Encyclopedia Virginia http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the urltopfeed http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Williamsburg_during_the_Colonial_Period Fri, 26 Aug 2016 09:41:48 EST Williamsburg during the Colonial Period http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Williamsburg_during_the_Colonial_Period Williamsburg was the capital of the Virginia colony from 1699 until 1779. Plotted on land first used by Virginia Indians, it was settled by the English during and just after the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632) and called Middle Plantation, for its location equidistant between the York and James rivers. In subsequent years, wealth and political prestige gradually shifted upriver from the first seat of English government, at Jamestown, and talk of moving the capital gained momentum during Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), when rebels burned the statehouse. The Crown did not agree to move the capital until after the establishment of the College of William and Mary at Middle Plantation, in 1693, and another fire at the statehouse, in 1698. In 1699, Middle Plantation became Williamsburg, after King William III, and the colony's new capital. At the behest of the General Assembly, officials laid out streets and began building a new statehouse. Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood oversaw the construction of a powder magazine (1715), the enlargement of Bruton Parish Church (1715), a public theater (1718), and the completion of the Governor's Palace (1722). When the statehouse burned and smallpox hit in 1748, officials briefly considered, but then rejected, the idea of moving the capital, paving the way for a boom in building and population growth. During the American Revolution (1775–1783), Virginia's royal governor dissolved the General Assembly and fled the city. After British troops invaded Virginia in 1779, Governor Thomas Jefferson moved the capital to Richmond.
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/Letter_from_William_Yates_and_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_30_1762 Fri, 26 Aug 2016 09:37:22 EST <![CDATA[Letter from William Yates and Robert Carter Nicholas to Rev. John Waring (September 30, 1762)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letter_from_William_Yates_and_Robert_Carter_Nicholas_to_Rev_John_Waring_September_30_1762 Fri, 26 Aug 2016 09:37:22 EST]]> /Cootes_Frank_G_1879-1960 Wed, 24 Aug 2016 15:55:17 EST <![CDATA[Cootes, F. Graham (1879–1960)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cootes_Frank_G_1879-1960 F. Graham Cootes was a popular illustrator and portraitist during in the twentieth century. Born in Staunton and educated at the University of Virginia, he entered the New York School of Art (later Parsons The New School for Design) in 1902. Cootes opened a Manhattan studio by 1906 and gained success as an illustrator for best-selling books and high-profile magazines. Cootes also established himself as a respected portraitist of prominent figures in New York and Washington, D.C. He semi-retired during the 1920s only to reemerge the following decade after he and his wife lost much of their wealth in the stock market crash. During this second period he produced his most famous work, the official White House portrait of Woodrow Wilson. Cootes kept his connections with his native state, painting portraits of Charlottesville residents, hosting summer art school programs at the University of Virginia, and visiting the Old Dominion often.
Wed, 24 Aug 2016 15:55:17 EST]]>
/Davis_John_A_G_1802-1840 Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:16:53 EST <![CDATA[Davis, John A. G. (1802–1840)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_John_A_G_1802-1840 John A. G. Davis was a law professor at the University of Virginia who was murdered there by a student. Born in Middlesex County, Davis attended the College of William and Mary and then, after marrying a grandniece of Thomas Jefferson, the recently founded University of Virginia. He established a law practice in Albemarle County, helped found a newspaper, and then, in 1830, joined the University of Virginia's faculty as a professor of law. In his publications, Davis defended states' rights and limited government, supporting nullification in 1832. A popular but strict professor, he used his role as faculty chairman in 1836 to help expel about seventy student-militia members, leading to a riot. Four years later, on the anniversary of that riot, two students in masks shot off their weapons outside Davis's residence, Pavilion X. When Davis confronted them, one of the students, Joseph G. Semmes, shot the professor dead. Semmes fled the state and later committed suicide. Davis died two days later, and his murder helped finally to calm years of misbehavior among the university's students.
Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:16:53 EST]]>
/Callender_James_Thomson_1757_or_1758-1803 Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:13:42 EST <![CDATA[Callender, James Thomson (1757 or 1758–1803)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Callender_James_Thomson_1757_or_1758-1803 James Thomson Callender was a partisan journalist known for attacking Federalists but also his one-time Republican ally, Thomas Jefferson. Born in Scotland, Callender was a Scottish nationalist who published pamphlets critical of the British government. When a warrant was issued for his arrest, he fled first to Ireland and then, in 1793, to Philadelphia. There he wrote newspaper items critical of the administrations of George Washington and John Adams and a pamphlet that exposed an extramarital affair by Alexander Hamilton. After the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798, Callender, who had moved to Richmond by this time, published another pamphlet critical of President Adams. In the spring of 1800 he was tried and convicted of sedition in Richmond and served nine months in jail. When Jefferson was elected president in 1801, Callender expected to be rewarded with a political position. When he was not, he turned on his former ally, accusing the president of having fathered children by his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Callender purchased part ownership of the Richmond Recorder newspaper, but quit after quarrels with his coeditor. He accidentally drowned in the James River in 1803.
Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:13:42 EST]]>
/Cohabitation_Act_of_1866 Thu, 18 Aug 2016 15:05:24 EST <![CDATA[Cohabitation Act of 1866]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cohabitation_Act_of_1866 The Cohabitation Act of 1866, passed by the General Assembly on February 27, 1866, legalized the marriages of formerly enslaved people in Virginia and declared their children to be legitimate. Because slave marriages were neither legally recognized nor protected, Governor Francis H. Pierpont recommended that the General Assembly of the Restored government of Virginia, which had remained loyal to the United States during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and had abolished slavery, pass a law to legalize and protect their existing marriages. With the end of the war, the Restored government's jurisdiction extended across the state, and in 1866 the General Assembly in Richmond passed the law legitimizing such marriages and the children who resulted from them.
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/Johnson_Henry_1842-1922 Thu, 18 Aug 2016 14:59:51 EST <![CDATA[Johnson, Henry (1842–1922)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Johnson_Henry_1842-1922 Thu, 18 Aug 2016 14:59:51 EST]]> /_On_the_Beauty_and_Fertility_of_America_chapter_14_of_A_Huguenot_Exile_in_Virginia_by_Durand_de_Dauphine_1687 Thu, 11 Aug 2016 14:02:54 EST <![CDATA["On the Beauty and Fertility of America"; chapter 14 of A Huguenot Exile in Virginia by Durand de Dauphiné (1687)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_On_the_Beauty_and_Fertility_of_America_chapter_14_of_A_Huguenot_Exile_in_Virginia_by_Durand_de_Dauphine_1687 Thu, 11 Aug 2016 14:02:54 EST]]> /Brown_Henry_Box_ca_1815 Mon, 08 Aug 2016 09:36:46 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Henry Box (1815 or 1816–1897)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Henry_Box_ca_1815 Henry Box Brown was an abolitionist lecturer and performer. Born a slave in Louisa County, he worked in a Richmond tobacco factory and lived in a rented house. Then, in 1848, his wife, who was owned by another master and who was pregnant with their fourth child, was sold away to North Carolina, along with their children. Brown resolved to escape from slavery and enlisted the help of a free black and a white slaveowner, who conspired to ship him in a box to Philadelphia. In March 1849 the package was accepted there by a leader of the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. As a free man, Brown lectured across New England on the evils of slavery and participated in the publication of the Narrative of Henry Box Brown (1849). In 1850, a moving panorama, Henry Box Brown's Mirror of Slavery, opened in Boston. That same year, Brown, worried that he might be re-enslaved, moved to England, where he lectured, presented his panorama, and performed as a hypnotist. In 1875, he returned to the United States with his wife and daughter Annie and performed as a magician. Brown died in Toronto on June 15, 1897. He stands as a powerful symbol of the Underground Railroad and enslaved African Americans' thirst for freedom.
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/Bryan_Albert_V_1899-1984 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:57:36 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, Albert V. (1899–1984)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_Albert_V_1899-1984 Albert V. Bryan was a federal district court and circuit court of appeals judge during a crucial period in the fight over public school desegregation. After serving as the commonwealth's attorney in Alexandria from 1928 until 1947, he was appointed a federal judge of the Eastern District of Virginia. Although he supported segregation Bryan stuck closely to legal precedents established by the U.S. Supreme Court. He ruled in favor of continued school segregation in 1952. After Brown v. Board of Education reversed his ruling in 1954, however, Bryan began following the new precedent, though in a manner that slowed implementation. His subsequent decisions on Massive Resistance delayed, but did not stop, desegregation of Virginia schools. In 1961 he was appointed to the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals. Adhering again to Supreme Court precedent, in 1969 Bryan struck down state tuition grants to students attending segregated private schools. He retired from the federal bench in 1971 and died in 1984.
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