many historians that while these public art pieces remembered the American Civil War (1861–1865), they also responded to the issues of the day. Days before the unveiling, a local chapter of the Ku Klux Klan burned a cross and paraded through Charlottesville. The Lee monument was received by the city as a symbol of loyalty to Virginia and its traditions, but early in the twenty-first century some of those traditions were being questioned. Debates over acknowledging the Confederacy's defense of slavery led to calls for the statue's removal, a lawsuit, and, on August 12, 2017, a white supremacist rally that left three people dead.
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 15:30:36 EST]]>
/Exploration_The_Age_of Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:39:32 EST <![CDATA[Exploration, The Age of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Exploration_The_Age_of The Age of Exploration began in earnest with the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and ended, at least where present-day Virginians are concerned, with the founding of Jamestown in 1607. When Columbus stumbled into two unknown continents, he had been looking for a quick route to the Far East, and, for decades to come, explorers focused on discovering that passage almost as much as they did on exploiting the New World. Early in the sixteenth century, the Spaniards conquered three major civilizations in Central and South America, and in the process unleashed a devastating biological exchange that killed an estimated 95 percent of the area's inhabitants between 1492 and 1650. The Spanish then turned their sights north, planting short-lived colonies on the shores of present-day Georgia and South Carolina and pursuing what came to be known as the Chicora Legend: the belief that the best land, as well as a passage to China, could be found in the area of the Chesapeake Bay. While the French and later the English explored the far northern latitudes of the Atlantic Ocean, the Spanish slowly worked their way up the coast from present-day Florida, a quest that ended only when a Virginia Indian called Don Luís (Paquiquineo) led a fatal attack on a group of Jesuit missionaries in 1571. This defeat helped make room for the English, whose failed colonies at Roanoke in 1585 and 1587 led, finally, to the permanent settlement at Jamestown.
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:39:32 EST]]>
/Don_LuA Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:36:46 EST <![CDATA[Don Luís de Velasco / Paquiquineo (fl. 1561–1571)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Don_LuA Paquiquineo, later Don Luís de Velasco, was a Virginia Indian who encountered Spanish explorers on the Chesapeake Bay in 1561 and returned to Spain with them, either voluntarily or as a captive. There, he appeared before King Philip II and was granted permission to lead a Catholic mission back to the Chesapeake, a land the Spaniards believed the Indians called Ajacán. A brief stop in Mexico City turned into a years-long stay after Paquiquineo became ill. During that time he converted to Christianity, taking the name of the viceroy of New Spain (present-day Mexico), Don Luís de Velasco. After two failed attempts to return home with Dominican missionaries, Don Luís sailed again to Spain, where he joined a group of Jesuit priests, and finally landed on the James River in September 1570—more than nine years after he had left. He initially aided the Jesuits, but quickly reunited with his family and, in February 1571, led an ambush that killed the missionaries save for an altar boy, Alonso de Olmos. While contemporary Spanish chroniclers demonized Paquiquineo, at least one modern scholar has suggested that the violence may have been a symbolic and predictable reaction to violations of the Indians' gift-exchange economy. In 1572 the Spanish dispatched soldiers to Ajacán. They hanged a handful of Indians but did not find Paquiquineo, who subsequently disappeared from history. Based on Jamestown-era rumors, some historians have argued that Paquiquineo and Opechancanough were the same person.
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:36:46 EST]]>
/Gift_Exchange_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:34:06 EST <![CDATA[Gift Exchange in Early Virginia Indian Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gift_Exchange_in_Early_Virginia_Indian_Society Algonquian-speaking Virginia Indians during the Late Woodland Period (AD 900–1650) practiced a gift-exchange economy. All Indians were required to give, accept, and, at a later date, reciprocate; failure to do so could lead to punishments of varying kinds. Rather than value the goods being exchanged, Indians valued the relationships of the people exchanging, with participants in the economy collecting personal debts rather than material wealth. In fact, goods were not owned but continuously passed from gift-giver to receiver. This system contrasted sharply with the commodity-exchange system with which Europeans were familiar, and each culture's unfamiliarity with the other's economy led to tensions and even violence. In 1571, a baptized Virginia Indian named Don Luís led a party that killed a group of Jesuit missionaries, an act of violence that can be best explained as a response to a violation of gift-exchange protocol. The Jesuits had declined to offer gifts to Don Luís's people while trading with neighboring groups, an act of humiliation that led to their deaths. At Roanoke, the Indians allowed such slights to pass, instead manipulating the English colonists for their own political advantage. At Jamestown, however, English ignorance of the gift exchange unleashed more violence, which was often symbolic. In one case, the mouths of English corpses were stuffed with bread, a repeated gift of sustenance for which the English had failed to reciprocate. The derisive term "Indian giver," the meaning of which has changed over time, has come to represent the frustration that resulted from each group's ignorance of the other's economic system.
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:34:06 EST]]>
/Segura_Juan_Baptista_de_1529-1571 Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:31:26 EST <![CDATA[Segura, Juan Baptista de (1529–1571)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Segura_Juan_Baptista_de_1529-1571 Juan Baptista de Segura was a priest and vice-provincial of the Jesuits in the Spanish province of La Florida. In 1570 he led a mission to the Chesapeake Bay and was killed the next year in an ambush led by Don Luís de Velasco (formerly Paquiquineo), a Virginia Indian who had converted to Christianity. Born in Toledo and educated at a time when Spanish clerics vigorously debated the best way of converting American Indians, Segura joined the Society of Jesus in 1556 and was ordained a priest the following year. Ten years after that he was named vice-provincial of the Jesuits in La Florida. An intellectual and idealist, Segura was also an indecisive leader who advised his superior that the Jesuits should abandon La Florida and then, just a few months later, organized a mission to the Chesapeake Bay. Segura insisted, against the advice of Florida governor Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, that the Jesuits did not need military protection on their mission. He instead placed his faith in Don Luís, who promised that the land he called Ajacán would be rich in potential converts and natural resources. Segura established his mission near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay in September 1570, but when Don Luís returned to his family, the Jesuits were without support. In February 1571 the Virginia Indian killed Segura and his fellow missionaries, leaving only an altar boy alive.
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:31:26 EST]]>
/Rappahannock_Tribe Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:33:52 EST <![CDATA[Rappahannock Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rappahannock_Tribe The Rappahannock tribe is a state- and federally recognized Indian tribe whose tribal area is located in Indian Neck in King and Queen County. In the late twentieth century, the tribe owned 140.5 acres of land and the Rappahannock Cultural Center and had about 500 members on its tribal roll.
Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:33:52 EST]]>
/Monacan_Indian_Nation Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:27:46 EST <![CDATA[Monacan Indian Nation]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Monacan_Indian_Nation The Monacan Indian Nation is a state- and federally recognized Indian tribe whose tribal area is located near Bear Mountain in Amherst County. The original territory of the Siouan-speaking tribe and its allies comprised more than half of present-day Virginia, including almost all of the Piedmont region and parts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Early in the twenty-first century about 1,600 Monacans belonged to the tribe, one of the oldest groups of indigenous people still existing in its ancestral homeland, and the only group in the state whose culture descends from Eastern Siouan speakers.
Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:27:46 EST]]>
/Eastern_Chickahominy_Tribe Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:23:46 EST <![CDATA[Eastern Chickahominy Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Eastern_Chickahominy_Tribe The Chickahominy Tribe Eastern Division is a state- and federally recognized Indian tribe located about twenty-five miles east of Richmond in New Kent County. Early in the twenty-first century its population numbered about 132 people, with 67 of those living in Virginia and the rest residing in other parts of the United States.
Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:23:46 EST]]>
/Chickahominy_Tribe Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:14:35 EST <![CDATA[Chickahominy Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chickahominy_Tribe The Chickahominy tribe is a state- and federally recognized Indian tribe located on 110 acres in Charles City County, midway between Richmond and Williamsburg. Early in the twenty-first century its population numbered about 875 people living within a five-mile radius of the tribal center, with several hundred more residing in other parts of the United States.
Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:14:35 EST]]>
/Upper_Mattaponi_Tribe Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:04:53 EST <![CDATA[Upper Mattaponi Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Upper_Mattaponi_Tribe The Upper Mattaponi tribe is a state- and federally recognized Indian tribe whose tribal grounds consist of thirty-two acres in King William County, near the upper reaches of the Mattaponi River. In 2009, the tribe consisted of 575 members, many of whom live in Virginia.
Mon, 11 Mar 2019 14:04:53 EST]]>
/Nansemond_Tribe Mon, 11 Mar 2019 13:58:33 EST <![CDATA[Nansemond Tribe]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Nansemond_Tribe The Nansemond tribe is a state- and federally recognized Indian tribe whose members live mostly in the cities of Chesapeake and Suffolk. In 2009 about 200 Nansemond tribal members were registered in Virginia.
Mon, 11 Mar 2019 13:58:33 EST]]>
/The_Virginia_Gentleman Fri, 08 Mar 2019 13:15:57 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Gentleman, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Virginia_Gentleman The Virginia gentleman is a concept that attaches the qualities of chivalry and honor to the aristocratic class in Virginia history and literature. Similar to the myth of the Cavalier, which suggested a connection between Virginians and Royalists during the English Civil Wars (1642–1648), the idea of the Virginia gentleman is based on a code of gentility and honor that is closely tied to the slaveholding plantation culture of Tidewater Virginia. So-called gentlemen were expected to lead and behave with courtesy toward all, regardless of social status. While not assumed to be personally flawless, they were expected to demonstrate fortitude, temperance, prudence, and justice. A gentleman's reputation and personal honor were to be cultivated and protected above all else. Developed in the context of slavery and reaching its apogee among Virginians such as George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, the concept of the gentleman spread from Virginia across the South and became an important theme in early novels of the region. Just as the Virginia gentleman provided an aspirational ideal, so did these novels present the South and its enslavement of African Americans in terms that idealized the slaveholders. This continued in the decades following the American Civil War (1861–1865), when the Virginia gentleman was enlisted into the Lost Cause and the justification of slavery. While twentieth-century writers treated it with more irony, the Virginia gentleman still thrives in American popular culture.
Fri, 08 Mar 2019 13:15:57 EST]]>
/Hodges_Johnson_d_1872 Wed, 06 Mar 2019 12:13:38 EST <![CDATA[Hodges, William Johnson (d. 1872)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hodges_Johnson_d_1872 Wed, 06 Mar 2019 12:13:38 EST]]> /Hercules_b_ca_1754 Tue, 05 Mar 2019 10:33:34 EST <![CDATA[Hercules (b. ca. 1754)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hercules_b_ca_1754 Tue, 05 Mar 2019 10:33:34 EST]]> /Hodges_Willis_A_1815-1890 Fri, 01 Mar 2019 11:56:15 EST <![CDATA[Hodges, Willis A. (1815–1890)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hodges_Willis_A_1815-1890 Willis A. Hodges was an antislavery activist, newspaper editor, and member of the Convention of 1867–1868. Born in Princess Anne County, the son of free African Americans, he learned to read and write and, with his brothers Charles E. Hodges and William Johnson Hodges, became an outspoken abolitionist. Before the American Civil War (1861–1865), Hodges moved between Virginia and Brooklyn, New York, where his brother William Johnson had settled after a run-in with the law. In New York he ministered at a Baptist church, farmed, helped found a temperance society, and, in 1847, cofounded a weekly antislavery newspaper, the Ram's Horn, through which he befriended the abolitionist John Brown. He also wrote an autobiography. After the war, having returned to Tidewater Virginia, Hodges became an outspoken leader of African Americans, opening a school and becoming involved in Republican Party politics. He served as a delegate to the constitutional convention and was the best known and one of the most active and vocal of the convention's twenty-four African American members, supporting radical reforms and racial equality. In subsequent years, Hodges ran unsuccessfully for the Senate of Virginia and, three times, for the the House of Delegates. He did serve on the Prince Anne County board of supervisors, however, and as the keeper of the Cape Henry lighthouse, perhaps the first African American to hold that position. He died in 1890.
Fri, 01 Mar 2019 11:56:15 EST]]>
/Ditcher_Jack_b_ca_1772 Thu, 28 Feb 2019 16:22:45 EST <![CDATA[Ditcher, Jack (b. ca. 1772)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ditcher_Jack_b_ca_1772 Jack Ditcher, also known as Jack Bowler, was a participant in Gabriel's Conspiracy, a failed slave uprising in the summer of 1800. At the time he belonged to the estate of William Bowler, of Caroline County likely laboring as a ditch digger. This work allowed him to move around the area, and in the spring of 1800 he met Gabriel, one of several enslaved men planning a revolt. In August the group settled on an audacious plan that included seizing the penitentiary in Richmond and weapons stored at the state Capitol. Ditcher was made second in command, but the plan was betrayed when a rainstorm delayed the action for a day. After managing to elude the authorities for several weeks, Ditcher was captured, tried, and sentenced to death. By then, however, Governor James Monroe had become worried about the numerous executions and commuted the sentences of Ditcher and eight other men. They were sold out of state, probably somewhere in the Mississippi River valley. Nothing else is known of Ditcher's life.
Thu, 28 Feb 2019 16:22:45 EST]]>
/Robert_E_Lee_Jr_1843-1914 Tue, 26 Feb 2019 14:39:48 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Robert E. Jr. (1843–1914)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robert_E_Lee_Jr_1843-1914 Robert E. Lee Jr. was a soldier, farmer, and biographer of his father, Robert E. Lee. Born at Arlington, the Lee family plantation, Lee did not seek a military education but instead attended the University of Virginia. With the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865), however, he joined the Confederate army and rose to the rank of captain. He fought in some of the bloodiest battles of the war, including the Seven Days' Battles (1862), the Chancellorsville Campaign (1863), and the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House (1864). His letters home document the daily life of a soldier and the rise and fall of Confederate morale. After the war, Lee stayed out of politics and instead struggled to succeed as a farmer at Romancoke, the King William County estate he inherited from his grandfather. He also sold insurance in Washington, D.C. In 1904, he achieved fame as the author of the Recollections and Letters of General Robert E. Lee, a collection of his father's letters as well as anecdotes drawn from family accounts. It was published to widespread acclaim and has been frequently reprinted. Lee died in 1914.
Tue, 26 Feb 2019 14:39:48 EST]]>
/Grimes_Life_of_William_Grimes_the_Runaways_Slave_Written_by_Himself_by_William_1825 Tue, 19 Feb 2019 11:44:02 EST <![CDATA[Grimes, Life of William Grimes, the Runaways Slave. Written by Himself by William (1825)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Grimes_Life_of_William_Grimes_the_Runaways_Slave_Written_by_Himself_by_William_1825 Tue, 19 Feb 2019 11:44:02 EST]]> /Lee_Robert_E_and_Slavery Wed, 13 Feb 2019 09:32:36 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Robert E. and Slavery]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Robert_E_and_Slavery Robert E. Lee was the most successful Confederate military leader during the American Civil War (1861–1865). This also made him, by virtue of the Confederacy's defense of chattel slavery, the most successful defender of the enslavement of African Americans. Yet his own personal record on both slavery and race is mottled with contradictions and ambivalence, all which were in plain view during his long career. Born into two of Virginia's most prominent families, Lee spent his early years surrounded by enslaved African Americans, although that changed once he joined the Army. His wife, Mary Randolph Custis Lee, freed her own personal slaves, but her father, George Washington Parke Custis, still owned many people, and when he died, Robert E. Lee, as executor of his estate, was responsible for manumitting them within five years. He was widely criticized for taking the full five years. Lee and his wife supported the American Colonization Society before the war but resisted the abolitionist movement. Lee later insisted that his decision to support the Confederacy was not founded on a defense of slavery. During both the Maryland (1862) and Gettysburg (1863) campaigns, Lee's officers kidnapped free blacks and sold them into slavery. By 1865, Lee supported the enlistment of African Americans into the Confederate army, but he surrendered before a plan could be implemented. After the war, he generally opposed racial and political equality for African Americans.
Wed, 13 Feb 2019 09:32:36 EST]]>
/Lee_Robert_Edward_1807-1870 Wed, 13 Feb 2019 09:30:14 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Robert E. (1807–1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Robert_Edward_1807-1870 Robert E. Lee was a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865) who led the Army of Northern Virginia from June 1862 until its surrender at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. Descended from several of Virginia's First Families, Lee was a well-regarded officer of the United States Army before the war. His decision to fight for the Confederacy was emblematic of the wrenching choices faced by Americans as the nation divided. After an early defeat in western Virginia, he repulsed George B. McClellan's army from the Confederate capital during the Seven Days' Battles (1862) and won stunning victories at Manassas (1862), Fredericksburg (1862), and Chancellorsville (1863). The Maryland and Pennsylvania campaigns he led resulted in major contests at Antietam (1862) and Gettysburg (1863), respectively, with severe consequences for the Confederacy. Lee offered a spirited defense during the Overland Campaign (1864) against Ulysses S. Grant, but was ultimately outmaneuvered and forced into a prolonged siege at Petersburg (1864–1865). Lee's generalship was characterized by bold tactical maneuvers and inspirational leadership; however, critics have questioned his strategic judgment, his waste of lives in needless battles, and his unwillingness to fight in the Western Theater. In 1865, his beloved home at Arlington having been turned into a national cemetery, Lee became president of Washington College (now Washington and Lee University) in Lexington. There he promoted educational innovation and presented a constructive face to the devastated Southern public. Privately Lee remained bitter and worked to obstruct societal changes brought about by the war, including the enfranchisement of African Americans. By the end of his life he had become a potent symbol of regional pride and dignity in defeat, and has remained an icon of the Lost Cause. He died on October 12, 1870.
Wed, 13 Feb 2019 09:30:14 EST]]>
/Custis_George_Washington_Parke_1781-1857 Wed, 13 Feb 2019 09:27:48 EST <![CDATA[Custis, George Washington Parke (1781–1857)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_George_Washington_Parke_1781-1857 George Washington Parke Custis was a writer and orator who worked to preserve the legacy of their stepgrandfather, George Washington. Born in Maryland, Custis moved to Mount Vernon after the death of his father in 1781. He was expelled from college, served in the army, and lost election to the House of Delegates before moving to an inherited estate he called Arlington. In addition, Custis owned two other large plantations and property in four other counties. He promoted agricultural reform and commercial independence and disapproved of slavery on economic grounds, supporting gradual emancipation and colonization. During the War of 1812, Custis manned a battery, helped Dolley Madison save Washington's portrait at the White House, and delivered well-received orations on a variety of topics. In the years after the war, he began writing essays, often about Washington's family and career. He later turned to the penning of historical plays and operettas. Pocahontas; or, The Settlers of Virginia, from 1830, was dedicated to John Marshall and remains his most durable work. The patriotism of his plays fed into his work to preserve the legacy of his stepgrandfather. Custis curated a collection of Washington relics made available for public view and sometimes distributed as gifts. He arranged for portraits of Washington and painted his own scenes of life during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Custis died at Arlington in 1857.
Wed, 13 Feb 2019 09:27:48 EST]]>
/_An_Englishman_s_Visit_to_Capt_R_E_Lee_Confederate_Veteran_June_1915 Wed, 13 Feb 2019 09:22:57 EST <![CDATA["An Englishman's Visit to Capt. R. E. Lee," Confederate Veteran (June 1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Englishman_s_Visit_to_Capt_R_E_Lee_Confederate_Veteran_June_1915 Wed, 13 Feb 2019 09:22:57 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_to_Mildred_Childe_Lee_January_10_1861 Wed, 13 Feb 2019 09:20:54 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee Jr. to Mildred Childe Lee (January 10, 1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_to_Mildred_Childe_Lee_January_10_1861 Wed, 13 Feb 2019 09:20:54 EST]]> /Ferguson_John_E_1810-1859 Tue, 12 Feb 2019 16:43:39 EST <![CDATA[Ferguson, John E. (1810–1859)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ferguson_John_E_1810-1859 John E. Ferguson was a businessman of mixed-race ancestry. He worked as a barber in Richmond and rose to the elite of that city's free black community, serving prosperous white men and even owning enslaved people. He bought and sold real estate and by 1859 owned more than a dozen properties. In 1853, after arguing he was only one-quarter black, Ferguson received from a Richmond court a certificate that freed him of certain legal restrictions that came with being African American. Nevertheless, when he faced criminal charges three years later, he was treated as black. He was acquitted, but when his son ran afoul of the law, too, he was convicted and fined with evidence that would not have been used against a white man. Ferguson died in 1859.
Tue, 12 Feb 2019 16:43:39 EST]]>
/Sound_in_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 12 Feb 2019 16:35:44 EST <![CDATA[Sound in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sound_in_Colonial_Virginia Sound in colonial Virginia came from a variety of sources, including nature, instruments, weapons, and voices, and played a significant role in how people perceived their environment. Information on the subject is scarce, and conclusions are drawn from references in letters, diaries, and rare published accounts. Because Americans lived closer to natural noises than many Europeans, these sounds took on greater importance. The wilderness was unfamiliar and possibly dangerous, so its sounds were described carefully, and its warning signals attended to. Human-generated sounds such as bells regulated life on remote plantations, while gunfire marked ceremonial occasions as well as warfare. The performance of music was an important part of theater and a popular pastime among amateurs, while the singing of hymns served as a unifying force among worshipers. Sound performed communal functions, but in various ways for different groups. For Virginia Indians, silence aided both hunting and ambushes, while the sound of war cries made a strong and lasting impression on English colonists. For enslaved African Americans, music was an integral part of culture and identity. Often played on European instruments, it accompanied religious rites but on other occasions could also satirize white culture. Over time vision became the dominant sense by which people formed an understanding of their environment. This may have come with the advent of print culture or Enlightenment thinking, although there were regional differences both in the way in which sound was perceived and in the timing of changes that took place in the area of sensory perceptions.
Tue, 12 Feb 2019 16:35:44 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_to_Mary_Randolph_Custis_October_30_1862 Mon, 11 Feb 2019 14:48:57 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee Jr. to Mary Randolph Custis (October 30, 1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_to_Mary_Randolph_Custis_October_30_1862 Mon, 11 Feb 2019 14:48:57 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_to_Robert_E_Lee_April_23_1862 Mon, 11 Feb 2019 11:35:22 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee Jr. to Robert E. Lee (April 23, 1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_to_Robert_E_Lee_April_23_1862 Mon, 11 Feb 2019 11:35:22 EST]]> /Will_of_George_Washington_Parke_Custis_March_26_1855 Fri, 08 Feb 2019 11:59:36 EST <![CDATA[Will of George Washington Parke Custis (March 26, 1855)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Will_of_George_Washington_Parke_Custis_March_26_1855 Fri, 08 Feb 2019 11:59:36 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Frederick_Kitt_January_10_1798 Fri, 08 Feb 2019 11:23:47 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Frederick Kitt (January 10, 1798)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Frederick_Kitt_January_10_1798 Fri, 08 Feb 2019 11:23:47 EST]]> /Letter_from_Frederick_Kitt_to_George_Washington_January_15_1798 Fri, 08 Feb 2019 11:05:54 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Frederick Kitt to George Washington (January 15, 1798)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Frederick_Kitt_to_George_Washington_January_15_1798 Fri, 08 Feb 2019 11:05:54 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_November_14_1796 Fri, 08 Feb 2019 10:55:05 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to William Pearce (November 14, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_William_Pearce_November_14_1796 Fri, 08 Feb 2019 10:55:05 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Frederick_Kitt_January_29_1798 Thu, 07 Feb 2019 10:36:17 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Frederick Kitt (January 29, 1798)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Frederick_Kitt_January_29_1798 Thu, 07 Feb 2019 10:36:17 EST]]> /Burwell_Lucy_1683-1716 Mon, 04 Feb 2019 16:04:21 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lucy (1683–1716)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lucy_1683-1716 Lucy Burwell is best known for rejecting the fervent and sometimes menacing courtship of Governor Sir Francis Nicholson. The teenaged daughter of a key Virginia family chose to marry Edmund Berkeley, twelve years her senior, instead of the forty-five-year-old governor. Humiliated by this rejection, Nicholson taunted and threatened the Burwells and their allies among Virginia's elite. These actions, along with his attempted reforms of the colony's politics, led to a petition against Nicholson. Queen Anne ultimately removed him from office. In exercising her prerogative to choose her own husband, Burwell became a symbol of Virginia's opposition to heavy-handed rule. She bore Berkeley at least five children before her death in 1716.
Mon, 04 Feb 2019 16:04:21 EST]]>
/Enslaved_House_Servants Mon, 04 Feb 2019 15:56:29 EST <![CDATA[Enslaved House Servants]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Enslaved_House_Servants Enslaved house servants labored on large rural plantations and in urban homes, as well as in urban taverns and hotels, performing all the jobs involved with keeping a private or public house running. These included maintaining fires, hauling wood, sweeping hearths, carrying water, emptying chamber pots, sweeping and scrubbing floors, washing and ironing clothing, sewing, minding babies and children, helping to groom adults, cooking and serving food, and otherwise remaining on call for the commands of white slaveholders. The work was daily, constant, sometimes difficult, and often tedious, and enslaved servants often slept on pallets on the floors of bedrooms or hallways near where they labored. Beginning work as young apprentices, many house servants eventually inherited the positions of their parents or relatives. This meant learning the culinary arts or the skills required of a butler, which involved interacting with whites in a manner that was discreet but knowledgeable of the social status of visitors and the routines of the house. This proximity to whites allowed at least some house servants, especially those who labored on elite rural plantations, to receive slightly better clothing and housing. Evidence suggests that they did not receive more or better food, however. That same proximity also made enslaved women and girls especially vulnerable to the sexual predation of male slaveholders and their guests.
Mon, 04 Feb 2019 15:56:29 EST]]>
/Baker_Russell_1925- Wed, 23 Jan 2019 13:27:11 EST <![CDATA[Baker, Russell (1925–2019)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Baker_Russell_1925- Russell Baker was a journalist, memoirist, essayist, humorist, and television personality. Born in Loudoun County, he was raised in New Jersey and educated at Johns Hopkins. He served briefly in the military before beginning a career in journalism, working at the Baltimore Sun and then the New York Times, where he wrote the acclaimed "Observer" column. Baker won two Pulitzer Prizes, first in 1979 for distinguished commentary and then in 1983 for his memoir Growing Up. He also received numerous other awards, including honorary doctorates from more than a dozen universities. He died in 2019.
Wed, 23 Jan 2019 13:27:11 EST]]>
/Moseley_William_P_ca_1819_or_1820-1890 Thu, 17 Jan 2019 16:17:32 EST <![CDATA[Moseley, William P. (ca. 1819 or 1820–1890)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Moseley_William_P_ca_1819_or_1820-1890 Thu, 17 Jan 2019 16:17:32 EST]]> /John_Watson_d_December_6_1869 Thu, 17 Jan 2019 16:11:51 EST <![CDATA[Watson, John (d. December 6, 1869)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_Watson_d_December_6_1869 Thu, 17 Jan 2019 16:11:51 EST]]> /Nelson_Edward_fl_1867-1869 Thu, 17 Jan 2019 16:00:54 EST <![CDATA[Nelson, Edward (fl. 1867–1869)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Nelson_Edward_fl_1867-1869 Thu, 17 Jan 2019 16:00:54 EST]]> /Blackburn_Samuel_1761-1835 Thu, 17 Jan 2019 15:56:11 EST <![CDATA[Blackburn, Samuel (1761–1835)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blackburn_Samuel_1761-1835 Thu, 17 Jan 2019 15:56:11 EST]]> /Davis_William_Roscoe_d_ca_1904 Wed, 16 Jan 2019 11:52:04 EST <![CDATA[Davis, William Roscoe (d. 1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_William_Roscoe_d_ca_1904 William Roscoe Davis was an important African American leader in Elizabeth City County (later the city of Hampton) during the American Civil War (1861­–1865), and served as doorkeeper for the Constitutional Convention of 1867­–1868. Born into slavery, Davis was noted for his intelligence and received permission to work as a boat operator. He spent a considerable amount of his money paying for a lawsuit to defend his wife's manumission, but a local judge refused to enforce the couple's legal victory. Davis was among the first slaves to find freedom at Fort Monroe. A Baptist exhorter before the conflict, he became an ordained minister by 1863. His charisma was so impressive that he became a paid orator who toured Northern states. Later in life he claimed credit for the creation of Hampton Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Hampton University), telling people that his request for a new teacher led to the arrival of the institution's founder, Samuel Chapman Armstrong. He remained a leader in the community and respected elder in his family, also serving as the Old Point Comfort lighthouse keeper and buying property in Hampton. He died in 1904.
Wed, 16 Jan 2019 11:52:04 EST]]>
/United_Daughters_of_the_Confederacy Fri, 11 Jan 2019 16:42:55 EST <![CDATA[United Daughters of the Confederacy]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/United_Daughters_of_the_Confederacy The United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) was formed in 1894 to protect and venerate Confederate memory following the American Civil War (1861–1865). Through chapters in Virginia and other southern states (and even a handful in the North), members—the descendants of Confederate veterans or those who aided the Confederate cause—directed most of their efforts toward raising funds for Confederate monuments, advancing a "correct" history of the Confederacy, caring for indigent Confederate widows, sponsoring essay contests and fellowships for students, and maintaining Confederate museums and relic collections. An auxiliary group, the Children of the Confederacy, was created in 1898. The context of these efforts was the Lost Cause interpretation of the Civil War, which emphasized states' rights and secession over slavery as causes of the war and was often used to further the goals of white supremacists in the twentieth century. With its national headquarters located in the former Confederate capital of Richmond, the organization continues to perform memorial and benevolent work, although the twenty-first century has brought with it controversy. In 2015 a mass murder in South Carolina by a suspect associated with a neo-Confederate and white supremacist ideology led to national discussions of Confederate memory and calls for monuments, including those erected by the Daughters, to come down. The UDC has defended its statues and distanced itself from hate groups.
Fri, 11 Jan 2019 16:42:55 EST]]>
/Davis_Augustine_c_1752_or_1753-1825 Thu, 10 Jan 2019 16:11:31 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Augustine (ca. 1752 or 1753–1825)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Augustine_c_1752_or_1753-1825 Augustine Davis was a prominent printer in Virginia during the Revolutionary War (1775–1783) and the Early Republic period. The Yorktown native entered the publishing trade at one of two versions of the Virginia Gazette in Williamsburg, becoming co-owner in 1779. He eventually followed the state government's relocation to Richmond and in 1786 established the Virginia Independent Chronicle, later named the Virginia Gazette, and General Advertiser. A supporter of a strong federal government, he reprinted essays from The Federalist and supported ratification of what became the U.S. Constitution. Davis became prosperous in the 1790s, investing well and receiving government printing contracts. Despite Virginia's growing population his printing volume remained unchanged, leading to complaints about the scarcity of documents in the western region of the state. The General Assembly removed him as public printer in 1798. Davis supported the Federalist Party in 1800 and advocated the prosecution of James Thomson Callendar and other Jeffersonian editors under the Alien and Sedition Acts (1798). Eleven months after Thomas Jefferson became president, Davis lost his position as Richmond's postmaster. Although declining in political influence, he continued to publish his newspaper under various titles until 1821 before retiring comfortably. He died in 1825.
Thu, 10 Jan 2019 16:11:31 EST]]>
/Edmund_Custis Thu, 10 Jan 2019 13:53:27 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Edmund (d. after October 18, 1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edmund_Custis Edmund Custis was a member of the House of Delegates (1787–1790) and the Convention of 1788. Born in Northampton County, on the Eastern Shore, he relocated to neighboring Accomack County as a young man. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he appears to have been a Patriot despite some pro-British sentiments. In 1787, Custis was elected to the House of Delegates, serving for three years. In 1787, he was one of two Accomack County delegates to a state convention called to consider the proposed U.S. constitution. Custis was an antifederalist who opposed a strong national government and voted against ratification. The owner of more than 1,000 acres and more than a dozen slaves, he fell into debt and in 1797 moved to Baltimore, likely in an attempt to escape his creditors. He died sometime later.
Thu, 10 Jan 2019 13:53:27 EST]]>
/An_Act_erecting_Louisiana_into_two_territories_and_providing_for_the_temporary_government_thereof_March_26_1804 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:45:37 EST <![CDATA["An Act erecting Louisiana into two territories, and providing for the temporary government thereof" (March 26, 1804)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_erecting_Louisiana_into_two_territories_and_providing_for_the_temporary_government_thereof_March_26_1804 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:45:37 EST]]> /From_James_Madison_to_Robert_R_Livingston_and_James_Monroe_March_2_1803 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:42:59 EST <![CDATA[Letter from James Madison to Robert R. Livingston and James Monroe (March 2, 1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/From_James_Madison_to_Robert_R_Livingston_and_James_Monroe_March_2_1803 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:42:59 EST]]> /Crouch_Davis_v_1876 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:21:13 EST <![CDATA[Davis v. Crouch (January 1, 1876)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crouch_Davis_v_1876 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:21:13 EST]]> /Letter_from_Anne_McCarty_Lee_to_William_B_Lewis_1837 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:16:58 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Anne McCarty Lee to William B. Lewis (March 11, 1837)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Anne_McCarty_Lee_to_William_B_Lewis_1837 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:16:58 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_to_John_Jay_1779 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:14:59 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Jay (August 23, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_to_John_Jay_1779 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:14:59 EST]]> /Letter_from_Elizabeth_Betsy_McCarty_1821 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:08:26 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Elizabeth (Betsey) McCarty to the Westmoreland County Court (February 26, 1821)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Elizabeth_Betsy_McCarty_1821 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:08:26 EST]]> /Chairman_s_Journal_for_Session_of_1836-7_September_3 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:04:41 EST <![CDATA[Chairman's Journal for Session of 1836–7 (September 3 - November 22, 1836)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chairman_s_Journal_for_Session_of_1836-7_September_3 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 15:04:41 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Joseph_Dougherty_July_31_1806 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 14:58:38 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Joseph Dougherty (July 31, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Joseph_Dougherty_July_31_1806 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 14:58:38 EST]]> /_He_Paid_an_Awful_Penalty_Charlottesville Mon, 07 Jan 2019 14:53:58 EST <![CDATA["He Paid an Awful Penalty," Charlottesville Daily Progress (July 12, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_He_Paid_an_Awful_Penalty_Charlottesville Mon, 07 Jan 2019 14:53:58 EST]]> /Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Caesar_Columbian_Mirror_and_Alexandria_Gazette_April_14_1798 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 14:39:08 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement for the Capture of Caesar, Columbian Mirror and Alexandria Gazette (April 14, 1798)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Caesar_Columbian_Mirror_and_Alexandria_Gazette_April_14_1798 Mon, 07 Jan 2019 14:39:08 EST]]> /Members_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives_from_Virginia Mon, 07 Jan 2019 13:54:53 EST <![CDATA[Members of the United States House of Representatives from Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Members_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives_from_Virginia Mon, 07 Jan 2019 13:54:53 EST]]> /Daughter_Clotel_or_the_President_s_1853 Fri, 04 Jan 2019 17:06:53 EST <![CDATA[Clotel; or the President's Daughter (1853)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daughter_Clotel_or_the_President_s_1853 Clotel; or the President's Daughter: A Narrative of Slave Life in the United States by William Wells Brown was published in 1853 in London. It is considered the first African American novel. Brown, the son of an enslaved woman and her owner's brother, escaped from slavery and was a lecturer on the abolition circuit in England when he published Clotel. He based the book on the rumor that Thomas Jefferson fathered several children with his enslaved housekeeper, Sally Hemings—a rumor that DNA evidence and the historical record have since proved true. Clotel follows Jefferson's fictional mistress, Currer, and her daughters, Clotel and Althesa, during and after their sale on the auction block in Richmond; it also included documentary material—newspaper articles, notices, bills, posters, and advertisements—that contextualized his novel for a British readership that knew little about slavery. Brown hardly knew Virginia, but for him it represented all that was evil about the slave-owning United States—as did Jefferson, arguably Virginia's most famous son. Brown hated Jefferson for writing the Declaration of Independence while also fathering slave children. Brown published three additional versions of Clotel in 1860–1861, 1864, and 1867. Each one was published with a different title, in a different format, and for a different readership. Ultimately, Brown removed Jefferson from the tale. Traditional literary critics considered Brown's overstuffed plots and extranarrative material a weakness, but modern readings see the four versions of Clotel as comprising an evolving whole. A digital scholarly edition that includes all versions of the book, published in 2006, at last made a full comparative reading possible.
Fri, 04 Jan 2019 17:06:53 EST]]>
/Kelso_Samuel_F_ca_1825-December_4_1880 Fri, 04 Jan 2019 16:58:47 EST <![CDATA[Kelso, Samuel F. (ca. 1825–1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Kelso_Samuel_F_ca_1825-December_4_1880 Fri, 04 Jan 2019 16:58:47 EST]]> /Andrews_C_W_1807-1875 Fri, 04 Jan 2019 16:30:09 EST <![CDATA[Andrews, C. W. (1807–1875)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Andrews_C_W_1807-1875 C. W. Andrews was an Episcopal minister and reformer who was active in the American Colonization Society. Born and educated in Vermont, he moved to Virginia for his health and there fell under the influence of William Meade, an evangelical minister and his wife's uncle. Andrews was ordained in 1832 and soon after became involved in the movement to gradually emancipate enslaved men, women, and children in Virginia and send them to the colony of Liberia in western Africa. He also preached against dancing, the theater, and tobacco. In 1842 Andrews became rector of Trinity Church in Shepherdstown, in what later became West Virginia, and as the American Civil War (1861–1865) threatened he opposed secession but remained loyal to Virginia when it joined the Confederacy. Skeptical of immigration, he believed that the North had become overrun with foreigners. Andrews continued to preach after the war and authored a number of sermons, essays, and books. He died in 1875.
Fri, 04 Jan 2019 16:30:09 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Florence_A_Bishop_to_Jonathan_A_Bishop_July_14_1898 Thu, 20 Dec 2018 08:40:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Florence A. Bishop to Jonathan A. Bishop (July 14, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Florence_A_Bishop_to_Jonathan_A_Bishop_July_14_1898 Thu, 20 Dec 2018 08:40:44 EST]]> /Memorandum_List_of_Tithables_July_16_1770 Wed, 19 Dec 2018 15:24:43 EST <![CDATA[Memorandum List of Tithables (July 16, 1770)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Memorandum_List_of_Tithables_July_16_1770 Wed, 19 Dec 2018 15:24:43 EST]]> /James_The_Lynching_of_John_Henry_1898 Wed, 19 Dec 2018 15:19:35 EST <![CDATA[Lynching of John Henry James (1898), The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/James_The_Lynching_of_John_Henry_1898 The lynching of John Henry James, an African American man accused of raping a white woman, took place a few miles west of Charlottesville on July 12, 1898. A day earlier, Julia Hotopp reported having been assaulted after returning to the family estate of Pen Park following a morning errand in nearby Charlottesville. Within a few hours, authorities had arrested James, who, according to a newspaper account, "answer[ed] somewhat the description of Miss Hotopp's assailant." That evening a mob began to form around the jail and James was removed west to Staunton for his own safety. The next morning, July 12, James and his two guards—the Albemarle County sheriff, Lucien Watts, and the Charlottesville chief of police, Frank P. Farish—boarded the No. 8 train for Charlottesville. They did not take the express, and when the train slowed for a scheduled stop at Wood's Crossing, a mob of white men, their faces uncovered, stormed the car where James was being held. James was hanged from a nearby locust tree and his body filled with bullets. A coroner's jury later found that James "came to his death by the hands of persons unknown to the jury." In 2018, a group of Charlottesville citizens gathered soil from the site of James's lynching and carried it to the National Memorial for Peace and Justice in Montgomery, Alabama.
Wed, 19 Dec 2018 15:19:35 EST]]>
/Washington_George_and_Slavery Mon, 17 Dec 2018 16:58:43 EST <![CDATA[Washington, George and Slavery]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_George_and_Slavery George Washington owned enslaved people from age eleven until his death, when his will promised his slaves freedom. His actions and private statements suggest a long evolution in his stance on slavery, based on experience and a possible awakening of conscience. Born in 1732, Washington came of age in a time when large-scale tobacco planting, carried out by enslaved labor, dominated the economy and society of colonial Virginia. Washington made no official public statements on slavery or emancipation as a Virginia legislator, as a military officer, or as president of the United States. As a young man he acted as most of his slaveholding peers did—making full and lawful use of slave labor, buying and selling slaves, and even raffling off a debtor's slaves, including children, to recoup a loan. His marriage brought many slaves under his control, but he did not legally own these "dower" slaves. After the American Revolution (1775–1783) his private statements became more in line with abolitionist goals than with the economic and political positions of his Virginia peers, until he reached the point, around 1789, when his "regret" over slavery grew so strong that he eventually rewrote his will with provisions to free slaves. Washington was the only southern Founding Father to free all his slaves.
Mon, 17 Dec 2018 16:58:43 EST]]>
/Enslaved_Community_at_Mount_Vernon Mon, 17 Dec 2018 16:29:13 EST <![CDATA[Enslaved Community at Mount Vernon]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Enslaved_Community_at_Mount_Vernon George Washington's Mount Vernon estate relied on the labor of enslaved Africans and African Americans to power its five distinct farms: Mansion House Farm, River Farm, Dogue Run Farm, Muddy Hole Farm, and Union Farm. Washington acquired these men and women through inheritance, purchase, natural increase, and his marriage to Martha Dandridge Custis. At the height of its development under Washington, the estate was home to more than 300 enslaved people of African extraction; compare this to the roughly 30 residents of European extraction, which includes members of the Washington family, their managerial staff, and hired and indentured craftsmen, together with their families. Washington was, thus, living in the midst of a large African and African-American community. Most of what we know about the enslaved community at Mount Vernon comes from records kept by the white people in their lives, as well as archaeological finds. Perhaps the most valuable written records of this community are the two sets of slave inventories that Washington prepared in 1786 and 1799. From the demographic information in these lists, historians have reconstructed extended multigenerational families. Enslaved men and women at Mount Vernon worked from Monday to Saturday as skilled or field laborers, sometimes resisting their enslavement by escaping, by committing theft or arson, or through more passive means. In their spare time, they formed friendships, found love and got married, had children, cared for their homes and families, and maintained diverse religious practices. During and after the American Revolution (1775–1783) Washington's views on the morality of slavery evolved, and he stopped buying and selling people. The enslaved community at Mount Vernon began to dissolve in 1801 as a result of Washington's death and his directions about manumitting his slaves in his will.
Mon, 17 Dec 2018 16:29:13 EST]]>
/Slave_Sales Fri, 14 Dec 2018 14:09:34 EST <![CDATA[Slave Sales]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Sales Slave sales represented an intricate and economically vital activity in Virginia from late in the eighteenth century through the American Civil War (1861–1865), ending only with the abolition of slavery. Sales in Virginia exceeded those of all other Upper South states, with Richmond doing the most business of any city. The origins of the slave trade date to the end of primogeniture and entail in Virginia, which broke up large estates and their often large communities of slaves. The rise of cotton production in the Lower South and the end of the transatlantic slave trade in 1808 also created a market for Virginia slaveholders, who rushed to sell enslaved people to meet the increasing demand for labor. Throughout Virginia and the Upper South, a large network of traders purchased slaves and transported them to urban centers, where they were confined to so-called jails, usually located on the grounds of large firms. After being held in these facilities, sometimes for weeks at a time, slaves were auctioned, often to another trader. These auctions occurred in sparsely furnished rooms where enslaved people were subject to intrusive physical examinations and the biddings of potential buyers. It was not unusual for such auctions to result in the permanent separation of husbands and wives, parents and children. After the sale, enslaved people were then transported on foot in "coffles," by rail, or by boat to the Lower South. In a contradiction noted by historians, a number of wealthy Virginia slave traders also fathered children and created families with enslaved and non-white women.
Fri, 14 Dec 2018 14:09:34 EST]]>
/Slave_Insurance Fri, 14 Dec 2018 14:06:11 EST <![CDATA[Slave Insurance]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Insurance Slave insurance involved a contract between a policy holder and an insurance company in which the insurer promised to pay a sum of money upon the death of an enslaved person. In the three decades leading up to the American Civil War (1861–1865), such policies became widespread in southern states. In Virginia, the Baltimore Life Insurance Company of Maryland and later the Virginia Life Insurance Company sold insurance to slaveholders who were worried about the potential deaths of enslaved people performing particularly valuable work, such as blacksmithing, carpentry, and household duties, or dangerous work, such as in factories and mines or on railroads and steamboats. Most policies were concentrated in urban areas, with few plantation owners seeking policies on their field hands. In a few cases people purchased policies as collateral toward the manumission, or freedom, of enslaved people. Hampered by a lack of research on slave mortality, companies tended to charge premiums on black lives at twice the value of those on white lives and regularly reviewed the policies for changes in health or occupation. Baltimore Life did not insure enslaved people beyond two-thirds of their total value and prohibited more than one policy on a single person. Almost 60 percent of the company's policies between 1854 and 1860 covered slaves, with many of those policies being sold out of a Richmond office opened in 1854. The practice suggested a sophisticated understanding of how best to exploit capitalism toward the ends of making a profit on the enslavement of African Americans.
Fri, 14 Dec 2018 14:06:11 EST]]>
/Gosnold_Bartholomew_1571-August_22_1607 Fri, 14 Dec 2018 13:25:43 EST <![CDATA[Gosnold, Bartholomew (1571–1607)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gosnold_Bartholomew_1571-August_22_1607 Bartholomew Gosnold was one of the leading figures of the English settlement at Jamestown, helping to organize the Virginia Company of London and landing in Virginia with the first group of adventurers in 1607. Born in Suffolk, on the eastern coast of England, in 1571, he joined Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex, on his expedition to the Azores in 1597. Upon his return to England, Gosnold became interested in colonizing North America, planting about twenty colonists in New England in 1602. Although the colony failed, Gosnold is credited for making the first documented European visit to Cape Elizabeth and for naming Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. He used family connections to recruit members for the Virginia Company of London, with Captain John Smith describing Gosnold as "one of the first movers" of the Virginia colony. For political reasons, perhaps, Gosnold did not command the voyage west, but he served on the colony's Council once he arrived and helped bring bickering factions together. He died of disease on August 22, 1607. A grave that archaeologists uncovered at Jamestown in 2003 was initially thought to have belonged to Gosnold, but scholars are no longer certain.
Fri, 14 Dec 2018 13:25:43 EST]]>
/Confederacy_Report_from_the_Virginia_Division_of_the_United_Daughters_of_the_1921 Thu, 13 Dec 2018 15:29:05 EST <![CDATA[Report from the Virginia Division of the United Daughters of the Confederacy (1921)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Confederacy_Report_from_the_Virginia_Division_of_the_United_Daughters_of_the_1921 Thu, 13 Dec 2018 15:29:05 EST]]> /Hemings_Sally_1773-1835 Wed, 12 Dec 2018 15:23:48 EST <![CDATA[Hemings, Sally (1773–1835)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hemings_Sally_1773-1835 Sally Hemings was an enslaved house servant owned by Thomas Jefferson, who, many historians believe, fathered at least six of Hemings's children. Born in 1773 at a Virginia plantation of John Wayles, Hemings became the property of Jefferson, whose wife, Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson, was likely Hemings's half-sister. Described by Thomas Jefferson Randolph as being "light colored and decidedly goodlooking," Hemings lived at Monticello and then, when Jefferson moved to Paris, France, at Eppington, an estate in Chesterfield County. In 1787, she accompanied Jefferson's daughter Mary to Paris, and lived there as a servant in the Jefferson household until 1789. After her return to Monticello, Hemings bore six children, whom her son Madison Hemings later claimed to have been fathered by Jefferson. Rumors to that effect had already circulated when, in 1802, James Thomson Callender, a journalist and by then a political enemy of Jefferson, accused the president of keeping one of his slaves "as his concubine." In an 1873 newspaper interview, Madison Hemings bluntly stated that Jefferson was his father, and the issue was revived a century later by the Jefferson biographer Fawn M. Brodie, becoming a social, political, and historical cause célèbre. Although many biographers initially doubted the possibility, many historians now agree that Jefferson probably fathered the Hemings children. Beginning in 2018, the Thomas Jefferson Foundation, which owns and operates Monticello, began treating it as a fact. After Jefferson's death in 1826, Sally Hemings lived in Charlottesville with her sons Madison and Eston Hemings. She died in 1835.
Wed, 12 Dec 2018 15:23:48 EST]]>
/Narrative_of_Bethany_Veney_a_Slave_Woman_The_1889 Wed, 12 Dec 2018 14:43:52 EST <![CDATA[Narrative of Bethany Veney, a Slave Woman, The (1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Narrative_of_Bethany_Veney_a_Slave_Woman_The_1889 Wed, 12 Dec 2018 14:43:52 EST]]> /_A_Slave_of_George_Washington_by_Benjamin_Chase_The_Liberator_January_1_1847 Wed, 12 Dec 2018 14:41:53 EST <![CDATA["A Slave of George Washington!" by Benjamin Chase, The Liberator (January 1, 1847)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Slave_of_George_Washington_by_Benjamin_Chase_The_Liberator_January_1_1847 Wed, 12 Dec 2018 14:41:53 EST]]> /Jane_d_1609_or_1610 Wed, 05 Dec 2018 11:15:24 EST <![CDATA[Jane (d. 1609 or 1610)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jane_d_1609_or_1610 Jane is the name given by archaeologists to a fourteen-year-old English girl whose partial remains were discovered at the site of the Jamestown settlement in 2012. Those archaeologists believe that she was consumed during the Starving Time in the winter of 1609–1610. A report issued by a forensic scientist at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., points to marks left behind on the skull and a severed leg bone that clearly suggest cannibalism. The identity of the woman is unclear, although she likely was lower-class and may have come to the colony in August 1609. Multiple accounts from the period mention a wife who was murdered and eaten by her husband, but it is unclear whether Jane was this particular victim.
Wed, 05 Dec 2018 11:15:24 EST]]>
/McPherson_Christopher_ca_1763-1817 Mon, 03 Dec 2018 15:26:51 EST <![CDATA[McPherson, Christopher (ca. 1763–1817)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/McPherson_Christopher_ca_1763-1817 Christopher McPherson was a free African American who achieved some wealth and status working as a clerk for the U.S. House of Representatives, the Virginia High Court of Chancery, and other officials and merchants. In that role he was employed by George Wythe, became acquainted with Thomas Jefferson, and dined at Montpelier with James Madison. But a willingness to express his grievances and a preoccupation with the end of the world and his role in it led to his financial and social downfall. McPherson was born a slave in Louisa County, was educated, and learned to clerk from his owner, a Scottish merchant who freed him in 1792. While working in Fluvanna County, McPherson underwent a conversion experience and for much of the rest of his life prophesied the end of the world, citing the biblical Book of Revelations. In an attempt to warn the president, he moved to the federal capital at Philadelphia, and there worked for Congress. He returned to Virginia soon after and settled in Richmond, where he earned a level of wealth and prestige rare for a free black man. Beginning in 1810, however, he initiated complaints with the city and state about a troublesome ordinance, started a controversial night school for African Americans, and appeared in court on various charges. He served time in jail, wrote A Short History of the Life of Christopher McPherson (1811), and eventually moved to New York, where he died in 1817.
Mon, 03 Dec 2018 15:26:51 EST]]>
/Members_of_the_Continental_Congress_from_Virginia Mon, 03 Dec 2018 10:49:11 EST <![CDATA[Members of the Continental Congress from Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Members_of_the_Continental_Congress_from_Virginia Mon, 03 Dec 2018 10:49:11 EST]]> /Fossett_Joseph_1780-1858 Tue, 27 Nov 2018 17:33:51 EST <![CDATA[Fossett, Joseph (1780–1858)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fossett_Joseph_1780-1858 Tue, 27 Nov 2018 17:33:51 EST]]> /Armfield_John_1797-1871 Tue, 20 Nov 2018 14:35:16 EST <![CDATA[Armfield, John (1797–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Armfield_John_1797-1871 John Armfield, junior partner in the firm Franklin and Armfield of Alexandria, was one of the most prominent slave traders in Virginia. Born in North Carolina, he worked as a stagecoach driver before meeting Isaac Franklin and joining him in the business of selling enslaved men, women, and children for profit. In Alexandria, Armfield operated a slave-jail complex on Duke Street, gathering enslaved people from across the Upper South for shipment south, often on coastal brigs that landed in New Orleans. Many slaves then took Mississippi River paddleboats north to Natchez, Mississippi, where Franklin kept his office. The firm sold an average of 1,200 enslaved people per year, mostly young men and women either without families or separated from them, for profits of as much as $100,000 per year. Both Franklin and Armfield became rich, leaving the business in 1836. Armfield eventually moved to Tennessee, where he established a resort community at Beersheba Springs and became a founding trustee of the University of the South, in Sewanee. The American Civil War (1861–1865) helped destroy his fortune, which shrank from $500,000 in 1850 to less than $60,000 in 1870. He died in 1871.
Tue, 20 Nov 2018 14:35:16 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_Short_January_18_1826 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:41:19 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William Short (January 18, 1826)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_Short_January_18_1826 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:41:19 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Joel_Barlow_October_8_1809 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:29:37 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Joel Barlow (October 8, 1809)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Joel_Barlow_October_8_1809 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:29:37 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Condorcet_August_30_1791 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:26:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Nicolas de Condorcet (August 30, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Condorcet_August_30_1791 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:26:35 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_Pleasants_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_1_1796 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:20:17 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert Pleasants to Thomas Jefferson (June 1, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_Pleasants_to_Thomas_Jefferson_June_1_1796 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:20:17 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Lewis_August_17_1799 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:17:02 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Robert Lewis (August 17, 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Lewis_August_17_1799 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:17:02 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Francis_Mercer_September_9_1786 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:12:45 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Francis Mercer (September 9, 1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Francis_Mercer_September_9_1786 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:12:45 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Tobias_Lear_November_22_1790 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:10:39 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Tobias Lear (November 22, 1790)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Tobias_Lear_November_22_1790 Tue, 30 Oct 2018 13:10:39 EST]]> /Braxton_Carter_1736-1797 Mon, 29 Oct 2018 14:54:21 EST <![CDATA[Braxton, Carter (1736–1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Braxton_Carter_1736-1797 Carter Braxton was a member of the Continental Congress (1776) who supported and signed the Declaration of Independence, and of the Council of State (1786–1791; 1794–1797). Born to power—his maternal grandfather was the wealthy land and slave owner Robert "King" Carter—Braxton married it, as well, wedding first a niece of the Speaker of the House of Burgesses and then, after her death, the daughter of a member of the governor's Council. Braxton acquired large amounts of land and numbers of slaves, and he both cultivated and traded tobacco. While in the House of Burgesses (1761–1775), he served on various prestigious committees and, in May 1775, confronted Patrick Henry and a group of militiamen over their demand for reimbursement of Virginia gunpowder seized by the Crown. Braxton arranged for his father-in-law to pay for it. Although he supported independence, he published a pamphlet that challenged the democratic ideas of John Adams and, as a result, was sent home from the Continental Congress. The American Revolution (1775–1783) left Braxton virtually insolvent, but his political connections intact. He served on the Council of State, and during his second term, advised Henry, his one-time adversary and now Virginia governor. Braxton died in Richmond in 1797.
Mon, 29 Oct 2018 14:54:21 EST]]>
/Martin_Henry_1826-1915 Mon, 29 Oct 2018 11:36:39 EST <![CDATA[Martin, Henry (1826–1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Martin_Henry_1826-1915 Henry Martin was the head janitor and bell-ringer at the University of Virginia from at least 1868 until his retirement in 1909. Born enslaved at Monticello, he was purchased by the Carr family and before the American Civil War (1861–1865) labored at a boardinghouse on what came to be known as Carr's Hill, near the University of Virginia. During the war he tended the wounded at the military hospital in Charlottesville. In 1866 he was hired by the university to haul coal and by 1868 was working as the head janitor and bell-ringer. He worked at the school for more than four decades, becoming a well-known figure there but one who was treated in the context of the Lost Cause archetype of the faithful servant. He died in 1915.
Mon, 29 Oct 2018 11:36:39 EST]]>
/Union_Occupation_of_Charlottesville_1865 Mon, 29 Oct 2018 11:04:41 EST <![CDATA[Union Occupation of Charlottesville (1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Union_Occupation_of_Charlottesville_1865 Union cavalry under the command of Philip H. Sheridan occupied Charlottesville and the University of Virginia from March 3 to March 6, 1865, a month before the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). During the previous summer and autumn, Union forces had battled and largely defeated Jubal A. Early's Confederate Army of the Valley. In February 1865, Sheridan's men rode south from Winchester with orders to destroy railroads and possibly take Lynchburg. They arrived in Charlottesville on March 3, and there were met by a delegation of town and university officials, who asked for protection. Union troopers burned a nearby woolen mills but, apart from widespread foraging and some looting, left the town and college intact. In the meantime, many of the area's African Americans, including at least one enslaved directly by the University of Virginia, used the Union occupation to escape their enslavement. Sheridan left Charlottesville on March 6. In the war's aftermath, institutions that were not destroyed, such as the University of Virginia, became especially important in the South, and the school's enrollment and prestige rose steadily. In 2001, a state historical highway marker commemorating the occupation was rewritten to avoid the term "surrender."
Mon, 29 Oct 2018 11:04:41 EST]]>
/Raleigh_Sir_Walter_ca_1552-1618 Mon, 29 Oct 2018 10:56:55 EST <![CDATA[Raleigh, Sir Walter (ca. 1552–1618)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Raleigh_Sir_Walter_ca_1552-1618 Sir Walter Raleigh was an English soldier, explorer, poet, and courtier who funded three voyages to Roanoke Island (1584–1587) and whose ostentatious manner of dress and love for Queen Elizabeth became legendary. Born a commoner in Devon, England, Raleigh (also spelled Ralegh) nevertheless had connections to Elizabeth through his mother and may have exploited those relationships to win a place at court. He wrote poems to the queen and advised her on policy in Ireland, where in 1580 he had helped to slaughter papal troops. Soon he became one of Elizabeth's favorites, using his wealth and power to pursue dreams of colonizing the Americas, first at Roanoke and then at Guiana. Raleigh's mission, as he wrote in his long poem "The Ocean to Cynthia" (likely penned in the 1590s), was "To seek new worlds for gold, for praise, for glory." In so doing, he relied on the genius of English mathematician and astronomer Thomas Hariot, the master propagandist Richard Hakluyt (the younger), and the iconic artist John White. Raleigh also relied on the faithful protection of Elizabeth, protection that conspicuously disappeared when he secretly married one of her maids of honor. After the queen's death in 1603, Raleigh was accused of plotting against her successor and spent much of the rest of his life in the Tower of London. A second failed expedition to Guiana, during which he disobeyed the king's instructions, resulted in his beheading in 1618.
Mon, 29 Oct 2018 10:56:55 EST]]>
/Allerton_Isaac_ca_1630-1702 Fri, 26 Oct 2018 09:34:28 EST <![CDATA[Allerton, Isaac (ca. 1630–1702)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allerton_Isaac_ca_1630-1702 Fri, 26 Oct 2018 09:34:28 EST]]> /Bausch_Robert_1945- Mon, 15 Oct 2018 14:19:53 EST <![CDATA[Bausch, Robert (1945–2018)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bausch_Robert_1945- Mon, 15 Oct 2018 14:19:53 EST]]> /Confederacy_Constitution_of_The_United_Daughters_of_the_1895 Fri, 12 Oct 2018 11:50:13 EST <![CDATA[Confederacy, Constitution of The United Daughters of the (1895)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Confederacy_Constitution_of_The_United_Daughters_of_the_1895 Fri, 12 Oct 2018 11:50:13 EST]]> /_Confederate_Women_Resent_Thrust_at_Lee_Charlottesville_Daily_Progress_January_29_1909 Wed, 03 Oct 2018 14:26:32 EST <![CDATA["Confederate Women Resent Thrust at Lee," Charlottesville Daily Progress (January 29, 1909)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Confederate_Women_Resent_Thrust_at_Lee_Charlottesville_Daily_Progress_January_29_1909 Wed, 03 Oct 2018 14:26:32 EST]]> /Letter_from_Benjamin_Banneker_to_Thomas_Jefferson_August_19_1791 Wed, 03 Oct 2018 14:13:27 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Benjamin Banneker to Thomas Jefferson (August 19, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Benjamin_Banneker_to_Thomas_Jefferson_August_19_1791 Wed, 03 Oct 2018 14:13:27 EST]]> /The_Case_of_John_Graweere_March_31_1641 Wed, 03 Oct 2018 14:05:03 EST <![CDATA[The Case of John Graweere (March 31, 1641)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Case_of_John_Graweere_March_31_1641 Wed, 03 Oct 2018 14:05:03 EST]]> /Children_U_D_C_Catechism_for_1904 Wed, 03 Oct 2018 13:47:38 EST <![CDATA[U. D. C. Catechism for Children (1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Children_U_D_C_Catechism_for_1904 Wed, 03 Oct 2018 13:47:38 EST]]> /Buchanan_John_1748-1822 Wed, 03 Oct 2018 10:39:41 EST <![CDATA[Buchanan, John (1748–1822)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Buchanan_John_1748-1822 John Buchanan was an Episcopal clergyman who served as the rector of Henrico Parish (1785–1822) and the treasurer of the Diocese of Virginia (1793–1822). Born in Scotland, he may have attended university there and received his license to minister in Virginia in 1775. A decade later he became rector of Henrico Parish and, after inheriting a large estate from his half brother, lived an easy and social life. Buchanan, who preached at Saint John's Church in Richmond, was famously close friends with the Presbyterian minister John D. Blair, and after the Richmond Theatre fire in 1811 the two helped raise money for the construction of Monumental Church on the site of the disaster. While they may have intended to share the church, the Episcopalians appropriated it for themselves. Buchanan died in 1822.
Wed, 03 Oct 2018 10:39:41 EST]]>
/City_Point_During_the_Civil_War Tue, 02 Oct 2018 13:04:57 EST <![CDATA[City Point during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/City_Point_During_the_Civil_War City Point (now Hopewell), located in central Virginia at the confluence of the James and Appomattox rivers, was the site of Union general-in-chief Ulysses S. Grant's field headquarters during the Petersburg Campaign at the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). Founded in 1613 and incorporated as a town in 1826, City Point was a tiny, out-of-the-way place before the war, with few homes or businesses. But once the Union Army of the Potomac fought its way south to Petersburg late in the spring of 1864, City Point became a crucial Union port and supply hub. At least 100,000 Union troops and 65,000 animals were supplied out of the town, and in August 1864, a member of the Confederate Secret Service detonated a time bomb on a docked barge, hoping to disrupt work at the port. As many as fifty-eight people were killed, but the wharf was soon rebuilt and service to the front continued. City Point also was the site of the sprawling Depot Field Hospital, which served 29,000 patients. After the war, the United States government established City Point National Cemetery, and in 1983, the National Park Service reconstructed a cabin that had served as General Grant's headquarters on its original location.
Tue, 02 Oct 2018 13:04:57 EST]]>
/Hold_To_Have_and_to_1900 Fri, 21 Sep 2018 10:29:17 EST <![CDATA[Hold, To Have and to (1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hold_To_Have_and_to_1900 To Have and to Hold (1900), the second novel by the Virginia-born writer Mary Johnston, was the prolific author's most popular work. An action-adventure story and romance set in Jamestown in 1621 and 1622, the novel uses the backdrop of colonial Virginia to tell its story, making characters of such noted figures as John Rolfe and Opechancanough, and dramatizing the latter's attack against the colony in 1622. The hero of To Have and to Hold is Captain Ralph Percy. Percy marries a woman he believes to be a penniless Puritan but who is actually a ward of King James and betrothed to the dastardly, suggestively named Lord Carnal. A series of often-unlikely adventures follows, involving swordplay, poison, haunted woods, pirates, and a tame but ferocious panther, until Percy and his wife, at one point separated, reunite. After being serialized in the Atlantic Monthly, To Have and to Hold was published in book form in 1900 and sold more than 135,000 copies in its first week. It was the best-selling novel of the year and the most successful popular novel in the United States between the publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852 and Gone with the Wind in 1936. Critics praised it lavishly and found its history to be unusually reliable. It was adapted for the stage and film. Despite the attention paid to Johnston in her day, however, few scholars study her books in the twenty-first century.
Fri, 21 Sep 2018 10:29:17 EST]]>
/Rolfe_John_d_1622 Fri, 21 Sep 2018 10:26:44 EST <![CDATA[Rolfe, John (d. 1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rolfe_John_d_1622 John Rolfe served as secretary and recorder general of Virginia (1614–1619) and as a member of the governor's Council (1614–1622). He is best known for having married Pocahontas in 1614 and for being the first to cultivate marketable tobacco in Virginia. Joined by his first wife, whose name is unknown, Rolfe sailed on the Sea Venture, a Virginia-bound ship that wrecked off the islands of Bermuda in 1609. There his wife gave birth to a daughter, but mother and child soon died. In Virginia, Rolfe turned to experimenting with tobacco, a plant first brought to England from Florida. The Virginia Indians planted a variety that was harsh to English smokers, so Rolfe developed a Spanish West Indies seed, Nicotiana tabacum, that became profitable and, indeed, transformed the colony's economy. In 1614, Rolfe married Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, the paramount chief of Tsenacomoco. The marriage helped bring an end to the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614), but Pocahontas died in 1617 while visiting England with Rolfe and their son, Thomas. While in England, Rolfe penned A True Relation of the state of Virginia Lefte by Sir Thomas Dale Knight in May Last 1616 (1617), promoting the interests of the Virginia Company of London. Back in Virginia, he married Joane Peirce about 1619 and had a daughter, Elizabeth. He died in 1622.
Fri, 21 Sep 2018 10:26:44 EST]]>
/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Alexander_Spotswood_November_23_1794 Fri, 21 Sep 2018 09:40:01 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Alexander Spotswood (November 23, 1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Alexander_Spotswood_November_23_1794 Fri, 21 Sep 2018 09:40:01 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Benjamin_Banneker_August_30_1791 Thu, 20 Sep 2018 16:48:15 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Benjamin Banneker (August 30, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Benjamin_Banneker_August_30_1791 Thu, 20 Sep 2018 16:48:15 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Wayles_Eppes_June_30_1820 Thu, 20 Sep 2018 16:45:24 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Wayles Eppes (June 30, 1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Wayles_Eppes_June_30_1820 Thu, 20 Sep 2018 16:45:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Mann_Randolph_Jr_June_8_1803 Thu, 20 Sep 2018 16:38:25 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Thomas Mann Randolph Jr. (June 8, 1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Mann_Randolph_Jr_June_8_1803 Thu, 20 Sep 2018 16:38:25 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_Pleasants_to_Thomas_Jefferson_February_8_1797 Mon, 17 Sep 2018 13:21:21 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert Pleasants to Thomas Jefferson (February 8, 1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_Pleasants_to_Thomas_Jefferson_February_8_1797 Mon, 17 Sep 2018 13:21:21 EST]]> /An_Act_to_amend_an_Act_entitled_An_Act_concerning_the_emancipation_of_Slaves_January_24_1816 Mon, 17 Sep 2018 10:08:32 EST <![CDATA[An Act to amend an Act, entitled, "An Act concerning the emancipation of Slaves." (January 24, 1816)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_amend_an_Act_entitled_An_Act_concerning_the_emancipation_of_Slaves_January_24_1816 Mon, 17 Sep 2018 10:08:32 EST]]> /Hawxhurst_John_1817-1881 Thu, 13 Sep 2018 10:18:51 EST <![CDATA[Hawxhurst, John (1817–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hawxhurst_John_1817-1881 Thu, 13 Sep 2018 10:18:51 EST]]> /Convict_Labor_During_the_Colonial_Period Tue, 28 Aug 2018 13:25:39 EST <![CDATA[Convict Labor during the Colonial Period]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Convict_Labor_During_the_Colonial_Period In 1615, English courts began to send convicts to the colonies as a way of alleviating England's large criminal population. This practice was unpopular in the colonies and by 1697 colonial ports refused to accept convict ships. In response, Parliament passed the Transportation Act of 1718 to create a more systematic way to export convicts. Instead of relying on merchants to make arrangements on their own to ship felons to the colonies, the British government subsidized the shipment of convicts through a network of merchants, giving a contract for the service to one individual at a time. Between 1700 and 1775, approximately 52,200 convicts sailed for the colonies, more than 20,000 of them to Virginia. Most of these convicts landed and were settled along the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers. Although many were unskilled and thus put to work in agriculture, particularly tobacco production, others with skills were sold to tradesmen, shipbuilders, and iron manufacturers, and for other similar occupations. Convict laborers could be purchased for a lower price than indentured white or enslaved African laborers, and because they already existed outside society's rules, they could be more easily exploited. Nevertheless, Virginia tried repeatedly to pass laws to prevent England from sending convicts, though those laws were overturned by the Crown. At the beginning of the American Revolution (1775–1783), colonial ports virtually ceased accepting convict ships. By 1776, when the last boatload of convicts arrived on the James River, many of the convicts had served their seven- to fourteen-year terms and returned to Great Britain, while a few who had become honest citizens moved to distant parts of the colony with the hope of blending in.
Tue, 28 Aug 2018 13:25:39 EST]]>
/Ezekiel_Moses_Jacob_1844-1917 Fri, 10 Aug 2018 14:40:14 EST <![CDATA[Ezekiel, Moses Jacob (1844–1917)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ezekiel_Moses_Jacob_1844-1917 Moses Jacob Ezekiel was one of the most celebrated sculptors of his day, his works appearing in civic spaces, art museums, and universities across the world. Born in Richmond to a family of Spanish-Jewish origin, Ezekiel was the first Jewish cadet to attend the Virginia Military Institute, and he fought at the Battle of New Market (1864) during the American Civil War (1861–1865). He later considered a career in medicine but studied sculpture instead. In 1869 Ezekiel relocated to Berlin and won admittance to the royal academy there; four years later he became the first non-German to win the school's prestigious art competition. For the rest of his life, working out of a studio in Rome, Ezekiel created sculpture, often by commission and for public display. He generally modeled in clay and either sculpted from marble or cast in bronze, creating heroic lifelike portraits that meditated on such themes as religion, religious freedom, and patriotism for both the United States and the Confederacy. He fashioned a bronze of Thomas Jefferson for the city of Louisville, Kentucky, that was replicated for the University of Virginia. He also created a memorial to his fellow cadets who fought at New Market as well as a memorial to the Confederate soldiers buried at Arlington National Cemetery. Ezekiel was buried beneath it after his death in 1917.
Fri, 10 Aug 2018 14:40:14 EST]]>
/New_Market_Battle_of Fri, 10 Aug 2018 14:33:48 EST <![CDATA[New Market, Battle of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/New_Market_Battle_of Fri, 10 Aug 2018 14:33:48 EST]]> /Davis_Cephas_L_ca_1839-1907 Thu, 09 Aug 2018 13:05:17 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Cephas L. (ca. 1839–1907)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Cephas_L_ca_1839-1907 Cephas L. Davis represented Charlotte and Mecklenburg counties in the Senate of Virginia for one term (1879–1880). Born into slavery, he became free at the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). He spent much of the 1870s as a pastor and teacher in Mecklenburg, though it appears controversy drove him from the ministry temporarily. In 1879 he ran for the state senate as a Republican, winning narrowly in a three-way race. Davis later joined the Readjuster Party, saying that the new party's members treated him as an equal. He did not seek reelection, but he remained involved in local politics. In 1887 he moved to North Carolina, where he taught school, and served as a principal and pastor. Davis spent his final years in Philadelphia, where he died in 1907.
Thu, 09 Aug 2018 13:05:17 EST]]>
/Carlyle_John_1720-1780 Thu, 09 Aug 2018 08:08:14 EST <![CDATA[Carlyle, John (1720–1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carlyle_John_1720-1780 Thu, 09 Aug 2018 08:08:14 EST]]> /Transatlantic_Slave_Trade_The Thu, 02 Aug 2018 16:54:15 EST <![CDATA[Transatlantic Slave Trade, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Transatlantic_Slave_Trade_The The transatlantic slave trade involved the purchase by Europeans of enslaved men, women, and children from Africa and their transportation to the Americas, where they were sold for profit. Between 1517 and 1867, about 12.5 million Africans began the Middle Passage across the Atlantic, enduring cruel treatment, disease, and paralyzing fear. Of those, fewer than 11 million survived, with about 40 percent of them going to work on sugarcane plantations in Brazil. Most others labored in the Caribbean, while less than 5 percent ended up in British North America and the United States. The trade originated in the fifteenth century, when Portuguesemariners began patrolling West Africa looking for gold. They ended up with slaves, whom they found useful for building up sugar production on offshore African islands. By the 1580s, the Spaniards were employing the Portuguese to bring larger numbers of enslaved Africans to the Caribbean, where they worked in numerous capacities, most of them urban. The Portuguese transferred their sugar industry to Brazil, gradually replacing enslaved Indians with slaves from Africa. Within a few decades other European powers were converting the Caribbean islands to Brazilian-style sugar plantations, which were in even greater need of enslaved labor. Meanwhile, European traders exploited political instability in Africa to generate additional captives. Most slaves reaching the Chesapeake Bay region before the 1670s were trans-shipped through the English West Indies. The Royal African Company then brought a few Africans directly to Virginia, with their numbers rising more steeply after 1698, when the company lost its monopoly. The abolitionist movement, which began in Great Britain, helped end the British trade to the United States, and the United States also outlawed slaving by its citizens. Virginia planters supported these bans, which occurred in 1807–1808, in order to position themselves as suppliers in a new, domestic trade.
Thu, 02 Aug 2018 16:54:15 EST]]>
/Editorial_Comments_from_the_Staunton_Spectator_and_Vindicator_July_21_1898 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:28:32 EST <![CDATA[Editorial Comments from the Staunton Spectator and Vindicator (July 21, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Editorial_Comments_from_the_Staunton_Spectator_and_Vindicator_July_21_1898 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:28:32 EST]]> /_FROM_AN_EYE_WITNESS_Daily_Progress_July_16_1898 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:26:44 EST <![CDATA["From an Eye Witness," Charlottesville Daily Progress (July 16, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_FROM_AN_EYE_WITNESS_Daily_Progress_July_16_1898 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:26:44 EST]]> /_Another_Virginia_Lynching_Richmond_Planet_July_16_1898 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:24:28 EST <![CDATA["Another Virginia Lynching," Richmond Planet (July 16, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Another_Virginia_Lynching_Richmond_Planet_July_16_1898 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:24:28 EST]]> /_A_Dastardly_Crime_Staunton_Spectator_and_Vindicator_July_14_1898 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:22:22 EST <![CDATA["A Dastardly Crime," Staunton Spectator and Vindicator (July 14, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Dastardly_Crime_Staunton_Spectator_and_Vindicator_July_14_1898 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:22:22 EST]]> /_Mob_Law_CharlottesvilleDaily_Progress_July_21_1898_2 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:19:58 EST <![CDATA["Mob Law." Staunton Spectator and Vindicator (July 21, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mob_Law_CharlottesvilleDaily_Progress_July_21_1898_2 Fri, 27 Jul 2018 12:19:58 EST]]> /Mason_George_1725-1792 Thu, 26 Jul 2018 07:31:27 EST <![CDATA[Mason, George (1725–1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mason_George_1725-1792 George Mason was a wealthy planter and an influential lawmaker who served as a member of the Fairfax County Court (1747–1752; 1764–1789), the Truro Parish vestry (1749–1785), the House of Burgesses (1758–1761), and the House of Delegates (1776–1780). In 1769, he helped organize a nonimportation movement to protest British imperial policies, and he later wrote the Fairfax Resolves (1774), challenging Parliament's authority over the American colonies. In 1775, Mason was elected to the Fairfax County committees of public safety and correspondence. He represented Fairfax County in Virginia's third revolutionary convention (1775) and in the fifth convention (1776), where he drafted Virginia's first state constitution and its Declaration of Rights, which is widely considered his greatest accomplishment. As a member of the House of Delegates, he advocated sound money policies and the separation of church and state. Mason represented Virginia at the Mount Vernon Conference (1785) on Potomac River navigation and at the federal Constitutional Convention (1787). Although Mason initially supported constitutional reform, he ultimately refused to sign the Constitution, and he led the Anti-Federalist bloc in the Virginia convention (1788) called to consider ratification of the Constitution. After Virginia approved it, Mason retired to his elegant home, Gunston Hall, on Dogue's Neck, where he died in 1792.
Thu, 26 Jul 2018 07:31:27 EST]]>
/Ex_Parte_Virginia_1880 Wed, 25 Jul 2018 13:07:24 EST <![CDATA[Ex Parte Virginia (1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ex_Parte_Virginia_1880 In Ex Parte Virginia, decided on March 1, 1880, the U.S. Supreme Court confirmed congressional authority to enforce African Americans' rights to serve on juries in state courts. The case began when a Pittsylvania County judge named James D. Coles was indicted in a U.S. district court for violating the federal Civil Rights Act of 1875 by excluding black men from juries. Ex Parte Virginia was handed down on the same day as two other important decisions: Strauder v. West Virginia, which declared that states could not limit jury service to white men, and Virginia v. Rives, which prohibited federal courts from claiming jurisdiction over a state case when the state court excluded African Americans from the jury. In Ex Parte Virginia, the Supreme Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which guarantees citizens equal protection under the law, authorized Congress to require that states not exclude African Americans from juries. In these three related cases, the Supreme Court broadly interpreted the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments and declared that their purpose was to prohibit states from limiting the civil rights of African American citizens or treating them in a different or inferior manner from white citizens. Following the ruling, many state judges found other means to exclude African Americans from jury service.
Wed, 25 Jul 2018 13:07:24 EST]]>
/_Instructions_to_George_Yeardley_by_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_November_18_1618 Wed, 25 Jul 2018 09:38:05 EST <![CDATA["Instructions to George Yeardley" by the Virginia Company of London (November 18, 1618)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Instructions_to_George_Yeardley_by_the_Virginia_Company_of_London_November_18_1618 Wed, 25 Jul 2018 09:38:05 EST]]> /House_of_Burgesses Tue, 24 Jul 2018 15:38:19 EST <![CDATA[House of Burgesses]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/House_of_Burgesses The House of Burgesses was an assembly of elected representatives from Virginia that met from 1643 to 1776. This democratically elected legislative body was the first of its kind in English North America. From 1619 until 1643, elected burgesses met in unicameral session with the governor and the royally appointed governor's Council; after 1643, the burgesses met separately as the lower house of the General Assembly of Virginia. Each county sent two burgesses to the House; towns could petition to send a single representative, as Jamestown, Williamsburg, and Norfolk did. (The College of William and Mary also had representation in the House.) Most burgesses were also members of the gentry class, though the colonists they represented were usually small land–owners and tenant farmers. In 1774, when the House of Burgesses began to support resistance to the Crown, Virginia's royal governor, John Murray, earl of Dunmore, dissolved it. The Virginia Constitution of 1776 created a new General Assembly that replaced the governor's Council with an elected Senate and the House of Burgesses with an elected House of Delegates. The House of Burgesses is notable, however, for being the training ground of many of America's Founding Fathers, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Richard Henry Lee, and Patrick Henry.
Tue, 24 Jul 2018 15:38:19 EST]]>
/Turpin_Henry_1836-1908 Tue, 24 Jul 2018 14:28:38 EST <![CDATA[Turpin, Henry (1836–1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Turpin_Henry_1836-1908 Henry Turpin, a black Republican from Goochland County, was a member of the House of Delegates (1871–1873). Born into slavery in 1836, Turpin was freed by his white father in 1857 and during the American Civil War (1861–1865) purchased land adjacent to his in Goochland County. He worked as a house painter. In 1871, Turpin won election to the House of Delegates, defeating a white Conservative Party candidate by a narrow margin. He served one term, introducing a bill that eventually passed, allowing veterans of the U.S. Colored Troops to collect certain medical benefits. After losing election in 1873, he moved to the Bronx, New York, where he married in 1886 and died in 1908.
Tue, 24 Jul 2018 14:28:38 EST]]>
/Yeardley_Sir_George_bap_1588-1627 Tue, 24 Jul 2018 14:25:15 EST <![CDATA[Yeardley, Sir George (bap. 1588–1627)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Yeardley_Sir_George_bap_1588-1627 Sir George Yeardley served as deputy governor (1616–1617), governor (1619–1621), and royal governor (1626–1627) of the Virginia colony. Born in London, he met Sir Thomas Gates while fighting for the Netherlands and joined him in Virginia in 1610. There, Yeardley served as captain and then lieutenant of the guard under the colony's new martial law and briefly as deputy governor when Sir Thomas Dale departed to escort Pocahontas to London. After returning to England himself, Yeardley was appointed governor in 1618 and charged with implementing a set of reforms that came to be known as the Great Charter. He instituted the headright system and summoned the first General Assembly. He also likely purchased some of the first Africans to arrive in 1619, making him one of the first slaveholders in Virginia. On 1,000 acres granted by the Virginia Company of London, Yeardley established the Flowerdew Hundred plantation, where he built the first windmill in British North America. As company politics became more difficult, he resigned as governor in 1621 but remained involved in colonial affairs, especially after the surprise attacks by Virginia Indians in 1622. After the Virginia Company dissolved in 1624, Yeardley returned to London to deliver a report on conditions in the colony and there, in 1626, was appointed the new royal governor. His health soon failed, however, and Yeardley died in Jamestown in 1627.
Tue, 24 Jul 2018 14:25:15 EST]]>
/Editor_s_Note_Virginia_Argus_March_14_1800 Fri, 20 Jul 2018 09:56:27 EST <![CDATA[Editor's Note, Virginia Argus (March 14, 1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Editor_s_Note_Virginia_Argus_March_14_1800 Fri, 20 Jul 2018 09:56:27 EST]]> /Notice_by_Christopher_McPherson_Virginia_Argus_March_12_1800 Fri, 20 Jul 2018 09:53:54 EST <![CDATA[Notice by Christopher McPherson, Virginia Argus (March 12, 1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Notice_by_Christopher_McPherson_Virginia_Argus_March_12_1800 Fri, 20 Jul 2018 09:53:54 EST]]> /Anatomical_Theatre Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:18:02 EST <![CDATA[Anatomical Theatre]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anatomical_Theatre The Anatomical Theatre was designed by Thomas Jefferson and erected on the grounds of the University of Virginia in 1825–1826. It was used for anatomy instruction and the storage of cadavers. Jefferson had long prioritized medical education in his plans for the university, but when Robley Dunglison, the first professor of anatomy, arrived in 1825, he found that his pavilion's teaching space was inconvenient for the dissection of cadavers. Inspired by Renaissance architecture and the work of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Jefferson designed a square, three-story building that housed a skylit, octagonal surgical theater on the top floor. The Anatomical Theatre opened for classes in 1827 and was the subject of periodic construction and renovations in subsequent decades. In 1837, a one-story brick Anatomical Laboratory was built behind it and used only for dissections. Enslaved labor helped construct and later clean the theater, with university records referencing a man known as Anatomical Lewis, who served as custodian from 1839 to 1857. In order to acquire cadavers for dissection, professors such as John Staige Davis, who taught from 1847 until his death in 1885, relied on grave robbers who stole mostly African American corpses. The building fell into disuse after the opening of the University of Virginia Hospital in 1901 and briefly served as home to the School of Rural Economics. It was razed in 1939 to improve views of the new Alderman Library. It is the only Jefferson-designed building at the university to have been torn down.
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:18:02 EST]]>
/African_American_Legislators_in_Virginia_1867-1899 Wed, 18 Jul 2018 09:37:01 EST <![CDATA[African American Legislators in Virginia (1867–1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/African_American_Legislators_in_Virginia_1867-1899 Wed, 18 Jul 2018 09:37:01 EST]]> /Harris_Joseph_D_c_1833-1884 Thu, 12 Jul 2018 17:45:23 EST <![CDATA[Harris, J. D. (ca. 1833–1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harris_Joseph_D_c_1833-1884 J. D. Harris, a free-born physician, ran as the lieutenant gubernatorial candidate for the Republican Party's radical faction in the election of 1869. Harris entered public life late in the 1850s, advocating African American repatriation to the Caribbean. His interest in tropical diseases led him into medicine, and he became a doctor in 1864. Harris's medical work for the U.S. Army settled him in Virginia. Politically active and known for his intelligence, he received the Republicans' nomination for lieutenant governor in the first statewide election under the Constitution of 1869. His multiracial background played a role in splitting the party that year. A breakaway group known as the True Republicans received the tacit support of the Conservative Party and carried the election. Harris remained active in medicine and civil rights, living in South Carolina and Virginia, until a mental breakdown in 1876. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1884.
Thu, 12 Jul 2018 17:45:23 EST]]>
/Bazile_Leon_M_1890-1967 Thu, 12 Jul 2018 17:06:18 EST <![CDATA[Bazile, Leon M. (1890–1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bazile_Leon_M_1890-1967 Leon M. Bazile was a member of the House of Delegates (1935–1941) and judge of the Fifteenth Circuit (1941–1965) most widely known for his rulings in Loving v. Virginia, the interracial marriage case ultimately overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1967. Born in Hanover County, Bazile earned a law degree from the University of Richmond and served in the U.S. Army during World War I (1914–1918). In the General Assembly and then on the bench, Bazile's eccentric and independent personality sometimes rubbed others the wrong way, but he was popular among his white constituents for his defense of white supremacy. In the Loving case Bazile strictly enforced Virginia's interracial marriage ban, finding it a just and moral law. His notorious rulings in the marriage case were the last in a long career. Less well known is his nearly five-decade role as a significant shaper and defender of Virginia's segregation laws. Bazile was involved in virtually every legal race issue during those years—the racial integrity and segregation laws of the 1920s, proposals for repatriation of African Americans in the 1930s, the public school equalization cases in the 1940s, defense of Virginia's Massive Resistance in the 1950s, prosecution of the Danville civil rights demonstrators in 1963, and, finally, his last ruling in the Loving case in 1965. He retired in 1965 and died two years later, just before the U.S. Supreme Court overturned his Loving opinion.
Thu, 12 Jul 2018 17:06:18 EST]]>
/Tuck_William_M_1896-1983 Thu, 12 Jul 2018 16:55:04 EST <![CDATA[Tuck, William M. (1896–1983)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tuck_William_M_1896-1983 William M. Tuck was a member of the House of Delegates (1924–1932), the Senate of Virginia (1932–1942), and the U.S. House of Representatives (1953–1969). He also served as lieutenant governor (1942–1946) and governor (1946–1950). Born in Halifax County and educated in the law, Tuck was raised around tobacco and politics and was renowned for his girth and flamboyant personality. Harry F. Byrd Sr., a U.S. senator and head of the conservative Democratic Byrd Organization, did not initially warm to Tuck, who bucked him early on with regard to New Deal politics. But the two eventually became close allies. As governor, Tuck fought organized labor, threatening to draft union members into the state militia if they went on strike and helping usher a right-to-work law through the General Assembly. He also fought civil rights, opposing the agenda of President Harry S. Truman and later efforts to enforce public-school desegregation. Tuck retired from politics in 1969 and died in South Boston in 1983.
Thu, 12 Jul 2018 16:55:04 EST]]>
/Dinwiddie_Robert_1692-1770 Thu, 12 Jul 2018 16:37:31 EST <![CDATA[Dinwiddie, Robert (1692–1770)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dinwiddie_Robert_1692-1770 Robert Dinwiddie was a member of the governor's Council from 1742 to 1751 and then lieutenant governor of Virginia from 1751 to 1758. Born into a Scottish merchant family, Dinwiddie began his public career in Bermuda, where he worked as an Admiralty agent and collector of customs before earning a seat on the colony's governor's Council. In 1738, the Crown appointed Dinwiddie surveyor general for the southern part of America, and he lived in in Virginia from 1741 until 1745. He returned in 1751, this time as lieutenant governor and immediately shocked the colony by instituting a fee of one pistole for signing and sealing every patent conferring legal title to land. The House of Burgesses loudly objected and sent representatives to London. In 1754, the Crown found a compromise, upholding Dinwiddie's fee but only on patents of 100 acres or more. Controversy followed Dinwiddie into the French and Indian War (1754–1763). His policy of corporate and imperial advancement led to conflict with the French and the defeat of Virginia forces under George Washington at Fort Necessity in 1754. The politics of the resulting war made governing difficult for Dinwiddie, and he resigned in 1758, soon after defying a British order, handed down by Governor John Campbell, fourth earl of Loudoun, that put an embargo on all colonial exports. Dinwiddie returned to England and died there in 1770.
Thu, 12 Jul 2018 16:37:31 EST]]>
/Rebel_Yell Thu, 12 Jul 2018 15:04:02 EST <![CDATA[Rebel Yell]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rebel_Yell The Rebel yell was the war cry of Confederate soldiers during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Distinctive noises made by soldiers were identified from the very beginning of the war, but the yell's first appearance in combat may have come at the First Battle of Manassas, on July 21, 1861, and is strongly associated with the Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. Observers understood the noises made by Confederates to be different from Union yells, although it's not clear that all Confederate soldiers yelled in precisely the same way. Still, these yells were almost always described as shrill and associated with animals, hunting, and Indians. Many observers, North and South, suggested that Rebel yelling struck fear in Union soldiers and gave courage to Confederates. It may have been especially fierce in fights against black soldiers. By the war's end, a number of different sounds had begun to fuse, in popular perception, into a single noise that was widely described as the Rebel yell. In the postwar years, when the Confederate battle flag was largely invisible, the yell served as a potent symbol of Confederate heritage. In veteran memoirs, which often hewed closely to Lost Cause conventions, it represented Confederate heroism and pluck, and a number of veteran-made recordings still exist. By the mid-twentieth century, however, the Rebel yell had lost much of its original resonance or connection to the Civil War.
Thu, 12 Jul 2018 15:04:02 EST]]>
/Byrd_William_1674-1744 Tue, 10 Jul 2018 14:07:30 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, William (1674–1744)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_William_1674-1744 William Byrd, sometimes referred to as William Byrd II of Westover to distinguish him from relatives of the same name, was a planter, a surveyor, a member of the governor's Council (1709–1744), and a man of letters. Born in Virginia, Byrd was educated and practiced law in England. He returned to Virginia in 1705, after the death of his father. Shortly afterward he was appointed to the governor's Council, and in the 1720s he served as the London agent of the House of Burgesses. He helped survey the boundary between Virginia and North Carolina and established the town of Richmond on the north side of the James River. He was also a prolific writer, and is perhaps best known today for his diaries and the manuscript narratives of his surveying, both of which are frequently anthologized in textbooks of American literature. Byrd typified both the values of British colonial gentry and the ethos of an emerging American identity invested in the improvement of the self and of the colonial commonwealth.
Tue, 10 Jul 2018 14:07:30 EST]]>
/Lee_Robert_E_in_Memory Tue, 10 Jul 2018 13:34:01 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Robert E. in Memory]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Robert_E_in_Memory Robert E. Lee, a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and president of Washington College in Lexington until his death in 1870, is one of the most revered figures in American history. Lee's place in history is complicated, however, and the way that he has been remembered has changed over time. During his own life, Lee modeled himself after the courtly and self-controlled George Washington and cultivated a sense of himself as a character in a drama and a prisoner of fate. After his death, Lee was less likely to be branded a traitor; instead, he became a symbol of the Lost Cause interpretation of the war, transformed into a crucial agent of sectional reconciliation. The Civil War, according to the Lost Cause, was not about slavery but about states' rights and, ultimately, the honor and bravery of white soldiers on both sides. In this regard, Lee served the needs of not just the Confederacy or of the South, but of all America. The civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s encouraged historians to engage a broader social and political canvas when writing about Lee, and this has led some scholars to challenge traditional conclusions about Lee's significance and meaning. Like Washington, Lee is the seminal figure in a transformational moment, but of a different sort. He is the symbol of a vision that failed, and yet also the redeemer of a cause that has lived a long and often tragic afterlife.
Tue, 10 Jul 2018 13:34:01 EST]]>
/Slave_Ships_and_the_Middle_Passage Mon, 09 Jul 2018 15:33:53 EST <![CDATA[Slave Ships and the Middle Passage]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Ships_and_the_Middle_Passage The slave ship was the means by which nearly 12.5 million enslaved Africans were transported from Africa to the Americas between 1500 and 1866. Leaving from its home port in Europe, a typical ship made its first passage to the west coast of Africa, trading goods for a full cargo of slaves—people who had been captured in war, convicted of petty crimes, or simply kidnapped. On the second, or "middle," passage, the captain sailed his cargo across the Atlantic Ocean to one or more ports in the New World, where he sold his slaves and purchased or loaded goods such as sugar, rum, and molasses. On the final passage, he returned home. The Portuguese dominated the early slave trade, but at its height, in the eighteenth century, British and American merchants helped bring millions of Africans to the Americas, a very small percentage of whom ended up in Virginia. About 15 percent of all Africans who made the voyage died, most from the accumulation of brutal treatment and inadequate care from the time of their enslavement in the interior of Africa. Others suffocated in the tightly packed holds, while some committed suicide, refused to eat, or revolted. Crew members, meanwhile, died at even higher rates, also mostly from disease. The victims of violence meted out by their officers, sailors in turn dispensed their own brand of terror to the Africans. For Africans who survived, the Middle Passage began with the separation from family and community and ended with a lifetime of enslavement.
Mon, 09 Jul 2018 15:33:53 EST]]>
/Starving_Time_The Thu, 28 Jun 2018 11:24:05 EST <![CDATA[Starving Time, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Starving_Time_The The Starving Time refers to the winter of 1609–1610 when about three-quarters of the English colonists in Virginia died of starvation or starvation-related diseases. In his unpublished account A Trewe Relacyon, George Percy, who served as president during these grim months, wrote that Englishmen felt "the sharpe pricke of hunger which noe man trewly descrybe butt he which hathe tasted the bitternesse thereof." Already for two years, the Jamestown colonists had died at alarming rates, mostly of summertime diseases. In 1609, the beginning of the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614) prompted the Indians to lay siege to the English fort, helping to provoke the famine. Settlers were forced to eat snakes, vipers, rats, mice, musk turtles, cats, dogs, horses, and perhaps even raptors. In addition, multiple gruesome stories suggest, and archaeological evidence has partially corroborated, that settlers devoured each other. The siege lifted in May 1610, and when the survivors of the Sea Venture wreck arrived in Virginia, they found just 60 gaunt remnants of the 240 people who had crowded the fort the previous November. Many observers argued that the colonists' idleness—their persistent refusal to work for their food—contributed to the famine. It is likely, though, that malnutrition and despair worked together to create symptoms that imitated laziness. In the end, Virginia survived, but just barely.
Thu, 28 Jun 2018 11:24:05 EST]]>
/Bowser_Rosa_L_Dixon_1855-1931 Wed, 06 Jun 2018 10:13:41 EST <![CDATA[Bowser, Rosa L. Dixon (1855–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowser_Rosa_L_Dixon_1855-1931 Rosa L. Dixon Bowser, educator and civic leader, played a key role in implementing reforms that affected Virginia's African Americans. Bowser was most likely born enslaved. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), she moved to Richmond with her family and enrolled in public school, where she showed remarkable intelligence. She went on to become a teacher in Richmond's public schools. Her efforts on behalf of educators helped create Virginia's first professional African American teacher's association, and she later served as its president. Throughout her teaching career Bowser, like her contemporaries Janie Porter Barrett and Maggie Lena Walker, worked for societal improvement. She played a major role in African American reform organizations, industrial schools for black children, groups supporting universal woman suffrage, and associations publicly opposed to lynching and racial segregation. The first branch of the Richmond public library to be opened for African Americans was named for Bowser in 1925. She died of complications from diabetes in 1931 at her home in Richmond.
Wed, 06 Jun 2018 10:13:41 EST]]>
/Allen_John_d_1799 Fri, 25 May 2018 16:59:57 EST <![CDATA[Allen, John (d. 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allen_John_d_1799 Fri, 25 May 2018 16:59:57 EST]]> /Batte_Archibald_d_by_April_12_1830 Fri, 25 May 2018 16:56:08 EST <![CDATA[Batte, Archibald (d. by April 12, 1830)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Batte_Archibald_d_by_April_12_1830 Fri, 25 May 2018 16:56:08 EST]]> /Randolph_Thomas_Mann_1768-1828 Fri, 25 May 2018 10:04:27 EST <![CDATA[Randolph, Thomas Mann (1768–1828)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Randolph_Thomas_Mann_1768-1828 Thomas Mann Randolph was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1803–1807) and a three-term governor (1819–1822). He also served in the Senate of Virginia (1793–1794) and the House of Delegates (1819–1820, 1823–1825). Born at the family plantation in Goochland County and educated in Virginia and Scotland, Randolph married Martha Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson's eldest daughter, and they had eleven surviving children, including Thomas Jefferson Randolph and George Wythe Randolph. The family lived at Monticello for much of the time, with Randolph managing his own and Jefferson's properties while Jefferson was in Washington, D.C. In the meantime, Randolph served two terms in Congress, as an infantry colonel during the War of 1812, and as a founding member of the Agricultural Society of Albemarle. He became governor in 1819 and supported transportation infrastructure and the gradual emancipation and forced emigration of enslaved people to Liberia. While in Congress he nearly fought a duel with his cousin John Randolph of Roanoke. While governor he publicly fought with the Council of State and defended himself against accusations of being drunk on the job. And, in his later years, financial difficulties and his drinking caused conflicts with and a separation from his family. He died at Monticello in 1828
Fri, 25 May 2018 10:04:27 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Richard_Richardson_February_17_1800 Thu, 17 May 2018 17:04:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Richard Richardson (February 17, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Richard_Richardson_February_17_1800 Thu, 17 May 2018 17:04:35 EST]]> /Nicholas_Wilson_Cary_1761-1820 Mon, 14 May 2018 14:53:32 EST <![CDATA[Nicholas, Wilson Cary (1761–1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Nicholas_Wilson_Cary_1761-1820 Wilson Cary Nicholas was a member of the Convention of 1788, member of the U.S. Senate (1799–1804) and the U.S. House of Representatives (1807–1809), and governor of Virginia (1814–1816). Born in Williamsburg to a prominent political family, Nicholas was educated at the College of William and Mary and served as an officer of volunteers during the American Revolution (1775–1783). In 1780 he moved to a plantation in Albemarle County and represented the county in the House of Delegates from 1788 to 1789 and from 1794 to 1799. Nicholas voted to ratify the U.S. Constitution in the Convention of 1788, supporting Republicanism in the style of his friend Thomas Jefferson while also earning a reputation as a political moderate. The two worked together on revising what became the Virginia Resolutions (1798), asserting states' right to nullify federal laws they deem unconstitutional. In the Senate, Nicholas supported the Louisiana Purchase and in Congress he advocated for war with Great Britain. As governor, he was charged with defending Virginia when war finally did break out and paying for that defense once the war ended. He later served as president of the Richmond branch of the Bank of the United States but his own personal financial trouble, combined with the Panic of 1819, led to his personal and professional downfall. He defaulted on two $10,000 notes, endorsed by Jefferson, and resigned in disgrace. He died in 1820.
Mon, 14 May 2018 14:53:32 EST]]>
/Virginia_Slave_Narratives Thu, 10 May 2018 16:52:53 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Slave Narratives]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Slave_Narratives Thu, 10 May 2018 16:52:53 EST]]> /Randolph_Martha_Jefferson_1772-1836 Wed, 09 May 2018 13:21:20 EST <![CDATA[Randolph, Martha Jefferson (1772–1836)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Randolph_Martha_Jefferson_1772-1836 Martha Jefferson Randolph was the daughter of Thomas Jefferson and the wife of Thomas Mann Randolph, who served as governor of Virginia from 1819 to 1822. She grew up at Monticello and spent time in Williamsburg, Richmond, and Philadelphia before accompanying her widowed father to Paris, France, where she attended the Abbaye Royale de Panthemont, a prestigious convent school. After she returned to Virginia, she married and bore twelve children, eleven of whom survived to adulthood. Although she was the daughter of a president, the wife of a governor, and arguably the most highly educated woman in Virginia, Randolph's life was in many ways representative. Widely admired for her intelligence, sociability, and conversational skills, she was an exemplar of genteel white womanhood who was said to possess a "perfect temper" and who immersed herself in the trials and joys of marriage, motherhood, and plantation life. Randolph and her children lived mainly at Monticello, although her husband owned the nearby plantation Edgehill. Occasionally during her father's presidency, and throughout his retirement, she acted as hostess. Her presence reinforced Jefferson's image as a devoted family man with a stable domestic life, though fulfilling this role in her father's life may have exacerbated her already strained marriage. Both father and husband struggled and ultimately failed to remain solvent. After their deaths in 1826 and 1828, respectively, Randolph lived with her married children. She died at Edgehill on October 10, 1836.
Wed, 09 May 2018 13:21:20 EST]]>
/Bazile_s_Pre-Nuptial_Conditions_Leon_M Wed, 09 May 2018 08:15:42 EST <![CDATA[Bazile's Pre-Nuptial Conditions, Leon M.]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bazile_s_Pre-Nuptial_Conditions_Leon_M Wed, 09 May 2018 08:15:42 EST]]> /Barnes_Thomas_H_1831-1913 Tue, 08 May 2018 17:18:36 EST <![CDATA[Barnes, Thomas H. (1831–1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barnes_Thomas_H_1831-1913 Thomas H. Barnes was a physician and a member of the House of Delegates (1874–1877), the Senate of Virginia (1887–1894), and the Convention of 1901–1902. Born in Nansemond County, he was educated at the University of Virginia and the Medical College of Virginia. He practiced medicine, never married, and did not serve in the military during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After the war, Barnes became active in Democratic Party politics, serving in the General Assembly and in the state constitutional convention. He died in 1913.
Tue, 08 May 2018 17:18:36 EST]]>
/Wilson_Joseph_T_1837-1890 Mon, 07 May 2018 17:42:43 EST <![CDATA[Wilson, Joseph T. (1837–1890)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wilson_Joseph_T_1837-1890 Joseph T. Wilson served with the United States Colored Troops during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and afterward as a writer, orator, and activist best known for The Black Phalanx; A History of the Negro Soldiers of the United States in the Wars of 1775–1812, 1861–'65 (1887). Born free in Norfolk, Wilson attended school in Massachusetts and worked as a whaler in the South Pacific and on a railroad crew in Chile before coming home to the United States in 1862 to enlist. He returned to Massachusetts after becoming sick, later fighting with the 54th Massachusetts at the Battle of Olustee, in Florida. A wound led to his discharge. After the war, Wilson settled in Norfolk, agitating for black suffrage and full citizenship through his prodigious output of editorials, poems, speeches, and historical works. A Republican Party stalwart and officeholder, he courted controversy in the 1880s by refusing to align with the reform-minded, biracial Readjuster coalition in Virginia and choosing instead to support the "straight-out" Republicans. The Black Phalanx, meanwhile, was the most comprehensive study of African American military service of its era, commanding for Wilson widespread admiration and respect. He died in 1891 and is buried at Hampton National Cemetery.
Mon, 07 May 2018 17:42:43 EST]]>
/Williams_Narrative_of_Isaac_1856 Fri, 04 May 2018 14:51:27 EST <![CDATA[Williams, Narrative of Isaac (1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Williams_Narrative_of_Isaac_1856 Fri, 04 May 2018 14:51:27 EST]]> /Anderson_Interesting_Account_of_Thomas_Anderson_a_Slave_Taken_from_His_Own_Lips_by_Thomas_1854 Thu, 03 May 2018 13:14:47 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, Interesting Account of Thomas Anderson, a Slave, Taken from His Own Lips by Thomas (1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_Interesting_Account_of_Thomas_Anderson_a_Slave_Taken_from_His_Own_Lips_by_Thomas_1854 Thu, 03 May 2018 13:14:47 EST]]> /Steward_Excerpt_from_Twenty-two_Years_a_Slave_and_Forty_Years_a_Freeman_by_Austin_1857 Thu, 03 May 2018 13:10:14 EST <![CDATA[Steward, Excerpt from Twenty-two Years a Slave, and Forty Years a Freeman by Austin (1857)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Steward_Excerpt_from_Twenty-two_Years_a_Slave_and_Forty_Years_a_Freeman_by_Austin_1857 Thu, 03 May 2018 13:10:14 EST]]> /A_Brief_Account_of_the_Life_Experience_Travels_and_Gospel_Labours_of_George_White_An_African_Written_by_Himself_and_Revised_by_a_Friend_by_George_White_1810 Thu, 03 May 2018 12:08:05 EST <![CDATA[A Brief Account of the Life, Experience, Travels, and Gospel Labours of George White, An African; Written by Himself, and Revised by a Friend. by George White (1810)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Brief_Account_of_the_Life_Experience_Travels_and_Gospel_Labours_of_George_White_An_African_Written_by_Himself_and_Revised_by_a_Friend_by_George_White_1810 Thu, 03 May 2018 12:08:05 EST]]> /Lockhart_Narrative_of_Dan_Josiah_1856 Thu, 03 May 2018 11:58:43 EST <![CDATA[Lockhart, Narrative of Dan Josiah (1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lockhart_Narrative_of_Dan_Josiah_1856 Thu, 03 May 2018 11:58:43 EST]]> /Robinson_Excerpt_from_From_Log_Cabin_To_the_Pulpit_or_Fifteen_Years_in_Slavery_by_William_H_1913 Thu, 03 May 2018 11:54:46 EST <![CDATA[Robinson, Excerpt from From Log Cabin To the Pulpit, or, Fifteen Years in Slavery by William H. (1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robinson_Excerpt_from_From_Log_Cabin_To_the_Pulpit_or_Fifteen_Years_in_Slavery_by_William_H_1913 Thu, 03 May 2018 11:54:46 EST]]> /Letter_from_John_W_Jordan_to_John_A_McDowell_May_4_1868 Wed, 02 May 2018 09:35:02 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John W. Jordan to John A. McDowell (May 4, 1868)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_W_Jordan_to_John_A_McDowell_May_4_1868 Wed, 02 May 2018 09:35:02 EST]]> /Moss_Frank_d_by_August_6_1884 Thu, 26 Apr 2018 12:07:38 EST <![CDATA[Moss, Frank (d. by August 6, 1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Moss_Frank_d_by_August_6_1884 Frank Moss was a member of the Convention of 1867–1868, the Senate of Virginia (1869–1871), and the House of Delegates (1874–1875). Records of his early life do not exist, but he likely was born in Buckingham County sometime in the mid-1820s. Local tradition holds that he was born into a free family but evidence also exists that he was enslaved. In 1867, he won election as a delegate to the constitutional convention required in order for Virginia to gain admittance into the United States after the American Civil War (1861–1865). Described by an American general as "energetic and enterprising," he supported radical reformers on all major issues. His speeches, however, were considered so divisive that the Freedman's Bureau ordered him arrested. A charge of breaching the peace was later dropped. A Republican, Moss served in the Senate of Virginia and voted to ratify the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution and later was elected to the House of Delegates. Just after the election, in November 1873, he was arrested and tried for beating a man who voted against him, but the jury deadlocked. A national, pro-Republican newspaper denounced Moss as a laughingstock in 1875 and he lost reelection. In his later years, Moss supported the biracial Readjuster Party, although by 1883 he opposed its leader, Senator William Mahone. The circumstances of Moss's death are unknown.
Thu, 26 Apr 2018 12:07:38 EST]]>
/Holmes_Joseph_R_ca_1838-May_3_1869 Thu, 26 Apr 2018 10:14:14 EST <![CDATA[Holmes, Joseph R. (ca. 1838–1869)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Holmes_Joseph_R_ca_1838-May_3_1869 Thu, 26 Apr 2018 10:14:14 EST]]> /Wilson_Edith_Bolling_Galt_1872-1961 Thu, 26 Apr 2018 10:00:35 EST <![CDATA[Wilson, Edith Bolling Galt (1872–1961)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wilson_Edith_Bolling_Galt_1872-1961 Edith Bolling Galt Wilson married President Woodrow Wilson while he was serving his second term in the White House and served as First Lady from December 18, 1915, until March 4, 1921. When the president suffered a debilitating stroke late in 1919, Edith Wilson assumed what she called the "stewardship of the presidency," a constitutionally unprecedented role that led her to keep the full extent of Wilson's health condition secret from Congress and his own cabinet. Born in Wytheville to a prominent Virginia family, Edith Wilson had little formal education. She married a jeweler in Washington, D.C., and remained in the capital after his death. In March 1915 she met the recently widowed President Wilson and he proposed to her after two months. They were married in December. During World War I (1914–1918) she played a prominent role in supporting the war effort, but it was her involvement in White House affairs that caused controversy. When a stroke incapacitated President Wilson, the First Lady tightly controlled his access to members of the administration and Congress, which caused speculation as to what degree she wielded the power of the presidency in her husband's stead. After Woodrow Wilson's death in 1924, Edith Wilson devoted the rest of her life to honoring his legacy, serving as a founder of the Woodrow Wilson Foundation in Staunton. She died in 1961. In 2008 her birthplace in Wytheville was turned into a museum.
Thu, 26 Apr 2018 10:00:35 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Editor_Richmond_Whig_and_Commercial_Journal_August_29_1831 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 15:01:16 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Editor, Richmond Whig and Commercial Journal (August 29, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Editor_Richmond_Whig_and_Commercial_Journal_August_29_1831 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 15:01:16 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_the_Lynchburg_Virginian_September_8_1831 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 14:59:44 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from the Lynchburg Virginian (September 8, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_the_Lynchburg_Virginian_September_8_1831 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 14:59:44 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_the_Richmond_Enquirer_January_7_1832 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 14:57:49 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from the Richmond Enquirer (January 7, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_the_Richmond_Enquirer_January_7_1832 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 14:57:49 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_the_Richmond_Enquirer_January_12_1832 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 14:54:55 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from the Richmond Enquirer (January 12, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_the_Richmond_Enquirer_January_12_1832 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 14:54:55 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_The_Life_of_the_Rev_Dandridge_F_Davis_of_the_African_M_E_Church...Also_a_Brief_Sketch_of_the_Life_of_the_Rev_David_Conyou_of_the_A_M_E_C_and_His_Ministerial_labors_by_Augustus_R_Green Tue, 24 Apr 2018 14:51:31 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from The Life of the Rev. Dandridge F. Davis, of the African M. E. Church…Also, a Brief Sketch of the Life of the Rev. David Conyou, of the A. M. E. C. and His Ministerial labors by Augustus R. Green ]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_The_Life_of_the_Rev_Dandridge_F_Davis_of_the_African_M_E_Church...Also_a_Brief_Sketch_of_the_Life_of_the_Rev_David_Conyou_of_the_A_M_E_C_and_His_Ministerial_labors_by_Augustus_R_Green Tue, 24 Apr 2018 14:51:31 EST]]> /Delaney_McDowell_ca_1844-after_1924 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 08:12:30 EST <![CDATA[Delaney, McDowell (1844–1926)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Delaney_McDowell_ca_1844-after_1924 McDowell Delaney represented Amelia County for one term in the House of Delegates (1871–1873). Born to free parents, Delaney worked for a Confederate infantry company during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and likely held a job later with the Freedmen's Bureau. He entered politics by 1869, when he lost a race for the county's House of Delegates seat. Two years later Delaney won by a large margin and sided with the majority in trying to circumvent the Funding Act of 1871. Divisions within the local Republican Party likely caused his failed reelection bid, though he did represent Amelia at a state convention of African Americans in 1875. In subsequent years Delaney served in a variety of local offices, including justice of the peace, coroner, and constable. He also became engaged in such occupations as operating an ordinary, repairing bridges, teaching, ministering in a Baptist church, and farming. He moved to Cumberland County and successfully applied for a Confederate pension in 1924. He died in 1926.
Tue, 24 Apr 2018 08:12:30 EST]]>
/Mercer_Hugh_1725-1777 Tue, 24 Apr 2018 07:57:36 EST <![CDATA[Mercer, Hugh (1725–1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mercer_Hugh_1725-1777 Hugh Mercer was a soldier and physician who fought for a Virginia regiment during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Born in Scotland, where he earned a medical degree at the University of Aberdeen, Mercer took up arms on behalf of the Stuart claim to the English throne. After the disastrous Battle of Culloden in 1746, he fled to America, establishing a medical practice in Philadelphia. During the French and Indian War (1754–1763), he fought with the 1st Pennsylvania and became the first commandant of Fort Pitt in present-day Pittsburgh. By 1761 Mercer had quit the militia and moved to Fredericksburg, where he married, opened an apothecary shop, and purchased land, including Ferry Farm, the boyhood home of George Washington, whom Mercer had befriended during the war. In 1775, the General Assembly appointed Mercer a colonel in the 3rd Virginia Regiment, and a year later the Continental Congress made him a brigadier general. While serving under Washington at the Battle of Princeton, on January 3, 1777, Mercer suffered severe bayonet wounds after his horse was shot out from under him. He died nine days later.
Tue, 24 Apr 2018 07:57:36 EST]]>
/Langston_John_Mercer_1829-1897 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:20:23 EST <![CDATA[Langston, John Mercer (1829–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Langston_John_Mercer_1829-1897 John Mercer Langston served as Virginia's first African American member of Congress (1890–1891) and as the first president of Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Virginia State University). The son of a white Louisa County planter and the woman he freed, Langston grew up in Ohio, where, as an attorney and local office holder, he helped recruit African American troops during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After the war, his involvement with the Freedmen's Bureau as inspector of schools brought him back to Virginia. In 1870 Langston became dean of Howard University's law school and served as acting president of the university from 1873 until 1875. In 1885, the Virginia State Board of Education named Langston president of the new Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute. The new school grew under his leadership, but the Democrat-packed board of visitors did not renew his contract two years later. In 1888 he sought the Republican nomination for Congress, but party leader William Mahone engineered his defeat. Langston ran an independent campaign in which a Democrat was named the winner. Langston disputed the election results, however, and eventually Congress seated him for the final months of his term. He lost reelection and returned to Washington, D.C., where he published an autobiography. He died in Washington in 1897.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:20:23 EST]]>
/Lyons_Isaiah_L_1843-1871 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:11:29 EST <![CDATA[Lyons, Isaiah L. (1843–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lyons_Isaiah_L_1843-1871 Isaiah L. Lyons served in the Senate of Virginia (1869–1871) and was one of the first African American members of the General Assembly. Born in New Jersey, Lyons was raised in Brooklyn, New York, and worked as a clerk. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served in Virginia with the United States Colored Troops, finally settling in Hampton. In 1869 Lyons, who by then worked as a druggist, won election to the Senate by handily defeating a white candidate, Martin McDevitt. He then became the only African American member to vote against ratifying the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution. Although in the minority, Lyons reasoned that the assembly itself was illegitimate because most of its white members could not take the required oath stating they had been loyal to the United States during the war. He also voted against a provision that required racial segregation in the state's new public schools but eventually supported the bill. Lyons died at his home in Hampton in 1871 from the effects of illnesses acquired during the war.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:11:29 EST]]>
/Dawson_John_M_1829-1913 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:09:14 EST <![CDATA[Dawson, John M. (1829–1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dawson_John_M_1829-1913 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:09:14 EST]]> /Seaton_George_Lewis_ca_1822-1881 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:00:06 EST <![CDATA[Seaton, George Lewis (ca. 1822–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Seaton_George_Lewis_ca_1822-1881 George Lewis Seaton represented Alexandria for one session in the House of Delegates (1869–1871). Born free, Seaton worked as a carpenter and conducted multiple property transactions. After the American Civil War (1861–1865) he worked to improve the lives of former slaves by constructing two schools for Alexandria's freedpeople and helping to establish a local branch of the Freedman's Savings Bank and Trust Company. Seaton's strong reputation probably played a role in his selection to the grand jury for the U.S. Circuit Court for the District of Virginia, likely the first interracial jury in Virginia history. In 1869 he won election to the House of Delegates and voted with the majority to ratify the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution as required by Congress before Virginia could be readmitted to the United States. He lost a bid for reelection in 1871 by fewer than 100 votes, but continued to participate in party politics throughout the decade. He spent his later years supporting public schools and community organizations for African Americans in Alexandria, but had to liquidate assets including his grocery store after the Panic of 1873. He died of paralysis in his home in 1881.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 11:00:06 EST]]>
/Perkins_Caesar_1839-1910 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:55:19 EST <![CDATA[Perkins, Caesar (1839–1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Perkins_Caesar_1839-1910 Caesar Perkins served two separate terms in the House of Delegates eighteen years apart (1869–1871, 1887–1888). Born enslaved, Perkins became a leader within Buckingham County's African American community after the American Civil War (1860–1865). In 1869 he won one of the locality's two seats in the General Assembly's lower house. Outside of politics Perkins purchased 628 acres in 1870, and later operated a general store and two ordinaries. He became an ordained Baptist minister by 1877. Perkins remained involved with public affairs, following most African American politicians into the short-lived Readjuster Party and then into the Republican Party. He won his second term in 1887, representing Brunswick and Caroline counties. He died in Richmond and was buried in Buckingham County.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:55:19 EST]]>
/Norton_Robert_d_by_October_17_1898 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:52:03 EST <![CDATA[Norton, Robert (d. by October 17, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Norton_Robert_d_by_October_17_1898 Robert Norton, one of three brothers elected to the General Assembly, served in the House of Delegates (1869–1882) and chaired the Committee on Labor and the Poor during the 1881–1882 session. Norton and his brother Daniel M. Norton escaped slavery in the mid-1850s. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), Robert Norton settled in Yorktown and carved out a power base by leading the fraternal society Lone Star. He won his first election to the House of Delegates in 1869, serving all but one term through 1883. The rise of the Readjuster Party late in the 1870s enhanced Norton's influence, and he gained notice for seconding party leader William Mahone's nomination for the U.S. Senate. Norton sat as a delegate to Republican and Readjuster national and state conventions, and campaigned unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives in 1874. Norton lost his bid for renomination to the House of Delegates in 1883. He was named to the board of visitors of the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Virginia State University) in 1885 and held a gubernatorial appointment as a curator of the fund for Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University). Norton died by 1898.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:52:03 EST]]>
/Paige_R_G_L_1846-1904 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:46:08 EST <![CDATA[Paige, R. G. L. (1846–1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Paige_R_G_L_1846-1904 R. G. L. Paige was a Republican member of the House of Delegates (1871–1875, 1879–1882) and possibly the first African American lawyer in Norfolk and one of the first in Virginia. Born into slavery in the city of Norfolk, Paige escaped to Philadelphia about 1857 and eventually settled in Boston. After the American Civil War (1861–1865) and the abolition of slavery, he returned to Norfolk. There he purchased the local African American burial ground (later Mount Olive Cemetery) and in 1871 won election to the House of Delegates. In the General Assembly Paige lobbied for civil rights, served as a delegate to the Republican National Convention, and won a patronage appointment as an assistant clerk at the Norfolk customs house. In 1880 he delivered a speech against lynching that was widely reprinted, but no legislation resulted. That same year he threatened to, but in the end did not, sue a Richmond theater company that refused to seat him. From 1882 to 1885 he served as secretary of the curators of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute. In 1882 he helped pass legislation chartering the Virginia Building and Savings Association and became a founding member of its board of directors. Paige died in 1904.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:46:08 EST]]>
/Norton_F_S_d_1893 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:33:57 EST <![CDATA[Norton, F. S. (d. 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Norton_F_S_d_1893 F. S. Norton, one of three brothers elected to the General Assembly, served one term in the House of Delegates (1869–1871) and later sat on Williamsburg's city council (by 1879–1882). Born enslaved, he represented James City County and Williamsburg from 1869 until 1871, during which time he voted with the majority to ratify the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution as required by Congress before Virginia could be readmitted to the United States. Norton often differed politically from the Yorktown-based brothers, Daniel M. Norton and Robert Norton. He embraced Radical Republicanism in the 1860s while his brothers were more sympathetic with the Conservative Party. They all later joined the Readjuster Party, but he withdrew and supported the Republicans against his brothers. He identified himself as a Democrat in his later years. Norton died of unknown causes at his Williamsburg home in 1893.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:33:57 EST]]>
/Nickens_Armistead_S_1836-1906 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:30:32 EST <![CDATA[Nickens, Armistead S. (1836–1906)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Nickens_Armistead_S_1836-1906 Armistead S. Nickens represented Lancaster County in the House of Delegates for two terms (1871–1875). Born into a free family, Nickens became prosperous enough by the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865) that the local agent of the Freedmen's Bureau listed him as a respectable citizen capable of holding public office. Nickens won his first term in 1871, becoming the first African American elected official in county history. He gained a second term in 1873 by a scant twenty-nine votes. After his term in the assembly Nickens received an appointment as a special collector of delinquent taxes in Lancaster County. A landowner, according to local tradition Nickens advocated a bridge across the Rappahannock River that would connect Tappahannock and Richmond County. He died at home in 1906.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:30:32 EST]]>
/Lipscomb_James_F_1830-1893 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:19:05 EST <![CDATA[Lipscomb, James F. (1830–1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lipscomb_James_F_1830-1893 James F. Lipscomb represented Cumberland County in the House of Delegates from 1869 until 1877. Born free in Cumberland, Lipscomb became a landholder after the American Civil War (1861–1865) and in 1869 he won a seat in the General Assembly, the second election in which African Americans could vote in Virginia. Affiliated with the radical wing of the Republican Party and reelected three times, Lipscomb lost his attempt for a fifth term in 1877. He was likely related to John Robinson, who represented Cumberland County in the Convention of 1867–1868 and in the Senate of Virginia. Lipscomb, primarily a farmer, possessed one of the largest African American–owned houses in the county. He also opened a store that stayed in his family until it closed in 1971.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:19:05 EST]]>
/Johnson_Henry_1842-1922 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:16:49 EST <![CDATA[Johnson, Henry (1842–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Johnson_Henry_1842-1922 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:16:49 EST]]> /Harris_Alfred_W_1853-1920 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:14:51 EST <![CDATA[Harris, Alfred W. (1853–1920)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harris_Alfred_W_1853-1920 Alfred W. Harris introduced the bill that chartered Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Virginia State University) during his time in the House of Delegates (1881–1888). Born enslaved in Fairfax County, during the American Civil War (1861–1865) his family moved to Alexandria, where he attended a school operated by the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands and later the city's first segregated public schools. He won a seat on the Alexandria common council as a twenty-year-old and became a lawyer. Harris relocated in Petersburg and in 1881 won the first of four consecutive terms term in the House of Delegates, representing Dinwiddie County. He played key roles in Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute's first years, serving as its de facto treasurer and the first secretary of the board of visitors. Harris strongly supported the Readjuster and later Republican Party leader William Mahone, even backing his candidate in the 1888 congressional election against John Mercer Langston. After leaving the House of Delegates, Harris served as a Newport News specials customs inspector and a Petersburg census enumerator. He resigned his post after being arrested and exonerated twice on charges of theft. Following a stroke, Harris died in his Petersburg home in 1920.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:14:51 EST]]>
/Green_Armistead_d_1892 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:08:53 EST <![CDATA[Green, Armistead (d. 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Green_Armistead_d_1892 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:08:53 EST]]> /Fields_James_A_1844-1903 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:05:58 EST <![CDATA[Fields, James A. (1844–1903)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fields_James_A_1844-1903 James A. Fields, who was born enslaved and became a successful lawyer, served one term in the House of Delegates (1889–1890). A brutal beating prompted Fields to escape his Hanover County bondage, and he settled in the Hampton area during the American Civil War (1861–1865). He enrolled in Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute's first class in 1869 and graduated two years later. In 1882 Fields received his law degree from Howard University and began to practice law in Warwick County (later Newport News). Five years later the area's voters elected him as commonwealth's attorney, and in 1889 he won his seat in the General Assembly. By 1900 he paid taxes on at least twenty-five properties in Newport News and Elizabeth City County. Fields died of Bright's disease in 1903. His late-Victorian Italianate residence in Newport News was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2002.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 10:05:58 EST]]>
/Fayerman_George_d_1890 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:43:54 EST <![CDATA[Fayerman, George (d. 1890)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fayerman_George_d_1890 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:43:54 EST]]> /Faulcon_William_1841-by_1904 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:42:21 EST <![CDATA[Faulcon, William (1841–by 1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Faulcon_William_1841-by_1904 William Faulcon represented Surry and Prince George counties for one term in the House of Delegates (1885–1887). Probably born into slavery, after the American Civil War (1861–1865) he operated a blacksmith's shop. He began purchasing land in Surry County in 1879, eventually acquiring ninety acres. Little is known about how he became involved in politics, but local Republicans nominated him for the House of Delegates in 1885. Faulcon won the seat handily, but he did not present legislation or speak on the record during the term's first session. He submitted a few bills on behalf of Surry County residents during the extra session. Faulcon was the Republican nominee for the seat in 1891, but he withdrew from the race before election day. He continued to farm in Surry County and died by 1904.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:42:21 EST]]>
/Evans_William_D_ca_1831-1900 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:38:09 EST <![CDATA[Evans, William D. (ca. 1831–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Evans_William_D_ca_1831-1900 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:38:09 EST]]> /Evans_William_W_d_1892 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:35:47 EST <![CDATA[Evans, William W. (d. 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Evans_William_W_d_1892 William W. Evans served one term in the House of Delegates (1887–1888). Evans, whose father served in both houses of the General Assembly, was born enslaved and became involved with politics by 1882, when Petersburg's voters elected him city gauger. By August 1887 Evans had become editor of the Virginia Lancet, a Republican newspaper that he used to advocate improvements in the political and material lives of African Americans. In November of that year he won a seat in the House of Delegates, representing Petersburg. He remained loyal to the Republican Party leader William Mahone during a bruising congressional race in 1888, ultimately won by the independent candidate John Mercer Langston. That year Evans obtained a law license and established a practice in Petersburg. Later he worked in Portsmouth until ill health caused him to move back to Petersburg, where he died in 1892.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:35:47 EST]]>
/Evans_Joseph_P_1835-1889 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:27:15 EST <![CDATA[Evans, Joseph P. (1835–1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Evans_Joseph_P_1835-1889 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:27:15 EST]]> /Edwards_Ballard_T_ca_1828-1881 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:24:24 EST <![CDATA[Edwards, Ballard T. (ca. 1828–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edwards_Ballard_T_ca_1828-1881 Ballard T. Edwards represented Chesterfield and Powhatan counties for one term in the House of Delegates (1869–1871). Born free in Manchester (later annexed by Richmond), he became a skilled laborer, owned property, and played a key role in his church. By 1867 Edwards had become involved with Republican Party politics. Two years later he won a seat in the House of Delegates in racially polarized voting. Edwards actively looked out for the rights of freedpeople, though the Conservative Party quashed measures that included safeguarding payment for workers, integrating transportation, and outlawing the Vagrancy Act of 1866. Defeated in his reelection attempt, Edwards remained an active civic figure in his final years. He also worked as a brick mason and plasterer. He died at his Manchester home in 1881.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:24:24 EST]]>
/Edmundson_Isaac_ca_1840-1927 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:22:20 EST <![CDATA[Edmundson, Isaac (ca. 1840–1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edmundson_Isaac_ca_1840-1927 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:22:20 EST]]> /Dungey_Jesse_ca_1820-1884 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:20:47 EST <![CDATA[Dungey, Jesse (ca. 1820–1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dungey_Jesse_ca_1820-1884 Jesse Dungey served one term in the House of Delegates (1871–1873). A skilled laborer, he was born free and began acquiring land in 1847. He owned 248 acres by the time of his death. The Freedmen's Bureau recognized him as a community leader after the American Civil War (1861–1865), noting his work in building a school and church for African Americans. Elected in 1871 as a Republican to represent King William County, Dungey sided with the Readjusters in debates and early votes over how to settle Virginia's crippling pre-war debt. After his term in office he served as a minister and census enumerator for the county. He died in King William County in 1884.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:20:47 EST]]>
/Dungee_Shed_1831-1900 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:18:35 EST <![CDATA[Dungee, Shed (1831–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dungee_Shed_1831-1900 Shed Dungee represented Buckingham and Cumberland counties for two terms in the House of Delegates (1879–1882). Born enslaved, Dungee worked as a cobbler and later became a licensed preacher. He took his seat in 1879, thirty-two years after he reportedly accompanied his master for a term in the General Assembly. Dungee introduced an unsuccessful bill to end the restriction on interracial marriage, on the grounds that outlawing such intermarriage violated the U.S. Constitution. Despite pressure from President Rutherford B. Hayes to support the Funders, he sided with Readjusters in the debate over how to deal with Virginia's crippling pre-war debt. After winning reelection in 1881 he did not seek office in 1883, though he remained active in the Readjuster and Republican parties during the 1890s. Dungee died in Cumberland County in 1900.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:18:35 EST]]>
/Dodson_Amos_A_1856-1888 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:14:58 EST <![CDATA[Dodson, Amos A. (1856–1888)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dodson_Amos_A_1856-1888 Amos A. Dodson served one term in the House of Delegates (1883–1884). Born into slavery in Mecklenburg County, Dodson after the American Civil War (1861–1865) began balancing a carpentry apprenticeship during the day and studying in his time away from work. He parlayed his education into a ten-year stint as a teacher beginning in 1872. Later he worked as a railroad clerk with the help of Readjuster Party leader William Mahone. Dodson prevailed in an intra-party struggle for the Readjuster nomination for the House of Delegates in 1883 and then won the general election. He did not seek reelection, though he remained active in politics. Dodson moved to Knoxville, Tennessee in 1886, entering the undertaking business. Known as an eloquent speaker, his public career ended with his death in 1888.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:14:58 EST]]>
/Dabbs_Isaac_ca_1848-after_1910 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 08:52:34 EST <![CDATA[Dabbs, Isaac (ca. 1848–after 1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dabbs_Isaac_ca_1848-after_1910 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 08:52:34 EST]]> /Cox_Henry_1832-after_1910 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 08:50:09 EST <![CDATA[Cox, Henry (1832–after 1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cox_Henry_1832-after_1910 Henry Cox served as a member of the House of Delegates for eight years. He was born in Powhatan County, whether free or enslaved is not certain. The 1870 census listed him as a farmer who was able to read and write. Cox represented Powhatan and Chesterfield counties in the House of Delegates beginning in 1869 and, following a redistricting of the assembly, won three more consecutive terms as the sole delegate from Powhatan County. In 1872 he was part of a multistate delegation that met with President Ulysses S. Grant to discuss federal civil rights legislation. When his fourth term ended, Cox did not seek reelection. He moved to Washington, D.C., about 1881, and last appears in public records in 1910.
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 08:50:09 EST]]>
/Connor_Miles_d_1893 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 08:44:27 EST <![CDATA[Connor, Miles (d. 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Connor_Miles_d_1893 Fri, 20 Apr 2018 08:44:27 EST]]> /Commodore_Aaron_1819_or_1820-1892 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 16:22:01 EST <![CDATA[Commodore, Aaron (1819 or 1820–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Commodore_Aaron_1819_or_1820-1892 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 16:22:01 EST]]> /Collins_Johnson_1847-1906 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 16:15:00 EST <![CDATA[Collins, Johnson (1847–1906)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Collins_Johnson_1847-1906 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 16:15:00 EST]]> /Coleman_Asa_d_after_February_24_1893 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 16:12:53 EST <![CDATA[Coleman, Asa (d. after February 24, 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Coleman_Asa_d_after_February_24_1893 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 16:12:53 EST]]> /Cole_George_William_d_after_June_10_1880 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 16:09:46 EST <![CDATA[Cole, George William (d. after June 10, 1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cole_George_William_d_after_June_10_1880 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 16:09:46 EST]]> /Clark_Matt_ca_1844-after_1892 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 16:06:58 EST <![CDATA[Clark, Matt (ca. 1844–after 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clark_Matt_ca_1844-after_1892 Matt Clark represented Halifax County in the House of Delegates from 1874 to 1875. Born enslaved, by 1870 he had become a property owner and was literate. Three years later he won election as a Halifax County justice of the peace and as a member of the House of Delegates. Clark seldom spoke on the House floor and introduced only a few resolutions, including one that supported the improvement of living conditions at the Central Lunatic Asylum (later Central State Hospital) in Petersburg. A Republican, he and other African Americans became dissatisfied with the party's white leadership and attended a state convention that established the short-lived Laboring Men's Mechanics' Union Association. Clark did not seek reelection in 1875. His last known appearance in public records came in 1892 in a Halifax County personal property tax list.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 16:06:58 EST]]>
/Carter_Peter_Jacob_1845-1886 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 16:05:33 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Peter Jacob (1845–1886)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Peter_Jacob_1845-1886 Peter Jacob Carter, a member of the House of Delegates (1871–1878), was the Eastern Shore's predominant African American politician in the decades following the American Civil War. Born in Northampton County, Carter escaped from slavery and then served for more than two years with the U.S. Colored Infantry. In 1871 he won election as a Republican to the House of Delegates representing Northampton County. He was reelected three more times, and his eight-year tenure was one of the longest among nineteenth-century African American members of the General Assembly. Carter was a Funder Republican—that is, he supported the aggressive repayment of Virginia's antebellum debts—a rare position for an African American politician. Conservatives gerrymandered Carter out of his district ahead of the 1879 elections, and he lost his bid for a seat in the Senate of Virginia. He retained much of his political power, dispensing federal patronage and chairing the state's delegation to the Republican National Convention in 1880. He left the party to join William Mahone's Readjusters, a Republican-allied coalition that sought to readjust Virginia's payment of its antebellum debt. Carter was rewarded for his support by being elected doorkeeper of the Senate of Virginia in 1881 and appointed rector of Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Virginia State University) in 1883. He died in 1886, probably of appendicitis.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 16:05:33 EST]]>
/Brown_Goodman_1840-1929 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 16:01:01 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Goodman (1840–1929)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Goodman_1840-1929 Goodman Brown represented Prince George and Surry counties in the House of Delegates. He came from a free, property-owning African American family. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Brown served in the U.S. Navy as a cabin boy aboard the USS Maratanza. In the 1870s he became involved in politics and later was an ally of Readjuster leader William Mahone. As chairman of the Surry County Readjuster Committee, Brown used his relationship with Mahone to seek patronage positions for local men. When the Readjuster Party ceased to exist, Brown followed Mahone into the Republican Party. Winning the party's nomination for the local House of Delegates seat in 1887, he soundly defeated his Democratic opponent in the general election. Although he did not seek reelection in 1889, Brown remained one of Surry County's most important African American citizens.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 16:01:01 EST]]>
/Brisby_William_H_1836-1916 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 15:58:47 EST <![CDATA[Brisby, William H. (1836–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brisby_William_H_1836-1916 William H. Brisby served one term in the House of Delegates (1869–1871), representing New Kent County. Brisby, who had an African American and Pamunkey Indian background, was born free and acquired enough money to establish his own blacksmith shop in 1860. He served as a blacksmith for a Confederate cavalry company to avoid impressment during the American Civil War (1861–1865), but also helped slaves and Union prisoners escape. The suspicion of the latter led to two imprisonments. By 1867 Brisby had entered politics as a Republican and he won a seat in the General Assembly two years later by just nineteen votes. He spent ten years on the New Kent County's board of supervisors and was a longtime justice of the peace. Brisby was strict and sometimes violent with his family, driving his sons out of the house. Late in life he began to suffer from dementia and died in 1916 at the Central State Hospital, in Petersburg, of kidney failure.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 15:58:47 EST]]>
/Branch_Tazewell_1828-1925 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 15:53:55 EST <![CDATA[Branch, Tazewell (1828–1925)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Branch_Tazewell_1828-1925 Tazewell Branch was born enslaved in Prince Edward County and later served two terms in the House of Delegates. Learning to read and write, Branch worked as a shoemaker and was known for his intelligence. By 1873 he owned land in Farmville and sat on the town council. That same year he won a seat in the General Assembly. Branch, who was respected by African Americans and whites, won reelection two years later as a member of a coalition that included the moderate factions of Prince Edward County's Republicans and Conservatives. He dropped out of politics after his second term, and his income declined as mass-produced footwear undermined his shoemaking business. His biggest legacy might have come from his children, who became educated and led successful careers in teaching and medicine.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 15:53:55 EST]]>
/Bolling_Samuel_P_1819-1900 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 15:37:42 EST <![CDATA[Bolling, Samuel P. (1819–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bolling_Samuel_P_1819-1900 Samuel P. Bolling was a member of the House of Delegates from Cumberland County, the owner of a brickyard in Farmville, and an entrepreneur with enough wealth and success to attract national attention. Born enslaved, Bolling developed skills as a mechanic and manager. He began acquiring property after the American Civil War (1861–1865), purchasing more than 1,000 acres in Cumberland County. A front-page article in the Cleveland Gazette, published in 1886, estimated the value of his brick-making operation and country house at $40,000. Bolling joined the Readjuster Party in 1880 and served in a series of local positions, including the county board of supervisors. In 1885 he won the House of Delegates seat his son Phillip S. Bolling had captured two years earlier. Because of their similar names later works confused the two men. In his later years the elder Bolling sold part of his property to the area's poorer African Americans and contributed land for an industrial school. He died on his Cumberland County farm in 1900.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 15:37:42 EST]]>
/Bolling_Phillip_S_ca_1849-1892 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 15:36:10 EST <![CDATA[Bolling, Phillip S. (ca. 1849–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bolling_Phillip_S_ca_1849-1892 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 15:36:10 EST]]> /Bland_Edward_David_1848-1927 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 14:09:04 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Edward D. (1848–1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Edward_David_1848-1927 Edward D. Bland served three terms in the House of Delegates and played a role in maintaining the volatile coalition between the Republicans and Readjusters. Bland was born a slave and eventually settled in Prince George County as a shoemaker. Known for his speaking, he became involved in local Republican politics. He advocated the alliance between his party and the Readjusters, and he ran for the General Assembly in 1879 with nomination of the former and de facto backing of the latter. The unwieldy partnership dominated Virginia politics for four years, and Bland won reelection in 1881 and again in 1883 even though a white supremacy campaign helped cause the Readjusters to collapse. He declined reelection for a fourth term, but remained a Republican organizer in the area. He died on his farm in Prince George County in 1927. In 1954, a housing project in Hopewell was named in his honor.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 14:09:04 EST]]>
/Ash_William_H_1859-1908 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 14:05:16 EST <![CDATA[Ash, William H. (1859–1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ash_William_H_1859-1908 William H. Ash represented Amelia and Nottoway counties in the House of Delegates during the 1887–1888 session. Ash was born enslaved and graduated from Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University). He settled in Burkeville as a teacher and helped establish the first statewide organization for African American educators in 1884. Three years later the Republicans selected Ash as their candidate for the House of Delegates but his ties to party leader William Mahone likely cost him renomination in 1889. He remained an educator and was an agricultural instructor at Virginia Normal and Industrial Institute (later Virginia State University) at the time of his death in 1908.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 14:05:16 EST]]>
/Toler_Burwell_ca_1822-1880 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:58:18 EST <![CDATA[Toler, Burwell (ca. 1822–1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Toler_Burwell_ca_1822-1880 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:58:18 EST]]> /Teamoh_George_1818-after_1887 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:55:55 EST <![CDATA[Teamoh, George (1818–after 1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Teamoh_George_1818-after_1887 George Teamoh represented Portsmouth and Norfolk County at the Convention of 1867–1868 and in the Senate of Virginia (1869–1871). Born enslaved, Teamoh secretly learned to read in his youth and worked in Portsmouth's shipyards. After his wife was sold, one of his owners helped him escape from a ship. Teamoh returned to Virginia after the American Civil War (1861–1865), and he quickly became involved in local politics and labor issues. He won election to the Convention called to create a new state constitution, and then served a term in the General Assembly's upper house. Republican Party infighting cost him his political career. He returned to the Norfolk shipyards and died sometime after 1887. His autobiography, God Made Man, Man Made the Slave, was published in 1990.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:55:55 EST]]>
/Taylor_James_T_S_1840-1918 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:49:21 EST <![CDATA[Taylor, James T. S. (1840–1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Taylor_James_T_S_1840-1918 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:49:21 EST]]> /Robinson_John_1825_or_1826-1908 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:33:32 EST <![CDATA[Robinson, John (1825 or 1826–1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robinson_John_1825_or_1826-1908 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:33:32 EST]]> /Norton_Daniel_M_later_Daniel_McNorton_d_1918 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:26:47 EST <![CDATA[Norton, Daniel M., later Daniel McNorton (d. 1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Norton_Daniel_M_later_Daniel_McNorton_d_1918 Daniel M. Norton, one of three brothers elected to the General Assembly, was a physician who served in the Senate of Virginia (1871–1873, 1877–1887). Born enslaved, he escaped to New York in the mid-1850s. He learned the medical profession and by 1865 moved to Yorktown, where he quickly became a leader among the area's freedpeople. The region's voters elected him to the state Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868 and he later served for twelve years in the Senate of Virginia. Norton often clashed with the Republican Party's leadership and launched unsuccessful candidacies for the U.S. House of Representatives late in the 1860s and early in the 1870s. Norton aligned with the Readjuster Party in its early stages and played a key role in bringing African American voters into the short-lived, but powerful faction. He later clashed with political leader William Mahone, who engineered his removal from the Senate of Virginia. Norton owned considerable property in Yorktown, including the historic customs house. By 1910, he and his family were using the surname McNorton, although it is unclear why. He died in Hampton in 1918.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:26:47 EST]]>
/Morgan_Peter_G_1817-1890 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:20:47 EST <![CDATA[Morgan, Peter G. (1817–1890)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_Peter_G_1817-1890 Peter G. Morgan represented Petersburg in the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868 and then in the House of Delegates for one term (1869–1871). Born enslaved, Morgan worked as a shoemaker, purchasing freedom for himself and then for his wife and children. After the American Civil War (1861–1865) he won election in 1867 as a Republican to the convention called to write a new state constitution, usually siding with the party's radical faction during the proceedings. After the convention Morgan represented Petersburg for a two-year term in the House of Delegates. He served three terms the Petersburg city council, where he helped oppose a scheme that would have given a local judge the power to appoint city officials. Committed to education, Morgan was a trustee for Saint Paul Normal and Industrial School (later Saint Paul's College), founded by his son-in-law, James Solomon Russell. Morgan died at Russell's home in Lawrenceville in 1890.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:20:47 EST]]>
/Lindsey_Lewis_1843-1908 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:17:42 EST <![CDATA[Lindsey, Lewis (1843–1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lindsey_Lewis_1843-1908 Lewis Lindsey represented the city of Richmond at the Convention of 1867–1868. Lindsey was born enslaved but learned to read and write while working in a female seminary. He became politically active after the American Civil War (1861–1865) and gained some local notoriety, possibly due to his literacy and success as a musician. Lindsey developed a reputation as a fiery speaker, and he and four other Republicans won election as Richmond's delegation to the constitution convention. He advocated expanding African American political rights, integrating public schools, and prohibiting former Confederates from holding state office. Although he never held state office, Lindsey remained active in Richmond politics after the convention adjourned, serving on local committees, speaking at Republican events, and later campaigning for Readjuster Party candidates. Following his death the Richmond Planet named him one of the ten greatest black leaders in Richmond's history, alongside such figures as Maggie Lena Walker and newspaper editor John Mitchell Jr.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:17:42 EST]]>
/Jones_Peter_K_ca_1834-1895 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:15:20 EST <![CDATA[Jones, Peter K. (ca. 1834–1895)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jones_Peter_K_ca_1834-1895 Peter K. Jones represented Greensville and Sussex counties in the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868 and then served four terms in the House of Delegates (1869–1877). Born free in Petersburg, he first acquired property in 1857. Soon after the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865), he became active in politics and began urging blacks to become self-sufficient and advocating for black suffrage and unity. He moved to Greensville County about 1867, and that same year he won a seat at the convention required by the Reconstruction Acts to write a new state constitution. A member of the convention's radical faction, Jones voted in favor of granting the vote to African American men and against segregating public schools. He represented Greensville County for four consecutive terms from 1869 to 1877. During his time in office he worked tirelessly to protect the rights of African Americans. By 1881 Jones had moved to Washington, D.C., and he continued his work in support of African American interests and of the Republican Party. He died in Washington in 1895.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:15:20 EST]]>
/Cox_Joseph_ca_1835-1880 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 11:45:09 EST <![CDATA[Cox, Joseph (ca. 1835–1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cox_Joseph_ca_1835-1880 Joseph Cox, a leader of Richmond's African American population in the years after Emancipation, served as a delegate to the Convention of 1867–1868. Born in Powhatan County, he worked a variety of jobs, including laborer, huckster, and blacksmith. He helped organize the Union Republican Party in Virginia after the American Civil War (1861–1865). He aligned himself with the Radical faction in opposition to the more conservative wing that sought support from native white Virginians. In 1867 Cox sat on the petit jury that heard the treason case against former Confederate president Jefferson Davis. The same year Richmond voters elected him to the constitutional convention where he supported radical measures such as universal manhood suffrage, institution of a public school system, and proposed disfranchisement of Confederate loyalists. Cox shifted his efforts away from politics to nonpartisan movements aimed at improving living conditions for African Americans. Reportedly, 3,000 people attended his funeral after he died in 1880.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 11:45:09 EST]]>
/Carter_James_B_ca_1816-1870 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 11:40:56 EST <![CDATA[Carter, James B. (ca. 1816–1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_James_B_ca_1816-1870 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 11:40:56 EST]]> /Canada_David_fl_1867-1868 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 11:39:21 EST <![CDATA[Canada, David (fl. 1867–1869)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Canada_David_fl_1867-1868 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 11:39:21 EST]]> /Brown_John_ca_1830-after_1900 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 11:37:48 EST <![CDATA[Brown, John (ca. 1830–after 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_John_ca_1830-after_1900 John Brown represented Southampton County at the Convention of 1867–1868, called to rewrite Virginia's constitution. Brown was born enslaved, and before Emancipation his wife and children were sold and taken to Mississippi. How and why he entered politics after the American Civil War (1861–1865) is unknown, but he inspired a remarkable voter turnout during elections for the convention. White moderates who had been Whigs before the war sought African American support for the convention balloting. In an astonishing display of group cohesion, almost 98 percent of registered black men appeared at the polls on October 22, 1867. Brown received all 1,242 black voters to defeat his two white opponents. The turnout and support for Brown was a remarkable event in the county where Nat Turner's Rebellion of 1831 took place. Brown's political career did not continue after the convention. He likely never learned to read or write and died sometime between 1900 and 1910.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 11:37:48 EST]]>
/Breedlove_William_ca_1820-1871 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 11:32:01 EST <![CDATA[Breedlove, William (ca. 1820–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Breedlove_William_ca_1820-1871 William Breedlove served as a delegate to the Convention of 1867–1868. The free-born Breedlove owned real estate and worked as a blacksmith before the American Civil War (1861–1865). He also operated a ferry across the Rappahannock River on which he transported an escaped slave in 1863. The Essex County court convicted him for the action, but local dignitaries successfully lobbied Governor John Letcher for Breedlove's clemency. After the war he won election to a convention called to rewrite the state's constitution. Representing the district of Essex and Middlesex counties, he served inconspicuously and voted consistently with the Radical Republican majority. Breedlove later served as an Essex County justice of the peace, sat on the Tappahannock town council, and was the town's postmaster until shortly before his death in 1871.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 11:32:01 EST]]>
/Bland_James_William_D_1844-1870 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 11:30:02 EST <![CDATA[Bland, J. W. D. (1844–1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_James_William_D_1844-1870 J. W. D. Bland was a highly respected African American politician during his brief career. Born free and educated, voters in Appomattox and Prince Edward counties elected him one of their delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868. He served on three major committees and reached out to conservative whites by opposing test oaths and disfranchisement for former Confederates. He was elected to the Senate of Virginia in 1869, where he became a conciliatory figure in a racially volatile era. Focusing on education, he sponsored a successful bill that established Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University). The next year Bland was among a large crowd attending a session of the Supreme Court of Appeals in the State Capitol. The floor collapsed, killing him and about sixty other observers.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 11:30:02 EST]]>
/Bayne_Thomas_ca_1824-1888 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 11:27:53 EST <![CDATA[Bayne, Thomas (ca. 1824–1888)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bayne_Thomas_ca_1824-1888 Thomas Bayne was a member of the Convention of 1867–1868 and a Republican leader during Reconstruction. Bayne was born enslaved and was known as Samuel Nixon. Literate and possessing a keen intellect, he became an assistant dentist while working at his owner's Norfolk dental practice. His relative freedom of movement allowed him to work on the Underground Railroad until he fled to Massachusetts in 1855. There he adopted Thomas Bayne as his new name and established his own dental practice in New Bedford. Returning to Norfolk by 1865, he began working for African American equal rights as a political activist and an itinerant preacher. In 1867 the city's voters elected him as one of their delegates to the convention called to rewrite the state constitution. There he became the most powerful black leader of the Republican Party's radical faction, arguing forcefully for integrated public schools and equal suffrage. Bayne sought a congressional seat in 1869, but a split among party candidates doomed him to defeat. He reduced his role in state politics but remained active in local elections into the 1880s.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 11:27:53 EST]]>
/Barrett_James_D_1833-1903 Thu, 19 Apr 2018 11:19:26 EST <![CDATA[Barrett, James D. (1833–1903)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barrett_James_D_1833-1903 James D. Barrett represented Fluvanna County at the Convention of 1867–1868. Barrett, most likely enslaved before Emancipation, became involved with politics after the American Civil War (1861–1865). He and the county's African American voters showed an independent streak during elections for delegates to the convention that created a new state constitution. A public meeting nominated Abraham Shepherd, a white conservative and the county's court clerk, instead of Barrett. He ran anyway and won by a clear majority of Fluvanna's black voters. Outside of politics, he worked as a pastor and helped organize Thessalonia Baptist Church in 1868. Barrett married twice and died in 1903.
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 11:19:26 EST]]>
/Bluett_Benjamin_1580-1621 Wed, 18 Apr 2018 16:40:57 EST <![CDATA[Bluett, Benjamin (1580–1621)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bluett_Benjamin_1580-1621 Wed, 18 Apr 2018 16:40:57 EST]]> /Autobiography_of_James_L_Smith_1881 Wed, 11 Apr 2018 15:57:44 EST <![CDATA[Autobiography of James L. Smith (1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Autobiography_of_James_L_Smith_1881 Wed, 11 Apr 2018 15:57:44 EST]]> /Autobiography_of_Rev_Francis_Frederick_of_Virginia_1869 Tue, 10 Apr 2018 16:24:47 EST <![CDATA[Autobiography of Rev. Francis Frederick, of Virginia (1869)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Autobiography_of_Rev_Francis_Frederick_of_Virginia_1869 Tue, 10 Apr 2018 16:24:47 EST]]> /Chesney_Last_of_the_Pioneers_or_Old_Times_in_East_Tenn_Being_the_Life_and_Reminiscences_of_Pharaoh_Jackson_Aged_120_Years_By_J_C_Webster_1902 Wed, 04 Apr 2018 16:20:22 EST <![CDATA[Chesney, Last of the Pioneers or Old Times in East Tenn. Being the Life and Reminiscences of Pharaoh Jackson (Aged 120 Years) By J. C. Webster (1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chesney_Last_of_the_Pioneers_or_Old_Times_in_East_Tenn_Being_the_Life_and_Reminiscences_of_Pharaoh_Jackson_Aged_120_Years_By_J_C_Webster_1902 Wed, 04 Apr 2018 16:20:22 EST]]> /Carter_A_Sketch_of_My_Life_and_Our_Family_Record_by_Willis_M_ca_1890s Wed, 04 Apr 2018 16:05:55 EST <![CDATA[Carter, A Sketch of My Life and Our Family Record by Willis M. (ca. 1890s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_A_Sketch_of_My_Life_and_Our_Family_Record_by_Willis_M_ca_1890s Wed, 04 Apr 2018 16:05:55 EST]]> /Carter_Willis_M_1852-1902 Wed, 04 Apr 2018 10:13:31 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Willis M. (1852–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Willis_M_1852-1902 Willis M. Carter was an educator and editor who, by the end of the nineteenth century, had become one of Virginia's best-known African Americans. Born into slavery in Albemarle County, he worked as a laborer and a waiter after the American Civil War (1861–1865). In 1874 he moved to Washington, D.C., and received a teaching degree in 1881. Carter then moved to Staunton, where he spent the rest of his life. He served as principal of the West End School there for fifteen years and as president of the August County Teachers' Association. Following the Danville Riot in November 1883 he led a group of African Americans that considered leaving Virginia. He also served as editor and president of the black newspaper the Southern Tribune, published in Staunton. (He changed the paper's name to the Staunton Tribune in 1893.) In 1901 he participated in protests against the new constitutional convention called to disfranchise African Americans. He died in Staunton in 1902.
Wed, 04 Apr 2018 10:13:31 EST]]>
/_The_Banditti_Richmond_Enquirer_September_20_1831 Wed, 04 Apr 2018 09:59:32 EST <![CDATA["The Banditti," Richmond Enquirer (September 20, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Banditti_Richmond_Enquirer_September_20_1831 Wed, 04 Apr 2018 09:59:32 EST]]> /Virginia_Slavery_Debate_of_1831-1832_The Tue, 03 Apr 2018 14:03:41 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Slavery Debate of 1831–1832, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Slavery_Debate_of_1831-1832_The The Virginia slavery debate occurred in the House of Delegates during its 1831–1832 session and was prompted by a slave insurrection in August 1831 led by Nat Turner. In the months that followed, about forty petitions, signed by more than 2,000 Virginians, urged the General Assembly to engage the problems associated with slavery. Some petitions called for outright emancipation, others for colonization. Many focused on removing from the state free blacks, who were widely seen as a nefarious influence. The House established a select committee, and when the debate finally spilled over into the full body, in mid-January 1832, it focused on two resolutions. One, made by William O. Goode, called for the rejection of all petitions calling for emancipation. Another, made by Thomas Jefferson Randolph, asked the committee to prepare an emancipation plan to go before the state's voters. By taking up these questions, the House, in effect, considered whether to free Virginia's slaves. After vigorous debate, members declined to pass such a law, deciding instead that they "should await a more definite development of public opinion." In fact, pro-slavery, anti-abolitionist opinion hardened in Virginia in the years that followed, buttressed by arguments previewed in the House. Randolph believed that even having such an open debate should be considered a victory, while others lamented how divided the state was on the crucial question of slavery.
Tue, 03 Apr 2018 14:03:41 EST]]>
/Rosenwald_Schools Tue, 03 Apr 2018 11:31:32 EST <![CDATA[Rosenwald Schools]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rosenwald_Schools Rosenwald schools were educational facilities built with the assistance of the Rosenwald rural school building program, an initiative to narrow racial schooling gaps in the South by constructing better, more-accessible schools for African Americans. They are called Rosenwald schools because they were partially funded by grants from the Rosenwald Fund, a foundation established by Julius Rosenwald, an Illinois businessman and philanthropist. Between 1912 and 1932, the program helped produce 5,357 new educational facilities for African Americans across fifteen southern states, providing almost 700,000 African American children in rural, isolated communities with state-of-the-art facilities at a time when little to no public money was put toward black education. In Virginia, the initiative helped fund 382 schools and support buildings in seventy-nine counties. Most of these buildings remained in operation until Virginia was forced to comply with the United States Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), which outlawed racial segregation in public schools. In 2002, the National Trust for Historic Preservation placed all surviving Rosenwald schools on its list of America's most endangered historic sites.
Tue, 03 Apr 2018 11:31:32 EST]]>
/Bruce_James_Coles_1806-1865 Wed, 28 Mar 2018 17:49:51 EST <![CDATA[Bruce, James Coles (1806–1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bruce_James_Coles_1806-1865 James Coles Bruce was a planter, a member of the House of Delegates (1831–1834), and a member of the Convention of 1861. Born in Halifax County, he studied law at the University of Virginia before returning home to farm. In the House of Delegates, during the slavery debate of 1831–1832, he described slavery as a necessary evil and denounced efforts to abolish it. He himself owned probably more slaves than any other legislator. After his term he commissioned the building of Berry Hill, a grand mansion modeled after the Parthenon, and participated in public conversations about how the South's agricultural economy might be stimulated. Bruce suggested crop rotation, diversification, better use of capital and credit, and the sale of surplus slaves. He also advocated for the establishment of a state system of public schools open equally to men and women. One of the wealthiest men in the country. Bruce represented Halifax County at the Convention of 1861, called to consider whether Virginia should secede from the Union. He gave speeches in favor of states' rights and against abolitionism and eventually voted to secede. Bruce died in 1865.
Wed, 28 Mar 2018 17:49:51 EST]]>
/Fuller_Thomas_ca_1710-1790 Wed, 28 Mar 2018 17:19:27 EST <![CDATA[Fuller, Thomas (ca. 1710–1790)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fuller_Thomas_ca_1710-1790 Wed, 28 Mar 2018 17:19:27 EST]]> /Adams_Andrew_1905-1985 Tue, 27 Mar 2018 16:44:35 EST <![CDATA[Adams, Andrew (1905–1985)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Adams_Andrew_1905-1985 Tue, 27 Mar 2018 16:44:35 EST]]> /Beverley_William_ca_1696-1756 Tue, 27 Mar 2018 11:13:07 EST <![CDATA[Beverley, William (ca. 1696–1756)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beverley_William_ca_1696-1756 Tue, 27 Mar 2018 11:13:07 EST]]> /_The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_1831 Tue, 27 Mar 2018 10:11:51 EST <![CDATA[Confessions of Nat Turner, The (1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_1831 The Confessions of Nat Turner, the leader of the late insurrection in Southampton, Va., as fully and voluntarily made to Thomas R. Gray is a pamphlet published shortly after the trial and execution of Nat Turner in November 1831. The previous August, Turner, a slave preacher and self-styled prophet, had led the only successful slave revolt in Virginia's history, leaving fifty-five white people in Southampton County, Virginia, dead, the slaveholding South convulsed with panic, and the myth of the contented slave in tatters. His confessions, dictated from Turner's jail cell to a Southampton lawyer, have provided historians with a crucial perspective missing from an earlier planned uprising, by Gabriel (also sometimes known as Gabriel Prosser) in 1800, as well as fodder for debate over the veracity of Turner's account. Meanwhile, the book arguably is one of two American literary classics to come from the revolt, the other being The Confessions of Nat Turner, the Pulitzer Prize–winning novel by Virginia-native William Styron, published at the height of the Black Power movement in September 1967. Each of these texts has demonstrated the power of print media to shape popular perceptions of historical fact, even as each raised critical questions of accuracy, authenticity, and community control over historical interpretations of the past.
Tue, 27 Mar 2018 10:11:51 EST]]>
/Daniel_John_M_1825-1865 Mon, 19 Mar 2018 17:41:38 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, John M. (1825–1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_John_M_1825-1865 John M. Daniel was the proslavery editor of the Richmond Examiner, a member of the Council of State (1851–1852), a diplomat stationed in Turin, and a Confederate officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born in Stafford County, he studied law and then worked as a librarian before becoming editor of the Southern Planter and then the Richmond Examiner. Daniel's writing was often abrasive and caustic and he was challenged to and fought several duels throughout his life. He served in the Council of State only a year, until the body was dissolved by a new constitution. In 1853, President Franklin Pierce appointed Daniel to a diplomatic post in Turin, the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia, in present-day Italy. He stayed on until 1861, surviving calls for his resignation due to his intemperate writing. Upon his return to Richmond, Daniel resumed control of the Examiner and became a prominent wartime voice, supporting the Confederate capital's move to Richmond and Jefferson Davis as dictator. Soon, though, Daniel became one of Davis's loudest critics, arguing he was not aggressive enough in waging war and that many of the Confederacy's generals were incompetent. He served as a staff officer under General John B. Floyd and later A. P. Hill, suffering one wound in battle and another in a duel. He died in 1865.
Mon, 19 Mar 2018 17:41:38 EST]]>
/Atkinson_Archibald_1792-1872 Mon, 19 Mar 2018 17:39:07 EST <![CDATA[Atkinson, Archibald (1792–1872)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Atkinson_Archibald_1792-1872 Archibald Atkinson was a member of the House of Delegates (1815–1817, 1828–1831), the Senate of Virginia (1839–1843), and the U.S. House of Representatives (1843–1849). Born in Isle of Wight County, he practiced law after seeing brief action during the War of 1812. In politics, Atkinson was an ardent proslavery Democrat who supported territorial expansion in Oregon and Texas and the right to expand slavery into the territories won during the Mexican War (1846–1848). In a valedictory speech to Congress in 1849 he defended slavery as a moral good for African Americans. He served as the mayor of Smithfield from 1852 to 1855 and then left politics to farm. He died in 1872.
Mon, 19 Mar 2018 17:39:07 EST]]>
/Meeting_Minutes_of_University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_4-5_Oct_1824_October_4_1824 Mon, 12 Mar 2018 13:46:34 EST <![CDATA[Meeting Minutes of University of Virginia Board of Visitors, 4–5 Oct. 1824 (October 4, 1824)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meeting_Minutes_of_University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_4-5_Oct_1824_October_4_1824 Mon, 12 Mar 2018 13:46:34 EST]]> /University_of_Virginia_Riot_of_1836 Mon, 12 Mar 2018 13:35:03 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Riot of 1836]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Riot_of_1836 The University of Virginia Riot of 1836 occurred on November 12–13 of that year when members of the student drilling company, the University Volunteers, commandeered the Rotunda and marched through the university's grounds, destroying property. In some respects, the violence was the culmination of a decade of misbehavior among students who hailed from elite backgrounds, were bound by an honor culture, and were unchecked by a university founded on the belief that its charges could police themselves. The University Volunteers were allowed to drill with muskets only during specially sanctioned exercises, but in 1836 the company began ignoring the rules. When the faculty chairman, John A. G. Davis, threatened to disband the group, the Volunteers defied authority, each pledging an oath of solidarity to one another. That promise bound members of the group even when some wavered in the face of violence and expulsion. Students rioted for two nights, focusing much of their ire on Davis, who called in civilian law enforcement to restore order. After debating how to handle punishments, the faculty voted to allow members of the Volunteers to remain at the university if they made "proper atonement" for the participation in the riots. Riots continued to occur in subsequent years, and the anniversary of the 1836 disturbance was marked with mischief, revelry, and, in 1840, murder, when Davis was shot dead.
Mon, 12 Mar 2018 13:35:03 EST]]>
/Van_Lew_Elizabeth_L_1818-1900 Tue, 06 Mar 2018 16:07:10 EST <![CDATA[Van Lew, Elizabeth L. (1818–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Van_Lew_Elizabeth_L_1818-1900 Elizabeth Van Lew was a Richmond Unionist and abolitionist who spied for the United States government during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Leading a network of a dozen or so white and African American women and men, she relayed information on Confederate operations to Union generals and assisted in the care and sometimes escape of Union prisoners of war being held in the Confederate capital. Van Lew, who worked with invisible ink and coded messages, has been called "the most skilled, innovative, and successful" of all Civil War–era spies. While some historians have claimed that she was open about her Unionist politics, deflecting suspicion by behaving as if she were mentally ill, others have argued that these "Crazy Bet" stories are a myth. After the war, Van Lew served as postmaster of Richmond during the administration of U.S. president Ulysses S. Grant, one of the generals to whom she had once fed information.
Tue, 06 Mar 2018 16:07:10 EST]]>
/Bowser_Mary_Richards_fl_1846-1867 Tue, 06 Mar 2018 16:05:36 EST <![CDATA[Bowser, Mary Richards (fl. 1846–1867)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowser_Mary_Richards_fl_1846-1867 Tue, 06 Mar 2018 16:05:36 EST]]> /Cook_Fields_ca_1817-1897 Tue, 06 Mar 2018 10:25:04 EST <![CDATA[Cook, Fields (ca. 1817–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cook_Fields_ca_1817-1897 Tue, 06 Mar 2018 10:25:04 EST]]> /Allen_William_1768-1831 Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:58:38 EST <![CDATA[Allen, William (1768–1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allen_William_1768-1831 Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:58:38 EST]]> /Colored_Farmers_Alliance_and_Cooperative_Union_of_Virginia_The Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:55:39 EST <![CDATA[Colored Farmers' Alliance and Cooperative Union of Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Farmers_Alliance_and_Cooperative_Union_of_Virginia_The The Colored Farmers' Alliance and Cooperative Union was probably the largest organization of African Americans in nineteenth-century Virginia other than the loose associations of Baptist churches. It was also one of the shortest-lived. The alliance was founded in 1890 and collapsed in 1892, a decade after the brief successes of the biracial Readjuster Party that had united voters of both races and diverse political allegiances. The alliance came into being under the auspices of the Colored Farmers' Alliance and Cooperative Union that had been founded in Texas in 1886, a counterpart to the National Farmers' Alliance, which organized white farmers in the Great Plains and the Midwest, and the all-white Southern Farmers' Alliance. The Virginia group elected Joseph J. Rogers, a white alliance official from Norfolk, as president, and the Colored Farmers' Alliance flourished during 1891, enrolling as many as 20,000 members. At its 1891 convention, however, the group unanimously elected William H. Warwick, an African American, its president in place of the absent Rogers, a move Rogers publicly attacked. The resulting controversy, combined with the group's reluctance to support either of the major parties, led to the alliance's end.
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:55:39 EST]]>
/Venable_Charles_S_1827-1900 Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:43:13 EST <![CDATA[Venable, Charles S. (1827–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Venable_Charles_S_1827-1900 Charles S. Venable was a mathematician who served as an aide-de-camp to Confederate general Robert E. Lee during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and as the chair of mathematics at the University of Virginia from 1865 until his retirement in 1896. Born at his family's estate near Farmville, Venable pursued academics from an early age, teaching at Hampden-Sydney College (1846–1856), the University of Georgia (1856–1857), and the University of South Carolina (1857–1862) before joining Lee's staff. His wartime experience and his close affiliation with Lee served him well in the postwar years, helping his advocacy for the University of Virginia and making him an important voice among those promoting the Lost Cause interpretation of the Civil War. A few months after the surrender at Appomattox, Venable accepted a position in Charlottesville and twice served as chairman of the faculty (1870–1873, 1886–1888). During his tenure he helped secure critical public and private funding for the university and pushed for the expansion of the university's course offerings in the sciences. Exploiting a mutual interest in astronomy, he helped secure a large financial gift from Leander J. McCormick that in 1885 went toward a domed observatory and refractor telescope, the second largest of its kind in the world. Venable taught the University of Virginia's first woman student, in 1893, but voted against coeducation the next year. He died in 1900.
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:43:13 EST]]>
/Speculation_During_the_Civil_War Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:24:36 EST <![CDATA[Speculation during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speculation_During_the_Civil_War Speculation, which involved driving up prices on desperately needed consumer goods, was both rampant and roundly condemned in the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Along with conscription, the so-called Twenty Slave Law, and impressment, speculation helped to undermine support for the war among the less wealthy, in particular. Appalled at soaring prices, Virginians looked for explanations. The Union blockade of the Atlantic coast was partly to blame, and so was the Confederate Congress. Beholden to a states' rights philosophy and suspicious of a strong federal government, lawmakers refused to levy the taxes necessary to finance the war, thus guaranteeing high inflation. The victims of that inflation, however, preferred to point fingers at greedy speculators, or "extortioners." Such individuals certainly existed, but government attempts to regulate or punish them were either not forthcoming or proved to be ineffective. Accusations of speculation, meanwhile, were sometimes accompanied by anti-Semitism, challenges of patriotism, and, in one instance, arson.
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:24:36 EST]]>
/Free_Blacks_During_the_Civil_War Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:16:07 EST <![CDATA[Free Blacks during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Free_Blacks_During_the_Civil_War Free blacks in Virginia numbered 58,042 on the eve of the American Civil War (1861–1865), or about 44 percent of the future Confederacy's free black population. Of the slave states, only Maryland had a larger population, with 83,942. Free blacks were concentrated in Virginia's cities. According to the 1860 census, the greatest number, 3,244, resided in Petersburg, followed by Richmond with 2,576, Alexandria with 1,415, and Norfolk with 1,046. Free blacks included men and women of African descent who were born free or who gained their freedom before the war through manumission. Virginia officially required freed slaves to leave the state after 1806, but many remained in violation of the law. Of course, many more African Americans became free during the war, escaping the fighting as refugees or claiming legal freedom through the Emancipation Proclamation (1863). Although Confederate propagandists insisted that free blacks would support the Confederate cause, their service was often rendered only by the threat of violence. In the meantime, concerns about their loyalty combined with their disproportionate wartime suffering contributed to Virginia's internal divisions and exposed the weaknesses of Confederate ideology.
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:16:07 EST]]>
/Black_Confederates Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:12:51 EST <![CDATA[Black Confederates]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Black_Confederates Black Confederates is a term often used to describe both enslaved and free African Americans who filled a number of different positions in support of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Most often this assistance was coerced rather than offered voluntarily. Male slaves were either hired out by their owners or impressed to work in various departments of the Confederate army. Free black men were also routinely impressed or otherwise forced to perform manual labor for the army. The government's use of black labor, whether free or slave, followed patterns established during the antebellum period, when county governments routinely engaged the service of black men to help maintain local roads and other public property. While large numbers of black men thus accompanied every Confederate army on the march or in camp, those men would not have been considered soldiers. Only a few black men were ever accepted into Confederate service as soldiers, and none did any significant fighting. Through most of the war, the Confederate government's official policies toward black men maintained that those men were laborers, not soldiers; changes to that policy in March 1865 came too late to make any difference to Confederate prospects for victory. Those changes were also accompanied by widespread debate indicating that a significant minority of white Southerners opposed any change to the institution of slavery, even if that change might help bring about a Confederate victory.
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:12:51 EST]]>
/Confederate_Impressment_During_the_Civil_War Thu, 22 Feb 2018 15:59:08 EST <![CDATA[Confederate Impressment During the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Confederate_Impressment_During_the_Civil_War Impressment was the informal and then, beginning in March 1863, the legislated policy of the Confederate government to seize food, fuel, slaves, and other commodities to support armies in the field during the American Civil War (1861–1865). The tax-in-kind law, passed a month later, allowed the government to impress crops from farmers at a negotiated price. Combined with inflationary prices and plummeting morale following military defeats, impressment sparked vocal protests across the South. Discontent was exacerbated by what was perceived as the government's haphazard enforcement of the law, its setting of below-market prices, and its abuse of labor. As a result, citizens hoarded goods and in some cases even impersonated impressment agents in an effort to steal commodities.
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 15:59:08 EST]]>
/Drumgoold_A_Slave_Girl_s_Story_by_Kate_1898 Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:11:51 EST <![CDATA[Drumgoold, A Slave Girl's Story by Kate (1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Drumgoold_A_Slave_Girl_s_Story_by_Kate_1898 Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:11:51 EST]]> /Garlick_Life_including_His_Escape_and_Struggle_for_Liberty_of_Charles_A_Garlick_by_Charles_A_1902 Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:09:41 EST <![CDATA[Garlick, Life, including His Escape and Struggle for Liberty of Charles A. Garlick by Charles A. (1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Garlick_Life_including_His_Escape_and_Struggle_for_Liberty_of_Charles_A_Garlick_by_Charles_A_1902 Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:09:41 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Henry_Lee_December_6_1859 Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:04:21 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Henry Lee (December 6, 1859)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Henry_Lee_December_6_1859 Thu, 22 Feb 2018 13:04:21 EST]]> /Attorneys_General_of_Virginia Wed, 21 Feb 2018 10:05:59 EST <![CDATA[Attorneys General of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Attorneys_General_of_Virginia Wed, 21 Feb 2018 10:05:59 EST]]> /Clement_Memoirs_of_Samuel_Spottford_Clement_Relating_Interesting_Experiences_in_Days_of_Slavery_and_Freedom_by_Samuel_Spottford_1908 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 14:58:26 EST <![CDATA[Clement, Memoirs of Samuel Spottford Clement Relating Interesting Experiences in Days of Slavery and Freedom by Samuel Spottford (1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clement_Memoirs_of_Samuel_Spottford_Clement_Relating_Interesting_Experiences_in_Days_of_Slavery_and_Freedom_by_Samuel_Spottford_1908 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 14:58:26 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Ellen_Wayles_Randolph_Coolidge_August_27_1825 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 10:09:48 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge (August 27, 1825)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Ellen_Wayles_Randolph_Coolidge_August_27_1825 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 10:09:48 EST]]> /From_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Joseph_Carrington_Cabell_February_4_1826 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 10:05:45 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Joseph Carrington Cabell (February 4, 1826)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/From_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Joseph_Carrington_Cabell_February_4_1826 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 10:05:45 EST]]> /Keckley_Excerpt_from_Behind_the_Scenes_Or_Thirty_Years_a_Slave_and_Four_Years_in_the_White_House_by_Elizabeth_1868 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 09:29:18 EST <![CDATA[Keckley, Excerpt from Behind the Scenes: Or, Thirty Years a Slave and Four Years in the White House by Elizabeth (1868)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Keckley_Excerpt_from_Behind_the_Scenes_Or_Thirty_Years_a_Slave_and_Four_Years_in_the_White_House_by_Elizabeth_1868 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 09:29:18 EST]]> /Fedric_Slave_Life_in_Virginia_and_Kentucky_or_Fifty_Years_of_Slavery_in_the_Southern_States_of_America_by_Francis_1863 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 09:00:49 EST <![CDATA[Fedric, Slave Life in Virginia and Kentucky; or, Fifty Years of Slavery in the Southern States of America by Francis (1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fedric_Slave_Life_in_Virginia_and_Kentucky_or_Fifty_Years_of_Slavery_in_the_Southern_States_of_America_by_Francis_1863 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 09:00:49 EST]]> /Henry_Excerpt_from_Life_of_George_Henry_by_George_1894 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 08:55:51 EST <![CDATA[Henry, Excerpt from Life of George Henry by George (1894)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Henry_Excerpt_from_Life_of_George_Henry_by_George_1894 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 08:55:51 EST]]> /Davis_A_Narrative_of_the_Life_of_Rev_Noah_Davis_a_Colored_Man_by_Noah_1859 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 08:48:28 EST <![CDATA[Davis, A Narrative of the Life of Rev. Noah Davis, a Colored Man by Noah (1859)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_A_Narrative_of_the_Life_of_Rev_Noah_Davis_a_Colored_Man_by_Noah_1859 Wed, 07 Feb 2018 08:48:28 EST]]> /Thomas_Philip_1831-1888 Tue, 06 Feb 2018 16:32:16 EST <![CDATA[Thomas, Philip (1831–1888)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Philip_1831-1888 Tue, 06 Feb 2018 16:32:16 EST]]> /Abrahall_Robert_fl_1620s-1680s Tue, 06 Feb 2018 16:27:05 EST <![CDATA[Abrahall, Robert (fl. 1620s–1680s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Abrahall_Robert_fl_1620s-1680s Robert Abrahall was a merchant who represented New Kent County in the House of Burgesses (1654–1655, 1660). Born in England to a family deeply involved in colonial commerce, he had settled in Virginia by 1646. Living in upper York County in what became New Kent and later King and Queen County, he patented more than 14,000 acres over more than three decades, making him one of the colony's largest and most influential landowners. He served briefly as undersheriff of York County before being removed from office on the charge of forging a signature. Because records in New Kent County have been lost, little else about Abrahall's life is known.
Tue, 06 Feb 2018 16:27:05 EST]]>
/Unknown_Biography_of_London_Ferrill_by_1854 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 13:30:56 EST <![CDATA[Unknown, Biography of London Ferrill by (1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Unknown_Biography_of_London_Ferrill_by_1854 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 13:30:56 EST]]> /Adams_Narrative_of_the_Life_of_John_Quincy_Adams_when_in_Slavery_and_Now_as_a_Freeman_by_John_Quincy_1872 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 11:36:05 EST <![CDATA[Adams, Narrative of the Life of John Quincy Adams, when in Slavery, and Now as a Freeman by John Quincy (1872)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Adams_Narrative_of_the_Life_of_John_Quincy_Adams_when_in_Slavery_and_Now_as_a_Freeman_by_John_Quincy_1872 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 11:36:05 EST]]> /Goldie_Sunshine_and_Shadow_of_Slave_Life_Reminiscences_as_Told_by_Isaac_D_Williams_to_Tege_by_William_Ferguson_1885 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 11:33:46 EST <![CDATA[Goldie, Sunshine and Shadow of Slave Life. Reminiscences as Told by Isaac D. Williams to "Tege" by William Ferguson (1885)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Goldie_Sunshine_and_Shadow_of_Slave_Life_Reminiscences_as_Told_by_Isaac_D_Williams_to_Tege_by_William_Ferguson_1885 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 11:33:46 EST]]> /Wickham_A_Lost_Family_Found_an_Authentic_Narrative_of_Cyrus_Branch_and_His_Family_Alias_John_White_by_Elizabeth_Merwin_1869 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 11:26:24 EST <![CDATA[Wickham, A Lost Family Found; an Authentic Narrative of Cyrus Branch and His Family, Alias John White by Elizabeth Merwin (1869)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wickham_A_Lost_Family_Found_an_Authentic_Narrative_of_Cyrus_Branch_and_His_Family_Alias_John_White_by_Elizabeth_Merwin_1869 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 11:26:24 EST]]> /Time_Excerpt_from_Life_of_William_Grimes_the_Runaway_Slave_Brought_Down_to_the_Present_1855 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 10:25:28 EST <![CDATA[Time, Excerpt from Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave, Brought Down to the Present (1855)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Time_Excerpt_from_Life_of_William_Grimes_the_Runaway_Slave_Brought_Down_to_the_Present_1855 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 10:25:28 EST]]> /Smith_Life_Last_Words_and_Dying_Speech_of_Stephen_Smith_by_Stephen_1797 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 10:14:27 EST <![CDATA[Smith, Life Last Words and Dying Speech of Stephen Smith by Stephen (1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_Life_Last_Words_and_Dying_Speech_of_Stephen_Smith_by_Stephen_1797 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 10:14:27 EST]]> /Randolph_Sketches_of_Slave_Life_or_Illustrations_of_the_Peculiar_Institution_by_Peter_1855 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 10:10:19 EST <![CDATA[Randolph, Sketches of Slave Life: or, Illustrations of the "Peculiar Institution" by Peter (1855)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Randolph_Sketches_of_Slave_Life_or_Illustrations_of_the_Peculiar_Institution_by_Peter_1855 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 10:10:19 EST]]> /Cook_Untitled_Narrative_by_Fields_1847 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 10:04:53 EST <![CDATA[Cook, Untitled Narrative by Fields (1847)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cook_Untitled_Narrative_by_Fields_1847 Mon, 05 Feb 2018 10:04:53 EST]]> /Harrison_Gessner_1807-1862 Fri, 02 Feb 2018 17:17:35 EST <![CDATA[Harrison, Gessner (1807–1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harrison_Gessner_1807-1862 Gessner Harrison was a professor of ancient languages at the University of Virginia from 1828 to 1859, the first graduate of the university to join the faculty. Born in Harrisonburg, he hailed from a learned and political family, and, in 1825, became the fifth student to register at the new University of Virginia. Harrison's sincerity and religious conviction appeared to have impressed Thomas Jefferson, with whom he was invited to dine, and he became a professor when he was just twenty-one years old. What impressed Jefferson, however, did not always impress his students who, early in Harrison's career, attacked him on multiple occasions, once with a horsewhip. Harrison, who had earned a degree in medicine, eventually came to earn respect as a classics scholar, and he served as faculty chairman three times (1837–1839, 1840–1842, 1847–1854). In 1859, he resigned from the university to establish a school for boys. The beginning of the American Civil War (1861–1865) took most of his students away and the school closed when Harrison died in 1862.
Fri, 02 Feb 2018 17:17:35 EST]]>
/Cabell_William_H_1772-1853 Fri, 02 Feb 2018 17:04:07 EST <![CDATA[Cabell, William H. (1772–1853)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cabell_William_H_1772-1853 William H. Cabell was the governor of Virginia (1805–1808) and, for four decades, a justice of the Virginia Court of Appeals (1811–1852). A Democratic-Republican, he represented Amherst County in the House of Delegates (1796–1799, 1802–1805) and sat on the General Court prior to being appointed to the Court of Appeals. Cabell was deliberate and thorough, as governor and in his judicial career. Although he rarely filed a separate opinion during his time on the Court of Appeals, he was known to reverse a previous decision. When he retired in 1852 because of his poor health, Cabell was among the longest-serving judges in the history of the state supreme court. Cabell County, created in 1809 and now part of West Virginia, is named for him. He died in 1853.
Fri, 02 Feb 2018 17:04:07 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Adams_April_20_1812 Thu, 01 Feb 2018 08:53:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Adams (April 20, 1812)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Adams_April_20_1812 Thu, 01 Feb 2018 08:53:35 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Mary_Randolph_Custis_Lee_December_27_1856 Thu, 01 Feb 2018 08:49:14 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Mary Randolph Custis Lee (December 27, 1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Mary_Randolph_Custis_Lee_December_27_1856 Thu, 01 Feb 2018 08:49:14 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Mary_Randolph_Custis_Lee_April_18_1841 Thu, 01 Feb 2018 08:40:48 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Mary Randolph Custis Lee (April 18, 1841)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Mary_Randolph_Custis_Lee_April_18_1841 Thu, 01 Feb 2018 08:40:48 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Charles_Carter_Lee_January_4_1831 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 17:10:24 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Charles Carter Lee (January 4, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Charles_Carter_Lee_January_4_1831 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 17:10:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_John_Adams_to_Thomas_Jefferson_February_10_1812 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 17:05:16 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Adams to Thomas Jefferson (February 10, 1812)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Adams_to_Thomas_Jefferson_February_10_1812 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 17:05:16 EST]]> /Letter_from_James_Madison_to_Thomas_Jefferson_April_20_1800 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 17:01:10 EST <![CDATA[Letter from James Madison to Thomas Jefferson (April 20, 1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_James_Madison_to_Thomas_Jefferson_April_20_1800 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 17:01:10 EST]]> /Notice_from_Christopher_McPherson_Richmond_Enquirer_February_22_1811 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:57:14 EST <![CDATA[Notice from Christopher McPherson, Richmond Enquirer (February 22, 1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Notice_from_Christopher_McPherson_Richmond_Enquirer_February_22_1811 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:57:14 EST]]> /Statement_by_Francis_Preston_Blair_April_14_1871 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:55:20 EST <![CDATA[Statement by Francis Preston Blair (April 14, 1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Statement_by_Francis_Preston_Blair_April_14_1871 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:55:20 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Captain_Wagner_May_4_1868 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:51:15 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Captain Wagner (May 4, 1868)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Captain_Wagner_May_4_1868 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:51:15 EST]]> /Letter_from_Howell_Cobb_to_James_A_Seddon_January_8_1865 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:49:09 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Howell Cobb to James A. Seddon (January 8, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Howell_Cobb_to_James_A_Seddon_January_8_1865 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:49:09 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_March_12_1868 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:44:12 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Robert E. Lee Jr. (March 12, 1868)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Robert_E_Lee_Jr_March_12_1868 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:44:12 EST]]> /Robert_E_Lee_s_Testimony_before_Congress_February_17_1866 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:42:08 EST <![CDATA[Robert E. Lee's Testimony before Congress (February 17, 1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robert_E_Lee_s_Testimony_before_Congress_February_17_1866 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:42:08 EST]]> /Allan_Memoranda_of_Conversations_with_General_Robert_E_Lee_by_William_1868_1870 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:39:38 EST <![CDATA[Allan, Memoranda of Conversations with General Robert E. Lee by William (1868, 1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allan_Memoranda_of_Conversations_with_General_Robert_E_Lee_by_William_1868_1870 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:39:38 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Charles_Carter_Lee_September_28_1832 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:37:28 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Charles Carter Lee (September 28, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Charles_Carter_Lee_September_28_1832 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:37:28 EST]]> /Johnston_Memoranda_of_Conversations_with_General_Robert_E_Lee_by_William_Preston_1868_1870 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:34:46 EST <![CDATA[Johnston, Memoranda of Conversations with General Robert E. Lee by William Preston (1868, 1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Johnston_Memoranda_of_Conversations_with_General_Robert_E_Lee_by_William_Preston_1868_1870 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:34:46 EST]]> /Letter_from_Judah_P_Benjamin_to_Robert_E_Lee_February_11_1865 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:30:36 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Judah P. Benjamin to Robert E. Lee (February 11, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Judah_P_Benjamin_to_Robert_E_Lee_February_11_1865 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:30:36 EST]]> /Letter_from_Henry_Lee_IV_to_William_Berkeley_Lewis_July_26_1833 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:27:43 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Henry Lee IV to William Berkeley Lewis (July 26, 1833)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Henry_Lee_IV_to_William_Berkeley_Lewis_July_26_1833 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:27:43 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Mary_Randolph_Custis_Lee_November_11_1863 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:25:41 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Mary Randolph Custis Lee (November 11, 1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Mary_Randolph_Custis_Lee_November_11_1863 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:25:41 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Mary_Randolph_Custis_Lee_January_24_1864 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:20:10 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Mary Randolph Custis Lee (January 24, 1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Mary_Randolph_Custis_Lee_January_24_1864 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:20:10 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Ulysses_S_Grant_October_3_1864 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:11:56 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Ulysses S. Grant (October 3, 1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Ulysses_S_Grant_October_3_1864 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:11:56 EST]]> /Col_R_E_Lee_s_Report_October_19_1859 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:08:03 EST <![CDATA[Col. R. E. Lee's Report (October 19, 1859)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Col_R_E_Lee_s_Report_October_19_1859 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:08:03 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Hill_Carter_January_25_1840 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:00:20 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Hill Carter (January 25, 1840)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Hill_Carter_January_25_1840 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 16:00:20 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Jefferson_Davis_September_2_1864 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:56:39 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Jefferson Davis (September 2, 1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Jefferson_Davis_September_2_1864 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:56:39 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Edward_Lee_Childe_January_16_1868 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:51:23 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Edward Lee Childe (January 16, 1868)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Edward_Lee_Childe_January_16_1868 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:51:23 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Ethelbert_Barksdale_February_18_1865 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:46:00 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Ethelbert Barksdale (February 18, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Ethelbert_Barksdale_February_18_1865 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:46:00 EST]]> /_General_Lee_s_Views_on_Enlisting_the_Negroes_Century_Magazine_August_1888 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:42:47 EST <![CDATA["General Lee's Views on Enlisting the Negroes," Century Magazine (August 1888)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_General_Lee_s_Views_on_Enlisting_the_Negroes_Century_Magazine_August_1888 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:42:47 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Mary_Anna_Randolph_Custis_Lee_December_25_1861 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:37:20 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Mary Anna Randolph Custis Lee (December 25, 1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Mary_Anna_Randolph_Custis_Lee_December_25_1861 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:37:20 EST]]> /McPherson_A_Short_History_of_the_Life_of_Christopher_McPherson_by_Christopher_1811_1855 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:30:56 EST <![CDATA[McPherson, A Short History of the Life of Christopher McPherson by Christopher (1811, 1855)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/McPherson_A_Short_History_of_the_Life_of_Christopher_McPherson_by_Christopher_1811_1855 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:30:56 EST]]> /_Some_Facts_That_Should_Come_to_Light_New-York_Tribune_June_24_1859 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:26:27 EST <![CDATA["Some Facts That Should Come to Light," New-York Tribune (June 24, 1859)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Some_Facts_That_Should_Come_to_Light_New-York_Tribune_June_24_1859 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:26:27 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Charles_Carter_Lee_February_24_1835 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:21:04 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert E. Lee to Charles Carter Lee (February 24, 1835)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_E_Lee_to_Charles_Carter_Lee_February_24_1835 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:21:04 EST]]> /_The_Comet_Alexandria_Daily_Gazette_October_17_1811 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:14:08 EST <![CDATA["The Comet," Alexandria Daily Gazette (October 17, 1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Comet_Alexandria_Daily_Gazette_October_17_1811 Wed, 31 Jan 2018 15:14:08 EST]]> /Slave_Housing_in_Virginia Wed, 31 Jan 2018 11:15:45 EST <![CDATA[Slave Housing in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Housing_in_Virginia Slave housing in Virginia varied widely depending on the context: whether it was rural or urban, whether it was on an elite plantation or a small farm, and even whether it was located close to or far from the slaveholder's main house. Many of the first Africans who came to Virginia lived in barracks-style housing and other, less-than-permanent accommodations. As the enslaved population grew, however, houses were designed and constructed specifically for black laborers and, in particular, those living in family units. Most slave quarters were constructed of wood, and many were log and earthfast structures with no foundations. Those located closest to elite plantation houses were generally better built, with wooden frames and masonry chimneys and foundations. Separate one or two-room structures, designed to accommodate one- or two-family units, were the most popular house type, although many enslaved laborers slept where they worked—in kitchens, laundries, and stables. Slaves who were hired out in cities sometimes resided in separate "shanty towns." Few intact slave quarters exist in the twenty-first century—likely fewer than 300—and most of those are relatively large and well-built.
Wed, 31 Jan 2018 11:15:45 EST]]>
/Madison_Dolley_1768-1849 Mon, 29 Jan 2018 15:34:09 EST <![CDATA[Madison, Dolley (1768–1849)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Madison_Dolley_1768-1849 Dolley Madison was the wife of James Madison, the architect of the U.S. Constitution and fourth president of the United States (1809­–1817). She was the third woman to serve as what is now called "first lady," and her imprint as the national hostess defined the role until the more activist Eleanor Roosevelt broke Madison's ceremonial model. It was during her years in the White House that Madison gained her fame as a shrewd and graceful politician who could win the hearts of those who opposed her husband, and the greatest Washington hostess of the first quarter of the nineteenth century. She is also known for saving a portrait of George Washington during the War of 1812. After the end of James Madison's second term in the White House, the couple returned to live at their plantation, Montpelier, in Orange County, where they remained until James Madison died in 1836. From 1836 to 1844, Dolley Madison resided both in Washington, D.C., and at Montpelier, after which she spent the last five and a half years of her life in Washington. She was criticized by abolitionists for continuing to own slaves but remained a prominent national figure even while facing serious financial struggles. Along with Elizabeth Hamilton, the wife of Alexander Hamilton, she was the last surviving member of the founding generation, admired and esteemed for both her own contributions and those of her husband. She died in 1849 in Washington, where she was buried. Her remains were later moved to the Madison family cemetery at Montpelier.
Mon, 29 Jan 2018 15:34:09 EST]]>
/Poplar_Forest Mon, 29 Jan 2018 15:23:46 EST <![CDATA[Poplar Forest]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Poplar_Forest Poplar Forest, located in Bedford County, was Thomas Jefferson's villa retreat. Jefferson's wife, Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson, inherited the Poplar Forest land from her father in 1773, and work on the distinctive octagonal house began in 1806. Although the house was framed by 1809, the year he retired from public service, Jefferson finished Poplar Forest slowly, directing work on the property until his death in 1826. Located about seventy miles from Monticello, Jefferson's second home became more than just a getaway; it served as an inspiration as he worked on its idealistic, innovative, and modern design, which integrated architecture and landscape. Poplar Forest's design shows the influence of ancient Roman, Renaissance, and eighteenth-century French and English architecture. It was the first octagonal house in America and one of the few houses built to Jefferson's designs that survive. It was also an intimate place where Jefferson spent time with his family. After Jefferson's death, ownership of the house and property passed to his grandson, Francis Eppes, who had resided there with his family since 1823, the year of Jefferson's last visit. In 1828 Eppes sold it and the surrounding 1,074 acres to a neighboring farmer. Poplar Forest was privately owned until 1984, when it was purchased by a group of local citizens that had formed the nonprofit Corporation for Jefferson's Poplar Forest. The house opened to the public in 1986. The archaeological excavation of the grounds and the restoration of the house and grounds began in 1990.
Mon, 29 Jan 2018 15:23:46 EST]]>
/Slave_Clothing_and_Adornment_in_Virginia Mon, 29 Jan 2018 15:08:18 EST <![CDATA[Slave Clothing and Adornment in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Clothing_and_Adornment_in_Virginia Slave clothing and adornment varied across time and across Virginia. In West Africa, where many American slaves originated, clothing was minimal, and even that was generally stripped from newly enslaved people just prior to the Middle Passage. In Virginia, slaves were outfitted with European clothing they often found to be constricting and uncomfortable. The fabrics used for construction tended to be inferior, with their owners using whatever was most cost-effective. Homespun Virginia cloth and imported osnaburg fabric (made from flax and hemp) were common in the eighteenth century. By the nineteenth century, with the rise of cotton production, blends such as jean cloth became more common and allowed owners to provide slaves clothing that was untailored and ready-made. The most common practice was to distribute clothes in twice-a-year allotments, with liveried (uniformed) and domestic slaves receiving higher-quality clothing than field slaves, who wore the plainest and coarsest clothing. Children wore simple gowns. Boys transitioned to breeches, or short pants, and then to long pants and girls wore adult dresses when they began to menstruate. Plain leather shoes and sometimes hats were also included in allotments, while women, reflecting West African traditions, sometimes wore cloth head wraps. To aid in running away, some slaves stole better clothes while others saved money and purchased or, in some instances, earned better attire.
Mon, 29 Jan 2018 15:08:18 EST]]>
/Lee_Henry_1787-1837 Thu, 25 Jan 2018 17:36:18 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Henry (1787–1837)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Henry_1787-1837 Thu, 25 Jan 2018 17:36:18 EST]]> /Tait_Bacon_1796-1871 Thu, 25 Jan 2018 15:51:11 EST <![CDATA[Tait, Bacon (1796–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tait_Bacon_1796-1871 Bacon Tait was one of the most successful Richmond slave traders and jail operators in the years leading up to the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born near Lynchburg, he served briefly during the War of 1812 and spent time working in Richmond before relocating there permanently by 1828. In that year he made his first significant transaction in slaves, selling thirty-seven in New Orleans and entering into a year-long, unsuccessful partnership with two other men. About the same time Tait began what would be a longstanding business relationship with Thomas Boudar that included the buying and selling of slaves and the operation of a so-called jail for the confinement of enslaved men, women, and children awaiting sale. Tait probably first built the facility that came to be known as Lumpkin's Jail before constructing an even bigger one on the corner of Fifteenth and Cary streets. Although his business was not widely considered to be a respectable one, Tait served four terms on the Richmond City Council (1847–1851). Between 1843 and 1848 he fathered four children, including twins, with Courtney Fountain, a free black woman, and in 1851 Tait and Fountain moved to Salem, Massachusetts. He lived in Richmond during the Civil War and his wealth survived the war intact. He died in 1871.
Thu, 25 Jan 2018 15:51:11 EST]]>
/Lumpkin_s_Jail Thu, 25 Jan 2018 15:48:37 EST <![CDATA[Lumpkin's Jail]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lumpkin_s_Jail Lumpkin's Jail was a slave-trading complex located on Wall Street, in the Shockoe Bottom district of Richmond, which operated from the 1830s until the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). The slave-trader Bacon Tait owned the property first, followed by Lewis A. Collier, who built the so-called jail, which confined enslaved African Americans prior to their sale. Robert Lumpkin purchased the property in 1844 and used the facility to pursue his own slave-trading business, accommodating his clients in a boardinghouse on the premises. Lumpkin also charged slave dealers and owners a daily fee for holding their slaves. Anthony Burns, a runaway slave returned to Richmond under the Fugitive Slave Law, was housed at Lumpkin's for four months under appalling conditions. Lumpkin died in 1866, and his widow, a formerly enslaved woman named Mary, leased the property to a Baptist minister who founded the Colver Institute, a religious school for emancipated African Americans, and held classes in the former jail building. The school eventually became Virginia Union University. The jail was demolished by 1876 and large industrial buildings later occupied the site. Its history was largely forgotten until 2005, when archaeologists began the first phase of an investigation that eventually found evidence of the complex, including the original jail building buried nearly fifteen feet beneath the modern ground level. The archaeological remains were subsequently reburied, and the Lumpkin's Jail site is commemorated as one of seventeen places on the Richmond Slave Trail.
Thu, 25 Jan 2018 15:48:37 EST]]>
/Lieutenant_Governors_of_Virginia Thu, 25 Jan 2018 08:21:07 EST <![CDATA[Lieutenant Governors of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lieutenant_Governors_of_Virginia Thu, 25 Jan 2018 08:21:07 EST]]> /Governors_of_Virginia Thu, 25 Jan 2018 08:16:48 EST <![CDATA[Governors of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Governors_of_Virginia Thu, 25 Jan 2018 08:16:48 EST]]> /Walker_Wyatt_Tee_1929- Thu, 25 Jan 2018 08:09:22 EST <![CDATA[Walker, Wyatt Tee (1929–2018)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Walker_Wyatt_Tee_1929- Wyatt Tee Walker was a civil rights activist, author, and religious leader. After earning his master of divinity degree from Virginia Union University in 1953, Walker became the pastor of Gillfield Baptist Church in Petersburg. During the 1950s, he served as the president of the Petersburg branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), was the state director of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in Virginia, and founded the Petersburg Improvement Association. In 1960 he was appointed chief of staff to Martin Luther King Jr. and served as the first full-time executive director of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Walker was instrumental in the fund-raising campaigns of the SCLC early in the 1960s and he helped formulate and analyze various protest strategies. He left the SCLC in 1964 and went on to serve as the pastor of Canaan Baptist Church of Christ in Harlem, New York, for thirty-seven years. Following his retirement in 2004, he returned to Virginia, where he died in 2018.
Thu, 25 Jan 2018 08:09:22 EST]]>
/Parker_Autobiography_of_Henry_Parker_by_Henry_ca_1860s Mon, 22 Jan 2018 14:53:34 EST <![CDATA[Parker, "Autobiography of Henry Parker" by Henry (ca. 1860s)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Parker_Autobiography_of_Henry_Parker_by_Henry_ca_1860s Mon, 22 Jan 2018 14:53:34 EST]]> /Campbell_Joseph_T_1827-1876 Thu, 18 Jan 2018 17:03:32 EST <![CDATA[Campbell, Joseph T. (1827–1876)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Campbell_Joseph_T_1827-1876 Thu, 18 Jan 2018 17:03:32 EST]]> /Brockenbrough_William_1778-1838 Thu, 18 Jan 2018 17:01:14 EST <![CDATA[Brockenbrough, William (1778–1838)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brockenbrough_William_1778-1838 William Brockenbrough was a justice of the Court of Appeals (1834–1838), a General Court judge (1809–1834), a member of the Council of State (1803–1806), and a representative to the House of Delegates from Essex (1801–1803) and Hanover (1807–1809) counties. A respected member of the state judiciary, Brockenbrough also wrote and published a number of influential articles that defended the states' rights interpretation of the U.S. Constitution and federal system and criticized the U.S. Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall. Throughout his adult life, Brockenbrough was identified as a member of the so-called Richmond Junto, a political clique of Virginia conservatives.
Thu, 18 Jan 2018 17:01:14 EST]]>
/_Account_of_a_wonderful_talent_for_arithmetical_calculation_in_an_African_slave_living_in_Virginia_American_Museum_or_Universal_Magazine_January_1789 Fri, 12 Jan 2018 15:46:01 EST <![CDATA["Account of a wonderful talent for arithmetical calculation, in an African slave living in Virginia," American Museum, or Universal Magazine (January 1789)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Account_of_a_wonderful_talent_for_arithmetical_calculation_in_an_African_slave_living_in_Virginia_American_Museum_or_Universal_Magazine_January_1789 Fri, 12 Jan 2018 15:46:01 EST]]> /Thomas_Fuller_Obituary_Columbian_Centinel_December_29_1790 Fri, 12 Jan 2018 15:04:02 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Fuller Obituary, Columbian Centinel (December 29, 1790)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Fuller_Obituary_Columbian_Centinel_December_29_1790 Fri, 12 Jan 2018 15:04:02 EST]]> /_Purchase_of_Louisiana_New_York_Evening_Post_July_5_1803 Thu, 11 Jan 2018 13:57:07 EST <![CDATA["Purchase of Louisiana," New York Evening Post (July 5, 1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Purchase_of_Louisiana_New_York_Evening_Post_July_5_1803 Thu, 11 Jan 2018 13:57:07 EST]]> /Virginia_Tech_Shootings Wed, 03 Jan 2018 15:12:08 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Tech Shootings]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Tech_Shootings On April 16, 2007, Seung-Hui Cho, a senior at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, also known as Virginia Tech, in Blacksburg, shot and killed twenty-seven students and five faculty members, and injured more than seventeen others before killing himself. At the time it was the largest mass shooting in contemporary American history perpetrated by a single gunman. Cho was born in South Korea and immigrated to the United States with his family, which settled in Centreville. He had a history of emotional and mental health problems dating to early childhood, but his parents said they were unaware that serious troubles had begun at Virginia Tech. A series of disturbing incidents led to a 2005 hearing in which he was ordered to outpatient treatment, which he never received. Despite this and other warning signs, there was no concerted follow-up by campus or mental health authorities as Cho's condition deteriorated and he plotted mass murder. The attacks raised many questions associated with gun violence, from missed mental health signals to the availability of weapons and campus safety. Governor Timothy M. Kaine immediately appointed a panel to review the shootings and response, and make recommendations by the beginning of the 2007–2008 school year. The tragedy led to lasting reforms in how campuses in Virginia and across the nation regarded safety issues. But advocates for gun safety and those seeking a sustained focus on improving mental health services regard those efforts as having come up short. Many family and community members expressed continued disappointment with what they perceived to be the university's lack of accountability. All of the injured students, however, returned to graduate.
Wed, 03 Jan 2018 15:12:08 EST]]>
/Dabney_John_ca_1824-1900 Wed, 03 Jan 2018 14:35:51 EST <![CDATA[Dabney, John (ca. 1824–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dabney_John_ca_1824-1900 John Dabney was a renowned Richmond-based caterer through much of the nineteenth century. Dabney began acquiring his reputation while enslaved, even serving one of his famed mint juleps to the future Edward VII during the prince's 1860 visit to America. He was in the process of purchasing his own freedom when the American Civil War (1861–1865) and slavery ended. Known for his integrity, he could secure credit from banks, which he and his wife used to purchase several properties and open a restaurant. While outwardly conforming to the expectations of white society, he privately harbored no illusions about his clients' racism. Dabney inwardly experienced the "two-ness" that the sociologist W. E. B. Du Bois described in The Souls of Black Folk (1903), of being "an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings." Exemplifying his popularity, all four of Richmond's daily newspapers reported his death.
Wed, 03 Jan 2018 14:35:51 EST]]>
/Sailor_s_Creek_Battles_of Wed, 20 Dec 2017 11:40:26 EST <![CDATA[Sailor's Creek, Battles of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sailor_s_Creek_Battles_of Wed, 20 Dec 2017 11:40:26 EST]]> /Appomattox_Campaign Wed, 20 Dec 2017 11:32:20 EST <![CDATA[Appomattox Campaign]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Appomattox_Campaign Wed, 20 Dec 2017 11:32:20 EST]]> /Taylor_Walter_H_1838-1916 Wed, 20 Dec 2017 11:28:56 EST <![CDATA[Taylor, Walter H. (1838–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Taylor_Walter_H_1838-1916 Walter H. Taylor served for most of the American Civil War (1861–1865) as adjutant to Robert E. Lee, overseeing the paperwork and administrative functions of the Confederate general's commands. A businessman and banker before and after the war, Taylor is best known for writing books that defended the reputations of Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia, books that today are considered to be important contributions to Lost Cause literature.
Wed, 20 Dec 2017 11:28:56 EST]]>
/Beale_R_L_T_1819-1893 Wed, 20 Dec 2017 11:23:44 EST <![CDATA[Beale, R. L. T. (1819–1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beale_R_L_T_1819-1893 R. L. T. Beale was twice a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1847–1849; 1879–1881), member of the Convention of 1850–1851, member of the Senate of Virginia (1857–1860), and a Confederate army officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). After earning a law degree at the University of Virginia, Beale practiced law in his native Westmoreland County. He was first elected to Congress as a proslavery Democrat but did not seek reelection. Instead, he served as a delegate to the state constitutional convention in 1850, generally opposing proposals to make state government more democratic. After serving a term in the state senate, he joined the Confederate cavalry and fought with the Army of Northern Virginia throughout the war. In June 1862, a newspaper reporter accompanied Beale during J. E. B. Stuart's famous ride around the Union army, and in March 1864, Beale's cavalry detachment killed Union colonel Ulric Dahlgren, ending the Kilpatrick-Dahlgren Raid. After the war, Beale wrote a history of the 9th Virginia, published posthumously, and served a second term in Congress.
Wed, 20 Dec 2017 11:23:44 EST]]>
/Veney_Bethany_ca_1815 Mon, 18 Dec 2017 16:44:05 EST <![CDATA[Veney, Bethany (ca. 1815­–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Veney_Bethany_ca_1815 Bethany Veney was an enslaved woman who, prior to the American Civil War (1861–1865), lived in the Shenandoah Valley and, in 1889, published The Narrative of Bethany Veney, a Slave Woman. Born near Luray, in what later became Page County, Veney labored for several different owners. She married Jerry Fickland, an enslaved man who was later sold south. Veney herself was placed on the auction block in Richmond but foiled the sale—and the separation from her family that it guaranteed—by pretending to be sick. After marrying her second husband, Frank Veney, a free black man, Bethany Veney negotiated a small amount of freedom by hiring out her labor and paying her owner a yearly fee. When her owner's debts threatened the arrangement, Veney found relief in her employer, a copper miner from Rhode Island. He purchased Veney and her daughter and took them north. Veney eventually settled in Worcester, Massachusetts, where she dictated her life story in 1889 and died in 1916.
Mon, 18 Dec 2017 16:44:05 EST]]>
/Wythe_George_1726_or_1727-1806 Mon, 18 Dec 2017 13:58:52 EST <![CDATA[Wythe, George (1726 or 1727–1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wythe_George_1726_or_1727-1806 George Wythe was a member of the House of Burgesses (1754–1755, 1758, 1761–1766) and the Conventions of 1776, 1787, 1788, a member of the Second Continental Congress during the American Revolution (1775–1783), Speaker of the House of Delegates (1777–1778), and judge of the High Court of Chancery (1778–1806). His signature is first among Virginians on the Declaration of Independence. Born in Elizabeth City County, Wythe was educated by his mother and read the law under the guidance of an uncle, eventually building a lucrative practice in Williamsburg, where he mentored a young Thomas Jefferson. He supported independence during the Revolution and served on a General Assembly committee with Jefferson and others charged with revising Virginia's laws. In 1778, the assembly elected Wythe to serve on the newly created High Court of Chancery, where he stayed the rest of his life, even after receiving offers of seats on higher courts. He twice used his position to rule that slavery was unconstitutional, including in Pleasants v. Pleasants (1799), but was twice overruled by the Court of Appeals. He later freed his own slaves. From 1780 to 1789 he taught law at the College of William and Mary, becoming the first law professor at any American university; John Marshall was one of his students. He served briefly in the U.S. Constitutional Convention and then appealed for its ratification in Virginia. Wythe died in Richmond in 1806, likely poisoned by his great-nephew, George Wythe Sweeney Jr.
Mon, 18 Dec 2017 13:58:52 EST]]>
/Rind_Clementina_d_1774 Mon, 18 Dec 2017 10:46:14 EST <![CDATA[Rind, Clementina (d. 1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Rind_Clementina_d_1774 Clementina Rind was a public printer for Virginia and publisher from August 1773 to September 1774 of one of two Virginia Gazettes printed in Williamsburg. Born about 1740, she married the Maryland printer William Rind after 1762 and they moved to Williamsburg later in 1765 or early in 1766. There, in May 1766, William Rind established the Virginia Gazette in direct competition to a paper of the same name published by Alexander Purdie and John Dixon. He soon also became the colony's public printer, publishing all of the government's official documents. Rind died in 1773 and Clementina Rind took over the newspaper and won appointment to succeed her husband as public printer. She managed the business well and supplemented her income by printing other material, such as Thomas Jefferson's tract A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774). Although nonpartisan, her Virginia Gazette included news that suggested solidarity with the patriot cause in the years before the American Revolution (1775–1783). She died in Williamsburg in 1774.
Mon, 18 Dec 2017 10:46:14 EST]]>
/Barbour_Philip_Pendleton_1783-1841 Mon, 11 Dec 2017 13:24:54 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, Philip Pendleton (1783–1841)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_Philip_Pendleton_1783-1841 Philip Pendleton Barbour was a member of the House of Delegates (1812–1814), Speaker of the House of Representatives (1821–1823), president of the Convention of 1829–1830, a federal district court judge (1830–1836), and an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1836–1841). Born in Orange County, Barbour studied law with St. George Tucker and practiced briefly in Kentucky before returning to Virginia. He served for two years in the General Assembly and then in Congress, from 1814 to 1825. His older brother, James Barbour, also was a prominent politician, serving as governor and then in the U.S. Senate, but their political philosophies diverged over time. Whereas James Barbour came to support a federal bank and federally supported internal improvement projects, Philip Pendleton Barbour remained a staunch Jeffersonian conservative, emphasizing states' rights and limited government. Even while his brother served in the cabinet of President John Quincy Adams, Philip Pendleton Barbour loudly opposed the administration. After the election of Andrew Jackson, Barbour won appointment as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. His time on the bench was short and devoted to undoing the work of Chief Justice John Marshall, who advocated for a broad interpretation of the Constitution. Barbour died in 1841.
Mon, 11 Dec 2017 13:24:54 EST]]>
/Louisiana_Purchase Fri, 08 Dec 2017 17:00:12 EST <![CDATA[Louisiana Purchase]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Louisiana_Purchase The Louisiana Purchase (1803) from France resulted in the eventual transfer of about 828,000 square miles of land in North America to the United States. At a cost of about $15 million, the United States nearly doubled its territory and effectively secured control over the Mississippi River by acquiring the port of New Orleans and the vast watershed beyond the river. Beginning in the mid-sixteenth century the French established control of the territory running from the Great Lakes to the Gulf Coast, only to cede much of it to Spain after the Seven Years' War (1756–1763). In 1784, Spain closed the Mississippi to American commerce until the Treaty of San Lorenzo (1795). Five years later, however, the territory reverted to France while remaining under Spanish administration. The new U.S. president, Thomas Jefferson, inaugurated in 1801, spent the next two years negotiating long-term access to the river. Jefferson worried that war in Europe might leave the British in control of Louisiana or even that American settlers might establish new nation-states in the Mississippi valley and negotiate their own treaty with the French. The crisis worsened in 1802 when the Spanish closed the river again; some in the opposition Federalist Party suggested the United States go to war. Then, in 1803, the French suddenly offered to sell imperial rights to all of Louisiana. Jefferson seized upon this unexpected opportunity, but worried that the U.S. Constitution did not allow such a deal. Still, he called Congress to an early session and laid the treaty before the Senate to ratify, which they did. The acquisition of so much territory eventually strained the union between North and South and helped to bring on the American Civil War (1861–1865). Unplanned and unexpected, the Louisiana Purchase presented the federal government and the American people with an array of new challenges and new opportunities.
Fri, 08 Dec 2017 17:00:12 EST]]>
/Lee_Henry_1756-1818 Fri, 08 Dec 2017 16:44:43 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Henry (1756–1818)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Henry_1756-1818 Henry Lee, also known as Light-Horse Harry Lee or Henry Lee III, was an officer in the Continental and U.S. armies, a representative from Virginia to the Confederation Congress (1786–1788) and the U.S. House of Representatives (1799–1801), a member of the House of Delegates (1789–1791), the governor of Virginia (1791–1794), and the master of Stratford Hall. Born in Prince William County and educated at Princeton, he was the father of eight children who survived to adulthood, including Henry Lee IV, Charles Carter Lee, and Robert E. Lee. A gifted cavalryman, Lee distinguished himself in the American Revolution (1775–1783), fighting under generals George Washington and Nathanael Greene. After the war, Lee played an active role in state and national politics, but his ambitions were undermined by disastrous land deals and financial mismanagement. He served time in debtor's prison, and in 1812, an encounter with an anti-Federalist mob in Baltimore left him disfigured and ailing. After traveling abroad to escape his creditors, Lee died in Georgia in 1818.
Fri, 08 Dec 2017 16:44:43 EST]]>
/Wythe_The_Death_of_George_1806 Thu, 30 Nov 2017 11:07:25 EST <![CDATA[Wythe, The Death of George (1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wythe_The_Death_of_George_1806 George Wythe, a prominent judge and professor who signed the Declaration of Independence, died in Richmond on June 8, 1806. He had become violently ill after eating breakfast on May 25 with Lydia Broadnax and Michael Brown, both free African Americans. On May 27, George Wythe Sweeney Jr., Wythe's great-nephew, attempted to cash a check bearing Wythe's forged signature and was arrested soon after. Brown died on June 1, and by that time Wythe had come to believe that he, Brown, and Broadnax had been poisoned by Sweeney. Before dying he amended his will to disinherit Sweeney. The Richmond Hustings Court found sufficient evidence against Sweeney to refer forgery and murder charges to the District Court, where Sweeney was tried in September. Defended by two friends of George Wythe, including Edmund Randolph, he was acquitted of murder and found guilty on two of four counts of forgery. Sweeney's prison sentence was set aside, however, and he soon left the state. Many in Richmond and across the country had come to assume that Sweeney was guilty of murder and the trial garnered significant press attention. While the Richmond Enquirer claimed that the verdict was the result of Virginia's prohibition of African American testimony against white defendants, later historians have pointed to the purely circumstantial nature of the evidence.
Thu, 30 Nov 2017 11:07:25 EST]]>
/Ambler_Richard_1690-ca_1766 Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:31:11 EST <![CDATA[Ambler, Richard (1690–ca. 1766)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ambler_Richard_1690-ca_1766 Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:31:11 EST]]> /Boone_Daniel_1734-1820 Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:26:45 EST <![CDATA[Boone, Daniel (1734–1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boone_Daniel_1734-1820 Daniel Boone was a legendary frontiersman and a member of the House of Delegates (1781–1782, 1787–1788, 1791). Born in Pennsylvania the son of Quakers, he moved to North Carolina as a young man. His first long hunting trip was in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. Boone briefly lived in Culpeper County after the Cherokee War drove him north, and by the end of the decade he was making regular trips to Kentucky. In 1775 he was hired to cut a road from present-day Tennessee, through the Cumberland Gap, to the Kentucky River—what came to be known as the Wilderness Road. His fame as a woodsman grew, enhanced by violent run-ins with Indians and the embellishments of writers. In 1780 he was elected to the House of Delegates from the newly created Fayette County (in what later became the state of Kentucky). Boone moved several times, ran a store, and twice more won election to the House of Delegates. In 1799 the Spanish granted him land in what was then Louisiana and what later became Missouri. He died there in 1820.
Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:26:45 EST]]>
/Byrd_Organization Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:24:01 EST <![CDATA[Byrd Organization]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Organization The Byrd Organization was a state political machine headed by Harry F. Byrd (1887–1966), a Democratic state senator, governor, and United States senator who, for more than forty years, used his power and influence to dominate the political life of Virginia. Inheriting an already tight party organization that for decades had emphasized small government and a limited franchise, Byrd prioritized fiscal conservatism—a policy he pithily dubbed "pay as you go"—and, on those grounds, opposed many of fellow Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal programs. Byrd and his organization are perhaps best known, however, for their fierce opposition to a 1954 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that mandated the desegregation of public schools. The resulting Massive Resistance movement led to the shutdown of schools in Charlottesville, Front Royal, and Norfolk before the federal and state courts overturned state antidesegregation policies. It also effectively ended the organization's decades-long hold on power in the state.
Mon, 27 Nov 2017 14:24:01 EST]]>
/Stratford_Hall Tue, 21 Nov 2017 14:25:40 EST <![CDATA[Stratford Hall]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Stratford_Hall Stratford Hall is a 1,500-acre plantation located in Westmoreland County on the Potomac River. The politician and planter Thomas Lee purchased the land for Stratford in 1717; although no records exist to indicate when the house was built, construction likely began in 1738 and was completed sometime in the 1740s. The plantation was home to two signers of the Declaration of Independence—Richard Henry Lee and Francis Lightfoot Lee—and was the birthplace of the Confederate general Robert E. Lee. Thomas Lee's descendants lived at Stratford until the 1820s, when Henry Lee IV sold the plantation to cover his debts. Since 1929, the Robert E. Lee Memorial Association, or RELMA, has owned Stratford Hall.
Tue, 21 Nov 2017 14:25:40 EST]]>
/Meeting_of_the_Faculty_November_9_1836 Mon, 20 Nov 2017 16:31:44 EST <![CDATA[Meeting of the Faculty (November 9, 1836)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meeting_of_the_Faculty_November_9_1836 Mon, 20 Nov 2017 16:31:44 EST]]> /Meeting_of_the_Faculty_May_22_1830 Wed, 15 Nov 2017 15:29:48 EST <![CDATA[Meeting of the Faculty (May 22, 1830)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meeting_of_the_Faculty_May_22_1830 Wed, 15 Nov 2017 15:29:48 EST]]> /Davis_John_Staige_1824-1885 Mon, 13 Nov 2017 15:59:10 EST <![CDATA[Davis, John Staige (1824–1885)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_John_Staige_1824-1885 John Staige Davis was a professor of medicine at the University of Virginia from 1847 until 1885. Born in Albemarle County, he was the son of John A. G. Davis, a law professor at the university who was shot and killed by a student there in 1840. The younger Davis practiced medicine in western Virginia before joining the faculty himself in 1847. Preferring a practical approach to anatomy instruction, and thwarted by a Virginia law that prohibited the disinterment of dead bodies, he resorted to grave robbing. Most of the bodies came from African American and pauper cemeteries, others from executed convicts. In 1859, Davis requested the bodies of men sentenced to be hanged after John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry but received none. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Davis served as a Confederate surgeon in Charlottesville. He died in 1885.
Mon, 13 Nov 2017 15:59:10 EST]]>
/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_July_4-7_1840 Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:53:53 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia Board of Visitors Minutes (July 4–7, 1840)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_Board_of_Visitors_Minutes_July_4-7_1840 Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:53:53 EST]]> /University_of_Virginia_The_Architecture_of_the Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:49:05 EST <![CDATA[University of Virginia, The Architecture of the]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/University_of_Virginia_The_Architecture_of_the As Thomas Jefferson's last major contribution to American public life, the University of Virginia combined his deepest civic and personal passions: democracy, architecture, and the dissemination of knowledge. Springing from concepts developed in his early years as a politician and gentleman architect, Jefferson's design for the university, which he called the "Academical Village," was a large, complicated composition based in the rules and monuments of classical architecture. Tightly organized around a U-shaped, terraced lawn with a library at its head, Jefferson's university combined faculty and student housing, classrooms, dining halls, and utility spaces into a relatively self-sustaining complex. Understood even by its founder as a place that would have to adapt to changing needs and a growing population, the university was amended and reconsidered throughout the nineteenth century, until a massive fire in 1895 allowed for a substantial reorientation of Jefferson's initial vision by the New York architecture firm of McKim, Mead, and White. Over the course of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, however, attempts to alter and preserve the Academical Village have been far more cautious.
Wed, 08 Nov 2017 10:49:05 EST]]>
/Shooting_Victims_of_the_Virginia_Tech_Mass_2007 Mon, 06 Nov 2017 16:12:15 EST <![CDATA[Shooting, Victims of the Virginia Tech Mass (2007)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Shooting_Victims_of_the_Virginia_Tech_Mass_2007 Mon, 06 Nov 2017 16:12:15 EST]]> /Meeting_of_the_Faculty_November_12_1836 Thu, 02 Nov 2017 11:53:28 EST <![CDATA[Meeting of the Faculty (November 12, 1836)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Meeting_of_the_Faculty_November_12_1836 Thu, 02 Nov 2017 11:53:28 EST]]> /Billy_Billy_or_Blind_ca_1805-1855 Mon, 16 Oct 2017 16:43:17 EST <![CDATA[Billy or Blind Billy (ca. 1805–1855)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Billy_Billy_or_Blind_ca_1805-1855 Mon, 16 Oct 2017 16:43:17 EST]]> /Brown_Abram_d_1840 Mon, 09 Oct 2017 15:10:39 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Abram (d. 1840)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Abram_d_1840 Abram Brown was a Baptist lay leader in Charles City County who helped found Elam Baptist Church in 1818. Born free, Brown farmed on land he inherited from his father and was wealthy compared to most African Americans of his day. He joined a Baptist church in Petersburg but soon after established a separate church on his Charles City County land and took a leadership role in his local religious community. In 1818 he transferred the land to the church, thus taking credit as founder of Elam Baptist Church. Little else is known about Brown's life. He had at least eight children, many of whom, along with their own children and grandchildren, played important roles in the African American community of Charles City County. Brown died in 1840.
Mon, 09 Oct 2017 15:10:39 EST]]>
/Abrams_Joseph_1791-1854 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:23:30 EST <![CDATA[Abrams, Joseph (1791–1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Abrams_Joseph_1791-1854 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:23:30 EST]]> /Ambler_Jaquelin_1742-1798 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:21:50 EST <![CDATA[Ambler, Jaquelin (1742–1798)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ambler_Jaquelin_1742-1798 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:21:50 EST]]> /William_Daniel_Jr_1806-1873 Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:19:12 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, William Jr. (1806–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/William_Daniel_Jr_1806-1873 William Daniel Jr. was a member of the House of Delegates (1831–1832, 1835–1836, 1838) and served as a judge of the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals (1847– 1865). Born in Winchester, Daniel earned a law degree from the University of Virginia and practiced in Lynchburg. He represented Campbell County in the House of Delegates, and during the slavery debate of 1831–1832 spoke against a proposal to free children born to enslaved mothers. Elected to the Supreme Court of Appeals in 1846, he sat on the bench through the American Civil War (1861–1865) issuing respected rulings on equity jurisprudence and property rights. In 1861, he wrote an opinion in Baker v. Wise, Governor, which upheld a Virginia law that required state inspectors to verify that ships owned out of state and bound for the North did not harbor fugitive slaves. After the war Daniel resumed his law practice in Lynchburg and died in nearby Nelson County in 1873.
Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:19:12 EST]]>
/Boxley_George_ca_1780-1865 Mon, 11 Sep 2017 16:09:29 EST <![CDATA[Boxley, George (ca. 1780–1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boxley_George_ca_1780-1865 George Boxley was an antislavery leader who allegedly conspired to help slaves revolt in 1816. Born in Spotsylvania County, he farmed and ran a general store and himself owned slaves. His motivations for turning against slavery in 1815 remain unclear, although speculation has included everything from personal grievances to religious delusions. Boxley's plans were exposed, a number of slaves were arrested, and he turned himself in. What resulted was the largest prosecution for insurrection between Gabriel's Conspiracy in 1800 and Nat Turner's Revolt in 1831. With the help of his wife, Boxley escaped jail and spent the next several years on the run, outwitting bounty hunters. He finally settled in Hamilton County, Indiana, where he died in 1865.
Mon, 11 Sep 2017 16:09:29 EST]]>
/Crane_William_1790-1866 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 16:06:08 EST <![CDATA[Crane, William (1790–1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crane_William_1790-1866 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 16:06:08 EST]]> /Colson_William_1805-1835 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 15:48:48 EST <![CDATA[Colson, William (1805–1835)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colson_William_1805-1835 William Colson was a merchant who helped establish Roberts, Colson, and Company, one of the first African American transatlantic shipping companies. Born in Petersburg the son of a free black barber, he was probably self-educated. His partnership with Joseph Jenkins Roberts, another free black businessman, began during or before 1829. They acquired a schooner and began to trade between the United States and Liberia, where Roberts moved. The business did well and Colson lived well in Petersburg. In 1835 he visited Liberia to acquaint himself with the business there and to serve a year as a missionary. Not long after arriving, however, he became ill and died.
Wed, 06 Sep 2017 15:48:48 EST]]>
/Ogilvie_James_1773-1820 Thu, 31 Aug 2017 14:14:49 EST <![CDATA[Ogilvie, James (1773–1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ogilvie_James_1773-1820 James Ogilvie was a schoolteacher who became a celebrity orator, ultimately spending twelve years traveling throughout the United States, England, and Scotland advocating for oratory as a primary medium of communication. Born and educated in Scotland, he came to Virginia in 1793 to teach at the Fredericksburg Academy. There his avowed atheism and radical republicanism made him a controversial figure, but over fifteen years traveling throughout central Virginia he proved both an effective and successful teacher. After delivering two dozen lectures in the State Capitol from 1803 to 1804, Ogilvie abandoned teaching for oratory in 1808. He traveled up and down the East Coast selling tickets to a series of eloquent, educational lectures on "moral and philosophical subjects." He quickly became one of the most famous men in America, renowned for his speaking skills. In 1813 he announced a plan to create temporary schools of oratory, an effort that had some success in South Carolina but few other places. Then in 1816 he published a collection of essays and autobiography, Philosophical Essays, that was a critical failure and he left the United States for the British Isles. He died in 1820, likely by his own hand.
Thu, 31 Aug 2017 14:14:49 EST]]>
/Boothe_Gardner_Lloyd_1872-1964 Wed, 30 Aug 2017 14:37:10 EST <![CDATA[Boothe, Gardner L. (1872–1964)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boothe_Gardner_Lloyd_1872-1964 Gardner L. Boothe was a Democratic Party leader in Alexandria for more than fifty years. Born in that city in 1872, he studied law at the University of Virginia in 1893 and opened a law practice. Boothe became Alexandria's city attorney in 1897 and five years later was elected a member of the Democratic Party's State Central Committee. That same year he was selected chairman of the Eighth District Committee, a position he held until 1952. Boothe aligned himself with the state's conservative establishment, backing stalwarts Harry F. Byrd Sr. and Howard W. Smith, including in their opposition to civil rights legislation. A member of the state's old guard, he presided over Alexandria's First National Bank for forty-six years and took an active role in local business, civic, and religious affairs. He died in Alexandria in 1964.
Wed, 30 Aug 2017 14:37:10 EST]]>
/Byrd_Harry_Flood_Sr_1887-1966 Wed, 30 Aug 2017 14:21:49 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, Harry F. (1887–1966)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Harry_Flood_Sr_1887-1966 Harry F. Byrd served as a Virginia state senator (1915–1925), governor (1926–1930), and United States senator (1933–1965), was the father of a U.S. senator, and for forty years led the Democratic political machine known as the Byrd Organization. By virtue of both his service and power, he was one of the most prominent Virginians of the twentieth century. But much of that power was wielded in mostly vain opposition to the New Deal's big-government programs and the civil rights legislation of the 1960s. As governor he instituted a popular downsizing of state government that increased efficiency, but the end of his career was marked by his now-infamous "massive resistance" to federally mandated school desegregation.
Wed, 30 Aug 2017 14:21:49 EST]]>
/Dickinson_R_H_1811_or_1812-1873 Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:42:53 EST <![CDATA[Dickinson, R. H. (1811 or 1812–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dickinson_R_H_1811_or_1812-1873 R. H. Dickinson was a slave trader in Richmond. Born probably on his parents' Caroline County plantation, he moved to Richmond and went into the slave-trading business there with one or both of his brothers. They purchased slaves in Virginia and Maryland for resale in bigger, Deep South markets, and in 1856 may have earned as much as $200,000. Dickinson was a part owner of the Saint Charles Hotel, where he conducted at least some of his sales and may have had an office. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served in the state reserves and sold slaves right up to the fall of Richmond. The end of the Confederacy and the abolition of slavery erased much of Dickinson's wealth, and little is known of his life after the war. He died in 1873.
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:42:53 EST]]>
/Trinkle_E_Lee_1876-1939 Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:35:44 EST <![CDATA[Trinkle, E. Lee (1876–1939)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Trinkle_E_Lee_1876-1939 E. Lee Trinkle served in the Senate of Virginia (1916–1922) and as governor of Virginia (1922–1926). Born in Wytheville and educated at Hampden-Sydney College and the University of Virginia, Trinkle practiced law in his hometown before beginning his political career. He served first in the Senate of Virginia as a Democrat and moderate Progressive who supported prohibition and woman suffrage. Although Trinkle ran a failed campaign for Congress and boasted only a modest legislative record, circumstances conspired to make him a compromise choice for governor in 1922. His term was notable for his struggle with up-and-coming Harry F. Byrd over control of the state Democratic Party. The primary issue was funding for the state highway system. Trinkle preferred bonds and Byrd preferred what became his signature "pay-as-you-go" method. Voters overwhelmingly defeated a $50 million bond issue in 1923, essentially curtailing Trinkle's aspirations for higher political office. Trinkle signed the Racial Integrity Act in 1924, supported the New Deal under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and served as chairman of the state Board of Education from 1930 until his death, in Richmond, in 1939.
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:35:44 EST]]>
/Prentis_John_B_1788-1848 Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:33:13 EST <![CDATA[Prentis, John B. (1788–1848)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Prentis_John_B_1788-1848 John B. Prentis was a prominent slave trader in Richmond. Born in Williamsburg, he did not follow his father into politics and the law. Instead, he apprenticed as an architect in Philadelphia before working as a builder in Richmond. Early in his life Prentis may have harbored antislavery feelings, but by 1820 he had turned to the slave trade for a living. He spent summers traveling across the Upper South buying enslaved men, women, and children and then either reselling them in Richmond or transporting them to markets in the Deep South. By 1826 he had accumulated more than 100 acres of land in Richmond and a nice residence in the city's Church Hill neighborhood. He died in 1848 .
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:33:13 EST]]>
/Bowser_James_b_ca_1730 Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:29:01 EST <![CDATA[Bowser, James (b. ca. 1730)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowser_James_b_ca_1730 James Bowser was a Continental army soldier during the American Revolution (1775–1783), one of about 5,000 African Americans to serve in the Patriots' army or navy. Born in Nansemond County, Bowser probably first joined the army in 1778 or 1779, fighting in Pennsylvania and then Virginia. He likely was present at the siege of Yorktown. There were two James Bowsers from Virginia, probably related, who fought during the war and distinguishing their lives has become difficult. Bowser was fifty-three when he left the army, and the date and place of his death are unknown.
Fri, 25 Aug 2017 13:29:01 EST]]>
/Caldwell_Alfred_1817-1868 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 17:06:21 EST <![CDATA[Caldwell, Alfred (1817–1868)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Caldwell_Alfred_1817-1868 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 17:06:21 EST]]> /Fire_Richmond_Theatre_1811 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 15:19:02 EST <![CDATA[Fire, Richmond Theatre (1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fire_Richmond_Theatre_1811 The Richmond Theatre fire, on December 26, 1811, caused the deaths of more than seventy people, including the governor of Virginia. At the time it was the deadliest urban disaster in American history. The five-year-old brick theater, located at the corner of H (later Broad) and Twelfth streets, housed performances by the South Carolina–based Placide and Green Company of actors, who played Richmond from August to December that year. On the night of the fire, more than 600 people, or about 6 percent of the city's population, packed the poorly designed and poorly constructed building to watch two full-length plays. At the end of the first act of the second play a lit chandelier was mistakenly raised, catching backdrops and then the roof on fire. Those patrons who sat in the two levels of raised boxes were forced to exit down a single, narrow, winding staircase, which soon collapsed. Others threw themselves out second- and third-story windows. George William Smith, elected governor less than three weeks earlier, was among the listed dead, which included at least fifty-four women and many of Richmond's wealthy elites. Their bodies were interred on the site, and over the crypt the city built Monumental Church, a structure designed by the architect Robert Mills.
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 15:19:02 EST]]>
/Colonial_Virginia Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST <![CDATA[Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colonial_Virginia The colonial period in Virginia began in 1607 with the landing of the first English settlers at Jamestown and ended in 1776 with the establishment of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although a thriving Indian society had existed for thousands of years before the English arrived, war with the European settlers and the introduction of new diseases for which the Indians had no resistance spelled disaster for it. The English colonists, meanwhile, just barely survived, suffering through summer droughts and winter starvation. Salvation came to the colony in the form of smoking tobacco, or what King James I called a "vile and stinking custom," when John Rolfe cultivated a variety of tobacco that sold well in England. In 1619, a General Assembly convened, bringing limited self-government to America. That same year brought the first slaves to Virginia. For most of the 1600s, white indentured servants worked the colony's tobacco fields, but by 1705 the Virginia colony had become a slave society. Nearly all power was in the hands of white male landowners, who ran the government and, by law, belonged to the Church of England. Women who married and worked at home were considered "good wives"; those who refused such "proper" roles were considered troublesome. And while Virginia's ruling men did not encourage women to be independent, they nevertheless fought for their own independence, taking full part in the American Revolution (1775–1783).
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 12:09:50 EST]]>
/Washington_John_M_1838-1918 Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:37:52 EST <![CDATA[Washington, John M. (1838–1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Washington_John_M_1838-1918 John M. Washington was a slave in Fredericksburg who escaped to freedom during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and later wrote a narrative of his life entitled Memorys of the Past. Born in Fredericksburg, Washington spent his earliest years on an Orange County plantation where his mother had been hired out as a field laborer. Upon their return to Fredericksburg, Washington served as his owner's personal slave, remaining in that role even when his mother was hired out to a school principal in Staunton. In 1860, Washington labored in a Fredericksburg tobacco factory and then spent the next year as a waiter in Richmond. When Union troops occupied Fredericksburg in April 1862, he was tending bar in that city's Shakespeare Hotel and used the opportunity to escape to Union lines. Washington worked at the headquarters of Union general Rufus King until Union troops abandoned the city on August 31. He escaped to Washington, D.C., and was eventually joined there by his wife and newborn son, his mother, and her husband. Washington worked as a painter after the war and was active in the Baptist church. He wrote his narrative in 1873 and died at the Massachusetts home of one of his sons in 1918.
Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:37:52 EST]]>
/West_Virginia_Creation_of Tue, 08 Aug 2017 17:55:53 EST <![CDATA[West Virginia, Creation of]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/West_Virginia_Creation_of West Virginia was recognized by the U.S. government as the thirty-fifth state on June 20, 1863, an event that was the culmination of more than sixty years of heated sectional politics and legislative maneuverings. From the first political rumblings of new-state advocates at the turn of the nineteenth century through the formative sessions of the Wheeling conventions held from 1861 until 1863, the creation of West Virginia was a complex and contentious process that divided the residents, communities, and political leaders of Virginia. Spearheaded by northwestern Virginians, the statehood movement began as an effort to expand western political influence and the region's growing industrial economy. Final approval of West Virginia's statehood was forged amid the chaos and divisiveness of the secession debate and the bloodshed of the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Tue, 08 Aug 2017 17:55:53 EST]]>
/Abbott_Charles_Cortez_1906-1986 Tue, 08 Aug 2017 16:20:45 EST <![CDATA[Abbott, Charles Cortez (1906–1986)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Abbott_Charles_Cortez_1906-1986 Charles Cortez Abbott taught business at Harvard University (1923–1954) before becoming the first dean of the business school at the University of Virginia. Born in Kansas, Abbott was raised in New England and educated at Yale and Harvard. He published several books on business and finance before moving to Virginia, where he served as dean of what became known as the Colgate Darden Graduate School of Business Administration from 1954 until 1972. Abbott built the program into the one of the outstanding business schools in the South. He retired to Connecticut and died in 1986.
Tue, 08 Aug 2017 16:20:45 EST]]>
/Blackford_Mary_Berkeley_Minor_1802-1896 Tue, 08 Aug 2017 15:32:35 EST <![CDATA[Blackford, Mary Berkeley Minor (1802–1896)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blackford_Mary_Berkeley_Minor_1802-1896 Mary Berkeley Minor Blackford was an antislavery leader who founded a female auxiliary of the American Colonization Society in Fredericksburg. Born in Fredericksburg, she was unusually well educated by the time she married the attorney William Blackford in 1825. Together they were active in the Episcopal Church and she was a lifelong temperance advocate. Unlike her husband, Blackford saw colonization as the first step toward the abolition of slavery, and she became the most prominent female advocate of colonization in Virginia. In 1829 she founded the Fredericksburg and Falmouth Female Auxiliary to the American Colonization Society, raising hundreds of dollars and recruiting elite women such as Dolley Madison as life members. As public support for colonization and emancipation waned, she turned her efforts to promoting the education of women in Liberia. When she and her husband moved to Lynchburg in 1846, her work ended, although not her strong feelings about the cause. She became increasingly alienated from her family and opposed secession in 1861. She died in 1896.
Tue, 08 Aug 2017 15:32:35 EST]]>
/Foster_Kitty_ca_1790-1863 Fri, 28 Jul 2017 16:35:52 EST <![CDATA[Foster, Kitty (ca. 1790–1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Foster_Kitty_ca_1790-1863 Kitty Foster was a free African American woman who owned property just south of the University of Virginia, the site of which has been memorialized by the school. Born enslaved in Albemarle County, Foster was free by 1820 and renting land in an African American community near the university known as Canada. She purchased just more than two acres from a white merchant in 1833 and lived there until her death, washing clothes for students and faculty. In 1837, a university report accused her of holding firearms for students who were prohibited from carrying them on the university's grounds. Foster died in 1863 and was buried in a cemetery on her property. Archaeologists discovered the cemetery in 1993, and in 2011 the University of Virginia dedicated a memorial on the site.
Fri, 28 Jul 2017 16:35:52 EST]]>
/Campbell_Archibald_W_1833-1899 Fri, 28 Jul 2017 15:52:48 EST <![CDATA[Campbell, Archibald W. (1833–1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Campbell_Archibald_W_1833-1899 Archibald W. Campbell was a journalist, abolitionist, and Republican Party leader. Born in Ohio, he grew up in western Virginia and studied law in New York, where he met the abolitionist and future secretary of state William H. Seward. Campbell followed Seward into the Republican Party and in 1856 purchased the Wheeling Daily Intelligencer, making it the most influential Virginia newspaper outside Richmond. During the American Civil War (1861–1865) Campbell helped lead the movement for the creation of West Virginia but fell out with many Republican Party leaders after the war. He never sought public office and died in 1899.
Fri, 28 Jul 2017 15:52:48 EST]]>
/George_Washington_1732-1799 Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:45:05 EST <![CDATA[Washington, George (1732–1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/George_Washington_1732-1799 George Washington served as commander in chief of the Continental army during the American Revolution (1775–1783), as president of the United States Constitutional Convention (1787), and as first president of the United States (1789–1797). Born to a family of middling wealth, Washington's formal education ended when he was about fifteen. Thanks to his half-brother's marriage into the wealthy Fairfax family, Washington acquired social polish, a taste for aristocratic living, and connections to Virginia's political elite. Long months on the frontier as a surveyor toughened the young Washington, preparing him for service in Virginia's militia during the French and Indian War (1754–1763). He held positions of command at a remarkably young age. Marriage to Martha Custis brought him great wealth. Increasingly restive under British taxation and trade restrictions, Washington took a leading role in the nascent revolutionary movement after British regulars killed colonists and seized private property at the battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts in April 1775. As commander in chief, he led American forces for the entire eight-year war, losing more battles than he won but managing to keep the army together under the most difficult circumstances. By the middle of the war, he was already hailed as the "Father of His Country." His enormous prestige after the war led to his being chosen to lead the Constitutional Convention and to his election as first president.
Thu, 27 Jul 2017 14:45:05 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Alexander_Hamilton_to_Charles_Cotesworth_Pinckney_December_29_1802 Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:29:58 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Alexander Hamilton to Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (December 29, 1802)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Alexander_Hamilton_to_Charles_Cotesworth_Pinckney_December_29_1802 Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:29:58 EST]]> /An_Act_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_Slavery_March_1_1780 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 11:30:07 EST <![CDATA[An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery (March 1, 1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_Slavery_March_1_1780 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 11:30:07 EST]]> /Smythe_Sir_Thomas_ca_1558-1625 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:26:41 EST <![CDATA[Smythe, Sir Thomas (ca. 1558–1625)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smythe_Sir_Thomas_ca_1558-1625 Sir Thomas Smythe was an English merchant who served as the first of three treasurers of the Virginia Company of London. Although his surname is sometimes rendered Smith, he always spelled it Smythe. Like his father, he was a successful haberdasher and investor in trading companies, including the East India Company. He was briefly imprisoned after a rebellion against Queen Elizabeth I, but was knighted by King James I in 1603 and appointed royal ambassador to Russia. In 1609, in conjunction with the company's second charter, he became treasurer (essentially chairperson) of the Virginia Company of London, a joint-stock company that funded the English colony at Jamestown. Smythe's administration was tumultuous and ended with the election of his rival Sir Edwin Sandys as treasurer in 1619. Four years later the Crown opened an investigation into the company for mismanagement and in 1624 revoked its charter. Smythe died in Kent in 1625.
Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:26:41 EST]]>
/Advertisement_by_Lewis_A_Collier_Richmond_Enquirer_August_23_1833 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:22:54 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement by Lewis A. Collier, Richmond Enquirer (August 23, 1833)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_by_Lewis_A_Collier_Richmond_Enquirer_August_23_1833 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:22:54 EST]]> /_Private_Jails_The_Liberator_December_27_1834 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:21:13 EST <![CDATA["Private Jails," The Liberator (December 27, 1834)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Private_Jails_The_Liberator_December_27_1834 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:21:13 EST]]> /_Mysteries_of_a_Shamble_New-York_Tribune_July_15_1861 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:15:46 EST <![CDATA["Mysteries of a Shamble," New-York Tribune (July 15, 1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Mysteries_of_a_Shamble_New-York_Tribune_July_15_1861 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:15:46 EST]]> /VIRGINIA_In_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_MARCH_16_1798 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:00:11 EST <![CDATA[VIRGINIA: In the High Court of Chancery, MARCH 16, 1798.]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/VIRGINIA_In_the_High_Court_of_Chancery_MARCH_16_1798 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:00:11 EST]]> /_An_Act_to_Explain_and_Amend_an_Act_Entitled_An_Act_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_Slavery_March_29_1788 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:53:24 EST <![CDATA["An Act to Explain and Amend an Act Entitled 'An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery'" (March 29, 1788)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_to_Explain_and_Amend_an_Act_Entitled_An_Act_for_the_Gradual_Abolition_of_Slavery_March_29_1788 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:53:24 EST]]> /Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Claypool_s_American_May_25_1796 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:45:55 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement for the Capture of Oney Judge, Claypoole's American (May 25, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Claypool_s_American_May_25_1796 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 09:45:55 EST]]> /Davis_Hector_1816-1863 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:09:00 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Hector (1816–1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Hector_1816-1863 Hector Davis was a prominent slave trader in Richmond in the years leading up to the American Civil War (1861–1865). Born probably in Goochland County, Davis moved to Richmond sometime in the 1840s and established there a slave trading business. He ran a so-called jail, where enslaved men, women, and children were confined awaiting sale. In 1859 his auction house alone did business the value of which exceeded all the flour and equaled all the tobacco exported from Virginia that year. Early in 1860 he and thirteen other men chartered the Traders Bank of Virginia, with Davis serving as the president. Davis never married, but he had several children with an enslaved woman he owned, Ann Banks Davis, whom he moved to Philadelphia about 1860 and freed in his will. Davis died in Richmond in 1863.
Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:09:00 EST]]>
/Davis_Ann_Banks_1830-1907 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:05:24 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Ann Banks (1830–1907)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Ann_Banks_1830-1907 Ann Banks Davis was an enslaved woman who bore several children with the Richmond slave trader Hector Davis. Little is known of Ann Davis's early life. She likely was the daughter of an enslaved woman named Mathilda Banks and did not take the name Davis until later in life. By 1852 she was owned by Hector Davis and that year bore him the first of at least four children. The two never legally married and it is unlikely that, as Davis's property, she could have consented to their physical relationship. By 1860, Hector Davis had moved Ann and her children to Philadelphia, where they continued to live after his death in 1863. He left them substantial money in his will but the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865) rendered much of his inheritance worthless or unattainable. Davis died in 1907.
Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:05:24 EST]]>
/Hinton_Corinna_1835-1887 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:00:35 EST <![CDATA[Hinton, Corinna (1835–1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hinton_Corinna_1835-1887 Corinna Hinton was an enslaved woman who bore several children with the Richmond slave trader Silas Omohundro and helped him run his business. Little is known of Hinton's early life. By the time she was thirteen years old, she was owned by Omohundro and had given birth to the first of their seven children. The two never legally married and it is unlikely that, as Omohundro's property, Hinton could have consented to their physical relationship, although historians have varying interpretations. In addition to running the household, Hinton made clothes for slaves about to be sold and helped operate a boardinghouse. Omohundro died in 1864, freeing Hinton and acknowledging himself as the father of her children. She later went into business with a white journalist from Maine, Nathaniel Davidson. It is unclear whether the two married. Hinton died in 1887.
Thu, 06 Jul 2017 15:00:35 EST]]>
/Barret_William_1786-1871 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 14:55:50 EST <![CDATA[Barret, William (1786–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barret_William_1786-1871 Thu, 06 Jul 2017 14:55:50 EST]]> /Harland_Marion_1830-1922 Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:52:17 EST <![CDATA[Harland, Marion (1830–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harland_Marion_1830-1922 Marion Harland was a writer of novels, short stories, biographies, travel narratives, cookbooks, and domestic manuals whose career stretched across seven decades of sectional conflict and great change in American life. Harland chronicled much of that change, penning novels that suggested her own divided loyalties between North and South before establishing herself as an expert and often a sly and sarcastic commentator on the domestic arts of homemaking.
Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:52:17 EST]]>
/Omohundro_Silas_1807-1864 Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:34:56 EST <![CDATA[Omohundro, Silas (1807–1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Omohundro_Silas_1807-1864 Silas Omohundro was a Richmond slave trader who also operated, with his enslaved concubine Corinna Hinton, a complex that included a slave jail and boardinghouse. Born in 1807 and raised on his father's farm in Fluvanna County, Omohundro worked as an agent for the slave-trading firm Franklin & Armfield, in Alexandria, before moving to Richmond by the mid-1840s. There he ran a boardinghouse for slave traders and a jail where they confined enslaved men, women, and children awaiting sale. Omohundro also engaged in the direct buying and selling of slaves, including those he and other traders called "fancy," a label that indicated that they were to be sold for sexual purposes. Although never legally married, Omohundro had children with at least three different women, including his slaves Louisa Tandy and Corinna Hinton. With the latter he had seven children and on at least two occasions introduced the light-skinned Hinton as his wife. In his will, executed in July 1864, Omohundro legally acknowledged Hinton's children as his own and freed them and their mother.
Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:34:56 EST]]>
/Slave_Trade_Eyre_Crowe_s_Images_of_the Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:17:22 EST <![CDATA[Slave Trade, Eyre Crowe's Images of the]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Slave_Trade_Eyre_Crowe_s_Images_of_the English painter Eyre Crowe's images of the American slave trade include a series of sketches later published as wood engravings and, in two instances, turned into oil paintings that depict the domestic trade in enslaved African Americans just before the American Civil War (1861–1865). These images provide some of the only eyewitness visual renderings of the slave trade in Richmond, the largest slave-trading center in the Upper South. An act of Congress had abolished the international slave trade in the United States effective 1808, but a domestic trade accounted for the sale of millions of slaves from the Upper South to the Deep South, where the cotton boom led to a near-bottomless market for enslaved labor. The process of trafficking slaves, which Crowe's images helped to illuminate and publicize, included auction houses, auction blocks, so-called slave jails, and transportation either on foot or by train. Crowe was visiting Richmond in 1853 as the secretary of British novelist William Makepeace Thackeray, who was on a lecture tour, when he witnessed and sketched a slave auction on Wall Street, down the hill from downtown Richmond. His sketching nearly caused him to be removed from the auction house. Later, he also witnessed and depicted slaves being taken to a railroad depot. Two paintings made from his sketches, After the Sale: Slaves Going South from Richmond and Slaves Waiting for Sale, Richmond, Virginia, were exhibited in Great Britain in 1854 and 1861 respectively. Together with Crowe's other images, these paintings played an important role in spreading antislavery awareness in both Britain and in America.
Thu, 29 Jun 2017 11:17:22 EST]]>
/Minnigerode_Charles_1814-1894 Thu, 22 Jun 2017 13:56:49 EST <![CDATA[Minnigerode, Charles (1814–1894)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Minnigerode_Charles_1814-1894 Charles Minnigerode was a professor of Latin and Greek and, for thirty-three years, the rector of Saint Paul's Episcopal Church in Richmond. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Saint Paul's was sometimes called "the Cathedral of the Confederacy," and its parishioners included Confederate president Jefferson Davis and Confederate general Robert E. Lee. In 1862, Minnigerode, who immigrated to the United States from Germany in 1839, baptized Davis, and in 1864, he read prayers at the burial of Confederate general J. E. B. Stuart.
Thu, 22 Jun 2017 13:56:49 EST]]>
/Stuart_Alexander_H_H_1807-1891 Thu, 22 Jun 2017 13:36:09 EST <![CDATA[Stuart, Alexander H. H. (1807–1891)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Stuart_Alexander_H_H_1807-1891 Alexander H. H. Stuart was a member of the House of Delegates (1836–1839, 1873–1877) and the U.S. House of Representatives (1841–1843), secretary of the interior in the administration of Millard Fillmore (1850–1853), a member of the Senate of Virginia (1857–1861) and the Convention of 1861, and a principal member of the Committee of Nine, which negotiated with the federal government for an end to Reconstruction in Virginia in 1869. Born in Staunton, he studied law at the University of Virginia before going into politics. In the General Assembly and then Congress, Stuart was a typical Whig in his support of internal improvements and his moderation on the issue of slavery. After John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859, he helped pen a government report condemning Northern abolitionist agitation. Stuart voted against secession in 1861 but signed the Ordinance of Secession. Stuart did not serve in government or the military during the American Civil War (1861–1865), but in 1867, amidst controversy over a new state constitution, he helped to form the Conservative Party. He and eight other men, the so-called Committee of Nine, successfully negotiated a plan with the federal government to present an acceptable constitution to Virginia voters and so end Reconstruction in the state. He also served as rector of the University of Virginia (1876–1882, 1886­–1887) and president of the Virginia Historical Society (1881–1891). He died in 1891.
Thu, 22 Jun 2017 13:36:09 EST]]>
/Farmville_Protests_of_1963 Fri, 16 Jun 2017 11:45:10 EST <![CDATA[Farmville Protests of 1963]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farmville_Protests_of_1963 The Farmville civil rights demonstrations began late in July 1963, when the Reverend L. Francis Griffin organized a direct-action campaign to, as he told reporters, "protest closed schools, delay in the courts, and segregation in its totality." Public schools in Prince Edward County and its county seat, Farmville, had been closed since June 1959, when county officials refused to levy taxes to operate schools rather than follow federal court orders to desegregate. The state government had abandoned its policy of Massive Resistance, but Prince Edward County remained steadfast and became the only place in the nation without public education. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Allen v. County School Board of Prince Edward County and later Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County had petitioned the federal judiciary to open the schools, but the case moved glacially through the courts. African Americans in Prince Edward County faced a variety of additional obstacles, such as discriminatory hiring practices and de facto and de jure segregation. The two-month direct action campaign Griffin launched that summer included picketing along Main Street, sit-ins, kneel-ins, try-ins, and economic boycotts. The protests ended in September 1963, after the formation of the Prince Edward Free School Association, a nonprofit organization that established and maintained an integrated school system in Prince Edward County until 1964, when the U.S. Supreme Court ordered the county to reopen its public schools. The Farmville protests did not end the county's racial discrimination, but they helped set the community on a path to change.
Fri, 16 Jun 2017 11:45:10 EST]]>
/Henderson_Helen_Timmons_1877-1925 Wed, 14 Jun 2017 16:18:52 EST <![CDATA[Henderson, Helen Timmons (1877–1925)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Henderson_Helen_Timmons_1877-1925 Helen Timmons Henderson, from the town of Council in Buchanan County, served in the Virginia House of Delegates (1924–1925), one of the first two women elected to that body (the other was Norfolk's Sarah Lee Fain). She died before having the opportunity to run for a second term.
Wed, 14 Jun 2017 16:18:52 EST]]>
/PLEASANTS_against_PLEASANTS_Nov_r_Term_1798 Fri, 09 Jun 2017 12:00:07 EST <![CDATA[PLEASANTS against PLEASANTS. Nov'r. Term 1798.]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/PLEASANTS_against_PLEASANTS_Nov_r_Term_1798 Fri, 09 Jun 2017 12:00:07 EST]]> /Pope_John_1822-1892 Tue, 06 Jun 2017 13:31:56 EST <![CDATA[Pope, John (1822–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pope_John_1822-1892 John Pope was a Union general during the American Civil War (1861–1865) with a reputation for outspokenness and arrogance. After serving in the Mexican War (1846–1848) as an engineer, the West Point graduate fought well in the West during 1861 and 1862, prompting U.S. president Abraham Lincoln to transfer him east. There, he exacerbated his already bad relations with Union generals George B. McClellan and Fitz-John Porter by issuing a proclamation trumpeting his own generalship. When he declared that he would make his "headquarters in the saddle," some quipped that he had mistaken his hindquarters for his headquarters, and when he announced a series of hard-war policies aimed at punishing Confederate civilians, Confederate general Robert E. Lee labeled him a "miscreant." At the head of the new Army of Virginia, Pope got the opportunity to confront Lee at the Second Battle of Manassas in August 1862 but was soundly defeated. Pope was transferred to the Dakotas, where he fought against Indians in the aftermath of the Sioux Uprising (1862). During Reconstruction (1865–1877), he held military administrative posts in the South. He died in 1892.
Tue, 06 Jun 2017 13:31:56 EST]]>
/Trist_Nicholas_Philip_1800-1874 Tue, 16 May 2017 16:29:16 EST <![CDATA[Trist, Nicholas Philip (1800–1874)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Trist_Nicholas_Philip_1800-1874 Nicholas Philip Trist was a diplomat who served as American consul to Cuba and helped to negotiate the end of the Mexican War (1846–1848). Born in Charlottesville to a family with a long acquaintance with Thomas Jefferson, Trist attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point without taking a degree and soon after married Jefferson's granddaughter, Virginia Jefferson Randolph. He served as clerk to the University of Virginia board of visitors, owned a newspaper in Charlottesville, and served briefly as President Andrew Jackson's private secretary. In 1833 Trist was appointed American consult to Cuba and he survived calls for his removal in 1839. Six years later President James K. Polk made Trist the State Department's chief clerk, and in 1847 dispatched him to Mexico with instructions to discreetly negotiate an end to the war. He did that, but not without confrontations with both the president and General Winfield Scott. After his return, Trist practiced law in New York, supported the Union during the American Civil War (1861–1865), and later moved to Alexandria. He died there in 1874.
Tue, 16 May 2017 16:29:16 EST]]>
/Daniel_Peter_V_Jr_1818-1889 Tue, 16 May 2017 16:19:40 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Peter V. Jr. (1818–1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Peter_V_Jr_1818-1889 Peter V. Daniel Jr. was a railroad executive. Born in Henrico County, he was the son of Peter V. Daniel, a longtime member of the Council of State and later an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, and the grandson of Edmund Randolph, the Virginia governor and U.S. attorney general and secretary of state under George Washington. Daniel was privately educated and studied civil engineering and law. In 1853 he became president of the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad Company and seven years later of the Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad Company. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Daniel struggled to keep the strategically important railroad, which connected Washington, D.C., and Richmond, running. The company suffered but remained afloat after the war, and in 1871 Daniel also became president of the Potomac Railroad Company. Daniel died in Richmond in 1889.
Tue, 16 May 2017 16:19:40 EST]]>
/Broaddus_William_F_1801-1876 Tue, 16 May 2017 16:14:46 EST <![CDATA[Broaddus, William F. (1801–1876)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Broaddus_William_F_1801-1876 William F. Broaddus was a Baptist minister. Born in what would later become Rappahannock County, he was educated there and in 1824 ordained as the pastor of the F. T. Baptist Church. Two years later he moved to Frederick County and advocated the work of traveling missionaries against the opposition of those who feared they would corrupt the principles of individual salvation. Broaddus's proposal that money be raised to evangelize among the poor led the Ketocton Baptist Association to deny him a seat and the Columbia Baptist Association, at least temporarily, to bar him from its conference. Broaddus eventually moved to Kentucky, then worked as an agent raising funds for Columbian College (later George Washington University) in Washington, D.C. In 1853, he became the pastor of Fredericksburg Baptist Church. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he was briefly imprisoned by the U.S. Army as a Confederate sympathizer. From 1863 to 1868 he served as pastor of the Charlottesville Baptist Church before returning to Fredericksburg. He died there in 1876.
Tue, 16 May 2017 16:14:46 EST]]>
/Crozet_Claudius_1789-1864 Mon, 15 May 2017 15:44:05 EST <![CDATA[Crozet, Claudius (1789–1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crozet_Claudius_1789-1864 Claudius Crozet was a civil engineer best known for his work blasting tunnels through the Blue Ridge Mountains. Born in France, he received a technical education and artillery training before entering the French army. He was captured by the Russians at the Battle of Borodino in 1812 and served two years as a prisoner of war. From 1816 to 1823 Crozet taught at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, after which he began the first of two stints as principal engineer for the Virginia Board of Public Works. A difficult man, Crozet clashed with government officials over transportation projects in western Virginia. He resigned in 1832 and spent time working in Louisiana before returning to the position in 1837 and serving until 1843. Crozet taught at the Virginia Military Institute and was the first president of its board. In 1849, as chief engineer for the Blue Ridge Railroad Company, he began work on a series of tunnels through the mountains separating Charlottesville and Staunton. The largest, designated the Crozet Tunnel, opened in April 1858. By that time Crozet had moved on to a water project in Washington, D.C., and in 1859 became the chief engineer of the Virginia and Kentucky Railroad. He died in 1864. The town of Crozet in Albemarle County is named for him.
Mon, 15 May 2017 15:44:05 EST]]>
/Blackford_William_1801-April_1864 Tue, 09 May 2017 16:31:48 EST <![CDATA[Blackford, William (1801–1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blackford_William_1801-April_1864 William Blackford was a journalist and diplomat. Born in Maryland, he moved to Fredericksburg in 1825 to practice law. From 1828 to 1841 he owned the Fredericksburg Political Arena and Literary Messenger, which supported the Whig Party. With his wife, Mary Berkeley Minor Blackford, he was active in the colonization movement. From 1842 to 1845 he served as chargé d'affaires to the Republic of New Granada, helping to negotiate a new postal treaty. In 1846, he purchased a paper in Lynchburg, which he sold in 1850 to become postmaster. In 1853 he became the cashier of the new Exchange Bank of Lynchburg, a position he held until his death. Blackford supported the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and served as the Confederate States Treasury agent in Lynchburg. He died in 1864.
Tue, 09 May 2017 16:31:48 EST]]>
/Highway_Bond_Referendum_1923 Mon, 08 May 2017 14:22:56 EST <![CDATA[Highway Bond Referendum, 1923]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Highway_Bond_Referendum_1923 The 1923 Highway Bond Referendum was defeated by voters after a long and bruising battle in the General Assembly where state senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. emerged as a real political force. At issue was how to pay for much-needed road improvement. While bonds were popular at first, Byrd had managed to muster a fierce and stubborn opposition, arguing that a gas tax, instead of bonds, would allow the state to adopt a "pay-as-you-go" policy that was more fiscally responsible. Byrd's behind-the-scenes machinations foreshadowed the political powerhouse he was about to become—as Virginia's governor, as a U.S. senator, and as head of the Byrd Organization, a statewide Democratic Party machine.
Mon, 08 May 2017 14:22:56 EST]]>
/Blind_Billy_Death_Notice_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_April_23_1855 Fri, 05 May 2017 11:41:18 EST <![CDATA[Blind Billy Death Notice, Richmond Daily Dispatch (April 23, 1855)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blind_Billy_Death_Notice_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_April_23_1855 Fri, 05 May 2017 11:41:18 EST]]> /Deed_of_Gift_Robert_Carter_III_s Fri, 05 May 2017 11:35:46 EST <![CDATA[Deed of Gift, Robert Carter III's]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Deed_of_Gift_Robert_Carter_III_s Robert Carter III's Deed of Gift was a legal document, signed on August 1, 1791, and presented in Northumberland District Court on September 5, that set out provisions to free 452 enslaved men and woman. By the time those provisions were fulfilled, more than three decades later, between 500 and 600 were freed, probably the largest emancipation by an individual in the United States before 1860. Carter was a member of one of the wealthiest families in Virginia and inherited hundreds of slaves. Perhaps because of a religious conversion, he turned against slavery during and after the American Revolution (1775–1783). His plan to free his own slaves was carefully designed to conform to state law and to be gradual. Adults would be freed in small groups each year based on their age, children would be freed when they became adults, and the elderly would be allowed to independently farm on Carter's Nomony Hall estate for the remainder of their lives. In 1793, Carter moved to Baltimore, leaving the process in the hands of the Baptist minister Benjamin Dawson. He later sold his remaining slaves to Dawson. After Carter's death in 1804, Carter's heirs sued the minister to stop the manumissions but lost an 1808 ruling by the Virginia Court of Appeals. The scholar Andrew Levy has noted that Carter's Deed of Gift has not simply been forgotten but actively ignored. Perhaps in response to his complaint, a roadside marker dedicated to the deed was erected in Northumberland County in 2016.
Fri, 05 May 2017 11:35:46 EST]]>
/Carter_Robert_1728-1804 Fri, 05 May 2017 11:32:43 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Robert (1728–1804)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Robert_1728-1804 Robert Carter, also known as Robert Carter III and Councillor Carter, was a member of Virginia's Council of State (1758–1776) who, after a religious conversion, emancipated more than five hundred of his enslaved African Americans. Heir to a fortune in land and slaves built by his grandfather, Robert "King" Carter, Carter studied law in London before returning to Virginia in 1751. His contemporaries remarked on his lack of learning and social grace, and he twice ran unsuccessfully for the House of Burgesses, receiving only a handful of votes each time. Through the influence of his wife's uncle, Carter was appointed to the Council. In 1763, he served on the Virginia Committee of Correspondence, and in 1766 drafted the Council's response to the Stamp Act. In 1777, he converted to evangelical Christianity, aligning himself with the Baptists. In 1788, he converted again, this time to the teachings of the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg. On August 1, 1791, he took the legal steps to gradually manumit, or free, more than 500 of his slaves, the largest individual emancipation before 1860. After the death of his wife, Carter moved to Baltimore, Maryland, where he died in 1804.
Fri, 05 May 2017 11:32:43 EST]]>
/_Henry_Martin_by_David_Marvel_Reynolds_Culbreth_The_University_of_Virginia_Memories_of_Her_Student-Life_and_Professors_1908 Fri, 05 May 2017 10:32:47 EST <![CDATA["Henry Martin" by David M. R. Culbreth, The University of Virginia: Memories of Her Student-Life and Professors (1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Henry_Martin_by_David_Marvel_Reynolds_Culbreth_The_University_of_Virginia_Memories_of_Her_Student-Life_and_Professors_1908 Fri, 05 May 2017 10:32:47 EST]]> /_Faithful_Janitor_Dead_at_89_Daily_Progress_October_6_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 10:02:59 EST <![CDATA["Faithful Janitor Dead at 89," Charlottesville Daily Progress (October 6, 1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Faithful_Janitor_Dead_at_89_Daily_Progress_October_6_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 10:02:59 EST]]> /_Funeral_of_Henry_Martin_Daily_Progress_October_9_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:45:39 EST <![CDATA["Funeral of Henry Martin," Charlottesville Daily Progress (October 9, 1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Funeral_of_Henry_Martin_Daily_Progress_October_9_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:45:39 EST]]> /_Henry_Martin_1826-1915_by_John_S_Patton_Alumni_Bulletin_January_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:28:25 EST <![CDATA["Henry Martin, 1826–1915" by John S. Patton, Alumni Bulletin (October 1915)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Henry_Martin_1826-1915_by_John_S_Patton_Alumni_Bulletin_January_1915 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:28:25 EST]]> /_Uncle_Henry_Bell-Ringer_A_Dramatic_Monologue_Cork_and_Curls_1914 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:18:15 EST <![CDATA["Uncle Henry: Bell-Ringer, A Dramatic Monologue," Corks and Curls (1914)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Uncle_Henry_Bell-Ringer_A_Dramatic_Monologue_Cork_and_Curls_1914 Fri, 05 May 2017 09:18:15 EST]]> /Custis_John_Parke_1754-1781 Thu, 04 May 2017 15:02:32 EST <![CDATA[Custis, John Parke (1754–1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_John_Parke_1754-1781 John Parke Custis was a planter and member of the House of Delegates (1778–1781). After the death of his father, Daniel Parke Custis, his mother, Martha Dandridge Custis, married George Washington and moved the family to Mount Vernon. Washington became Custis's guardian and the administrator of his large inheritance. Custis was never a strong student (one of his teachers described him as "exceedingly indolent") and left King's College in New York City without earning a degree. Back in Virginia he managed his extensive landholdings and served in the House of Delegates, where during the American Revolution (1775–1783) he criticized the conduct of the war but often did not attend the assembly's sessions. Custis served with his stepfather at the siege of Yorktown (1781) and died of illness a few months later.
Thu, 04 May 2017 15:02:32 EST]]>
/Religious_Revivals_During_the_Civil_War Thu, 04 May 2017 13:55:28 EST <![CDATA[Religious Revivals during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Religious_Revivals_During_the_Civil_War Religious revivals during the American Civil War (1861–1865) were characterized by surges in religious interest and observance among large numbers of soldiers in both the Union and Confederate armies. Although they came not long after the Second Great Awakening, which was primarily a Baptist and Methodist phenomenon, the soldier revivals tended to be ecumenical and to cross class boundaries. They were often marked by frequent, fervent, and heavily attended religious ceremonies, including preaching services, organized prayer meetings, and "experience meetings," or gatherings in which individual soldiers took turns sharing with the group how God had brought them to faith in Christ. They were also evidenced by much private Bible reading and small informal prayer meetings among the troops.
Thu, 04 May 2017 13:55:28 EST]]>
/Robert_Carter_III_s_Deed_of_Gift_August_1_1791 Wed, 03 May 2017 10:47:14 EST <![CDATA[Robert Carter III's Deed of Gift (August 1, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robert_Carter_III_s_Deed_of_Gift_August_1_1791 Wed, 03 May 2017 10:47:14 EST]]> /Ferdinando_Fairfax_Plan_for_liberating_the_negroes_within_the_united_states_December_1_1790 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 14:06:44 EST <![CDATA[Ferdinando Fairfax, "Plan for liberating the negroes within the united states" (December 1, 1790)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ferdinando_Fairfax_Plan_for_liberating_the_negroes_within_the_united_states_December_1_1790 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 14:06:44 EST]]> /Virginia_Gazette_and_General_Advertiser_September_28_1791 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 09:30:52 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser (September 28, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Gazette_and_General_Advertiser_September_28_1791 Fri, 28 Apr 2017 09:30:52 EST]]> /_Funeral_Procession_Richmond_Dispatch_June_7_1854 Thu, 27 Apr 2017 12:52:55 EST <![CDATA["Funeral Procession," Richmond Dispatch (June 7, 1854)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Funeral_Procession_Richmond_Dispatch_June_7_1854 Thu, 27 Apr 2017 12:52:55 EST]]> /Schele_de_Vere_Maximilian_1820-1898 Wed, 26 Apr 2017 13:04:09 EST <![CDATA[Schele De Vere, Maximilian (1820–1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Schele_de_Vere_Maximilian_1820-1898 Maximilian Schele De Vere was a professor of modern languages at the University of Virginia and a founding member of the American Philological Society. Born in Sweden, likely with the surname von Scheele, he later changed his name, possibly after marrying an Irish woman named De Vere. After studying languages in Germany, Schele De Vere edited a German-language newspaper in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and then studied Greek at Harvard. In 1844, he joined the faculty at the University of Virginia, teaching there for more than fifty years. He supported the Confederacy during the American Civil War (1861–1865), serving as captain of a home guard unit. Before and after the war he published regularly, including translations, collections of essays, and textbooks. He resigned his teaching position in 1895 amid accusations he had sent libelous letters to another professor and the chair of the faculty. He also may have become addicted to morphine taken to control back pain. Schele De Vere died in Washington, D.C., in 1898.
Wed, 26 Apr 2017 13:04:09 EST]]>
/Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Philadelphia_Gazette_May_24_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 15:14:32 EST <![CDATA[Advertisement for the Capture of Oney Judge, Philadelphia Gazette (May 24, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisement_for_the_Capture_of_Oney_Judge_Philadelphia_Gazette_May_24_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 15:14:32 EST]]> /_Washington_s_Runaway_Slave_The_Liberator_August_22_1845 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:48:40 EST <![CDATA["Washington's Runaway Slave," The Liberator (August 22, 1845)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Washington_s_Runaway_Slave_The_Liberator_August_22_1845 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 14:48:40 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Lee_to_George_Washington_June_28_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 13:23:46 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Lee to George Washington (June 28, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Lee_to_George_Washington_June_28_1796 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 13:23:46 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Burwell_Bassett_Jr_August_11_1799 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 09:47:34 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Burwell Bassett Jr. (August 11, 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Burwell_Bassett_Jr_August_11_1799 Fri, 21 Apr 2017 09:47:34 EST]]> /Carter_Charles_1732-1806 Wed, 19 Apr 2017 17:48:12 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Charles (1732–1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Charles_1732-1806 Charles Carter, a planter and member-elect of the Council of State, spent much of his adulthood managing Corotoman, the Lancaster County plantation he inherited from his father, John Carter. Later he inherited Shirley Plantation in Charles City County and relocated there after renovating its main house. He was a successful and wealthy planter and entrepreneur, owning more than 13,000 acres of land in thirteen counties at his death. Carter served as a member of the House of Burgesses from 1758 until the American Revolution (1775–1783). Carter supported the reaction against greater parliamentary regulation of colonial affairs and sat in the four Revolutionary Conventions that met in 1774 and 1775. Despite these efforts, he declined a seat on the Council of State in the new commonwealth of Virginia. He died in 1806.
Wed, 19 Apr 2017 17:48:12 EST]]>
/Judge_Oney_ca_1773-1848 Wed, 19 Apr 2017 16:51:23 EST <![CDATA[Judge, Oney (ca. 1773–1848)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judge_Oney_ca_1773-1848 Oney Judge was the enslaved personal attendant of Martha Custis Washington when she ran away from the President's House in Philadelphia in 1796. Born about 1773 at Mount Vernon, Judge began laboring in the mansion when she was ten years old. After George Washington was elected president in 1789, she accompanied the family to New York and then, when the federal capital moved, to Philadelphia. On May 21, 1796, she escaped from the president's mansion while the family ate dinner and boarded a ship for Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Washington's agents tracked her there, twice speaking with her, in 1796 and 1799, but failing to apprehend her. Judge married the free black sailor John Staines in 1797 and the couple had three children before his death in 1803. Oney Judge Staines lived the rest of her life in poverty. In 1845 and 1847 she gave interviews to abolitionist newspapers, recounting the story of her life with the Washington family and her escape from slavery. She died in Greenland, New Hampshire, in 1848.
Wed, 19 Apr 2017 16:51:23 EST]]>
/Brown_Henry_Box_ca_1815 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 14:23:44 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Henry Box (1815 or 1816–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Henry_Box_ca_1815 Henry Box Brown was an abolitionist lecturer and performer. Born a slave in Louisa County, he worked in a Richmond tobacco factory and lived in a rented house. Then, in 1848, his wife, who was owned by another master and who was pregnant with their fourth child, was sold away to North Carolina, along with their children. Brown resolved to escape from slavery and enlisted the help of a free black and a white slaveowner, who conspired to ship him in a box to Philadelphia. In March 1849 the package was accepted there by a leader of the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. As a free man, Brown lectured across New England on the evils of slavery and participated in the publication of the Narrative of Henry Box Brown (1849). In 1850, a moving panorama, Henry Box Brown's Mirror of Slavery, opened in Boston. That same year, Brown, worried that he might be re-enslaved, moved to England, where he lectured, presented his panorama, and performed as a hypnotist. In 1875, he returned to the United States with his wife and daughter Annie and performed as a magician. Brown died in Toronto on June 15, 1897. He stands as a powerful symbol of the Underground Railroad and enslaved African Americans' thirst for freedom.
Fri, 14 Apr 2017 14:23:44 EST]]>
/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Tobias_Lear_April_12_1791 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 13:02:31 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Tobias Lear (April 12, 1791)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Tobias_Lear_April_12_1791 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 13:02:31 EST]]> /Letter_from_Joseph_Whipple_to_George_Washington_December_22_1796 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 12:07:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Joseph Whipple to George Washington (December 22, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Joseph_Whipple_to_George_Washington_December_22_1796 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 12:07:44 EST]]> /_An_ACT_concerning_descendants_of_indians_and_other_persons_of_mixed_blood_not_being_free_negroes_or_mulattoes_February_25_1833 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 11:39:11 EST <![CDATA["An ACT concerning descendants of indians and other persons of mixed blood, not being free negroes or mulattoes" (February 25, 1833)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_concerning_descendants_of_indians_and_other_persons_of_mixed_blood_not_being_free_negroes_or_mulattoes_February_25_1833 Fri, 14 Apr 2017 11:39:11 EST]]> /Bassett_Burwell_1764-1841 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:52:31 EST <![CDATA[Bassett, Burwell (1764–1841)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bassett_Burwell_1764-1841 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:52:31 EST]]> /Blair_John_D_1759-1823 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:50:02 EST <![CDATA[Blair, John D. (1759–1823)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_John_D_1759-1823 John D. Blair was a Presbyterian minister in Hanover County and Richmond who preached variously at Pole Green Church, the Henrico Parish Church, and the Virginia State Capitol. Born in Pennsylvania and educated at what is now Princeton University, Blair may have served briefly in the American Revolution (1775–1783). After moving to Virginia he taught in Hanover County and served as president of the Washington-Henry Academy there from 1782 to 1790. He served as minister of Pole Green Church from 1785 to 1821 and as chaplain of the House of Delegates from 1800 to 1801. Blair was famously close friends with the Episcopal minister John Buchanan and after the Richmond Theatre fire in 1811 the two helped raise money for the construction of Monumental Church on the site of the disaster. While they may have intended to share the church, the Episcopalians appropriated it for themselves. He died in Richmond in 1823.
Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:50:02 EST]]>
/Cary_Lott_ca_1780-1828 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:41:35 EST <![CDATA[Cary, Lott (ca. 1780–1828)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cary_Lott_ca_1780-1828 Lott Cary was a Baptist minister and one of the first American settlers of Liberia. Born enslaved about 1780, he labored in Richmond tobacco warehouses before purchasing his own freedom by about 1813. He bought land in Henrico County, married, and became a popular lay preacher. In 1815 Cary helped found the Richmond African Baptist Missionary Society and after the establishment of the American Colonization Society a year later, prepared to immigrate with other free blacks to Liberia, in West Africa. He arrived there in 1821 and helped to settle what became the town of Monrovia in 1824. Demonstrating a wide range of leadership skills, he tended the sick, organized a native labor force, established a joint stock company, and helped extend the settlement's territory. He was twice elected vice agent of Liberia, in 1826 and 1827, and president of the Monrovia Baptist Missionary Society. He assumed leadership of Monrovia in 1828 but died later that year in an accidental gunpowder explosion. After his death, Cary became something of a folk hero, becoming even more eloquent and pious than he had been in life.
Thu, 13 Apr 2017 15:41:35 EST]]>
/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Joseph_Whipple_November_28_1796 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 12:55:19 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Joseph Whipple (November 28, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Joseph_Whipple_November_28_1796 Thu, 13 Apr 2017 12:55:19 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Oliver_Wolcott_Jr_September_1_1796 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 12:19:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Oliver Wolcott Jr. (September 1, 1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Oliver_Wolcott_Jr_September_1_1796 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 12:19:35 EST]]> /Barrett_Gilbert_Hunt_the_City_Blacksmith_by_Philip_1859 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 10:41:13 EST <![CDATA[Gilbert Hunt, the City Blacksmith by Philip Barrett (1859)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barrett_Gilbert_Hunt_the_City_Blacksmith_by_Philip_1859 Thu, 06 Apr 2017 10:41:13 EST]]> /Hunt_Gilbert_ca_1780-1863 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 17:05:28 EST <![CDATA[Hunt, Gilbert (ca. 1780–1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hunt_Gilbert_ca_1780-1863 Gilbert Hunt was an African American blacksmith in Richmond who became known in the city for his aid during two fires: the Richmond Theatre fire in 1811 and the Virginia State Penitentiary fire in 1823. Born enslaved in King William County, Hunt trained as a blacksmith in Richmond and remained there most of the rest of his life. After the Richmond Theatre caught fire on December 26, 1811, he ran to the scene and, with the help of Dr. James D. McCaw, helped to rescue as many as a dozen women. He performed a similar feat of courage on August 8, 1823, during the penitentiary fire. Hunt purchased his freedom and in 1829 immigrated to the West African colony of Liberia, where he stayed only eight months. After returning to Richmond, he resumed blacksmithing and served as an outspoken, sometimes-controversial deacon in the First African Baptist Church. In 1848 he helped form the Union Burial Ground Society. In 1859, a Richmond author published a biography of Hunt, largely in the elderly blacksmith's own words, but portraying him as impoverished and meek, a depiction at odds with the historical record. Hunt died in 1863.
Wed, 05 Apr 2017 17:05:28 EST]]>
/Beverley_Robert_ca_1740-1800 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:37:06 EST <![CDATA[Beverley, Robert (ca. 1740–1800)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Beverley_Robert_ca_1740-1800 Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:37:06 EST]]> /Godwyn_Preface_and_Introduction_from_The_Negro_s_and_Indians_Advocate_by_Morgan_1680 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:18:01 EST <![CDATA[Godwyn, Preface and Introduction from The Negro's and Indians Advocate by Morgan (1680)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Godwyn_Preface_and_Introduction_from_The_Negro_s_and_Indians_Advocate_by_Morgan_1680 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:18:01 EST]]> /_A_Colored_Hero_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_November_30_1858 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:14:50 EST <![CDATA["A Colored Hero," Richmond Daily Dispatch (November 30, 1858)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_A_Colored_Hero_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_November_30_1858 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:14:50 EST]]> /_Death_of_Gilbert_Hunt_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_April_27_1863 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:13:14 EST <![CDATA["Death of Gilbert Hunt," Richmond Daily Dispatch (April 27, 1863)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Death_of_Gilbert_Hunt_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_April_27_1863 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:13:14 EST]]> /Johnson_Excerpts_from_Twenty-Eight_Years_a_Slave_by_Thomas_L_1909 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:11:03 EST <![CDATA[Johnson, Excerpts from Twenty-Eight Years a Slave by Thomas L. (1909)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Johnson_Excerpts_from_Twenty-Eight_Years_a_Slave_by_Thomas_L_1909 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:11:03 EST]]> /_To_the_Citizens_of_Richmond_RichmondEnquirer_December_31_1811 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:03:02 EST <![CDATA["To the Citizens of Richmond," Richmond Enquirer (December 31, 1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_To_the_Citizens_of_Richmond_RichmondEnquirer_December_31_1811 Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:03:02 EST]]> /Refugees_During_the_Civil_War Mon, 27 Mar 2017 11:37:54 EST <![CDATA[Refugees during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Refugees_During_the_Civil_War Virginia possessed the largest number of the estimated 200,000 Southerners who fled their homes during the American Civil War (1861–1865). There were three broad classes of refugees in Virginia during the war—slaves, white Unionists and other dissidents, and Confederates—although historians have tended to focus only on Confederates. These three groups shared some of the same dislocations, but their experiences of the war differed dramatically. White and black Unionists and dissidents who fled to Union lines contributed to the Northern war effort. Confederates, in contrast, bitterly resented the Union invaders, but the hardships of refugee life exacerbated feelings of war weariness. This, combined with social divisions inside Virginia, factored into Confederate defeat.
Mon, 27 Mar 2017 11:37:54 EST]]>
/Constitution_of_the_Union_Burial_Ground_Society_January_23_1848 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 12:12:11 EST <![CDATA[Constitution of the Union Burial Ground Society (January 23, 1848)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Constitution_of_the_Union_Burial_Ground_Society_January_23_1848 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 12:12:11 EST]]> /An_ACT_providing_for_the_voluntary_enslavement_of_the_free_negroes_of_the_commonwealth_February_18_1856 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:44:38 EST <![CDATA[An ACT providing for the voluntary enslavement of the free negroes of the commonwealth (February 18, 1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_providing_for_the_voluntary_enslavement_of_the_free_negroes_of_the_commonwealth_February_18_1856 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:44:38 EST]]> /An_ACT_for_the_Voluntary_Enslavement_of_Free_Negroes_without_compensation_to_the_Commonwealth_March_28_1861 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:29:53 EST <![CDATA[An ACT for the Voluntary Enslavement of Free Negroes, without compensation to the Commonwealth (March 28, 1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_for_the_Voluntary_Enslavement_of_Free_Negroes_without_compensation_to_the_Commonwealth_March_28_1861 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:29:53 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_R_Joynes_to_Levin_S_Joynes_December_27_1811 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:03:34 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas R. Joynes to Levin S. Joynes (December 27, 1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_R_Joynes_to_Levin_S_Joynes_December_27_1811 Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:03:34 EST]]> /Advertisements_Virginia_Gazette_September_8_1774 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:32:51 EST <![CDATA[Advertisements, Virginia Gazette (September 8, 1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Advertisements_Virginia_Gazette_September_8_1774 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:32:51 EST]]> /An_ACT_to_amend_and_explain_an_act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_4_1805 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:18:44 EST <![CDATA[An ACT to amend and explain an act further declaring what shall be deemed unlawful meetings of slaves (January 4, 1805)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_to_amend_and_explain_an_act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_4_1805 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:18:44 EST]]> /An_act_to_amend_an_act_entitled_quot_an_act_reducing_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_quot_1832 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:58:34 EST <![CDATA[An act to amend an act entitled, "an act reducing into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes, and for other purposes" (1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_to_amend_an_act_entitled_quot_an_act_reducing_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_quot_1832 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:58:34 EST]]> /_Report_of_the_Committee_of_Investigation_Richmond_Enquirer_December_31_1811 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:49:44 EST <![CDATA["Report of the Committee of Investigation," Richmond Enquirer (December 31, 1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Report_of_the_Committee_of_Investigation_Richmond_Enquirer_December_31_1811 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:49:44 EST]]> /An_Act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_24_1804 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:47:39 EST <![CDATA[An Act further declaring what shall be deemed unlawful meetings of slaves (January 24, 1804)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_further_declaring_what_shall_be_deemed_unlawful_meetings_of_slaves_January_24_1804 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:47:39 EST]]> /An_ACT_more_effectually_to_restrain_the_practice_of_negroes_going_at_large_January_25_1803 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:44:45 EST <![CDATA[An ACT more effectually to restrain the practice of negroes going at large (January 25, 1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_ACT_more_effectually_to_restrain_the_practice_of_negroes_going_at_large_January_25_1803 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:44:45 EST]]> /_Statements_RichmondEnquirer_January_2_1812 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:57:17 EST <![CDATA["Statements," Richmond Enquirer (January 2, 1812)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Statements_RichmondEnquirer_January_2_1812 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:57:17 EST]]> /An_Act_to_amend_the_act_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_April_7_1831 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:50:19 EST <![CDATA[An Act to amend the act concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes (April 7, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_amend_the_act_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_April_7_1831 Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:50:19 EST]]> /Arlington_House Wed, 15 Mar 2017 10:25:18 EST <![CDATA[Arlington House]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arlington_House Arlington House, also known as the Lee-Custis Mansion, overlooks Washington, D.C., from a rise across the Potomac River in Arlington, Virginia. Constructed between 1802 and 1818, it was one of the earliest and boldest expressions of the Greek Revival architectural style in America. Arlington House claims special historical significance through its association with the Washington and Custis families, and particularly with Robert E. Lee. After his family's departure in 1861 at the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865), Arlington House became a Union army facility. In 1863 the United States government established a Freedmen's Village on the property that was intended to serve as a model community for African Americans freed by the 1862 abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia and the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation. Its location, meanwhile, was a striking reminder that Arlington had once been a slave labor–based plantation. In 1864 the federal government officially appropriated the grounds and there established Arlington National Cemetery, which continues to serve as a final resting place for members of the United States armed forces.
Wed, 15 Mar 2017 10:25:18 EST]]>
/Harvey_Sir_John_ca_1581_or_1582-by_1650 Mon, 13 Mar 2017 13:16:22 EST <![CDATA[Harvey, Sir John (ca. 1581 or 1582–by 1650)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harvey_Sir_John_ca_1581_or_1582-by_1650 Mon, 13 Mar 2017 13:16:22 EST]]> /_Memorable_Disasters_Richmond_Enquirer_January_11_1812 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 15:20:54 EST <![CDATA["Memorable Disasters," Richmond Enquirer (January 11, 1812)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Memorable_Disasters_Richmond_Enquirer_January_11_1812 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 15:20:54 EST]]> /_Letter_from_Virginia_Slaves_to_Bishop_Edmund_Gibson_August_4_September_8_1723 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:53:23 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Virginia Slaves to Bishop Edmund Gibson (August 4, September 8, 1723)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Letter_from_Virginia_Slaves_to_Bishop_Edmund_Gibson_August_4_September_8_1723 Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:53:23 EST]]> /Blair_John_ca_1687-1771 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:59:09 EST <![CDATA[Blair, John (ca. 1687–1771)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_John_ca_1687-1771 John Blair sat on the governor's Council (1745–1770), becoming its president in 1757 and serving as acting governor on four occasions. Born in Scotland, he came to Virginia as a child, living in Williamsburg and earning a degree there at the College of William and Mary, founded by his uncle, James Blair. John Blair served as deputy auditor general from 1728 until 1771, reforming and improving the procedures by which the government collected revenue. In addition, he served as York County justice of the peace (1724–1745) and as a naval officer on the James River (1727–1728). Upon the death of his father, Archibald Blair, he joined the House of Burgesses representing Jamestown (1724–1736). In 1736, he was elected as a burgess from Williamsburg, serving until 1740. He is probably the same John Blair who also served as mayor of Williamsburg in 1751. After the governor's death and in ill health himself, Blair resigned from the Council in 1770 rather than serve as acting governor a fifth time. He died in 1771.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:59:09 EST]]>
/Barrett_Kate_Waller_1858-1925 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:53:53 EST <![CDATA[Barrett, Kate Waller (1857–1925)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barrett_Kate_Waller_1858-1925 Kate Waller Barrett was a prominent physician, social reformer, humanitarian, and leader of the National Florence Crittenton Mission, a progressive organization established in 1883 to assist unmarried women and teenage girls who either had children or were trying to leave prostitution.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:53:53 EST]]>
/Barbour_Lucy_Johnson_1775-1860 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:34:28 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, Lucy Johnson (1775–1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_Lucy_Johnson_1775-1860 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:34:28 EST]]> /Baldwin_John_Brown_1820-1873 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:30:30 EST <![CDATA[Baldwin, John Brown (1820–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Baldwin_John_Brown_1820-1873 John Brown Baldwin was an attorney, member of the Virginia Convention of 1861, member of the Confederate House of Representatives (1861–1865), and Speaker of the House of Delegates (1865–1867). After attending the University of Virginia, Baldwin studied law in his native Staunton and became politically active on behalf of his law partner and brother-in-law Alexander H. H. Stuart, a Whig Party candidate for presidential elector in 1844. Baldwin served a term in the House of Delegates and, during the secession crisis of 1860–1861, was a staunch Unionist who, as a delegate to the secession convention, voted against leaving the Union, even meeting privately with U.S. president Abraham Lincoln in an attempt to find a compromise. After a brief stint in the Confederate army at the beginning of the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served in the Confederate Congress. After the war, he was a Conservative Party leader and, as Speaker of the House of Delegates, became such an expert on parliamentary law that the rules of the House became known as Baldwin's Rules. He was a moderate who supported limits on the rights of African Americans and, in 1869, as a member of the so-called Committee of Nine, met with U.S. president Ulysses S. Grant to negotiate the end of Reconstruction in Virginia. He died in 1873.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:30:30 EST]]>
/Bailey_Odessa_Pittard_1906-1994 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:27:24 EST <![CDATA[Bailey, Odessa Pittard (1906–1994)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bailey_Odessa_Pittard_1906-1994 Odessa Pittard Bailey was a civic leader in western Virginia. In 1944, after her appointment to the Roanoke Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court, she became the first woman in Virginia's history to hold a judicial post higher than justice of the peace or county trial justice. She helped found the Virginia Council of Juvenile Court Judges and served as its president from 1947 to 1948. After leaving the bench in 1948, she was appointed to several state commissions dealing with crime and social work. Bailey participated in Democratic Party politics, and as president of the Virginia Federation of Women's Clubs she lobbied for increased state funding to help disadvantaged children and the mentally ill. After her husband's death in 1957, Bailey ran a travel agency in Roanoke. She later moved to California, where she died in 1994.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:27:24 EST]]>
/Allan_William_1837-1889 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:07:19 EST <![CDATA[Allan, William (1837–1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allan_William_1837-1889 William Allan was an educator, writer, and Confederate army officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). A University of Virginia graduate, Allan served on the staff of Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and later with Jubal A. Early's Army of the Valley. After the war, at the invitation of Robert E. Lee, Allan taught mathematics at Washington College in Lexington. There he began to write about the Civil War, collaborating on a book with the mapmaker Jedediah Hotchkiss, contributing to the debates about the Battle of Gettysburg, and publishing a memoir. Allan became popular on the Lost Cause lecture circuit, and authored a history of the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1862 and the first volume of a history of the Army of Northern Virginia. In 1873, Allan became the first principal of McDonogh Institute, a private school for poor boys near Baltimore, Maryland. He died there in 1889.
Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:07:19 EST]]>
/From_the_Diary_of_Charles_Copland_1811 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:32:27 EST <![CDATA[From the Diary of Charles Copland (1811)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/From_the_Diary_of_Charles_Copland_1811 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:32:27 EST]]> /Letter_from_Rev_Jonathan_Boucher_to_Rev_John_Waring_March_9_1767 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:31:13 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. Jonathan Boucher to Rev. John Waring (March 9, 1767)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_Jonathan_Boucher_to_Rev_John_Waring_March_9_1767 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:31:13 EST]]> /Associates_of_Dr_Bray Mon, 20 Feb 2017 17:26:26 EST <![CDATA[Associates of Dr. Bray]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Associates_of_Dr_Bray The Associates of Dr. Bray was a philanthropic group founded in 1724 by the English clergyman Thomas Bray to educate enslaved African Americans in the British North American colonies. Educated at Oxford, Bray founded two groups—the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (1699) and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (1701)—charged with spreading literacy and Christianity throughout England and America. A friend's bequest led to the establishment of the Associates of Dr. Bray, dedicated to the religious education of enslaved African Americans in particular. After briefly merging with a group intent on founding a convict colony in Georgia, the Associates concentrated on their primary function. Missions to Georgia and South Carolina failed, but in 1757 Benjamin Franklin suggested that a school be established in Philadelphia. When that succeeded, Franklin recommended that Bray schools be opened in New York; Newport, Rhode Island; and Williamsburg, Virginia. The Williamsburg school operated from 1760 to 1774; it employed a single teacher and was overseen by a number of people, including successive presidents of the College of William and Mary. A similar school opened in Fredericksburg in 1765 and closed five years later due to low enrollment and hostility from local slaveholders. By the second year of the American Revolution (1775–1783), all the Bray schools had closed.
Mon, 20 Feb 2017 17:26:26 EST]]>
/Willoughby_Westel_1830-1897 Mon, 20 Feb 2017 08:51:54 EST <![CDATA[Willoughby, Westel (1830–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Willoughby_Westel_1830-1897 Westel Willoughby was a lawyer, a Union officer in a New York regiment during the American Civil War (1861–1865), and judge of the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals from 1869 until a new constitution was adopted in 1870. Born and educated in New York, Willoughby helped raise the 137th New York Volunteer Regiment and was severely wounded at the Battle of Chancellorsville (1863). He resigned his commission a few months later but stayed in Virginia, serving as the commonwealth's attorney of Alexandria County (later Arlington County) from 1864 to 1869, when he was appointed first as a judge of the Ninth Circuit and then of the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals. He cast the deciding vote in a case that allowed an Alexandria railroad that had sided with the Confederacy to contest a sale of the line's assets during the Civil War. In private practice he defended the federal government's efforts to resist compensating the Lee family for the seizure of their Arlington estate. Willoughby made several unsuccessful runs for office as a Republican. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1897.
Mon, 20 Feb 2017 08:51:54 EST]]>
/Richmond_and_Petersburg_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War_The Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:15:13 EST <![CDATA[Richmond and Petersburg Railroad during the Civil War, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Richmond_and_Petersburg_Railroad_During_the_Civil_War_The The Richmond and Petersburg Railroad extended for twenty-two miles and linked the two central Virginia cities. The Virginia General Assembly chartered the company in 1836 and the line was completed two years later. Despite its name, however, the southern terminus of the railroad actually was in the suburb of Pocahontas, which lay on the north bank of the Appomattox River across from Petersburg. Goods and passengers had to be off-loaded and disembarked at the Pocahontas station and then transported by wagon and carriage across a bridge into Petersburg. Once in the city, there were several rail-transportation options. The Petersburg Railroad, also known as the Weldon Railroad, led south to North Carolina, while the South Side Railroad ran west to Lynchburg and the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad linked those two cities.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:15:13 EST]]>
/Daniel_Peter_V_1784-1860 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:00:59 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Peter V. (1784–1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Peter_V_1784-1860 Peter V. Daniel was a member of the House of Delegates (1808–1810) and the Council of State (1812–1836), a U.S. district court judge (1836–1841), and an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1841–1860). Born in Stafford County to a wealthy family, Daniel was educated at the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University) and studied law in Richmond with Edmund Randolph. (He later married Randolph's daughter.) Daniel was elected to the House of Delegates in 1808 as an advocate of states' rights and limited government, and that year he mortally wounded John Seddon in a duel fought in Maryland. He served on the Council of State for more than two decades, serving as president from 1818, making him acting governor in the absence of the chief executive. After the death of Associate Justice Philip Pendleton Barbour, a fellow Virginian, Daniel won confirmation to the seat after a fight in the U.S. Senate. On the bench, Daniel was sharply conservative, at times provincial, and often acerbic and witty in his opinions. He was a strong supporter of slavery and wrote a separate, even more strongly worded opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford(1857). He died in 1860.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 17:00:59 EST]]>
/Custis_William_H_B_1814-1889 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 16:09:51 EST <![CDATA[Custis, William H. B. (1814–1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_William_H_B_1814-1889 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 16:09:51 EST]]> /Harrison_Burton_Mrs_1843-1920 Thu, 16 Feb 2017 15:59:00 EST <![CDATA[Harrison, Burton, Mrs., (1843–1920)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harrison_Burton_Mrs_1843-1920 Mrs. Burton Harrison, also known as Constance Cary Harrison, was a prolific American novelist late in the nineteenth century who came from a prominent Virginia family. As a young woman, she witnessed the destruction of the American Civil War (1861–1865) and nursed the Confederate wounded in Manassas and Richmond. After the war, Harrison toured Europe, eventually married, and settled down in New York City. She was active in elite New York society and produced a large body of work, much of it popular serialized fiction and sentimental romance, in which she recorded the social mores of her time. The author of more than fifty works, including short stories, articles and essays, children's books, and short plays, she is best known for her 1911 autobiography, Recollections Grave and Gay.
Thu, 16 Feb 2017 15:59:00 EST]]>
/Burnham_Horace_Blois_1824-1894 Tue, 07 Feb 2017 11:00:16 EST <![CDATA[Burnham, Horace B. (1824–1894)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burnham_Horace_Blois_1824-1894 Tue, 07 Feb 2017 11:00:16 EST]]> /Freedmen_s_Education_in_Virginia_1861-1870 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 13:51:40 EST <![CDATA[Freedmen's Education in Virginia, 1861–1870]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Freedmen_s_Education_in_Virginia_1861-1870 Virginia's freed slaves sought education for themselves and their children at the earliest opportunity. Shortly after the American Civil War (1861–1865) began in Virginia, African Americans established and taught in schools for Virginia's freed people. An African American Virginian created the first black secondary school in the state. More than one-third of the teachers at Virginia's first black schools between 1861 and the end of Reconstruction were African American, and black teachers taught far longer in freedmen's schools in Virginia than white teachers, northern or southern. Not only were African Americans the first to teach in primary schools for Virginia's freed people, they also founded and staffed the first secondary school in the state for free blacks. Northern aid societies like the American Missionary Association sent teachers, books, and other educational support to Virginia's early black schools, and the federal government provided building material for schools and transportation for northern teachers through the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, popularly known as the Freedmen's Bureau. Many historians have portrayed freedmen's education as a northern white benevolent effort, a white gift to the black South. Although many northern teachers braved remarkably aggressive circumstances in their service, evidence suggests that black education in Virginia, as elsewhere in the South, was a product of the freed people's own initiative and determination, temporarily supported by northern benevolence and federal aid.
Mon, 06 Feb 2017 13:51:40 EST]]>
/Barbour_B_Johnson_1821-1894 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:39:25 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, B. Johnson (1821–1894)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_B_Johnson_1821-1894 Mon, 06 Feb 2017 09:39:25 EST]]> /Duncan_Pauline_Adelaide_Haislip_1888-1973 Fri, 03 Feb 2017 14:31:01 EST <![CDATA[Duncan, Pauline Haislip (1888–1973)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Duncan_Pauline_Adelaide_Haislip_1888-1973 Pauline Haislip Duncan served as one of Virginia's first female law enforcement officers. She was a charter member of the Organized Women Voters of Arlington County, which was among a number of local civic and political groups she joined after women received the right to vote. The organization pushed for a woman deputy in 1923, recommending Smith. She recorded her first criminal arrest the following year and served until 1943, surviving an attempt to remove her in 1927. Smith mostly worked on cases involving women and children, though she at times chased thieves and helped stop fights. She also aided the local Parent-Teacher Association and the Girl Scouts, helping earn her the nickname Aunt Polly. The Organized Women Voters of Arlington County honored her as its Woman of the Year in 1965.
Fri, 03 Feb 2017 14:31:01 EST]]>
/Barbour_James_1775-1842 Thu, 02 Feb 2017 15:59:53 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, James (1775–1842)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_James_1775-1842 James Barbour was Speaker of the House of Delegates (1809–1812), the governor of Virginia (1812–1814), a member of the U.S. Senate (1815–1825) and its president pro tempore (1819), and the secretary of war (1825–1828) and minister plenipotentiary to Great Britain (1828–1829) in the administration of President John Quincy Adams. Born in Orange County, he read law in Richmond and married his first cousin, Lucy Maria Johnson. (Barbour's younger brother, Philip Pendleton Barbour, married Johnson's sister.) As a member of the General Assembly, Barbour was a states'-rights conservative, but that changed over time. He became governor after George William Smith died in the Richmond Theatre fire, and his management of state affairs during the War of 1812 made him more appreciative of the need for a strong executive. In the U.S. Senate Barbour supported a federal bank and federally financed internal improvements and served in Adams's Federalist administration that was loudly opposed by many Jeffersonian Virginians, including Barbour's own brother, then in the U.S. House of Representatives. After the election of Andrew Jackson, Barbour retired to his estate, Barboursville, where he focused on innovative farming techniques. He helped to organize the Whig Party in Virginia in opposition to Jackson's policies. He died in 1842.
Thu, 02 Feb 2017 15:59:53 EST]]>
/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 Tue, 24 Jan 2017 11:11:52 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, St. George (1752–1827)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 St. George Tucker was a lawyer, teacher, poet, essayist, inventor, and judge. One of the most influential jurists and legal scholars in the early years of the United States, he sat on three courts in Virginia: the General Court (1789–1804), the Court of Appeals (1804–1811), and the U.S. District Court for the District of Virginia (and later the Eastern District of Virginia) (1813–1825). He also served as rector (1789–1790) and professor of law (1790–1804) at the College of William and Mary. His five-volume edition of Sir William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, published in 1803, was the first major treatise on American law. Born in Bermuda, Tucker studied law as an apprentice to George Wythe in Williamsburg, gaining admission to the bar in 1774. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he smuggled needed supplies into Virginia and fought under Nathanael Greene at the Battle of Guilford Court House (1781) and under George Washington at the siege of Yorktown (1781). After the war he practiced in the county courts before being elevated to a judgeship. At William and Mary, he advocated the study of law as an academic discipline, and in 1796 he published A Dissertation on Slavery, his plan to gradually abolish slavery in Virginia. The General Assembly ignored it. Tucker married twice and had five surviving children, including the jurist and congressman Henry St. George Tucker and the writer and states' rights advocate Nathaniel Beverley Tucker. He died in Nelson County in 1827.
Tue, 24 Jan 2017 11:11:52 EST]]>
/Custis_Mary_Lee_Fitzhugh_1788-1853 Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:38:31 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Mary Lee Fitzhugh (1788–1853)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_Mary_Lee_Fitzhugh_1788-1853 Mary Lee Fitzhugh Custis was an Episcopal lay leader whose efforts helped to revive Virginia's Episcopal church early in the nineteenth century. Custis's father, William Fitzhugh, served in the Continental Congress. Her husband, George Washington Parke Custis, was the stepgrandson of George Washington and well-known writer and orator. Their daughter, Mary Randolph Custis, married Robert E. Lee. Mary Custis lived at Arlington, a plantation in Alexandria County, and from there involved herself in raising funds for Episcopal schools and the American Colonization Society, which sought to free enslaved African Americans and send them to Africa. She and her daughter Mary also took an active role in the education of slaves. Custis died in 1853 and was buried at Arlington.
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:38:31 EST]]>
/Custis_Elizabeth_Parke_1776-1831 Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:31:30 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Elizabeth Parke (1776–1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_Elizabeth_Parke_1776-1831 Elizabeth Parke Custis was a social leader and the stepgranddaughter of George Washington. Born in Maryland, she lived with her mother in Alexandria after the death of her father in 1781. When her mother remarried in 1783, they moved to Hope Park, a country estate in Fairfax County, where Custis felt isolated and limited by the social restrictions imposed on women. Eccentric, intelligent, and sometimes difficult, Custis married the merchant Thomas Law in 1796, and the couple lived and entertained in Washington, D.C., until they separated in 1804. A divorce was finalized in 1811. Custis lived for a time on an estate outside Alexandria, which she called Mount Washington. Later in life she traveled between friends and relatives, collecting Washington family memorabilia. She died in 1831 and is buried at Mount Vernon.
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:31:30 EST]]>
/Custis_Eleanor_Nelly_Parke_1779-1852 Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:26:45 EST <![CDATA[Custis, Eleanor "Nelly" Parke (1779–1852)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custis_Eleanor_Nelly_Parke_1779-1852 Eleanor "Nelly" Parke Custis was the stepgranddaughter of George Washington and important preserver of the first president's legacy. Born in Maryland, she and her brother, George Washington Parke Custis, went to live at Mount Vernon after the death of her father in 1781. Nelly Custis was educated in New York and Philadelphia while Washington served as president and helped to entertain guests. In 1797 she married Washington's nephew, Lawrence Lewis, and the couple lived briefly at Mount Vernon. After Washington's death, they inherited about 2,000 acres of his estate and in 1805 built their own home, Woodlawn. Throughout her life Nelly Custis Lewis regarded herself as the keeper of George Washington's legacy, serving as an accurate purveyor of information about him and his life. She was instrumental in having a tomb erected at Mount Vernon in 1835. She died in 1852.
Wed, 18 Jan 2017 16:26:45 EST]]>
/Ruffin_Robert_D_1842-1916 Mon, 09 Jan 2017 17:17:17 EST <![CDATA[Ruffin, R. D. (1842–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ruffin_Robert_D_1842-1916 R. D. Ruffin was a lawyer, sheriff, and member of the House of Delegates (1875–1876) who achieved financial success in real estate. Born enslaved, he faced controversy throughout his long public life. In 1874 voters in Alexandria (later Arlington) County elected him sheriff, possibly the first African American to hold the position in state history, but he resigned as pressure mounted over his residency. The following year he won election to represent Dinwiddie County in the House of Delegates. He survived a challenge to his election from his opponent, who claimed that Ruffin was not a resident of the county, and he introduced three bills that died in committee. His tenure is most notable for his being expelled from the assembly in 1876 when the overwhelming majority of delegates believed Ruffin stole money from the first door keeper. Ruffin, a lawyer who engaged in real estate, rose from slave to owner of lands reportedly worth millions of dollars. His financial climb was matched by a large number of lawsuits and arrests. To what degree his troubles stemmed from wrongdoing or a cutthroat political climate is unknown. In his later years, he moved to Chicago, Illinois, where he died in 1916.
Mon, 09 Jan 2017 17:17:17 EST]]>
/New_Deal_in_Virginia Wed, 04 Jan 2017 09:01:37 EST <![CDATA[New Deal in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/New_Deal_in_Virginia In March 1933, the newly inaugurated president of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, a Democrat, addressed the problems created by the Great Depression by announcing a vast array of federal programs that came to be known as the New Deal. During the first 100 days of his administration, a Democratic Congress created the "alphabet agencies" (so called because of their well-known abbreviations) to deal with unemployment, economic stagnation, low farm prices, and home and farm foreclosures.
Wed, 04 Jan 2017 09:01:37 EST]]>
/Percy_George_1580-1632_or_1633 Wed, 28 Dec 2016 16:51:13 EST <![CDATA[Percy, George (1580–1632 or 1633)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Percy_George_1580-1632_or_1633 George Percy was one of the original Jamestown settlers and the author of two important primary accounts of the colony. He served as president of the Council (1609–1610) during the Starving Time, and briefly as deputy governor (1611). Born in Sussex, England, to the eighth earl of Northumberland, Percy hailed from a family of Catholic conspirators; his father died while imprisoned in the Tower of London, his uncle was beheaded, and his older brother, the ninth earl of Northumberland, was also imprisoned. While his accounts suggest that Percy was awed by the natural beauty of Virginia, he was nevertheless overwhelmed by the many problems the first colonists faced, including hunger, disease, internal dissention, and often-difficult relations with Virginia Indians. While president of the Council, he and his fellow colonists suffered through the Starving Time, initiated in part by the Indians' siege of Jamestown at the beginning of the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1609–1614). Through support from his older brother, Percy seems to have lived in relative comfort, but he also suffered from recurring illness, finally leaving Virginia in 1612. His second account of Jamestown, A Trewe Relacyon , was written in the mid-1620s with the intention of rebutting Captain John Smith's popular version of events in the colony. Percy died in the winter of 1632–1633, leaving no will.
Wed, 28 Dec 2016 16:51:13 EST]]>
/Carter_John_1695_or_1696-1742 Tue, 27 Dec 2016 14:28:45 EST <![CDATA[Carter, John (1695 or 1696–1742)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_John_1695_or_1696-1742 John Carter was secretary of the colony and a member of the governor's Council. His father, Robert "King" Carter, sent him to England, where he studied law in London, and attended Cambridge. Called to the bar in 1720, Carter was appointed secretary of the colony in June 1722 and he returned to Virginia six months later. As secretary, a lucrative and politically powerful office, Carter was responsible for keeping the colony's records and appointing all of the county court clerks. Some men, including the lieutenant governor, voiced concerns about the extent of the power of the secretary, but Carter successfully defended his conduct. In 1724 he also became a member of the Council and held both positions until his death. Through marriage and inheritance Carter acquired extensive estates, including Shirley plantation and Corotoman, and became one of Virginia's wealthiest gentlemen.
Tue, 27 Dec 2016 14:28:45 EST]]>
/Carter_John_ca_1613-1670 Tue, 27 Dec 2016 14:24:46 EST <![CDATA[Carter, John (ca. 1613–1670)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_John_ca_1613-1670 John Carter was a member of the governor's Council and the House of Burgesses. His family had familial and business connections with the Virginia Company of London, and Carter left England for Virginia during the 1630s. In 1642 he began acquiring the extensive property on the north bank of the Rappahannock River that became the family seat known as Corotoman. Carter married five times and founded one of the greatest of the colonial Virginia families. During the 1640s and 1650s Carter served in the House of Burgesses, which elected him to the governor's Council in 1658. He was again a burgess in 1660, when Charles II was restored to the throne, and Governor Sir William Berkeley reappointed Carter, a royalist, to the Council. He remained a councillor until his death ten years later.
Tue, 27 Dec 2016 14:24:46 EST]]>
/Carter_Edward_d_by_1682 Wed, 21 Dec 2016 15:01:11 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Edward (d. by 1682)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Edward_d_by_1682 Wed, 21 Dec 2016 15:01:11 EST]]> /Franklin_A_Q_1852-1924 Tue, 20 Dec 2016 16:21:37 EST <![CDATA[Franklin, A. Q. (1852–1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Franklin_A_Q_1852-1924 A. Q. Franklin, educator and member of the House of Delegates (1889–1890). Born in Richmond to a former slave who had freed himself and possibly a white mother who taught him to read and write, Franklin worked as a laborer and then, Charles City County, a schoolteacher. He served as the county's commissioner of revenue for many years and helped establish Bull Field Academy, a school for African Americans. In 1889 Franklin won election to the House of Delegates as a Republican, one of only three African Americans elected in 1889. They were the last black candidates to win election to the General Assembly until 1967. In 1908 he began raising funds for an African American high school (later Charles City County High School), which prompted the closure of Bull Field Academy in 1911. According to at least one historian, Franklin's efforts produced an unusually high number of college-educated African Americans from Charles City County. He died in 1924.
Tue, 20 Dec 2016 16:21:37 EST]]>
/Lewis_Fielding_1725-1781_or_1782 Tue, 20 Dec 2016 13:32:15 EST <![CDATA[Lewis, Fielding (1725–1781 or 1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lewis_Fielding_1725-1781_or_1782 Fielding Lewis was a merchant, justice of the peace for Spotsylvania County (1749–1781), and member of the House of Burgesses (1760–1769) who helped to found the Fredericksburg Gun Manufactory during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Born at Warner Hall, his family's Gloucester County estate, he moved to Fredericksburg in the 1740s, helping to manage his father's store there. Lewis married George Washington's cousin and, after her death, Washington's sister, serving in the General Assembly and as a justice of the peace. He was known, in particular, for his financial acumen and sometimes advised his brother-in-law on investments. Early in the 1770s Lewis built for his family a large Georgian mansion (later named Kenmore) that was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970. In 1775, the third Revolutionary Convention tasked Lewis and his fellow merchant Charles Dick with establishing a weapons factory in Fredericksburg; by May 1777 the Fredericksburg Gun Manufactory produced about twenty muskets per week. The enterprise cost Lewis £7,000 of his own money, which the state never repaid. He died sometime late in 1781 or early in 1782.
Tue, 20 Dec 2016 13:32:15 EST]]>
/United_States_Colored_Troops_The Tue, 20 Dec 2016 08:37:35 EST <![CDATA[United States Colored Troops, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/United_States_Colored_Troops_The The United States Colored Troops (USCT) was a branch of the United States Army founded in 1863 to recruit, organize, and oversee the service of African American soldiers during the American Civil War (1861–1865). USCT regiments consisted of black enlisted men led in almost all cases by white officers. By the end of the Civil War, more than 185,000 men had served in the USCT, including more than 178,000 black soldiers and approximately 7,000 white officers. At least 5,723 black soldiers were mustered into service in Virginia, although Virginia-born and -raised black troops—especially former slaves who may have fled from the state or been sold to other parts of the Confederacy—likely joined in other locations. The administration of President Abraham Lincoln initially did not approve of black soldiers, and used them only as laborers. As the war dragged on, however, attitudes began to change, and the Final Emancipation Proclamation (1863) provided for the enlistment of African Americans. Once in uniform, the men of the USCT saw action in every major theater of the war, with five Virginians being awarded a Medal of Honor. In addition to making significant contributions to the war effort, they were also subjected to racially motivated atrocities. At war's end, many black veterans continued to serve in the South during Reconstruction (1865–1877) while others became leaders in their communities.
Tue, 20 Dec 2016 08:37:35 EST]]>
/Godwin_Mills_E_1914-1999 Mon, 19 Dec 2016 09:29:16 EST <![CDATA[Godwin, Mills E. (1914–1999)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Godwin_Mills_E_1914-1999 Mills E. Godwin was the only governor of Virginia elected by the voters to two terms, serving as a Democrat from 1966 to 1970 and as a Republican from 1974 to 1978. After playing a major legislative role in Virginia's resistance to desegregation of the public schools in the 1950s, Godwin adopted more moderate positions as lieutenant governor from 1962 to 1966 and as candidate for governor in 1965. During his first term he was responsible for enactment of a sales tax and approval of the first significant statewide bond issue in the twentieth century. Godwin devoted the additional revenue to public education, mental health, and highways. The creation of the Virginia Community College System was one of Godwin's major accomplishments. He also appointed a commission to revise the Constitution of 1902. Constitutionally ineligible to succeed himself, Godwin left office in 1970. Disillusioned by the growing influence of liberals in the Virginia Democratic Party, Godwin sought the governorship again as a Republican in 1973. He narrowly defeated Lieutenant Governor Henry E. Howell. Godwin's second term coincided with an economic recession, energy shortages, and an environmental catastrophe. In a time of retrenchment his major initiatives were improvements to state prisons and a second bond issue approved in 1977.
Mon, 19 Dec 2016 09:29:16 EST]]>
/Cities_of_Virginia Mon, 19 Dec 2016 09:27:35 EST <![CDATA[Cities of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cities_of_Virginia Mon, 19 Dec 2016 09:27:35 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Elizabeth_Parke_Custis_September_14_1794 Mon, 12 Dec 2016 13:41:12 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Elizabeth Parke Custis (September 14, 1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Elizabeth_Parke_Custis_September_14_1794 Mon, 12 Dec 2016 13:41:12 EST]]> /Danville_Civil_Rights_Demonstrations_of_1963 Wed, 07 Dec 2016 09:56:15 EST <![CDATA[Danville Civil Rights Demonstrations of 1963]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Danville_Civil_Rights_Demonstrations_of_1963 The Danville civil rights demonstrations began peacefully late in May 1963 when local civil rights leaders organized demonstrations, sit-ins, and marches to protest segregation in all spheres, but especially in municipal government, employment, and public facilities. As protests accelerated, however, white authorities responded early in June with tough legal stratagems and violence, attacking demonstrators with clubs and fire hoses. Martin Luther King Jr.'s Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) all sent state and national leaders to Danville to assist the African American protesters, but to little avail. The legal resistance displayed by authorities—injunctions, ordinances, and court procedures condemned by the U.S. Justice Department—proved so effective and unyielding that protests were stymied, resulting in few immediate gains for African Americans.
Wed, 07 Dec 2016 09:56:15 EST]]>
/An_Ordinance_for_providing_arms_and_ammunition_for_the_use_of_this_colony_July_1775 Wed, 30 Nov 2016 12:16:11 EST <![CDATA[An Ordinance for providing arms and ammunition for the use of this colony (July 1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Ordinance_for_providing_arms_and_ammunition_for_the_use_of_this_colony_July_1775 Wed, 30 Nov 2016 12:16:11 EST]]> /Burwell_Lewis_1651_or_1652-1710 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 16:45:43 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lewis (1651 or 1652–1710)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lewis_1651_or_1652-1710 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 16:45:43 EST]]> /Burwell_Robert_1720-1777 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 14:45:01 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Robert (1720–1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Robert_1720-1777 Mon, 28 Nov 2016 14:45:01 EST]]> /Jefferson_s_Mound_Archaeological_Site Tue, 22 Nov 2016 17:01:47 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson's Mound Archaeological Site]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_s_Mound_Archaeological_Site Tue, 22 Nov 2016 17:01:47 EST]]> /Burwell_Lewis_d_1743 Tue, 22 Nov 2016 15:59:41 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Lewis (d. 1743)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Lewis_d_1743 Tue, 22 Nov 2016 15:59:41 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_George_Washington_March_6_1776 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 15:40:50 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to George Washington (March 6, 1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_George_Washington_March_6_1776 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 15:40:50 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_George_Washington_November_14_1775 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 15:21:11 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to George Washington (November 14, 1775)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_George_Washington_November_14_1775 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 15:21:11 EST]]> /Jefferson_Thomas_and_Books Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:09:35 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and Books]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Books "I cannot live without books," Thomas Jefferson declared in a letter to John Adams on June 10, 1815. To the man who had authored the Declaration of Independence and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom and founded the University of Virginia, books and reading were "a necessary of life." Jefferson relied on his books as his chief source of inspiration and practical knowledge, and believed that education was the means to an enlightened and informed citizenry that would help preserve democracy. Jefferson owned between 9,000 and 10,000 books in his lifetime—some were inherited from his father, Peter Jefferson, and his mentor, George Wythe; others were acquired in Williamsburg; Washington, D.C.; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; New York City; or Europe. Their subjects included history, philosophy, law, architecture, science and literature. In 1815, Jefferson sold his 6,500-volume library to Congress to replace the one that was destroyed when the British burned the U.S. Capitol on August 24, 1814. He then replenished his personal supply of books by building a smaller collection that reflected his retirement interests. The year before he died, he drew up a catalog of books for the library at the University of Virginia. The list, composed of 6,860 volumes with an estimated total cost of more than $24,000, was the culmination of his lifetime of reading.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:09:35 EST]]>
/Menokin Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:08:24 EST <![CDATA[Menokin]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Menokin Menokin, located in Richmond County, was the home of Francis Lightfoot Lee and his wife, Rebecca Tayloe Lee. Constructed from 1769 to 1771, the home sat on a 1,000-acre plantation and was a wedding gift from Rebecca Lee's father, John Tayloe II. The designer is unknown but may have been the English craftsman William Buckland, who also worked on George Mason's Gunston Hall. The Lees lived at Menokin on and off until their deaths in 1797, and two years later the house was inherited by John Tayloe III, who owned it until 1823. The property changed hands a number of times before falling into disrepair and being abandoned by the mid-twentieth century. In the 1960s, the Omohundro family, which inherited Menokin in 1935, removed the interior paneling and woodwork to protect it from damage; in 1995, T. Edgar Omohundro deeded the property to the Menokin Foundation. Beginning in 1985, archaeological investigations evaluated the site and dated its occupation back to the Rappahannock Indians, who lived and hunted there prior to the arrival of the English. In the early twenty-first century, the Menokin Foundation opened a visitors center and began plans to preserve the site by replacing the missing walls and roof with glass and steel.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:08:24 EST]]>
/Williamsburg_during_the_Colonial_Period Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:07:08 EST <![CDATA[Williamsburg during the Colonial Period]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Williamsburg_during_the_Colonial_Period Williamsburg was the capital of the Virginia colony from 1699 until 1779. Plotted on land first used by Virginia Indians, it was settled by the English during and just after the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632) and called Middle Plantation, for its location equidistant between the York and James rivers. In subsequent years, wealth and political prestige gradually shifted upriver from the first seat of English government, at Jamestown, and talk of moving the capital gained momentum during Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), when rebels burned the statehouse. The Crown did not agree to move the capital until after the establishment of the College of William and Mary at Middle Plantation, in 1693, and another fire at the statehouse, in 1698. In 1699, Middle Plantation became Williamsburg, after King William III, and the colony's new capital. At the behest of the General Assembly, officials laid out streets and began building a new statehouse. Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood oversaw the construction of a powder magazine (1715), the enlargement of Bruton Parish Church (1715), a public theater (1718), and the completion of the Governor's Palace (1722). When the statehouse burned and smallpox hit in 1748, officials briefly considered, but then rejected, the idea of moving the capital, paving the way for a boom in building and population growth. During the American Revolution (1775–1783), Virginia's royal governor dissolved the General Assembly and fled the city. After British troops invaded Virginia in 1779, Governor Thomas Jefferson moved the capital to Richmond.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:07:08 EST]]>
/Randolph_George_Wythe_1818-1867 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:04:11 EST <![CDATA[Randolph, George Wythe (1818–1867)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Randolph_George_Wythe_1818-1867 George Wythe Randolph was a lawyer, Confederate general, and, briefly, Confederate secretary of war during the American Civil War (1861–1865). The grandson of former U.S. president Thomas Jefferson, Randolph hailed from an elite Virginia family but largely shunned public life until John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859. He supported secession, founded the Richmond Howitzers, joined the Confederate army, and fought at the Battle of Big Bethel (1861). Appointed the Confederacy's third secretary of war in March 1862, he helped to reform the War Department at a time when the Confederate capital at Richmond was threatened by Union general George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign (1862). Randolph helped to improve procurement and authored the Confederacy's first conscription law, having already done the same for Virginia. His independence and focus on the strategic importance of the West put him into conflict with Confederate president Jefferson Davis, and he resigned in November 1862, his health failing. He died of tuberculosis in 1867.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:04:11 EST]]>
/Cary_Archibald_1721-1787 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:01:35 EST <![CDATA[Cary, Archibald (1721–1787)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cary_Archibald_1721-1787 Archibald Cary was a member of the Convention of 1776, Speaker of the Senate of Virginia (1776–1786), and one of the wealthiest and most influential men in Virginia during and after the American Revolution (1775–1783). Raised in Williamsburg and at his family home of Ampthill, in Chesterfield County, Cary probably attended the College of William and Mary, later working a large farm on land deeded to him from his father. He served in the House of Burgesses, representing Goochland County (1748–1749) and Chesterfield County (1756–1775) and in 1766 was named presiding judge of the Chesterfield County Court. He used his power to curtail the activities of local Baptists. Although Cary voted against Patrick Henry's Resolves on the Stamp Act in 1765, thinking them too inflammatory, he went on to unfailingly support colonial protests against the power of Parliament. In 1773 he was appointed to the Committee of Correspondence and, from 1774 to 1776, to five Revolutionary Conventions. He was a member of the committee that drafted the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the first state constitution. From 1776 until 1786 he served as Speaker of the Senate of Virginia, in many respects as powerful a voice as many of his contemporaries but little known outside Virginia. He died at Ampthill in 1787.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:01:35 EST]]>
/Dunmore_John_Murray_fourth_earl_of_c_1730-1809 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:54:23 EST <![CDATA[Dunmore, John Murray, fourth earl of (ca. 1730–1809)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dunmore_John_Murray_fourth_earl_of_c_1730-1809 John Murray, fourth earl of Dunmore, was Virginia's last royal governor. Dunmore, a member of the House of Lords, reluctantly assumed the office in 1771, not wanting to relinquish his position as governor of New York. He won support by asserting Virginia's land claims west of the Allegheny Mountains, but his impulsive nature alienated key politicians, and the lack of instructions from London hindered his ability to govern. Dunmore received a last measure of popularity in October 1774 when he led volunteers in a defeat of Indians at Point Pleasant on the state's western frontier, later known as Dunmore's War. Tensions between the colony and Great Britain increased rapidly, causing him to remove gunpowder from the public magazine in Williamsburg in April 1775. This action caused his authority to unravel, and he fled to Hampton Roads in June. On November 7 Dunmore declared martial law and offered to free any runaway slaves who supported royal authority. His troops lost the Battle of Great Bridge on December 9 and his fleet shelled Norfolk early in 1776. He left for Great Britain later in the year, where he supported the interests of Loyalist Virginians. In 1787 Dunmore became governor of the Bahamas, during which time he fell from royal favor. He died at his home in England in 1809.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:54:23 EST]]>
/Bland_Richard_1710-1776 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:53:02 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Richard (1710–1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Richard_1710-1776 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:53:02 EST]]> /Jefferson_Thomas_as_Governor_of_Virginia Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:51:34 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas as Governor of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_as_Governor_of_Virginia Thomas Jefferson served as the second governor of Virginia under the Constitution of 1776, holding office for two terms, from June 2, 1779, until June 3, 1781. Jefferson already was a seasoned politician, having served in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776), and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He had no military experience, though, and his tenure was dominated by repeated British invasions of Virginia during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Hampering his efforts to respond was the state constitution, which had relegated little power to the state's chief executive. Faced with calls to provide the struggling Continental army with troops and the need to reinforce the militia against possible invasion, Jefferson presided over draft lotteries that were met with stiff resistance. Then, when the British general Benedict Arnold raided Richmond in January 1781, the governor was slow to call up the militia. By May, thousands of British troops had entered Virginia and many citizens were in near open revolt against the Patriot government. Jefferson was perceived as, and often felt himself to be, powerless to do anything. In June 1781 British cavalry chased the General Assembly out of Charlottesville and nearly captured Jefferson at Monticello. Having already decided not to run for a third term, he followed his family to Poplar Forest instead of going with the assembly to Staunton. For that reason Virginia went without an elected governor for eight days and Jefferson's reputation was tarnished.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:51:34 EST]]>
/Henry_Patrick_1736-1799 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:49:54 EST <![CDATA[Henry, Patrick (1736–1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Henry_Patrick_1736-1799 Patrick Henry was a lawyer, orator, and statesman whose career spanned the founding of the United States. An early critic of British authority and leader in the movement toward independence, Henry dedicated most of his life to Virginia politics. He served as a member of the House of Burgesses (1765–1774), as the first governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia (1776–1779), as a member of the House of Delegates (1779–1784; 1788–1791), and again as governor (1784–1786). He was a founding member of the Virginia Committee of Correspondence (1773) and a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses (1774–1776). He also attended the Virginia Conventions of 1774, March 1775, July–August 1775, May 1776, and 1788. He is best remembered, however, for the speech he delivered during the Virginia Convention of 1775 that famously ended with the words, "Give me liberty, or give me death!" Henry's Virginia contemporaries recognized him as "the man who gave the first impulse to the ball of revolution." Henry retired from public life in 1791 and declined invitations to serve on the Supreme Court, as secretary of state, and as a vice presidential candidate. Only a request from George Washington, made during the divisive conflict over the Alien and Sedition Acts and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, brought him back into the public arena. Henry won election to the General Assembly in the spring of 1799, but died before the House of Delegates convened that autumn.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:49:54 EST]]>
/Francis_Lightfoot_Lee_1734-1797 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:45:25 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Francis Lightfoot (1734–1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Francis_Lightfoot_Lee_1734-1797 Francis Lightfoot Lee, known as Frank, was a member of the House of Burgesses (1758–1774), the Continental Congress (1775–1779), and the Senate of Virginia (1778–1782). Born into the Lee family of Stratford Hall, Lee was a dedicated if reluctant public servant for most of his life. He is best known for signing the Declaration of Independence and for representing Loudoun and Richmond counties in the House of Burgesses; he also provided political and emotional support to his controversy-prone brothers, Richard Henry Lee and Arthur Lee, throughout their careers. (Arthur Lee wrote of Francis Lee, "He was calmness and philosophy itself.") He died on January 17, 1797, at his estate, Menokin, in present-day Warsaw, Virginia.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:45:25 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786), founder of the University of Virginia (1819), governor of Virginia (1779–1781), and third president of the United States (1801–1809). Born at Shadwell, his parents' estate in Albemarle County, he attended the College of William and Mary and studied the law under the tutelage of George Wythe. In 1769, Jefferson began construction of Monticello, his home in Albemarle County, and for the rest of his life pursued an interest in architecture, which included design of Poplar Forest and the State Capitol. Jefferson also indulged a passion for science, serving as president of the American Philosophical Society (1797–1814) and publishing Notes on the State of Virginia (1795). After representing Albemarle County in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), Jefferson was a delegate to Virginia's five Revolutionary Conventions and served in the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776) and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He earned a reputation during the American Revolution (1775–1783) as a forceful advocate of revolutionary principles, articulated in A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774), the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking Up Arms (1775), and, most famously, the Declaration of Independence, approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. His two terms as governor were marked by British invasion and Jefferson's controversial flight to Poplar Forest. From 1784 to 1789, he served as a diplomat in France and there may have begun a sexual relationship with his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Jefferson served as secretary of state in the administration of George Washington (1790–1793) and as vice president under John Adams (1797–1801) before being elected president by the U.S. House of Representatives after a tie vote in the Electoral College. As president Jefferson arranged for the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the subsequent Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806). With James Madison, Jefferson helped found the Republican Party and advocated for states' rights and a small federal government, although as president he sometimes pushed the limits of his executive authority. In his retirement he founded the University of Virginia, which was chartered in 1819 and opened for classes in the spring of 1825. Jefferson died at Monticello on July 4, 1826, fifty years after the Declaration of Independence was approved. He is buried at Monticello.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Colonel_George_Brooke_Treasurer_of_Virginia_February_9_1781 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:42:00 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Colonel George Brooke, Treasurer of Virginia (February 9, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Colonel_George_Brooke_Treasurer_of_Virginia_February_9_1781 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:42:00 EST]]> /Lee_Richard_Henry_1732-1794 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:39:48 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Richard Henry (1732–1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Richard_Henry_1732-1794 Richard Henry Lee was a planter, merchant, politician, and a member of the prominent Lee family of Virginia. Son of Thomas Lee, Richard Henry Lee pursued his father's interest in westward expansion and was a key political figure during the American Revolution (1775–1783): it was Lee who, at the Second Continental Congress in 1776, made the motion to declare independence from Britain. Lee began his career as a justice of the peace for Westmoreland County (1757); he later served as a member of the House of Burgesses (1758–1775), the House of Delegates (1777, 1780, 1785), and the United States Senate (1789–1792). He also represented Virginia at the two Continental Congresses (1774–1779, 1784–1787) and served as president of Congress in 1784. In 1792 Lee retired from public service, citing his poor health. He passed away two years later at Chantilly-on-the-Potomac, his estate in the Northern Neck of Virginia. Lee was mired in controversy throughout his political career, and his legacy has been influenced in part by his enemies. But Lee's prominent role in the events that shaped Virginia and the nation in the mid- to late seventeenth century cannot be denied; it places him high on the list of America's forgotten founders.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:39:48 EST]]>
/Dismal_Swamp_Land_Company_Articles_of_Agreement_November_3_1763 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 11:52:34 EST <![CDATA[Dismal Swamp Land Company Articles of Agreement (November 3, 1763)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dismal_Swamp_Land_Company_Articles_of_Agreement_November_3_1763 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 11:52:34 EST]]> /Clayton_John_ca_1666-1737 Tue, 15 Nov 2016 16:32:50 EST <![CDATA[Clayton, John (ca. 1666–1737)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clayton_John_ca_1666-1737 Tue, 15 Nov 2016 16:32:50 EST]]> /Berkeley_John_ca_1560-1622 Tue, 15 Nov 2016 16:28:46 EST <![CDATA[Berkeley, John (ca. 1560–1622)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Berkeley_John_ca_1560-1622 John Berkeley was a member of the governor's Council and overseer of an ironworks in Virginia. Berkeley, born in Gloucestershire, England, came to the attention of the Virginia Company of London in 1621 because of his experience in iron smelting and forging. In July 1621, before he reached Virginia, he was appointed to the governor's Council. Upon arrival in the colony, Berkeley continued the construction of an ironworks near Falling Creek, in what is now Chesterfield County. Before he could begin production, Berkeley and twenty-six others at the ironworks were killed during the Powhatans' concerted uprising of March 22, 1622.
Tue, 15 Nov 2016 16:28:46 EST]]>
/Parish_in_Colonial_Virginia_The Mon, 14 Nov 2016 11:05:15 EST <![CDATA[Parish in Colonial Virginia, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Parish_in_Colonial_Virginia_The A parish in colonial Virginia was a unit of both civil and religious authority that covered a set geographical territory. Each Church of England parish in the colony was served by a single minister and governed by a vestry usually composed of local elites. As a religious institution, a parish contained a mother, or central, church, and frequently two or more so-called chapels of ease in outlying areas that the minister served on successive Sundays. As a civil institution, the parish vestry was charged with overseeing a wide range of responsibilities that included social welfare and presenting moral offenders to the courts. The contemporary understanding of parishes and vestries as institutions that deal primarily, if not exclusively, with internal parochial affairs is at odds with the extent of duties associated with the colonial parish. Indeed, according to the historian John Nelson, local government in early Virginia should be understood as "parish-county" government, these two "linked institutions sharing, dividing up, and intermingling their interests and responsibilities."
Mon, 14 Nov 2016 11:05:15 EST]]>
/Brent_Margaret_ca_1601-1671 Mon, 14 Nov 2016 08:50:44 EST <![CDATA[Brent, Margaret (ca. 1601–1671)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brent_Margaret_ca_1601-1671 Mon, 14 Nov 2016 08:50:44 EST]]> /Carter_Charles_1732-1796 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:18:15 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Charles (1732–1796)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Charles_1732-1796 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:18:15 EST]]> /Brent_Giles_ca_1652-1679 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:03:47 EST <![CDATA[Brent, Giles (ca. 1652–1679)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brent_Giles_ca_1652-1679 Giles Brent was a participant in Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677). A Catholic of both Indian and English heritage, he learned the Indian language from his mother, inherited all of his father's land, and became a prosperous young planter and militia captain. In July 1675 Brent served in a party that killed several Doeg Indians in retaliation for the Indians' having killed some white Virginians. He joined forces loyal to Nathaniel Bacon in order to battle the Pamunkey and collaborated with Bacon until the rebel leader turned his forces against the governor, Sir William Berkeley, in 1676 and laid siege to Jamestown. Brent then gathered approximately 1,000 men to confront Bacon's forces. When the men learned that Bacon had burned Jamestown, they deserted Brent. He died in Middlesex County on September 2, 1679.
Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:03:47 EST]]>
/Bland_Theodorick_bap_1630-1672 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:00:32 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Theodorick (bap. 1630–1672)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Theodorick_bap_1630-1672 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 17:00:32 EST]]> /Bland_Anna_Bennett_d_1687 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 16:58:28 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Anna Bennett (d. 1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Anna_Bennett_d_1687 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 16:58:28 EST]]> /Borden_Benjamin_1675-1743 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 16:54:26 EST <![CDATA[Borden, Benjamin (1675–1743)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Borden_Benjamin_1675-1743 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 16:54:26 EST]]> /Virginia_Company_of_London Thu, 10 Nov 2016 10:59:52 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Company of London]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Company_of_London The Virginia Company of London was a joint-stock company chartered by King James I in 1606 to establish a colony in North America. Such a venture allowed the Crown to reap the benefits of colonization—natural resources, new markets for English goods, leverage against the Spanish—without bearing the costs. Investors, meanwhile, were protected from catastrophic losses in the event of the project's failure. The company established a settlement at Jamestown in 1607, and over the next eighteen years, the Crown granted the company two new charters, democratizing its governance and reforming its financial model. What began as an enterprise of investors seeking a dividend was funded a decade later almost exclusively by a public lottery. By 1618 the company had found a way to use its most abundant resource—land—to tempt settlers to pay their own passage from England to the colony and then, after arrival, to pay the company a quitrent, or fee, to use the land. Still, the Virginia Company and the colony it oversaw struggled to survive. Disease, mismanagement, Indian attacks, and factionalism in London all took a toll until, in 1623, the Privy Council launched an investigation into the company's finances. A year later, the company's charter was revoked and the king assumed direct control of Virginia.
Thu, 10 Nov 2016 10:59:52 EST]]>
/Gooch_Sir_William_1681-1751 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 16:00:40 EST <![CDATA[Gooch, Sir William (1681–1751)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Gooch_Sir_William_1681-1751 Sir William Gooch served as lieutenant governor of Virginia, the colony's chief administrator at the time, from 1727 until 1749, and is the namesake of Goochland County. Born in England, Gooch served in the army during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701­–1714) and later during a Jacobite uprising in Scotland. Appointed lieutenant governor by George I in 1727, Gooch was one of Virginia's ablest and most successful chief executives and was second only to Sir William Berkeley in the length of time he lived in the colony. Succeeding where his predecessors had failed, Gooch worked with, rather than against, Virginia's strong planter class to implement new policies. The most significant legislation Gooch engineered was the Tobacco Inspection Act of 1730, which created a network of warehouses that graded the quality of the harvest and destroyed low-quality product. The program, combined with market forces, helped spur profitable harvests. Gooch's tenure coincided with a period of prosperity and population growth most associated today with large plantation houses. Gooch was wounded in both ankles in the English attack on Cartagena in what is now Colombia, which he helped to lead in 1740, while still lieutenant governor; he subsequently suffered poor health for the rest of his life. A staunch member of the Church of England, he focused on what he perceived as threats from new Protestant denominations such as the Methodists and Baptists. He retired from political life and sailed back to England in 1749, where he died in 1751.
Wed, 09 Nov 2016 16:00:40 EST]]>
/Ku_Klux_Klan_in_Virginia Fri, 04 Nov 2016 16:34:31 EST <![CDATA[Ku Klux Klan in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ku_Klux_Klan_in_Virginia The Ku Klux Klan (KKK), also known as the Klan or the Invisible Empire, is a right-wing extremist organization that has emerged at three distinct periods of U.S. history: from 1865 to the 1870s, from 1915 to 1944, and from the 1950s to the present. In the name of white supremacy and the protection of "one-hundred percent Americanism," these Klan movements have targeted—through political rhetoric and violent actions—African Americans, immigrants, Catholics, Jews, and organized labor, as well as prostitution and the alcohol industry. While antipathy from political elites ensured that the Klan never gained the foothold in Virginia that it had in other states, it was most prominent in the Commonwealth during the 1920s and resurged during the 1950s and 1960s to target civil rights activists. During Reconstruction (1865–1877), the Klan was active in Virginia only for a period of several months before the newspapers that had once supported it condemned its use of violence. After the events of World War I (1914–1918) encouraged a heightened fear of "anti-American elements," the Klan was more efficiently mobilized and enjoyed a longer reign in Virginia, but was undone by legal restrictions on its violent activities, which included kidnappings, floggings, and at least one lynching. The Klan was reborn in the late 1950s to defend white supremacy against the threats of desegregation, but mounting pressure from civil rights groups led the white political establishment to commit to stamping out masked rallies and cross-burnings and making Virginia an inhospitable environment for Klan activity. The white political and social elite consistently decried the Klan, not because they were opposed to white supremacy but because they viewed the Klan's methods as crass and unsophisticated. Klan klaverns still exist in the Commonwealth, but there has been little public notice or concern of them since the late 1960s.
Fri, 04 Nov 2016 16:34:31 EST]]>
/Two_Penny_Acts_1755_1758 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:06:52 EST <![CDATA[Two Penny Acts (1755, 1758)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Two_Penny_Acts_1755_1758 The General Assembly adopted the Two Penny Acts of 1755 and 1758 as temporary relief measures in response to the failure of the Virginia colony's tobacco crops. Tobacco was Virginia's principal export, but it also backed the colony's currency, and these crop failures threatened Virginia's system of taxation for support of local and provincial government, including the parishes and clergy of the Church of England. The Two Penny Acts allowed vestries and county courts to collect taxes and pay salaries in money calculated at the usual market price for tobacco rather than in tobacco at windfall rates. Although it reduced their annual salaries, relatively few Virginia clergymen objected to the 1755 act, which expired after ten months. They were less amenable to the second act, however. Reverend Jacob Rowe spoke so vehemently against it that he was forced to apologize to the House of Burgesses. Reverend John Camm, meanwhile, took the protest to London and succeeded in having the act revoked, which set up a conflict between Lieutenant Governor Francis Fauquier and the power of the Crown. When clergymen sued for their back wages, the controversy known as the Parsons' Cause erupted and became a precedent for resistance to English authority.
Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:06:52 EST]]>
/Camm_John_bap_1717-1779 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:01:45 EST <![CDATA[Camm, John (bap. 1717–1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Camm_John_bap_1717-1779 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 15:01:45 EST]]> /Fauquier_Francis_bap_1703-1768 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 11:20:32 EST <![CDATA[Fauquier, Francis (bap. 1703–1768)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fauquier_Francis_bap_1703-1768 Francis Fauquier served as lieutenant governor of Virginia from 1758 until his death in 1768 and during the terms of two absentee governors, John Campbell, fourth earl of Loudoun, and Sir Jeffery Amherst. Born and educated in London, Fauquier was influential in business and the arts before coming to Virginia. Beginning in the midst of the French and Indian War (1754–1763), his administration was fraught with unusual difficulties. He struggled to establish defenses against Indian raids on the frontier and to recruit and supply Virginia regiments to supplement British expeditionary forces; he worked for a compromise between colonials and English merchants over the issue of paper money; and he maintained a strong grip upon the government in the midst of the Stamp Act crisis and revelations of irregularities in the Treasurer's Office following the death of Speaker John Robinson (1705–1766). Influenced by the Enlightenment, Fauquier had a good relationship with Virginia's colonial leaders and generally promoted education. Before his death, he stipulated that the families of his slaves not be split up upon his death.
Thu, 03 Nov 2016 11:20:32 EST]]>
/_An_ACT_to_punish_certain_thefts_and_forgeries_December_31_1806 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:15:57 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to punish certain thefts and forgeries" (December 31, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_punish_certain_thefts_and_forgeries_December_31_1806 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:15:57 EST]]> /_quot_The_Lynching_of_Negroes_quot_chapter_4_of_The_Negro_The_Southerner_apos_s_Problem_by_Thomas_Nelson_Page_1904 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:13:47 EST <![CDATA["The Lynching of Negroes"; chapter 4 of The Negro: The Southerner's Problem by Thomas Nelson Page (1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Lynching_of_Negroes_quot_chapter_4_of_The_Negro_The_Southerner_apos_s_Problem_by_Thomas_Nelson_Page_1904 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:13:47 EST]]> /_quot_The_Negro_and_the_Criminal_Law_quot_chapter_6_of_The_Plantation_Negro_as_Freeman_by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1889 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:47:42 EST <![CDATA["The Negro and the Criminal Law"; chapter 6 of The Plantation Negro as Freeman by Philip Alexander Bruce (1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Negro_and_the_Criminal_Law_quot_chapter_6_of_The_Plantation_Negro_as_Freeman_by_Philip_Alexander_Bruce_1889 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:47:42 EST]]> /_quot_The_Perpetuation_of_Our_Political_Institutions_quot_by_Abraham_Lincoln_January_27_1838 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:30:47 EST <![CDATA["The Perpetuation of Our Political Institutions" by Abraham Lincoln (January 27, 1838)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Perpetuation_of_Our_Political_Institutions_quot_by_Abraham_Lincoln_January_27_1838 Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:30:47 EST]]> /Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_Refugee_gt_1856 Fri, 28 Oct 2016 10:59:11 EST <![CDATA[Arrivals from Virginia; an excerpt from The Refugee (1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Arrivals_from_Virginia_an_excerpt_from_The_Refugee_gt_1856 Fri, 28 Oct 2016 10:59:11 EST]]> /Jefferson_Thomas_and_Gardening Wed, 26 Oct 2016 17:11:11 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and Gardening]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_Gardening Thomas Jefferson's interest in gardening arose from a passionate curiosity about the natural world. From his childhood home at Shadwell, where in his early twenties Jefferson recorded that 2,500 pea seeds would fill a pint jar, until 1825, when at the age of eighty-two he sought and later received from the former governor of Ohio seeds of giant cucumbers, Jefferson had an unrelenting enthusiasm for natural history and horticulture that was expressed in his Garden Book. Sixty-six pages long, bound in leather, and residing today at the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Garden Book is also a reflection of Jefferson's Enlightenment ethic. Although he also displayed his love of gardening, food, and wine during his political life in Paris, Philadelphia, and Washington, and at his retirement retreat at Poplar Forest, Jefferson's lifelong home at Monticello became his experimental horticultural laboratory as well as a natural canvas on which to indulge his interest in landscape design, whether sketching plans for garden temples, planting groves of native and introduced species of plants, or composing dreamy visions for classical grottoes around natural mountain springs.
Wed, 26 Oct 2016 17:11:11 EST]]>
/Dodge_Sanford_M_ca_1820-d_1870 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 17:06:40 EST <![CDATA[Dodge, Sanford M. (ca. 1820–1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dodge_Sanford_M_ca_1820-d_1870 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 17:06:40 EST]]> /Allen_Arthur_ca_1652-1710 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:28:33 EST <![CDATA[Allen, Arthur (ca. 1652–1710)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allen_Arthur_ca_1652-1710 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:28:33 EST]]> /Act_of_Toleration_1689 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:24:40 EST <![CDATA[Act of Toleration (1689)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Act_of_Toleration_1689 The Act of Toleration, or "An Act for Exempting their Majestyes Protestant Subjects dissenting from the Church of England from the Penalties of certaine Lawes," passed by Parliament in 1689, represented the most significant religious reform in England since its break with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s. Instituted in the wake of the Glorious Revolution (1688–1689) that deposed the Catholic James II in favor of his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch Calvinist husband, William, the act exempted religious dissenters from certain penalties and disadvantages under which they had suffered for more than a century. Under the act's provisions, Trinitarian Protestants (not Catholics) could operate without interference from the state if they swore an oath of allegiance to the government. This excluded those Anglicans who supported a return to the Stuart monarchy (the line of James II). Offering this toleration to Presbyterians, Baptists, and other orthodox dissenters built a stronger base of support for King William's rule, but it also legally endorsed an unprecedented level of religious diversity in England. This reform would have cascading—if contested—consequences for religion in the American colonies, including Virginia.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:24:40 EST]]>
/Sound_in_Jefferson_s_Virginia Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:13:42 EST <![CDATA[Sound in Jefferson's Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Sound_in_Jefferson_s_Virginia Sound in Thomas Jefferson's Virginia included natural, man-made, and melodic noises. The areas surrounding Monticello, the Albemarle County estate of Jefferson, and the city of Charlottesville, reverberated with thunder, cicadas, bells, work songs, fiddles, and drums. Nearby taverns, parlors, dances, and political rallies resonated with the sounds of crowd noises, toasts, songs, military salutes, fireworks, and shouts. Jefferson's world was as noisy as any small town of its time, filled with the sounds of nature (especially cicadas), Western art music, political music, and the sounds of the enslaved. In taverns, patrons sang drinking songs and patriotic tunes. In parlors, young women performed with keyboards and lutes. At dances, men played fiddles, and in the military, they participated in fife and drum corps. In slave quarters, enslaved men and women, though regularly ignored, sang spirituals and played fiddles and drums, sometimes to communicate with one another.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 16:13:42 EST]]>
/Witchcraft_in_Colonial_Virginia Tue, 25 Oct 2016 12:11:32 EST <![CDATA[Witchcraft in Colonial Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Witchcraft_in_Colonial_Virginia Witchcraft was a genuine concern for colonial Virginians. The colony's English settlers brought with them a strong belief in the devil's power and his presence in the New World. This belief was first manifested in the Jamestown colonists' early perceptions of the Virginia Indians, whom they believed to be devil worshippers. After 1622, some colonists began to accuse one another of practicing witchcraft. Though witchcraft cases in Virginia were less common and the sentences less severe than the more famous witch trials of Salem, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, evidence exists that about two dozen such trials took place in Virginia between 1626 and 1730. They ranged from civil defamation suits to criminal accusations. The most famous of these was the trial of Grace Sherwood of Princess Anne County, in which the judges determined her guilt by administering a water test. Records indicate that the last witchcraft trial in the mainland colonies took place in Virginia in 1730; five years later, Parliament repealed the Witchcraft Act of 1604, the statute under which British American colonists prosecuted accused witches. Since then, witchcraft has been largely forgotten as an aspect of life in colonial Virginia.
Tue, 25 Oct 2016 12:11:32 EST]]>
/Brooke_George_d_1782 Fri, 14 Oct 2016 12:03:51 EST <![CDATA[Brooke, George (d. 1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brooke_George_d_1782 George Brooke was a member of the House of Burgesses (1765, 1771, 1774), the Convention of 1776, and the Senate of Virginia (1776–1779), and served as treasurer of Virginia from 1779 until his death. Born in King William County, he moved to King and Queen County after his marriage and formed a mercantile partnership with one of his wife's relatives. He earned a reputation as a reliable businessman and was involved in settling the controversial and politically sensitive estate of Speaker John Robinson. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he sat in the Revolutionary Conventions, although he missed the vote for independence in 1776, and was paymaster to several Virginia regiments. At the end of his life he served as treasurer of Virginia, helping to supervise the transfer of the capital from Williamsburg to Richmond and to keep the state's fiscal affairs intact during British raids in 1781. He died in 1782.
Fri, 14 Oct 2016 12:03:51 EST]]>
/Boothe_Armistead_L_1907-1990 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 16:52:55 EST <![CDATA[Boothe, Armistead L. (1907–1990)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boothe_Armistead_L_1907-1990 Armistead L. Boothe was a Democratic politician who challenged the party's powerful, conservative political machine run by Senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. Boothe entered the General Assembly in 1948 as an independent thinker within what was known as the Byrd Organization. He sabotaged an attempt to keep Harry S. Truman off the ballot for the 1948 presidential election and the next year predicted that public school segregation would soon be ruled illegal. In 1950 he proposed integrating common carriers, and after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) that segregation in public schools was indeed unconstitutional, he issued his own plan for limited public school desegregation despite his personal opposition to integration. Boothe opposed Byrd's plan of Massive Resistance, or a refusal to desegregate, as a threat to strong public schools. Despite being an influential member of the House of Delegates and the Senate of Virginia for more than a decade, Boothe remained an opposition figure within his own party. He lost Democratic primaries for lieutenant governor in 1961 and for the U.S. Senate in 1966.
Wed, 12 Oct 2016 16:52:55 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_George_Wythe_with_Enclosure_September_16_1787 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 14:57:20 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to George Wythe, with Enclosure (September 16, 1787)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_George_Wythe_with_Enclosure_September_16_1787 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 14:57:20 EST]]> /Reports_on_the_Death_of_George_Wythe_Poulson_s_American_Daily_Advertiser_June_17_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:15:49 EST <![CDATA[Reports on the Death of George Wythe, Poulson's American Daily Advertiser (June 17, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Reports_on_the_Death_of_George_Wythe_Poulson_s_American_Daily_Advertiser_June_17_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:15:49 EST]]> /Letter_from_William_Wirt_to_Elizabeth_Gamble_Wirt_July_13_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:01:12 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William Wirt to Elizabeth Gamble Wirt (July 13, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_Wirt_to_Elizabeth_Gamble_Wirt_July_13_1806 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:01:12 EST]]> /Ariss_John_ca_1729-1799 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 16:51:10 EST <![CDATA[Ariss, John (ca. 1729–1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ariss_John_ca_1729-1799 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 16:51:10 EST]]> /Excerpt_from_the_Virginia_Gazette_December_14_1769 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:54:18 EST <![CDATA[Excerpt from the Virginia Gazette (December 14, 1769)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpt_from_the_Virginia_Gazette_December_14_1769 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:54:18 EST]]> /An_act_ascertaining_the_place_for_erecting_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_February_8_1693 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:48:37 EST <![CDATA[An act ascertaining the place for erecting the College of William and Mary in Virginia (February 8, 1693)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_ascertaining_the_place_for_erecting_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_February_8_1693 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:48:37 EST]]> /The_Third_of_Five_Student_Speeches_written_by_Francis_Nicolson_and_James_Blair_May_1_1699 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:44:46 EST <![CDATA[The Third of Five Student Speeches written by Francis Nicolson and James Blair (May 1, 1699)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Third_of_Five_Student_Speeches_written_by_Francis_Nicolson_and_James_Blair_May_1_1699 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:44:46 EST]]> /An_act_for_the_Seatinge_of_the_middle_Plantation_February_1_1632 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:40:30 EST <![CDATA[An act for the Seatinge of the middle Plantation (February 1, 1632)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_the_Seatinge_of_the_middle_Plantation_February_1_1632 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:40:30 EST]]> /The_Statutes_of_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_1758 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:36:35 EST <![CDATA[The Statutes of the College of William and Mary in Virginia (1758)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Statutes_of_the_College_of_William_and_Mary_in_Virginia_1758 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:36:35 EST]]> /Amendments_proposed_by_the_Council_to_the_Bill_Entituled_an_Act_continuing_the_Act_directing_the_building_the_Capitol_and_the_City_of_Williamsburgh_with_additions_1705 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:27:20 EST <![CDATA[Amendments proposed by the Council to the Bill Entituled an Act, continuing the Act directing the building the Capitol and the City of Williamsburgh, with additions (1705)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Amendments_proposed_by_the_Council_to_the_Bill_Entituled_an_Act_continuing_the_Act_directing_the_building_the_Capitol_and_the_City_of_Williamsburgh_with_additions_1705 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:27:20 EST]]> /An_Act_Continuing_the_Act_directing_the_building_the_Capitol_and_the_city_of_Williamsburg_with_additions_1699 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:24:34 EST <![CDATA[An Act Continuing the Act directing the building the Capitol and the city of Williamsburg; with additions (1699)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_Continuing_the_Act_directing_the_building_the_Capitol_and_the_city_of_Williamsburg_with_additions_1699 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:24:34 EST]]> /_Account_of_Col_George_Mercer_s_Arrival_in_Virginia_and_his_Resignation_of_the_Office_of_Stamp_Distributor_October_31_1765 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:15:17 EST <![CDATA["Account of Col. George Mercer's Arrival in Virginia, and his Resignation of the Office of Stamp Distributor" (October 31, 1765)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Account_of_Col_George_Mercer_s_Arrival_in_Virginia_and_his_Resignation_of_the_Office_of_Stamp_Distributor_October_31_1765 Tue, 11 Oct 2016 10:15:17 EST]]> /Dure_Leon_S_1907-1993 Thu, 06 Oct 2016 12:41:59 EST <![CDATA[Dure, Leon S. (1907–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dure_Leon_S_1907-1993 Leon S. Dure created the concept of freedom of choice of association, a philosophy embraced by segregationists after Massive Resistance—the state policies designed to oppose the desegregation of public schools—faded in 1959. Born in Macon, Georgia, Dure served as managing editor of the Macon Telegraph, White House correspondent for the Washington Post, managing editor of the Richmond Times-Dispatch, and executive news editor of the Twin City Sentinel in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. He retired in 1949 and returned to Virginia, where he lived on a farm in Albemarle County. During the desegregation crisis that followed the U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Dure publicized freedom of choice of association as a way to avoid the large-scale integration of public schools. Students could choose which school to attend, with white students receiving state-tuition grants to attend segregated private schools. While not entirely new, the idea was particularly palatable to suburban white voters. Dure's strategy persisted until the 1960s, when it received two key legal defeats in Griffin v. State Board of Education (1964) and Green v. County School Board of New Kent County (1968). Dure died in Florida in 1993.
Thu, 06 Oct 2016 12:41:59 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_and_the_Practice_of_Law Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:07:34 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas and the Practice of Law]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_and_the_Practice_of_Law Thomas Jefferson's life in the law has been generally overlooked, despite the years he devoted to its practice and the impact it had on the American Revolution (1775–1783) and subsequent generations. Admitted to the Virginia bar in 1765 after more than two years of reading law under the tutelage of George Wythe, Jefferson practiced before the General Court in Williamsburg, specializing in land cases. By the time Edmund Randolph took over his practice in 1774, he had handled more than 900 matters, with clients ranging from common farmers and indentured servants to the most powerful and wealthy of the colony's planter elite. In Bolling v. Bolling (1771) and Blair v. Blair (1772) he became involved in the private, often sensational affairs of the gentry, while in Howell v. Netherland (1770) he attempted to win the freedom of a mixed-race man he believed to be illegally bound to servitude. Jefferson was influenced by an English tradition distinguishing between common law—a tradition preserved by courts through precedent—and natural law, or rights ordained by God. In this way, his legal training left its mark on his revolutionary writings, in particular the "Summary View of the Rights of British America" (1774) and the Declaration of Independence (1776). Following the Revolution, he used these principles to campaign for legal reform in Virginia, drafting, among many other bills, the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786).
Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:07:34 EST]]>
/Paleoindian_Period Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:04:45 EST <![CDATA[Paleoindian Period (16,000–8000 BC)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Paleoindian_Period The Paleoindian Period (16,000–8000 BC) came toward the end of the Ice Age, a time when the climate warmed and the largest mammals became extinct. Likely having originally migrated from Asia, the first people in Virginia were hunter-gatherers who left behind lithic, or stone, tools, often spearheads. At the Cactus Hill Archaeological Site in Sussex County, these date back to 16,000 BC, or well before the better-known Clovis culture. The so-called Paleoamericans likely banded together in groups of thirty to fifty and located themselves near high-quality stone resources, especially in Dinwiddie and Mecklenburg counties. While keeping a base camp, they may have established smaller settlements for more specialized tasks such as tool-making and hunting. The bands probably lacked central leadership, moved often, and traded with one another. Based on the religious practices of the later Virginia Indians, they likely were animists, investing various natural forces with spiritual power.
Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:04:45 EST]]>
/Cactus_Hill_Archaeological_Site Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:02:19 EST <![CDATA[Cactus Hill Archaeological Site]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cactus_Hill_Archaeological_Site Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:02:19 EST]]> /Custalow_George_F_Thunder_Cloud_1865-1949 Fri, 30 Sep 2016 14:24:42 EST <![CDATA[Custalow, George F. "Thunder Cloud" (1865–1949)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Custalow_George_F_Thunder_Cloud_1865-1949 George F. "Thunder Cloud" Custalow was the chief of the Mattaponi tribe from 1914 until his death in 1949. Born in King William County in 1865, Custalow instituted educational and religious reform in his community and helped forge Mattaponi tribal identity. (Prior to his efforts, it was mistakenly believed that the Mattaponi were a branch of the Pamunkey, not a separate Powhatan tribe.) Under his leadership, a Mattaponi school opened on the reservation and tribal members founded the Mattaponi Indian Baptist Church. Custalow also campaigned with Pamunkey chief George Major Cook against legislation that restricted Virginia Indians' civil rights even further than the Virginia Act to Preserve Racial Integrity, which passed in 1924, already did. He died on the Mattaponi Indian Reservation on March 18, 1949.
Fri, 30 Sep 2016 14:24:42 EST]]>
/Southern_Horrors_Lynch_Law_in_All_Its_Phases_by_Ida_B_Wells_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:13:35 EST <![CDATA[Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases by Ida B. Wells (1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Southern_Horrors_Lynch_Law_in_All_Its_Phases_by_Ida_B_Wells_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:13:35 EST]]> /_quot_Lynch_Law_Again_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_February_19_1880 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:12:38 EST <![CDATA["Lynch Law, Again," Richmond Dispatch (February 19, 1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Lynch_Law_Again_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_February_19_1880 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:12:38 EST]]> /_quot_Page_Wallace_apos_s_Crime_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_February_3_1880 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:11:47 EST <![CDATA["Page Wallace's Crime," Richmond Dispatch (February 3, 1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Page_Wallace_apos_s_Crime_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_February_3_1880 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:11:47 EST]]> /_quot_From_the_Vicksburg_Register_quot_The_Floridian_July_25_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:11:00 EST <![CDATA["From the Vicksburg Register," The Floridian (July 25, 1835)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_From_the_Vicksburg_Register_quot_The_Floridian_July_25_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:11:00 EST]]> /_quot_Richlands_apos_Lynching_quot_Clinch_Valley_News_February_3_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:10:00 EST <![CDATA["Richlands' Lynching," Clinch Valley News (February 3, 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Richlands_apos_Lynching_quot_Clinch_Valley_News_February_3_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:10:00 EST]]> /U_S_Senate_Resolution_39_June_13_2005 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:08:50 EST <![CDATA[U.S. Senate Resolution 39 (June 13, 2005)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/U_S_Senate_Resolution_39_June_13_2005 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:08:50 EST]]> /Virginia_Mob_New-York_Spectator_August_20_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:07:52 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Mob, New-York Spectator (August 20, 1835)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Mob_New-York_Spectator_August_20_1835 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:07:52 EST]]> /_quot_Peace_and_Quiet_quot_Roanoke_Times_September_22_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:06:01 EST <![CDATA["Peace and Quiet," Roanoke Times (September 22, 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Peace_and_Quiet_quot_Roanoke_Times_September_22_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:06:01 EST]]> /_quot_The_Execution_Yesterday_quot_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_October_22_1864 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:05:01 EST <![CDATA["The Execution Yesterday," Richmond Daily Dispatch (October 22, 1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Execution_Yesterday_quot_Richmond_Daily_Dispatch_October_22_1864 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:05:01 EST]]> /_quot_Lynched_quot_Staunton_Spectator_October_3_1882 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:04:03 EST <![CDATA["Lynched!," Staunton Spectator (October 3, 1882)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Lynched_quot_Staunton_Spectator_October_3_1882 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:04:03 EST]]> /_quot_Rev_Dr_Hatcher_apos_s_Surprising_Assertions_quot_Richmond_Planet_June_23_1894 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:02:59 EST <![CDATA["Rev. Dr. Hatcher's Surprising Assertions," Richmond Planet (June 23, 1894)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Rev_Dr_Hatcher_apos_s_Surprising_Assertions_quot_Richmond_Planet_June_23_1894 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:02:59 EST]]> /_quot_Judge_Lynch_and_His_Victims_quot_Richmond_Planet_January_18_1902 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:01:17 EST <![CDATA["Judge Lynch and His Victims," Richmond Planet (January 18, 1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Judge_Lynch_and_His_Victims_quot_Richmond_Planet_January_18_1902 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 15:01:17 EST]]> /_quot_Lynch_Law_quot_excerpt_from_Governor_Philip_W_McKinney_apos_s_Address_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:57 EST <![CDATA["Lynch Law"; excerpt from Governor Philip W. McKinney's Address to the General Assembly (December 6, 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Lynch_Law_quot_excerpt_from_Governor_Philip_W_McKinney_apos_s_Address_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:57 EST]]> /_quot_Horrible_Tragedy_quot_Raleigh_Register_and_North-Carolina_Gazette_May_24_1836 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:00 EST <![CDATA["Horrible Tragedy," Raleigh Register and North-Carolina Gazette (May 24, 1836)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Horrible_Tragedy_quot_Raleigh_Register_and_North-Carolina_Gazette_May_24_1836 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:00 EST]]> /_quot_Hanged_by_a_Mob_quot_Alexandria_Gazette_April_23_1897 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:57:39 EST <![CDATA["Hanged by a Mob," Alexandria Gazette (April 23, 1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Hanged_by_a_Mob_quot_Alexandria_Gazette_April_23_1897 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:57:39 EST]]> /_quot_The_Lynchers_Were_Convicted_quot_Richmond_Planet_July_8_1899 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:56:43 EST <![CDATA["The Lynchers Were Convicted," Richmond Planet (July 8, 1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Lynchers_Were_Convicted_quot_Richmond_Planet_July_8_1899 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:56:43 EST]]> /_quot_Viewed_by_a_Thousand_People_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_13_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:55:21 EST <![CDATA["Viewed by a Thousand People," Roanoke Times (February 13, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Viewed_by_a_Thousand_People_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_13_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:55:21 EST]]> /_quot_Judge_Lynch_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_12_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:53:57 EST <![CDATA["Judge Lynch!," Roanoke Times (February 12, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Judge_Lynch_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_12_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:53:57 EST]]> /_quot_The_Police_Force_Wakes_Up_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_11_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:52:53 EST <![CDATA["The Police Force Wakes Up," Roanoke Times (February 11, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Police_Force_Wakes_Up_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_11_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:52:53 EST]]> /_quot_Brutal_Attempt_of_a_Negro_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_10_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST <![CDATA["Brutal Attempt of a Negro," Roanoke Times (February 10, 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Brutal_Attempt_of_a_Negro_quot_Roanoke_Times_February_10_1892 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST]]> /_quot_Lynch_Law_and_Barbarism_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_August_3_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:50:49 EST <![CDATA["Lynch Law and Barbarism," Richmond Dispatch (August 3, 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Lynch_Law_and_Barbarism_quot_Richmond_Dispatch_August_3_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:50:49 EST]]> /_quot_The_Clifton_Forge_Tragedy_quot_Roanoke_Times_October_20_1891 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:49:43 EST <![CDATA["The Clifton Forge Tragedy," Roanoke Times (October 20, 1891)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_The_Clifton_Forge_Tragedy_quot_Roanoke_Times_October_20_1891 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:49:43 EST]]> /_They_Hanged_Him_Richmond_Dispatch_November_9_1889 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:48:08 EST <![CDATA["They Hanged Him," Richmond Dispatch (November 9, 1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_They_Hanged_Him_Richmond_Dispatch_November_9_1889 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:48:08 EST]]> /Carr_Peter_1770-1815 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 11:01:41 EST <![CDATA[Carr, Peter (1770–1815)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carr_Peter_1770-1815 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 11:01:41 EST]]> /_On_the_Beauty_and_Fertility_of_America_chapter_14_of_A_Huguenot_Exile_in_Virginia_by_Durand_de_Dauphine_1687 Tue, 20 Sep 2016 11:31:17 EST <![CDATA["On the Beauty and Fertility of America"; chapter 14 of A Huguenot Exile in Virginia by Durand de Dauphiné (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_On_the_Beauty_and_Fertility_of_America_chapter_14_of_A_Huguenot_Exile_in_Virginia_by_Durand_de_Dauphine_1687 Tue, 20 Sep 2016 11:31:17 EST]]> /The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_Thomas_R_Gray_1832 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:21:31 EST <![CDATA[The Confessions of Nat Turner by Thomas R. Gray (1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_Thomas_R_Gray_1832 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:21:31 EST]]> /The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_William_Styron_1967 Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:03:45 EST <![CDATA[Confessions of Nat Turner, The (1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Confessions_of_Nat_Turner_by_William_Styron_1967 The Confessions of Nat Turner, a novel by William Styron, was published in 1967 and won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1968. The title character is based on the historical Nat Turner, a slave preacher and self-styled prophet who, in August 1831, led the only successful slave revolt in Virginia's history, which in just twelve hours left fifty-five white people in Southampton County dead. (A slave named Gabriel conspired to revolt in 1800, but his plans were discovered before he could carry them out.) The historical Nat Turner, in turn, is largely the product of "The Confessions of Nat Turner, as fully and voluntarily made to Thomas R. Gray," a pamphlet published shortly after Turner's trial and execution in November 1831. Although it played a crucial role in shaping perceptions of the event around the central figure of Turner, the pamphlet itself only reached a small portion of the reading public. The story awaited the Virginia-born Styron, who translated the historical record into a popular medium that commanded the full attention of the reading public and the national media. Despite its awards, however, that attention was not always positive. Published at the height of the Black Power movement and after a long summer of race riots in the United States, Styron's novel was labeled by some civil rights activists as racist, especially because of the author's depiction of Turner lusting after white women, one of whom he eventually kills.
Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:03:45 EST]]>
/Virginia_Convention_of_1864 Thu, 08 Sep 2016 17:11:28 EST <![CDATA[Constitutional Convention, Virginia (1864)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Convention_of_1864 The Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1864, called by the loyal Restored government meeting in Alexandria during the American Civil War (1861–1865), adopted the Constitution of 1864, which finally accomplished a number of changes that reformers had agitated for since at least the 1820s. It abolished slavery, provided a way of funding primary and free schools, and required voting by paper ballot for state officers and members of the General Assembly. It also put an end to longstanding friction over regional differences by recognizing the creation of West Virginia as a separate state. Members of the convention proclaimed the new constitution in effect, rather than submitting it to voters for approval in a popular referendum. Initially only the areas of northern and eastern Virginia then under Union control recognized the authority of the Constitution of 1864, but after the fall of the Confederacy in May 1865 it became effective for all of Virginia and remained in effect until July 1869.
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 17:11:28 EST]]>
/Army_of_Northern_Virginia Thu, 08 Sep 2016 16:59:46 EST <![CDATA[Army of Northern Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Army_of_Northern_Virginia The Army of Northern Virginia was the most successful Confederate army during the American Civil War (1861–1865). With Robert E. Lee at its head, Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson commanding one of its corps, and J. E. B. Stuart leading its cavalry, the army won important victories at Fredericksburg (1862) and Chancellorsville (1863) while the Union Army of the Potomac shuffled through a series of commanders and crises of morale. Lee's army numbered 90,000 at its strongest and was organized into state-specific regiments and brigades, with about 55 percent of its men coming from the Upper South. Most of these soldiers were farmers and the vast majority had direct contact with slavery. By implementing a strategy of aggressively confronting Union armies and inflicting casualties, the army itself suffered high casualties, with more than 30,000 killed in action. In part because of this high toll, which placed it at the center of the South's fight for independence, the Army of Northern Virginia—like its battle flag and its commander—became a symbol of the Confederate nation. One woman lamented, after the army's surrender on April 9, 1865, that "we have depended too much on Gen Lee[,] too little on God, & I believe God has suffered his surrender to show us we can use other means than Gen Lee to affect his ends."
Thu, 08 Sep 2016 16:59:46 EST]]>
/C_S_S_hi_rend_italic_Virginia_hi Wed, 07 Sep 2016 17:38:38 EST <![CDATA[CSS Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/C_S_S_hi_rend_italic_Virginia_hi The CSS Virginia was an ironclad ship in the Confederate navy during the American Civil War (1861–1865). The first American warship of its kind—prior to 1862, all navy vessels were made of wood—it was constructed in order to attack the ever-tightening Union blockade on the Confederacy's major Atlantic ports and harbors. The CSS Virginia's launch in March 1862 provided one of the first truly unmistakable signs of a revolution in naval warfare that would transform the conduct of war at sea during the nineteenth century. It quickly met its match, however, in a hastily constructed, Swedish-engineered Union ironclad, the USS Monitor, at the Battle of Hampton Roads (1862). By April 1862, the Confederacy's 3,500 miles of coastline were largely lost (only Wilmington, North Carolina, and Charleston, South Carolina, remained under Confederate control), and in May of that year, the Virginia was intentionally destroyed.
Wed, 07 Sep 2016 17:38:38 EST]]>
/Confederate_Battle_Flag Wed, 07 Sep 2016 16:11:57 EST <![CDATA[Confederate Battle Flag]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Confederate_Battle_Flag The Confederate battle flag, initially authorized for units of the Confederate armed forces during the American Civil War (1861–1865), has become one of the most recognized, misunderstood, and controversial symbols in American history. Originally designed as a Confederate national flag by William Porcher Miles of South Carolina, it was rejected by the Confederate Congress but subsequently adopted by the Confederate army, which needed a banner that was easily distinguishable from the United States flag. The battle flag transformed into a national symbol as the Army of Northern Virginia, with which it was closely associated, also became an important symbol. It even was incorporated into the Confederacy's second and third national flags. Following the war, proponents of the Lost Cause used the battle flag to represent Southern valor and honor, although it also was implicitly connected to white supremacy. In the mid-twentieth century, the battle flag simultaneously became ubiquitous in American culture while, partly through the efforts of the Ku Klux Klan, becoming increasingly tied to racial violence and intimidation. African Americans conflated the battle flag to opposition to the civil rights movement, while neo-Confederates argued that its meaning had to do with states' rights and southern identity, not racial hatred. The political and social lines of dispute over the flag remain much the same at the beginning of the twenty-first century.
Wed, 07 Sep 2016 16:11:57 EST]]>
/Biggs_Walter_J_1886-1968 Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:07:58 EST <![CDATA[Biggs, Walter J. (1886–1968)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Biggs_Walter_J_1886-1968 Walter J. Biggs enjoyed success as a popular illustrator for most of his career, and then became an accomplished painter later in life. Growing up in Salem, he attended the New York School of Art (later Parsons The New School for Design) early in the 1900s. His romantic, impressionistic-style works soon began appearing on the covers of major magazines of the period, as well as in books. Biggs won praise for his renderings of the American South, particularly for sympathetic portrayals of African American life. He started working with watercolors in the 1940s, developing a national reputation with competition prizes and exhibitions in New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia. He returned to Salem permanently after retiring as an illustrator late in the 1950s. In 1963 he was inducted into the Society of Illustrators' Hall of Fame and died five years later in Roanoke. In 1986 Roanoke College, which owns a large collection of Biggs's paintings and sketchbooks, dedicated the Walter Biggs Studio in the Olin Hall Student Art Center.
Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:07:58 EST]]>
/Everett_John_R_1918-1992 Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:04:34 EST <![CDATA[Everett, John R. (1918–1992)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Everett_John_R_1918-1992 John R. Everett presided over Hollins College (later Hollins University) from 1950 until 1960. Reportedly the nation's youngest college president when he assumed the office, he established a new curriculum and oversaw the near doubling of Hollins's student body and faculty. Everett also instituted a study abroad program. He left Virginia to become the first chancellor of the Municipal College System of the City of New York and later spent nearly two decades as president of the New School for Social Research (later the New School) in New York City. He died in 1992. A scholarship was established in his name at Hollins following his retirement.
Wed, 07 Sep 2016 15:04:34 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_14_1765 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (September 14, 1765)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_14_1765 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:56 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_October_31_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:14 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (October 31, 1768)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_October_31_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:51:14 EST]]> /Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_February_1_1772 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:50:27 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Fielding Lewis to Rev. John Waring (February 1, 1772)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Fielding_Lewis_to_Rev_John_Waring_February_1_1772 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:50:27 EST]]> /Letter_from_Rev_James_Marye_Jr_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_25_1764 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:49:44 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. James Marye Jr. to Rev. John Waring (September 25, 1764)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_James_Marye_Jr_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_25_1764 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:49:44 EST]]> /Letter_from_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_November_17_1774 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:48:35 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Robert Carter Nicholas to Rev. John Waring (November 17, 1774)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_November_17_1774 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:48:35 EST]]> /Letter_from_Rev_John_Waring_to_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_April_20_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:47:17 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Rev. John Waring to Robert Carter Nicholas (April 20, 1768)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Rev_John_Waring_to_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_April_20_1768 Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:47:17 EST]]> /Republican_Party_of_Virginia Wed, 31 Aug 2016 17:53:47 EST <![CDATA[Republican Party of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Republican_Party_of_Virginia The Republican Party is one of two major political parties in Virginia. Although founded in 1854 in opposition to the spread of slavery, the party did not take hold in Virginia until after the American Civil War (1861–1865). Even then, for nearly a century the Republicans were an ineffectual, minority party with only pockets of regional strength. During this period, the conservative Democratic Party dominated politics in Virginia and the rest of the South. After World War II (1939–1945), economic growth, demographic trends, electoral reforms, and policy debates combined to spur a realignment that gradually brought the Virginia parties into line philosophically with their national counterparts. As the center-right party in a conservative-leaning state, the Virginia Republican Party became consistently competitive. Following the mid-1970s, Virginia politics settled into a pattern characterized by active competition between the two major party organizations and their candidates. Partisan fortunes ebbed and flowed, but neither party established durable majority support on a statewide basis. In the twenty-first century Republican candidates in Virginia routinely compete with their Democratic rivals for the support of nonaligned voters (generally called "independents") in addition to mobilizing fellow partisans.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 17:53:47 EST]]>
/Farrar_Joseph_E_1830-1892 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 17:13:59 EST <![CDATA[Farrar, Joseph E. (1830–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farrar_Joseph_E_1830-1892 Joseph E. Farrar was a Richmond builder and civic leader in the decades after the American Civil War (1861–1865). Farrar was born free and held a respected position as a contractor before the abolition of slavery, but he needed a gubernatorial pardon to escape being sold into slavery after being convicted of receiving stolen property. He began his civic involvement less than a month after the fall of Richmond, helping organize the Colored Men's Equal Rights League. Farrar and other leaders established the Virginia Home Building Fund and Loan Association to assist African Americans in purchasing their own homes. He also received contracts from the Freedmen's Bureau to work on school buildings in Richmond. Farrar held leadership positions in a series of Baptist and educational organizations and served on Richmond's common council as a member of the Knights of Labor's reform faction. He remained active in the community until his 1892 death in Richmond.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 17:13:59 EST]]>
/Letter_from_William_Yates_and_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_30_1762 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:42:18 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William Yates and Robert Carter Nicholas to Rev. John Waring (September 30, 1762)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_Yates_and_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_30_1762 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:42:18 EST]]> /Hunter_William_d_1761 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:35:39 EST <![CDATA[Hunter, William (d. 1761)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hunter_William_d_1761 William Hunter was official printer to the Virginia colony (1750–1761), publisher of the Virginia Gazette (1751–1761), deputy postmaster general for the British North American colonies (1753–1761), and justice of the peace on the York County Court (1759–1761). Born in Yorktown, Hunter apprenticed to Virginia's first public printer, William Parks, and upon the latter's death in 1750, took over the position at a higher salary. His tenure was arguably the pinnacle of the colonial-era printing monopoly, with Hunter providing faithful service to the colonial administration. In 1753, he and his friend Benjamin Franklin won appointment as deputy postmasters of the colonies, with Hunter responsible for areas south of Annapolis, Maryland. The next year, Hunter became ill while inspecting postal routes with Franklin, and remained ill for several years, spending some of that time in England. In his absence, the printing office was run by John Stretch, whose loyalties seemed to lean away from the lieutenant governor and toward the General Assembly, creating royal pressure for Hunter to return to Virginia. Hunter's business flourished, but he died suddenly in 1761. His life has been seen as an exemplar of the role of familial connections in Virginia, in that his brother's merchant connections and associates gained through his sisters' marriages proved essential to his success and his legacy.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:35:39 EST]]>
/Pamphlet_Gowan_fl_1779-1807 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:27:56 EST <![CDATA[Pamphlet, Gowan (fl. 1779–1807)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pamphlet_Gowan_fl_1779-1807 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:27:56 EST]]> /Campbell_Christiana_ca_1722-1792 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:24:05 EST <![CDATA[Campbell, Christiana (ca. 1723–1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Campbell_Christiana_ca_1722-1792 Christiana Campbell was a tavern-keeper in Williamsburg from 1755 until the late 1770s. Campbell, who was raised in Williamsburg, opened her tavern to support herself and her two daughters after her husband died in 1752. For more than twenty years she ran one of Williamsburg's most successful businesses. On the eve of the American Revolution (1775–1783), the colony's leaders periodically met at Campbell's tavern to discuss their connections with England and whether they should seek independence. Campbell evidently closed her tavern in the late 1770s, and, at some point after October 8, 1787, relocated to Fredericksburg, where she died in 1792.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:24:05 EST]]>
/Vobe_Jane_by_1733-1787 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:22:49 EST <![CDATA[Vobe, Jane (by 1733–1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Vobe_Jane_by_1733-1787 Jane Vobe operated taverns in Williamsburg (1751–1785) and in Manchester, in Chesterfield County (1786). Little is known of Vobe's life beyond what historians have gleaned from extant records, but her business was one of Williamsburg's most successful. In 1765 a French traveler recorded in his diary that Vobe's establishment was "where all the best people" stay; six years later, Vobe closed her tavern and opened another in 1772 in a different location in the Virginia capital. Politicians and military men often gathered at her tavern to discuss events related to the American Revolution (1775–1783). George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Nelson, and the Baron von Steuben were among her customers. After the Virginia capital moved to Richmond and the Revolution ended, Vobe relocated to Manchester, where she managed a tavern until her death, which was reported in 1786.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:22:49 EST]]>
/Funders Mon, 29 Aug 2016 13:28:55 EST <![CDATA[Funders]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Funders Funders were Virginians who during the 1870s and very early 1880s supported paying the full principal of the state's pre–Civil War public debt at the 6 percent annual rate that the Funding Act of 1871 established or who were willing to reduce the interest rate by a small amount if necessary. Some Funders were Democrats, some were Republicans, and many identified themselves with the state's Conservative Party that formed late in the 1860s in opposition to Congressional Reconstruction. The opponents of the Funders were called Readjusters because they wanted to refinance the debt—adjust, or readjust it—to reduce the rate of interest as much as possible and also to reduce, or repudiate, a portion of the principal and thereby lessen the expense of paying the debt. By the end of the 1870s, many of the state's African Americans supported the Readjusters and opposed the Funders.
Mon, 29 Aug 2016 13:28:55 EST]]>
/Conference_with_President_Andrew_Johnson_June_16_1865 Mon, 29 Aug 2016 10:21:29 EST <![CDATA[Conference with President Andrew Johnson (June 16, 1865)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Conference_with_President_Andrew_Johnson_June_16_1865 Five prominent African American men from Richmond met with President Andrew Johnson in the White House, in Washington, D.C., on June 16, 1865. Led by Fields Cook, a former slave and a Baptist minister, they complained about "the wrongs, as we conceive them to be, by which we are sorely oppressed." The men explained that, with the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865) and the abolition of slavery in Virginia, they were now at the mercy of former masters and a law code not equipped to deal with the new circumstances. They articulated several specific grievances: their inability to employ African American ministers in their churches; their lack of full civil rights in Richmond; and the conduct of the U.S. Army and of the civilian government under Governor Francis H. Pierpont and Mayor Joseph Mayo. Although Johnson did not make a formal response to the complaints, he informed the petitioners of changes of civil and military leadership in Richmond that eased their concerns.
Mon, 29 Aug 2016 10:21:29 EST]]>
/Cootes_Frank_G_1879-1960 Wed, 24 Aug 2016 15:55:17 EST <![CDATA[Cootes, F. Graham (1879–1960)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cootes_Frank_G_1879-1960 F. Graham Cootes was a popular illustrator and portraitist during in the twentieth century. Born in Staunton and educated at the University of Virginia, he entered the New York School of Art (later Parsons The New School for Design) in 1902. Cootes opened a Manhattan studio by 1906 and gained success as an illustrator for best-selling books and high-profile magazines. Cootes also established himself as a respected portraitist of prominent figures in New York and Washington, D.C. He semi-retired during the 1920s only to reemerge the following decade after he and his wife lost much of their wealth in the stock market crash. During this second period he produced his most famous work, the official White House portrait of Woodrow Wilson. Cootes kept his connections with his native state, painting portraits of Charlottesville residents, hosting summer art school programs at the University of Virginia, and visiting the Old Dominion often.
Wed, 24 Aug 2016 15:55:17 EST]]>
/Davis_John_A_G_1802-1840 Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:16:53 EST <![CDATA[Davis, John A. G. (1802–1840)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_John_A_G_1802-1840 John A. G. Davis was a law professor at the University of Virginia who was murdered there by a student. Born in Middlesex County, Davis attended the College of William and Mary and then, after marrying a grandniece of Thomas Jefferson, the recently founded University of Virginia. He established a law practice in Albemarle County, helped found a newspaper, and then, in 1830, joined the University of Virginia's faculty as a professor of law. In his publications, Davis defended states' rights and limited government, supporting nullification in 1832. A popular but strict professor, he used his role as faculty chairman in 1836 to help expel about seventy student-militia members, leading to a riot. Four years later, on the anniversary of that riot, two students in masks shot off their weapons outside Davis's residence, Pavilion X. When Davis confronted them, one of the students, Joseph G. Semmes, shot the professor dead. Semmes fled the state and later committed suicide. Davis died two days later, and his murder helped finally to calm years of misbehavior among the university's students.
Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:16:53 EST]]>
/Callender_James_Thomson_1757_or_1758-1803 Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:13:42 EST <![CDATA[Callender, James Thomson (1757 or 1758–1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Callender_James_Thomson_1757_or_1758-1803 James Thomson Callender was a partisan journalist known for attacking Federalists but also his one-time Republican ally, Thomas Jefferson. Born in Scotland, Callender was a Scottish nationalist who published pamphlets critical of the British government. When a warrant was issued for his arrest, he fled first to Ireland and then, in 1793, to Philadelphia. There he wrote newspaper items critical of the administrations of George Washington and John Adams and a pamphlet that exposed an extramarital affair by Alexander Hamilton. After the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798, Callender, who had moved to Richmond by this time, published another pamphlet critical of President Adams. In the spring of 1800 he was tried and convicted of sedition in Richmond and served nine months in jail. When Jefferson was elected president in 1801, Callender expected to be rewarded with a political position. When he was not, he turned on his former ally, accusing the president of having fathered children by his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Callender purchased part ownership of the Richmond Recorder newspaper, but quit after quarrels with his coeditor. He accidentally drowned in the James River in 1803.
Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:13:42 EST]]>
/Cohabitation_Act_of_1866 Thu, 18 Aug 2016 15:05:24 EST <![CDATA[Cohabitation Act of 1866]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cohabitation_Act_of_1866 The Cohabitation Act of 1866, passed by the General Assembly on February 27, 1866, legalized the marriages of formerly enslaved people in Virginia and declared their children to be legitimate. Because slave marriages were neither legally recognized nor protected, Governor Francis H. Pierpont recommended that the General Assembly of the Restored government of Virginia, which had remained loyal to the United States during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and had abolished slavery, pass a law to legalize and protect their existing marriages. With the end of the war, the Restored government's jurisdiction extended across the state, and in 1866 the General Assembly in Richmond passed the law legitimizing such marriages and the children who resulted from them.
Thu, 18 Aug 2016 15:05:24 EST]]>
/Anderson_Peyton_E_ca_1857-1950 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:24:09 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, Peyton E. (ca. 1857–1950)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_Peyton_E_ca_1857-1950 Peyton E. Anderson was a minister and the first African American superintendent of Prince Edward County's rural black schools. Born enslaved near Farmville, after the American Civil War (1861–1865) he committed himself to getting an education and studied ministry at Richmond Theological Institute. He became the superintendent of schools for African Americans in Prince Edward County, where he oversaw the construction of twenty-three rural schoolhouses and developed a curriculum centered on industrial education. For twenty-five years he was also principal of the Virso School, in Prince Edward County. One county superintendent described him as the most versatile schoolteacher he had ever seen. During his career in education, Anderson served as pastor of New Bethel and Shiloh churches, and at his death in 1950 was pastor of Mount Zion Baptist Church.
Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:24:09 EST]]>
/Christian_James_S_1918-1982 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:06:39 EST <![CDATA[Christian, James S. (1918–1982)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Christian_James_S_1918-1982 James S. Christian represented the city of Richmond in the House of Delegates from 1978 until his death in 1982. A veteran of World War II (1939–1945), he was the first African American from Richmond to report for flight training at the Tuskegee Army Air Base in Alabama. Christian also served in the Korean War (1950–1953). A postal worker for many years, he took accounting courses and opened a bookkeeping business in Richmond's Jackson Ward neighborhood in 1963. Nearly a decade later he joined the city's planning commission and was named its chair in 1976. The next year he won election to the House of Delegates, going on to serve three consecutive terms. A highly successful delegate, Christian was expected to become the House's second African American committee chair of the twentieth century. Instead, he died of bone cancer in 1982.
Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:06:39 EST]]>
/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Cary_amp_Co_May_1_1759 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:14:09 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to Robert Cary & Co. (May 1, 1759)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_Robert_Cary_amp_Co_May_1_1759 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:14:09 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Augustine_Washington_July_18_1755 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:08:18 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Augustine Washington (July 18, 1755)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Augustine_Washington_July_18_1755 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:08:18 EST]]> /Letter_from_John_Robinson_to_George_Washington_September_15_1754 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:06:30 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Robinson to George Washington (September 15, 1754)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Robinson_to_George_Washington_September_15_1754 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:06:30 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Augustine_Washington_May_31_1754 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:05:03 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to John Augustine Washington (May 31, 1754)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_John_Augustine_Washington_May_31_1754 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:05:03 EST]]> /Letter_from_George_Washington_to_David_Humphreys_July_25_1785 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:02:00 EST <![CDATA[Letter from George Washington to David Humphreys (July 25, 1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_George_Washington_to_David_Humphreys_July_25_1785 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 18:02:00 EST]]> /Letter_from_John_Adams_to_Benjamin_Rush_April_22_1812 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 16:51:31 EST <![CDATA[Letter from John Adams to Benjamin Rush (April 22, 1812)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_John_Adams_to_Benjamin_Rush_April_22_1812 Thu, 28 Jul 2016 16:51:31 EST]]> /Lost_Cause_The Wed, 27 Jul 2016 09:17:55 EST <![CDATA[Lost Cause, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lost_Cause_The The Lost Cause is an interpretation of the American Civil War (1861–1865) that seeks to present the war, from the perspective of Confederates, in the best possible terms. Developed by white Southerners, many of them former Confederate generals, in a postwar climate of economic, racial, and social uncertainty, the Lost Cause created and romanticized the "Old South" and the Confederate war effort, often distorting history in the process. For this reason, many historians have labeled the Lost Cause a myth or a legend. It is certainly an important example of public memory, one in which nostalgia for the Confederate past is accompanied by a collective forgetting of the horrors of slavery. Providing a sense of relief to white Southerners who feared being dishonored by defeat, the Lost Cause was largely accepted in the years following the war by white Americans who found it to be a useful tool in reconciling North and South. The Lost Cause has lost much of its academic support but continues to be an important part of how the Civil War is commemorated in the South and remembered in American popular culture.
Wed, 27 Jul 2016 09:17:55 EST]]>
/Edwards_Thomas_J_Tommy_1922-1969 Tue, 26 Jul 2016 17:31:28 EST <![CDATA[Edwards, Tommy (1922–1969)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edwards_Thomas_J_Tommy_1922-1969 Tommy Edwards was a singer and songwriter best known for his 1958 chart-topping single "It's All in the Game." Edwards showed musical promise early, hosting a Richmond radio show in his teens. By 1943 he was writing songs in New York and scored a hit with "That Chick's Too Young to Fry." Edwards began a recording career that peaked in 1958 with "It's All in the Game." The runaway hit led to a series of charting singles over the next two years and appearances on national television shows. His career declined as his balladeer style fell out of favor with musical trends. His signature song remains a classic years after his death and has been included in many music compilations.
Tue, 26 Jul 2016 17:31:28 EST]]>
/Crab_Orchard_Archaeological_Site Tue, 26 Jul 2016 16:02:46 EST <![CDATA[Crab Orchard Archaeological Site]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crab_Orchard_Archaeological_Site Tue, 26 Jul 2016 16:02:46 EST]]> /Public_School_System_in_Virginia_Establishment_of_the Tue, 26 Jul 2016 13:50:18 EST <![CDATA[Public School System in Virginia, Establishment of the]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Public_School_System_in_Virginia_Establishment_of_the The first statewide system of free public schools in Virginia was established in 1870 after the ratification of a new constitution and was one of the most important and enduring accomplishments of Reconstruction. Prior to the American Civil War (1861–1865), education had been reserved mostly for elite white families; no southern states had public school systems and in Virginia the education of free and enslaved African Americans had been discouraged and, in some forms, made illegal. After the abolition of slavery, the federal Freedmen's Bureau established the first statewide system of schools, but only for African Americans; other, biracial systems were set up, but only in Petersburg, Richmond, and Norfolk. The new constitution created a new statewide system that, in spite of protests by African American members of the General Assembly, segregated black and white students. The first state superintendent, William Henry Ruffner, set about building the system's infrastructure—creating more than 2,800 schools and hiring about 3,000 teachers by August 1871—and building political support for its funding. In debates over how to pay off Virginia's large antebellum debt some politicians advocated reducing funding for public schools, although the system became more stable when the biracial Readjuster Party took over government in 1881, appointed R. R. Farr superintendent, and increased appropriations. By the turn of the century, public schools had attained broad social and political support.
Tue, 26 Jul 2016 13:50:18 EST]]>
/A_True_State_of_the_Smallpox_in_Williamsburg_February_22_1748 Tue, 26 Jul 2016 10:41:10 EST <![CDATA[A True State of the Smallpox in Williamsburg, February 22, 1748]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_True_State_of_the_Smallpox_in_Williamsburg_February_22_1748 Tue, 26 Jul 2016 10:41:10 EST]]> /Tyler_John_1790-1862 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:54:20 EST <![CDATA[Tyler, John (1790–1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tyler_John_1790-1862 John Tyler was the tenth president of the United States. The son of a Virginia governor, Tyler had already been a member of the House of Delegates and the Council of State before being elected to Congress in 1816. After serving as governor of Virginia, the assembly elected him to the United States Senate. A slaveholder and Democrat, he supported states' rights and limited government. He broke with Andrew Jackson early in the 1830s over what he viewed as an alarming increase in federal power. Tyler joined the Whig Party and won the vice presidency in 1840 on a ticket with William Henry Harrison. Following Harrison's death in April 1841, Tyler became the first vice president to assume office after the death of the chief executive. His support of states' rights clashed with his party's prevailing belief in a stronger government, nearly causing the collapse of his administration. Tyler found some success in foreign affairs, but he left the White House in 1845 unpopular and expelled from the Whig Party. As the secession crisis intensified early in 1861, Tyler presided over the ill-fated Peace Conference to head off armed conflict. He served as a delegate to the Virginia convention that addressed the state's response to the crisis, ultimately voting for secession in April 1861. The following November Tyler won election to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before his term began.
Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:54:20 EST]]>
/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Holmes_April_22_1820 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:57:24 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Holmes (April 22, 1820)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_John_Holmes_April_22_1820 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:57:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Mann_Randolph_Jr_April_19_1792 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:27:47 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Thomas Mann Randolph Jr. (April 19, 1792)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Thomas_Mann_Randolph_Jr_April_19_1792 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:27:47 EST]]> /The_Election_of_Thomas_Nelson_as_Governor_June_12_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:24:31 EST <![CDATA[The Election of Governor Thomas Nelson; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (June 12, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Election_of_Thomas_Nelson_as_Governor_June_12_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:24:31 EST]]> /The_Rejection_of_Rumors_Surrounding_the_Cowardice_of_Thomas_Jefferson_December_12_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:20:13 EST <![CDATA[An Investigation into the Conduct of Thomas Jefferson; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (December 12, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Rejection_of_Rumors_Surrounding_the_Cowardice_of_Thomas_Jefferson_December_12_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:20:13 EST]]> /Letter_from_Lafayette_to_Thomas_Jefferson_February_21_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:04:46 EST <![CDATA[Letter from the Marquis de Lafayette to Thomas Jefferson (February 21, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Lafayette_to_Thomas_Jefferson_February_21_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 14:04:46 EST]]> /The_Need_for_a_New_Governor_of_Virginia_May_29_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:59:55 EST <![CDATA[The Need for a New Governor of Virginia; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (May 29, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Need_for_a_New_Governor_of_Virginia_May_29_1781 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:59:55 EST]]> /An_Act_for_speedily_recruiting_the_Virginia_Regiments_on_the_continental_establishment_and_for_raising_additional_troops_of_Volunteers_May_20_1777 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:56:51 EST <![CDATA[An Act for speedily recruiting the Virginia Regiments on the continental establishment, and for raising additional troops of Volunteers (May 20, 1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_speedily_recruiting_the_Virginia_Regiments_on_the_continental_establishment_and_for_raising_additional_troops_of_Volunteers_May_20_1777 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:56:51 EST]]> /An_act_for_the_removal_of_the_seat_of_government_June_18_1779 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:55:21 EST <![CDATA[An act for the removal of the seat of government (June 18, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_the_removal_of_the_seat_of_government_June_18_1779 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:55:21 EST]]> /An_act_for_re-enlisting_the_troops_of_this_state_in_the_continental_army_and_for_other_purposes_October_1799 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:52:38 EST <![CDATA[An act for re-enlisting the troops of this state in the continental army, and for other purposes (October 1799)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_re-enlisting_the_troops_of_this_state_in_the_continental_army_and_for_other_purposes_October_1799 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:52:38 EST]]> /Thomas_Jefferson_s_Election_to_a_Second_Term_as_Governor_an_excerpt_from_theJournal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_2_1780 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:49:38 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Jefferson's Election to a Second Term as Governor; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (June 2, 1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Jefferson_s_Election_to_a_Second_Term_as_Governor_an_excerpt_from_theJournal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_2_1780 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:49:38 EST]]> /The_Constitution_of_Virginia_1776 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:54:32 EST <![CDATA[The Constitution of Virginia (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/The_Constitution_of_Virginia_1776 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:54:32 EST]]> /An_Act_establishing_a_Board_of_War_June_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:48:24 EST <![CDATA[An Act establishing a Board of War (June 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_establishing_a_Board_of_War_June_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:48:24 EST]]> /An_act_for_better_securing_the_payment_of_levies_and_restraint_of_vagrants_and_for_making_provision_for_the_poor_October_1776 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:45:46 EST <![CDATA[An act for better securing the payment of levies and restraint of vagrants, and for making provision for the poor (October 1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_better_securing_the_payment_of_levies_and_restraint_of_vagrants_and_for_making_provision_for_the_poor_October_1776 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:45:46 EST]]> /Thomas_Jefferson_s_Election_to_Governor_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_1_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:33:12 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Jefferson's Election to Governor; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (June 1, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Jefferson_s_Election_to_Governor_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_1_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:33:12 EST]]> /Thomas_Jefferson_s_Acceptance_Speech_for_the_Position_of_Governor_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_2_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:30:24 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Jefferson's Acceptance Speech for the Position of Governor; excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (June 2, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Jefferson_s_Acceptance_Speech_for_the_Position_of_Governor_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_2_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:30:24 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_Preston_June_15_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:26:32 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William Preston (June 15, 1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_William_Preston_June_15_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:26:32 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_the_Virginia_Delegates_in_Congress_October_27_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:59:21 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to the Virginia Delegates in Congress (October 27, 1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_the_Virginia_Delegates_in_Congress_October_27_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:59:21 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Lafayette_March_10_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:45:23 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to the Marquis de Lafayette (March 10, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Lafayette_March_10_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:45:23 EST]]> /Remonstrance_to_Congress_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:37:34 EST <![CDATA[Remonstrance to Congress (1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Remonstrance_to_Congress_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:37:34 EST]]> /Letter_from_Edmund_Pendleton_to_James_Madison_March_26_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:34:07 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Edmund Pendleton to James Madison (March 26, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Edmund_Pendleton_to_James_Madison_March_26_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:34:07 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Horatio_Gates_February_17_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:31:36 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Horatio Gates (February 17, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_Horatio_Gates_February_17_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:31:36 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_the_Speaker_of_the_House_of_Delegates_May_28_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:25:38 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to the Speaker of the House of Delegates (May 28, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_the_Speaker_of_the_House_of_Delegates_May_28_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:25:38 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_George_Washington_May_28_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:23:13 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to George Washington (May 28, 1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_George_Washington_May_28_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:23:13 EST]]> /Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_James_Monroe_May_20_1782 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:19:41 EST <![CDATA[Letter from Thomas Jefferson to James Monroe (May 20, 1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_Thomas_Jefferson_to_James_Monroe_May_20_1782 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:19:41 EST]]> /An_act_to_revive_and_amend_an_act_entitled_An_act_for_giving_farther_powers_to_the_governour_and_council_October_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:14:46 EST <![CDATA[An act to revive and amend an act entitled 'An act for giving farther powers to the governour and council' (October 1780)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_to_revive_and_amend_an_act_entitled_An_act_for_giving_farther_powers_to_the_governour_and_council_October_1780 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:14:46 EST]]> /Blair_James_ca_1655-1743 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:10:35 EST <![CDATA[Blair, James (ca. 1655–1743)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_James_ca_1655-1743 James Blair was an Anglican minister, a notoriously combative member of the governor's Council (1694–1695; 1696–1697; 1701–1743) who worked successfully to have three governors removed, and, with Francis Nicholson, the cofounder of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg. Born and educated in Edinburgh, Scotland, Blair came to Virginia in 1685 as rector of Henrico Parish. He married, acquired land, and in 1689 became commissary, or the Anglican bishop's representative in America. Blair's clerical convocations in 1690, 1705, and 1719 were notoriously rancorous in part due to his tendency to sympathize more with the laity than his fellow clerics; however, the 1690 meeting proved especially significant for Blair's "Seven Propositions," which led to the founding of the College of William and Mary. As president for life, Blair secured funding and overcame powerful opposition from men like Virginia governor Sir Edmund Andros. In the meantime, Blair consolidated his own power by becoming rector of James City Parish in Williamsburg, and in 1698 he successfully fought to have Andros removed. Over the years, Blair did the same to two more governors while continually expanding his college. By the 1720s he had rebuilt the school after a fire; housed an Indian school, chapel, library, and president's house; drafted the first college statutes; hired the first full-time faculty; and transferred the original charter to the president and masters. Blair died in Williamsburg in 1743.
Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:10:35 EST]]>
/Jack_Jouett_s_Ride_1781 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 13:55:11 EST <![CDATA[Jack Jouett's Ride (1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jack_Jouett_s_Ride_1781 On the night of June 3–4, 1781, Jack Jouett rode about forty miles from Louisa County to Charlottesville to warn state officials of the approaching British Army. The British had been threatening Richmond and central Virginia since the spring, and the General Assembly had fled to Charlottesville. On June 3, British cavalry under Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton assembled in Louisa County to attack Charlottesville. Jouett noticed them, guessed their intentions, and raced ahead to warn Governor Thomas Jefferson, whose term had just ended, and other members of the state government. The assembly escaped to Staunton while Jefferson retreated to first to Monticello and then, eventually, to his second home at Poplar Forest, leaving Virginia without an elected governor for a few days. The General Assembly honored Jouett's actions and he later moved to Kentucky, where he served in that state's government. His ride, meanwhile, achieved legendary status over the years, at least in Virginia. Over the next two centuries, various histories treated it as an important episode of the American Revolution (1775–1783), although some writers confused Jouett with his father of the same name. (John Jouett, the elder, owned the Swan Tavern in Charlottesville.) Historical highway markers commemorating the event were erected both in Virginia and in Kentucky. And in 1940, the General Assembly of Virginia declared June 4 as Jack Jouett Day. In 2001, perhaps forgetting its early action, the assembly declared Jack Jouett Day to be June 3.
Thu, 21 Jul 2016 13:55:11 EST]]>
/Anderson_William_A_1842-1930 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:03:54 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, William A. (1842–1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_William_A_1842-1930 William A. Anderson, who came to be known as the "Lame Lion of the Confederacy," helped establish the Democratic Party's dominance in Virginia during and after the Reconstruction period. Wounded during the American Civil War (1861–1865), he was nominated to the House of Delegates in 1868 as a member of the Conservative Party, which sought to bring back the state's pre-war power structure. In 1883 Anderson was elected to the House of Delegates as a member of the Democratic Party (the successor of the Conservative Party). He helped cement Democratic control over Virginia by engineering the party's acceptance of the Readjusters' successful debt reduction policy and by co-sponsoring a law that gave control of elections to Democrats. In 1900 Anderson became head of the Virginia State Bar Association, and his presidential speech became the basis for the provisions in the Constitution of 1902 that disfranchised African American and poor white voters. (Anderson was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902.) He served as attorney general of Virginia from 1902 to 1910 and in the House of Delegates from 1918 to 1919. Anderson died at his home in Lynchburg in 1930.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:03:54 EST]]>
/Mahone_William_1826-1895 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:02:29 EST <![CDATA[Mahone, William (1826–1895)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mahone_William_1826-1895 William Mahone was a Confederate general, Virginia senator (1863–1865), railroad tycoon, U.S. senator (1881–1887), and leader of the short-lived Readjuster Party. Known by his nickname, "Little Billy," Mahone was, in the words of a contemporary, "short in stature, spare almost to emaciation, with [a] long beard, and keen, restless eyes." He attended the Virginia Military Institute on scholarship, worked as a railroad engineer, and eventually became president of the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he distinguished himself at the Battle of the Crater (1864), leading a successful counterattack that also involved the massacre of surrendered black troops. After the war, Mahone founded the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio Railroad, which, before it failed, served his business interests in Norfolk and Southside Virginia. In 1881, he was elected to the United States Senate as a member of the Readjuster Party, an unlikely coalition of poor whites and African Americans interested in repudiating a portion of the massive state debt and, in so doing, restoring social services such as free public education. One of the most successful biracial political coalitions in the New South, the Readjusters held power until 1886, when Mahone lost his Senate seat. A gubernatorial bid in 1889 failed, and Mahone died in Washington, D.C., in 1895.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:02:29 EST]]>
/Wells_Henry_Horatio_1823-1900 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:01:22 EST <![CDATA[Wells, Henry Horatio (1823–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wells_Henry_Horatio_1823-1900 Henry Horatio Wells, a Republican and a native of New York, served as governor of Virginia from April 1868 until September 1869. After attending school in Detroit, Michigan, where he was raised, Wells practiced law and served in the state legislature. He supported free public schools, temperance, and the abolition of slavery. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Wells served in a Michigan infantry regiment and then as provost marshal of Union-occupied Alexandria. He stayed on in Alexandria after the war, helping to found a railroad company and practicing law. In 1865, he publicly called for military rule of Virginia in order to protect the African American right to vote. When military rule came to pass, General John M. Schofield, commander of the First Military District, appointed Wells governor of Virginia, an office he held until the next year, when a new constitution was ratified and he lost statewide election as a Republican. Wells later served as a U.S. attorney for Virginia (1870–1872) and for the District of Columbia (1875–1880). He died in 1900.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:01:22 EST]]>
/Republican_Party_in_Virginia_During_the_Nineteenth_Century Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:00:28 EST <![CDATA[The Republican Party of Virginia in the Nineteenth Century]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Republican_Party_in_Virginia_During_the_Nineteenth_Century The Republican Party of Virginia was founded in 1856 and by the end of the century had become, with the Democratic Party, one of the state's two main political parties. Most of its earliest members lived in western Virginia. While not necessarily opposing slavery itself, these Republicans opposed both its expansion into the western territories and the political and economic advantages it bestowed on Piedmont and Tidewater Virginians. They also opposed secession in 1861. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), most of antebellum Virginia's Republicans lived in West Virginia. The few who were left had been Unionists but were now divided on questions such as African American civil rights and whether to allow former Confederates back into government. Newly enfranchised African Americans also flocked to the party. In 1869, a coalition of Conservative Party members and moderate Republicans—in opposition to radical Republicans—won all statewide offices. In 1881, 300 African American Republicans met in Petersburg and voted to endorse the Readjuster Party, formed in support of lowering, or "readjusting," the state debt in order to protect services such as free public schools. This alliance gave Readjusters control of the General Assembly, the governorship, and a seat in the U.S. Senate. In an environment of racial tensions, and just days after the Danville Riot of 1883, the Democratic Party (formerly the Conservatives) swept to power. No Republican won statewide office again until 1969.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:00:28 EST]]>
/Readjuster_Party_The Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:59:19 EST <![CDATA[Readjuster Party, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Readjuster_Party_The The Readjuster Party was the shortest-lived and most radical reforming political party in Virginia's history. Founded in February 1879, it won majorities in both houses of the General Assembly in the legislative election that autumn, and its candidates won all the statewide offices in 1881. The party rose to power because of the debt controversy, which involved disagreements about how to pay almost $34 million in state debt accrued before the American Civil War (1861–1865) on internal-improvement projects. By 1871, that number had risen to $45.6 million. The political faction called Funders resisted any reduction on the state debt lest it hurt Virginia's standing with creditors, while the Readjusters, seeing the debt as threatening important state programs such as public schools, sought to "readjust," or reduce the amount of the principal and the rate of interest. With a coalition of white farmers and working men, Democrats, Republicans, and African Americans, and under the leadership of the railroad executive and former Confederate general William Mahone, the party passed the Riddleberger Act of 1882, which reduced the principal of the debt and the interest owed. The next year, however, the Re