Encyclopedia Virginia http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the urltopfeed http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Judges_of_the_Supreme_Court_of_Virginia Tue, 10 May 2016 14:20:22 EST Judges of the Supreme Court of Virginia http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judges_of_the_Supreme_Court_of_Virginia Tue, 10 May 2016 14:20:22 EST]]> /Boyle_Sarah_Patton_1906-1994 Mon, 09 May 2016 12:46:07 EST <![CDATA[Boyle, Sarah-Patton (1906–1994)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boyle_Sarah_Patton_1906-1994 Sarah-Patton Boyle was one of Virginia's most prominent white civil rights activists during the 1950s and 1960s and author of the widely acclaimed autobiography The Desegregated Heart: A Virginian's Stand in Time of Transition (1962). Her desegregation efforts began in 1950 when she wrote to Gregory Swanson welcoming him as the University of Virginia's first black law student. Through her experience with Swanson, her views on desegregation evolved from being a proponent of gradual desegregation to a leading and often controversial white voice for immediate desegregation in public schools and in higher education. Her 1955 article for the Saturday Evening Post, titled "Southerners Will Like Integration," prompted a fierce backlash that included having a cross burned in her Charlottesville yard. Boyle did not moderate her views, however, and worked closely with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), earning praise from Martin Luther King Jr., Lillian Smith, and others, as well as numerous awards and a measure of national fame. The intensity of her political involvement triggered a deep depression, however, and she eventually became disillusioned with the civil rights movement, retiring from activism in 1967. In 1983, she authored a memoir that contemplated her experience dealing with age discrimination.
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/Lost_Cause_The Mon, 09 May 2016 09:44:43 EST <![CDATA[Lost Cause, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lost_Cause_The The Lost Cause is an interpretation of the American Civil War (1861–1865) that seeks to present the war, from the perspective of Confederates, in the best possible terms. Developed by white Southerners, many of them former Confederate generals, in a postwar climate of economic, racial, and social uncertainty, the Lost Cause created and romanticized the "Old South" and the Confederate war effort, often distorting history in the process. For this reason, many historians have labeled the Lost Cause a myth or a legend. It is certainly an important example of public memory, one in which nostalgia for the Confederate past is accompanied by a collective forgetting of the horrors of slavery. Providing a sense of relief to white Southerners who feared being dishonored by defeat, the Lost Cause was largely accepted in the years following the war by white Americans who found it to be a useful tool in reconciling North and South. The Lost Cause has lost much of its academic support but continues to be an important part of how the Civil War is commemorated in the South and remembered in American popular culture.
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/Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_1785 Fri, 06 May 2016 12:34:19 EST <![CDATA[Notes on the State of Virginia (1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Notes_on_the_State_of_Virginia_1785 Notes on the State of Virginia, by Thomas Jefferson, is at once a compendium of information about the state and a sweeping commentary on natural history, society, politics, education, religion, slavery, liberty, and law. Many consider it the most important American book written before 1800. Jefferson originally composed the work in 1781 in answer to queries posed by a French diplomat, and then revised and expanded it into a description and defense of the young United States as interpreted through a Virginia lens. The book is divided into twenty-three chapters, largely taken from the diplomat's queries, though Jefferson reordered and renumbered them. Notes was first published in Paris in 1785 in an edition of 200. Both a French translation, published in 1786, and the widely circulated London edition of 1787 incorporated important structural changes and a detailed map. Notes on the State of Virginia wrested the interpretation of the young American nation from European critics and intellectuals and offered an eloquent indigenous voice. It profoundly influenced European understanding of the United States, as well as American views of Virginia. It established Jefferson's international reputation as a serious scientist, a man of letters, and the principal spokesman for his "country," whether Virginia or the United States; his discursive text, ranging over the entire continent, implicitly blurred the distinction between the two. As the most detailed and influential portrait of any state or region of the United States for generations, Notes ensured that Virginia would be a primary focus of future studies of the American republic. The book contains Jefferson's most powerful indictments of slavery; it is also a foundational text of racism.
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/Jack_Jouett_s_Ride_1781 Tue, 03 May 2016 12:33:33 EST <![CDATA[Jack Jouett's Ride (1781)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jack_Jouett_s_Ride_1781 Tue, 03 May 2016 12:33:33 EST]]> /Farmer_Frances_1909-1993 Mon, 02 May 2016 16:05:42 EST <![CDATA[Farmer, Frances (1909–1993)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farmer_Frances_1909-1993 Frances Farmer was a law librarian and the first female law professor at the University of Virginia. Born in Charlotte County, Farmer studied history and then law before becoming a law librarian at the University of Richmond in 1938 and the University of Virginia in 1942. She took charge of cataloguing and then greatly expanding the School of Law's collection, helping to develop the school's alumni association as a fund-raising tool. In 1959, she served a one-year term as president of the American Association of Law Libraries. Four years later she was elected to the general faculty and, in 1969, made a full professor. During her tenure the law library grew from fewer than 40,000 to more than 300,000 volumes. Farmer retired in 1976 and died in 1993.
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/Ruffner_William_H_1824-1908 Fri, 29 Apr 2016 15:56:36 EST <![CDATA[Ruffner, William Henry (1824–1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ruffner_William_H_1824-1908 William Henry Ruffner was the designer and first superintendent of Virginia's public school system and later served as principal of the State Female Normal School (later Longwood University). Born in Lexington and a graduate of Washington College (later Washington and Lee University), he spent the years before the American Civil War (1861–1865) as a Presbyterian minister and farmer in Rockingham County. Ruffner owned slaves, and he advocated the gradual emancipation and colonization of the state's African Americans. He raised funds for the American Colonization Society. After the Constitution of 1869 mandated the creation of public schools, the General Assembly elected Ruffner the state's first superintendent of public instruction. During his twelve-year tenure Ruffner gave Virginia's public school system a lasting foundation and as he defended the system from vigorous opposition and the shortfalls generated by the state's crippling debt. In 1884 he became principal of the new State Female Normal School, where he served for three years. Ruffner spent his later years teaching geology, writing about the history of Washington and Lee University, and advocating the school system he helped create. He died at his daughter's home in Asheville, North Carolina, in 1908.
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/Blaettermann_George_1782-1850 Thu, 28 Apr 2016 08:12:34 EST <![CDATA[Blaettermann, George (1782–1850)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blaettermann_George_1782-1850 Thu, 28 Apr 2016 08:12:34 EST]]> /Medicine_in_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War Wed, 27 Apr 2016 17:14:33 EST <![CDATA[Medicine in Virginia during the Civil War]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Medicine_in_Virginia_During_the_Civil_War The medicine practiced in Virginia by the Union and Confederate armies during the American Civil War (1861–1865) was state of the art for its day and an important factor in the ability of both governments to raise and maintain armies in the field. More than twice as many soldiers died of disease than from combat-related injuries. Still, despite many nineteenth-century misconceptions about the causes and treatments of disease, three out of four soldiers survived their illnesses. This was due in part to widespread vaccination for smallpox, isolation of most contagious diseases, and especially the recognition of the importance of cleanliness and sanitation. As the war dragged on, combat injuries became more prevalent and the work of surgeons became more important. Surgery, though unsterile, saved lives through amputation. Such procedures were done, for the most part, with adequate pain control and some form of anesthesia. To care for the wounded, both sides established a system of hospitals, ranging from makeshift field hospitals and interim "corps hospitals" (used by Confederates), to large, fixed general hospitals such as the sprawling Chimborazo Hospital in Richmond. It was often painful and dangerous for the wounded to be transported from the battlefield to the hospital, but in the end the quality of medical care they received was generally high and led to important medical advances during the postwar period and twentieth century.
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/Fitzgerald_H_R_1873-1931 Wed, 27 Apr 2016 12:29:40 EST <![CDATA[Fitzgerald, H. R. (1873–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fitzgerald_H_R_1873-1931 H. R. Fitzgerald served as president of the Dan River Mills from 1918 until his death in 1931. Born in Danville the son of T. B. Fitzgerald, one of the company's founders, Fitzgerald was deaf for most of his adult life. By 1908 he had become secretary-treasurer of Dan River Mills; a decade later he was president of one of the largest cotton mills in the United States. Taking over at a time when the company's profits were in decline, Fitzgerald instituted scientific management in sales, helped to found a trade association, the Cotton-Textile Institute, and introduced Industrial Democracy, a representative system for airing worker grievances and giving them a limited voice in mill operations. In 1930, Industrial Democracy ceased and about 4,000 mill workers went on strike. Fitzgerald refused offers of mediation from the state and federal governments, and after four months the strikers gave up. Just three and a half weeks later, however, in February 1931, Fitzgerald died of a heart attack, perhaps from the stress of the strike.
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