Hector Davis's Slave Business

Ann Banks Davis (1830–1907)

Ann Banks Davis was an enslaved woman who bore several children with the Richmond slave trader Hector Davis. Little is known of Ann Davis's early life. She likely was the daughter of an enslaved woman named Mathilda Banks and did not take the name Davis until later in life. By 1852 she was owned by Hector Davis and that year bore him the first of at least four children. The two never legally married and it is unlikely that, as Davis's property, she could have consented to their physical relationship. By 1860, Hector Davis had moved Ann and her children to Philadelphia, where they continued to live after his death in 1863. He left them substantial money in his will but the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865) rendered much of his inheritance worthless or unattainable. Davis died in 1907. MORE...


Ann Banks was born enslaved on July 11, 1830, in Virginia. Her mother likely was an enslaved woman named Mathilda Banks or Bank, while her father's name reportedly was Sheldon. Little is known of Banks's early years. By 1852 she was owned by Hector Davis, a successful Richmond slave trader, and in that year gave birth to their first child together, Audubon Davis (sometimes Audobon). Over the next ten years, Banks had at least three more children with Davis: Virginia (sometimes Jennie), born in 1853; Matilda, born in 1854; and Victorine, born on November 28, 1858.

Given the prevalence of sexual violence in the slave market, the absence of laws against the rape of enslaved women, and the legal, physical, economic, and social vulnerability of Banks's position, it is unlikely that her physical relationship with Davis was consensual. However, no direct testimony from either party exists, and historians have differing interpretations. The two never married, although later in life Banks used the name Ann Davis. Banks and Davis lived next door to Silas Omohundro, another trader who had children with a woman he enslaved, Corinna Hinton. Omohundro recorded several gifts made to "Ann Davis" or the Davis children in his account book. Davis also was friendly with Robert Lumpkin, another trader who lived with an enslaved woman, Mary F. Lumpkin.

In 1859, Davis purchased a brick house on Lombard Street in Philadelphia for $3,100, and by the next year Banks and their children were living there. Although census takers and the city directory described the family as white, it is unclear whether they attempted to pass as such. The 1865 Philadelphia directory described Banks, who now went by the name Ann Davis, as a "gentlewoman." Early in the 1860s, Audubon Davis and possibly his sisters attended a Quaker school in Philadelphia. All of the Davis daughters could read and write. Their mother, however, could not.

Hector Davis died on January 7, 1863, in Richmond, and it is unclear whether Banks received immediate word of his passing. His will, drafted in March 1859, ordered that his "servant woman Ann" and her children be freed, and that $20,000 be invested in state bonds for their benefit. Banks was to receive one-fifth of the bonds' interest with the remaining proceeds to go to the cost of raising the children. Unlike Silas Omohundro, Davis did not specifically acknowledge the children as his. He also gave $15,000 to his nieces and wards, Jennie, Sallie, and Betty Davis. The remainder of the estate he left to his sister, Ann Crouch.

The estate was not easily settled, and Ann Banks and the children lived with uncertainty for more than a decade. State bonds had become largely worthless with the end of the war, the wealth tied up in enslaved people disappeared, and the Traders Bank of Richmond, of which Davis was a charter member and president, burned in April 1865. The executor of the estate, R. D. James, who was Davis's nephew and a member of one of his trading firms, invested much of the legatee's bequests in Confederate bonds, which also lost their value.

James periodically sent Banks and her children money after Davis's death, either through the Southern Express Company or personal contacts in Philadelphia, but they lived mostly on credit. Virginia Davis, the eldest daughter, wrote to James imploring for help. His response was dismissive: "I know the case is a hard one but I endeavored to protect your interests & what else could I do. I trust it will all work out one of these days." On behalf of herself and her children, Banks filed exceptions in 1869 to James's accounts of the estate in the Richmond City Chancery Court, as did Davis's sister. Banks specifically objected to the $20,000 invested in Confederate bonds. The legal battles over Davis's estate reached the U.S. Supreme Court in October 1876, but the most significant sums to reach Banks and the Davis children were likely from the sale of Davis's property in Philadelphia. The family remained in that city, where Audubon Davis became a newspaper editor, attaining some notoriety for his reporting on a U.S. Senate committee sent to South Carolina to investigate the Ku Klux Klan.

Davis died October 16, 1907, at the Philadelphia home of her grandson, Hector Davis. She was buried in Northwood Cemetery.

Time Line

  • July 11, 1830 - Ann Banks is born enslaved in Virginia.
  • 1852 - Audubon Davis is born enslaved in Richmond to Hector Davis, a slave trader, and Ann Banks, Davis's enslaved concubine.
  • 1853 - Virginia Davis is born enslaved in Richmond to Hector Davis, a slave trader, and Ann Banks, Davis's enslaved concubine.
  • 1854 - Matilda Davis is born enslaved in Richmond to Hector Davis, a slave trader, and Ann Banks, Davis's enslaved concubine.
  • November 28, 1858 - Victorine Davis is born enslaved in Richmond to Hector Davis, a slave trader, and Ann Banks, Davis's enslaved concubine.
  • 1859 - Hector Davis purchases a brick house on Lombard Street in Philadelphia for $3,100 and in the next year moves his enslaved concubine and their children there from Richmond.
  • March 1859 - Hector Davis writes his will, distributing his significant wealth between his white and enslaved children, whom he frees along with their mother.
  • January 7, 1863 - Hector Davis dies in Richmond. His burial place is not recorded.
  • 1869 - Ann Banks Davis and Ann Crouch, the former slave and the sister of Hector Davis, file exceptions related to the accounts of his estate in Richmond City Chancery Court.
  • October 16, 1907 - Ann Banks Davis dies at the Philadelphia home of her grandson, Hector Davis. She is buried in Northwood Cemetery.


Further Reading
Baptist, Edward E. "'Cuffy,' 'Fancy Maids,' and 'One-Eyed Men': Rape, Commodification, and the Domestic Slave Trade in the United States." The American Historical Review 106, no. 5 (December 2001): 1,619–1,650.
Davis, Adrienne. "'Don't Let Nobody Bother Yo' Principle': The Sexual Economy of American Slavery." In Sister Circle: Black Women and Work, edited by Sharon Harley and The Black Women and Work Collective, 128–145. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2002.
Rothman, Joshua D. Notorious in the Neighborhood: Sex and Families Across the Color Line in Virginia, 1787–1861. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.
Schermerhorn, Calvin. Money Over Mastery, Family Over Freedom: Slavery in the Antebellum Upper South. Baltimore, Maryland: The John Hopkins University Press, 2011.
Stevenson, Brenda E. "What's Love Got to Do With It? Concubinage and Enslaved Women and Girls in the Antebellum South." The Journal of African American History 98, no. 1 (winter 2013): 99–125.
Cite This Entry
  • APA Citation:

    Finley, A. Ann Banks Davis (1830–1907). (2017, July 6). In Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved from http://www.EncyclopediaVirginia.org/Davis_Ann_Banks_1830-1907.

  • MLA Citation:

    Finley, Alexandra. "Ann Banks Davis (1830–1907)." Encyclopedia Virginia. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 6 Jul. 2017. Web. READ_DATE.

First published: June 22, 2017 | Last modified: July 6, 2017

Contributed by Alexandra Finley, assistant professor of history at Mississippi State University.