Encyclopedia Virginia: State Government http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Jefferson_Thomas_as_Governor_of_Virginia Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:51:34 EST Jefferson, Thomas as Governor of Virginia http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_as_Governor_of_Virginia Thomas Jefferson served as the second governor of Virginia under the Constitution of 1776, holding office for two terms, from June 2, 1779, until June 3, 1781. Jefferson already was a seasoned politician, having served in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776), and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He had no military experience, though, and his tenure was dominated by repeated British invasions of Virginia during the American Revolution (1775–1783). Hampering his efforts to respond was the state constitution, which had relegated little power to the state's chief executive. Faced with calls to provide the struggling Continental army with troops and the need to reinforce the militia against possible invasion, Jefferson presided over draft lotteries that were met with stiff resistance. Then, when the British general Benedict Arnold raided Richmond in January 1781, the governor was slow to call up the militia. By May, thousands of British troops had entered Virginia and many citizens were in near open revolt against the Patriot government. Jefferson was perceived as, and often felt himself to be, powerless to do anything. In June 1781 British cavalry chased the General Assembly out of Charlottesville and nearly captured Jefferson at Monticello. Having already decided not to run for a third term, he followed his family to Poplar Forest instead of going with the assembly to Staunton. For that reason Virginia went without an elected governor for eight days and Jefferson's reputation was tarnished.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:51:34 EST]]>
/Francis_Lightfoot_Lee_1734-1797 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:45:25 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Francis Lightfoot (1734–1797)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Francis_Lightfoot_Lee_1734-1797 Francis Lightfoot Lee, known as Frank, was a member of the House of Burgesses (1758–1774), the Continental Congress (1775–1779), and the Senate of Virginia (1778–1782). Born into the Lee family of Stratford Hall, Lee was a dedicated if reluctant public servant for most of his life. He is best known for signing the Declaration of Independence and for representing Loudoun and Richmond counties in the House of Burgesses; he also provided political and emotional support to his controversy-prone brothers, Richard Henry Lee and Arthur Lee, throughout their careers. (Arthur Lee wrote of Francis Lee, "He was calmness and philosophy itself.") He died on January 17, 1797, at his estate, Menokin, in present-day Warsaw, Virginia.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:45:25 EST]]>
/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST <![CDATA[Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jefferson_Thomas_1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786), founder of the University of Virginia (1819), governor of Virginia (1779–1781), and third president of the United States (1801–1809). Born at Shadwell, his parents' estate in Albemarle County, he attended the College of William and Mary and studied the law under the tutelage of George Wythe. In 1769, Jefferson began construction of Monticello, his home in Albemarle County, and for the rest of his life pursued an interest in architecture, which included design of Poplar Forest and the State Capitol. Jefferson also indulged a passion for science, serving as president of the American Philosophical Society (1797–1814) and publishing Notes on the State of Virginia (1795). After representing Albemarle County in the House of Burgesses (1769–1776), Jefferson was a delegate to Virginia's five Revolutionary Conventions and served in the Second Continental Congress (1775–1776) and the House of Delegates (1776–1779). He earned a reputation during the American Revolution (1775–1783) as a forceful advocate of revolutionary principles, articulated in A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774), the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking Up Arms (1775), and, most famously, the Declaration of Independence, approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. His two terms as governor were marked by British invasion and Jefferson's controversial flight to Poplar Forest. From 1784 to 1789, he served as a diplomat in France and there may have begun a sexual relationship with his enslaved servant Sally Hemings. Jefferson served as secretary of state in the administration of George Washington (1790–1793) and as vice president under John Adams (1797–1801) before being elected president by the U.S. House of Representatives after a tie vote in the Electoral College. As president Jefferson arranged for the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the subsequent Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806). With James Madison, Jefferson helped found the Republican Party and advocated for states' rights and a small federal government, although as president he sometimes pushed the limits of his executive authority. In his retirement he founded the University of Virginia, which was chartered in 1819 and opened for classes in the spring of 1825. Jefferson died at Monticello on July 4, 1826, fifty years after the Declaration of Independence was approved. He is buried at Monticello.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:43:27 EST]]>
/Lee_Richard_Henry_1732-1794 Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:39:48 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Richard Henry (1732–1794)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Richard_Henry_1732-1794 Richard Henry Lee was a planter, merchant, politician, and a member of the prominent Lee family of Virginia. Son of Thomas Lee, Richard Henry Lee pursued his father's interest in westward expansion and was a key political figure during the American Revolution (1775–1783): it was Lee who, at the Second Continental Congress in 1776, made the motion to declare independence from Britain. Lee began his career as a justice of the peace for Westmoreland County (1757); he later served as a member of the House of Burgesses (1758–1775), the House of Delegates (1777, 1780, 1785), and the United States Senate (1789–1792). He also represented Virginia at the two Continental Congresses (1774–1779, 1784–1787) and served as president of Congress in 1784. In 1792 Lee retired from public service, citing his poor health. He passed away two years later at Chantilly-on-the-Potomac, his estate in the Northern Neck of Virginia. Lee was mired in controversy throughout his political career, and his legacy has been influenced in part by his enemies. But Lee's prominent role in the events that shaped Virginia and the nation in the mid- to late seventeenth century cannot be denied; it places him high on the list of America's forgotten founders.
Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:39:48 EST]]>
/African_American_Legislators_in_Virginia_1867-1899 Thu, 17 Nov 2016 15:34:27 EST <![CDATA[African American Legislators in Virginia (1867–1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/African_American_Legislators_in_Virginia_1867-1899 Thu, 17 Nov 2016 15:34:27 EST]]> /Dawson_John_M_1829-1913 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 08:26:41 EST <![CDATA[Dawson, John M. (1829–1913)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dawson_John_M_1829-1913 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 08:26:41 EST]]> /Edwards_Ballard_T_ca_1828-1881 Thu, 10 Nov 2016 07:54:28 EST <![CDATA[Edwards, Ballard T. (ca. 1828–1881)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edwards_Ballard_T_ca_1828-1881 Ballard T. Edwards represented Chesterfield and Powhatan counties for one term in the House of Delegates (1869–1871). Born free in Manchester (later annexed by Richmond), he became a skilled laborer, owned property, and played a key role in his church. By 1867 Edwards had become involved with Republican Party politics. Two years later he won a seat in the House of Delegates in racially polarized voting. Edwards actively looked out for the rights of freedpeople, though the Conservative Party quashed measures that included safeguarding payment for workers, integrating transportation, and outlawing the Vagrancy Act of 1866. Defeated in his reelection attempt, Edwards remained an active civic figure in his final years. He also worked as a brick mason and plasterer. He died at his Manchester home in 1881.
Thu, 10 Nov 2016 07:54:28 EST]]>
/Paige_R_G_L_1846-1904 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 11:02:00 EST <![CDATA[Paige, R. G. L. (1846–1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Paige_R_G_L_1846-1904 R. G. L. Paige was a Republican member of the House of Delegates (1871–1875, 1879–1882) and possibly the first African American lawyer in Norfolk and one of the first in Virginia. Born into slavery in the city of Norfolk, Paige escaped to Philadelphia about 1857 and eventually settled in Boston. After the American Civil War (1861–1865) and the abolition of slavery, he returned to Norfolk. There he purchased the local African American burial ground (later Mount Olive Cemetery) and in 1871 won election to the House of Delegates. In the General Assembly Paige lobbied for civil rights, served as a delegate to the Republican National Convention, and won a patronage appointment as an assistant clerk at the Norfolk customs house. In 1880 he delivered a speech against lynching that was widely reprinted, but no legislation resulted. That same year he threatened to, but in the end did not, sue a Richmond theater company that refused to seat him. From 1882 to 1885 he served as secretary of the curators of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute. In 1882 he helped pass legislation chartering the Virginia Building and Savings Association and became a founding member of its board of directors. Paige died in 1904.
Wed, 09 Nov 2016 11:02:00 EST]]>
/Norton_Robert_d_by_October_17_1898 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:58:57 EST <![CDATA[Norton, Robert (d. by October 17, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Norton_Robert_d_by_October_17_1898 Robert Norton, one of three brothers elected to the General Assembly, served in the House of Delegates (1869–1882) and chaired the Committee on Labor and the Poor during the 1881–1882 session. Norton and his brother Daniel M. Norton escaped slavery in the mid-1850s. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), Robert Norton settled in Yorktown and carved out a power base by leading the fraternal society Lone Star. He won his first election to the House of Delegates in 1869, serving all but one term through 1883. The rise of the Readjuster Party late in the 1870s enhanced Norton's influence, and he gained notice for seconding party leader William Mahone's nomination for the U.S. Senate. Norton sat as a delegate to Republican and Readjuster national and state conventions, and campaigned unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives in 1874. Norton lost his bid for renomination to the House of Delegates in 1883. He was named to the board of visitors of the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Virginia State University) in 1885 and held a gubernatorial appointment as a curator of the fund for Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University). Norton died by 1898.
Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:58:57 EST]]>
/Nickens_Armistead_S_1836-1906 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:55:04 EST <![CDATA[Nickens, Armistead S. (1836–1906)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Nickens_Armistead_S_1836-1906 Armistead S. Nickens represented Lancaster County in the House of Delegates for two terms (1871–1875). Born into a free family, Nickens became prosperous enough by the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865) that the local agent of the Freedmen's Bureau listed him as a respectable citizen capable of holding public office. Nickens won his first term in 1871, becoming the first African American elected official in county history. He gained a second term in 1873 by a scant twenty-nine votes. After his term in the assembly Nickens received an appointment as a special collector of delinquent taxes in Lancaster County. A landowner, according to local tradition Nickens advocated a bridge across the Rappahannock River that would connect Tappahannock and Richmond County. He died at home in 1906.
Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:55:04 EST]]>
/Fields_James_A_1844-1903 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:30:26 EST <![CDATA[Fields, James A. (1844–1903)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fields_James_A_1844-1903 James A. Fields, who was born enslaved and became a successful lawyer, served one term in the House of Delegates (1889–1890). A brutal beating prompted Fields to escape his Hanover County bondage, and he settled in the Hampton area during the American Civil War (1861–1865). He enrolled in Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute's first class in 1869 and graduated two years later. In 1882 Fields received his law degree from Howard University and began to practice law in Warwick County (later Newport News). Five years later the area's voters elected him as commonwealth's attorney, and in 1889 he won his seat in the General Assembly. By 1900 he paid taxes on at least twenty-five properties in Newport News and Elizabeth City County. Fields died of Bright's disease in 1903. His late-Victorian Italianate residence in Newport News was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2002.
Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:30:26 EST]]>
/Evans_William_D_ca_1831-1900 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:14:01 EST <![CDATA[Evans, William D. (ca. 1831–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Evans_William_D_ca_1831-1900 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 10:14:01 EST]]> /Connor_Miles_d_1893 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 09:41:22 EST <![CDATA[Connor, Miles (d. 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Connor_Miles_d_1893 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 09:41:22 EST]]> /Coleman_Asa_d_after_February_24_1893 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 09:36:10 EST <![CDATA[Coleman, Asa (d. after February 24, 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Coleman_Asa_d_after_February_24_1893 Wed, 09 Nov 2016 09:36:10 EST]]> /Carter_Peter_Jacob_1845-1886 Tue, 08 Nov 2016 11:48:44 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Peter Jacob (1845–1886)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Peter_Jacob_1845-1886 Peter Jacob Carter, a member of the House of Delegates (1871–1878), was the Eastern Shore's predominant African American politician in the decades following the American Civil War. Born in Northampton County, Carter escaped from slavery and then served for more than two years with the U.S. Colored Infantry. In 1871 he won election as a Republican to the House of Delegates representing Northampton County. He was reelected three more times, and his eight-year tenure was one of the longest among nineteenth-century African American members of the General Assembly. Carter was a Funder Republican—that is, he supported the aggressive repayment of Virginia's antebellum debts—a rare position for an African American politician. Conservatives gerrymandered Carter out of his district ahead of the 1879 elections, and he lost his bid for a seat in the Senate of Virginia. He retained much of his political power, dispensing federal patronage and chairing the state's delegation to the Republican National Convention in 1880. He left the party to join William Mahone's Readjusters, a Republican-allied coalition that sought to readjust Virginia's payment of its antebellum debt. Carter was rewarded for his support by being elected doorkeeper of the Senate of Virginia in 1881 and appointed rector of Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Virginia State University) in 1883. He died in 1886, probably of appendicitis.
Tue, 08 Nov 2016 11:48:44 EST]]>
/_An_ACT_to_punish_certain_thefts_and_forgeries_December_31_1806 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:15:57 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to punish certain thefts and forgeries" (December 31, 1806)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_punish_certain_thefts_and_forgeries_December_31_1806 Thu, 03 Nov 2016 10:15:57 EST]]> /Toler_Burwell_ca_1822-1880 Wed, 02 Nov 2016 14:47:35 EST <![CDATA[Toler, Burwell (ca. 1822–1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Toler_Burwell_ca_1822-1880 Wed, 02 Nov 2016 14:47:35 EST]]> /Dodge_Sanford_M_ca_1820-d_1870 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 17:06:40 EST <![CDATA[Dodge, Sanford M. (ca. 1820–1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dodge_Sanford_M_ca_1820-d_1870 Tue, 25 Oct 2016 17:06:40 EST]]> /Brooke_George_d_1782 Fri, 14 Oct 2016 12:03:51 EST <![CDATA[Brooke, George (d. 1782)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brooke_George_d_1782 George Brooke was a member of the House of Burgesses (1765, 1771, 1774), the Convention of 1776, and the Senate of Virginia (1776–1779), and served as treasurer of Virginia from 1779 until his death. Born in King William County, he moved to King and Queen County after his marriage and formed a mercantile partnership with one of his wife's relatives. He earned a reputation as a reliable businessman and was involved in settling the controversial and politically sensitive estate of Speaker John Robinson. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he sat in the Revolutionary Conventions, although he missed the vote for independence in 1776, and was paymaster to several Virginia regiments. At the end of his life he served as treasurer of Virginia, helping to supervise the transfer of the capital from Williamsburg to Richmond and to keep the state's fiscal affairs intact during British raids in 1781. He died in 1782.
Fri, 14 Oct 2016 12:03:51 EST]]>
/Boothe_Armistead_L_1907-1990 Wed, 12 Oct 2016 16:52:55 EST <![CDATA[Boothe, Armistead L. (1907–1990)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boothe_Armistead_L_1907-1990 Armistead L. Boothe was a Democratic politician who challenged the party's powerful, conservative political machine run by Senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. Boothe entered the General Assembly in 1948 as an independent thinker within what was known as the Byrd Organization. He sabotaged an attempt to keep Harry S. Truman off the ballot for the 1948 presidential election and the next year predicted that public school segregation would soon be ruled illegal. In 1950 he proposed integrating common carriers, and after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) that segregation in public schools was indeed unconstitutional, he issued his own plan for limited public school desegregation despite his personal opposition to integration. Boothe opposed Byrd's plan of Massive Resistance, or a refusal to desegregate, as a threat to strong public schools. Despite being an influential member of the House of Delegates and the Senate of Virginia for more than a decade, Boothe remained an opposition figure within his own party. He lost Democratic primaries for lieutenant governor in 1961 and for the U.S. Senate in 1966.
Wed, 12 Oct 2016 16:52:55 EST]]>
/_quot_Lynch_Law_quot_excerpt_from_Governor_Philip_W_McKinney_apos_s_Address_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:57 EST <![CDATA["Lynch Law"; excerpt from Governor Philip W. McKinney's Address to the General Assembly (December 6, 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_quot_Lynch_Law_quot_excerpt_from_Governor_Philip_W_McKinney_apos_s_Address_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1893 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 14:59:57 EST]]> /Republican_Party_of_Virginia Wed, 31 Aug 2016 17:53:47 EST <![CDATA[Republican Party of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Republican_Party_of_Virginia The Republican Party is one of two major political parties in Virginia. Although founded in 1854 in opposition to the spread of slavery, the party did not take hold in Virginia until after the American Civil War (1861–1865). Even then, for nearly a century the Republicans were an ineffectual, minority party with only pockets of regional strength. During this period, the conservative Democratic Party dominated politics in Virginia and the rest of the South. After World War II (1939–1945), economic growth, demographic trends, electoral reforms, and policy debates combined to spur a realignment that gradually brought the Virginia parties into line philosophically with their national counterparts. As the center-right party in a conservative-leaning state, the Virginia Republican Party became consistently competitive. Following the mid-1970s, Virginia politics settled into a pattern characterized by active competition between the two major party organizations and their candidates. Partisan fortunes ebbed and flowed, but neither party established durable majority support on a statewide basis. In the twenty-first century Republican candidates in Virginia routinely compete with their Democratic rivals for the support of nonaligned voters (generally called "independents") in addition to mobilizing fellow partisans.
Wed, 31 Aug 2016 17:53:47 EST]]>
/Funders Mon, 29 Aug 2016 13:28:55 EST <![CDATA[Funders]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Funders Funders were Virginians who during the 1870s and very early 1880s supported paying the full principal of the state's pre–Civil War public debt at the 6 percent annual rate that the Funding Act of 1871 established or who were willing to reduce the interest rate by a small amount if necessary. Some Funders were Democrats, some were Republicans, and many identified themselves with the state's Conservative Party that formed late in the 1860s in opposition to Congressional Reconstruction. The opponents of the Funders were called Readjusters because they wanted to refinance the debt—adjust, or readjust it—to reduce the rate of interest as much as possible and also to reduce, or repudiate, a portion of the principal and thereby lessen the expense of paying the debt. By the end of the 1870s, many of the state's African Americans supported the Readjusters and opposed the Funders.
Mon, 29 Aug 2016 13:28:55 EST]]>
/Cole_George_William_d_after_June_10_1880 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:15:41 EST <![CDATA[Cole, George William (d. after June 10, 1880)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cole_George_William_d_after_June_10_1880 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:15:41 EST]]> /Christian_James_S_1918-1982 Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:06:39 EST <![CDATA[Christian, James S. (1918–1982)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Christian_James_S_1918-1982 James S. Christian represented the city of Richmond in the House of Delegates from 1978 until his death in 1982. A veteran of World War II (1939–1945), he was the first African American from Richmond to report for flight training at the Tuskegee Army Air Base in Alabama. Christian also served in the Korean War (1950–1953). A postal worker for many years, he took accounting courses and opened a bookkeeping business in Richmond's Jackson Ward neighborhood in 1963. Nearly a decade later he joined the city's planning commission and was named its chair in 1976. The next year he won election to the House of Delegates, going on to serve three consecutive terms. A highly successful delegate, Christian was expected to become the House's second African American committee chair of the twentieth century. Instead, he died of bone cancer in 1982.
Fri, 05 Aug 2016 16:06:39 EST]]>
/Lipscomb_James_F_1830-1893 Tue, 02 Aug 2016 15:08:39 EST <![CDATA[Lipscomb, James F. (1830–1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lipscomb_James_F_1830-1893 James F. Lipscomb represented Cumberland County in the House of Delegates from 1869 until 1877. Born free in Cumberland, Lipscomb became a landholder after the American Civil War (1861–1865) and in 1869 he won a seat in the General Assembly, the second election in which African Americans could vote in Virginia. Affiliated with the radical wing of the Republican Party and reelected three times, Lipscomb lost his attempt for a fifth term in 1877. He was likely related to John Robinson, who represented Cumberland County in the Convention of 1867–1868 and in the Senate of Virginia. Lipscomb, primarily a farmer, possessed one of the largest African American–owned houses in the county. He also opened a store that stayed in his family until it closed in 1971.
Tue, 02 Aug 2016 15:08:39 EST]]>
/Tyler_John_1790-1862 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:54:20 EST <![CDATA[Tyler, John (1790–1862)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tyler_John_1790-1862 John Tyler was the tenth president of the United States. The son of a Virginia governor, Tyler had already been a member of the House of Delegates and the Council of State before being elected to Congress in 1816. After serving as governor of Virginia, the assembly elected him to the United States Senate. A slaveholder and Democrat, he supported states' rights and limited government. He broke with Andrew Jackson early in the 1830s over what he viewed as an alarming increase in federal power. Tyler joined the Whig Party and won the vice presidency in 1840 on a ticket with William Henry Harrison. Following Harrison's death in April 1841, Tyler became the first vice president to assume office after the death of the chief executive. His support of states' rights clashed with his party's prevailing belief in a stronger government, nearly causing the collapse of his administration. Tyler found some success in foreign affairs, but he left the White House in 1845 unpopular and expelled from the Whig Party. As the secession crisis intensified early in 1861, Tyler presided over the ill-fated Peace Conference to head off armed conflict. He served as a delegate to the Virginia convention that addressed the state's response to the crisis, ultimately voting for secession in April 1861. The following November Tyler won election to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before his term began.
Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:54:20 EST]]>
/Lyons_Isaiah_L_1843-1871 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 15:11:45 EST <![CDATA[Lyons, Isaiah L. (1843–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lyons_Isaiah_L_1843-1871 Isaiah L. Lyons served in the Senate of Virginia (1869–1871) and was one of the first African American members of the General Assembly. Born in New Jersey, Lyons was raised in Brooklyn, New York, and worked as a clerk. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served in Virginia with the United States Colored Troops, finally settling in Hampton. In 1869 Lyons, who by then worked as a druggist, won election to the Senate by handily defeating a white candidate, Martin McDevitt. He then became the only African American member to vote against ratifying the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution. Although in the minority, Lyons reasoned that the assembly itself was illegitimate because most of its white members could not take the required oath stating they had been loyal to the United States during the war. He also voted against a provision that required racial segregation in the state's new public schools but eventually supported the bill. Lyons died at his home in Hampton in 1871 from the effects of illnesses acquired during the war.
Mon, 25 Jul 2016 15:11:45 EST]]>
/An_Act_for_speedily_recruiting_the_Virginia_Regiments_on_the_continental_establishment_and_for_raising_additional_troops_of_Volunteers_May_20_1777 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:56:51 EST <![CDATA[An Act for speedily recruiting the Virginia Regiments on the continental establishment, and for raising additional troops of Volunteers (May 20, 1777)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_speedily_recruiting_the_Virginia_Regiments_on_the_continental_establishment_and_for_raising_additional_troops_of_Volunteers_May_20_1777 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:56:51 EST]]> /An_act_for_the_removal_of_the_seat_of_government_June_18_1779 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:55:21 EST <![CDATA[An act for the removal of the seat of government (June 18, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_act_for_the_removal_of_the_seat_of_government_June_18_1779 Fri, 22 Jul 2016 13:55:21 EST]]> /Thomas_Jefferson_s_Election_to_Governor_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_1_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:33:12 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Jefferson's Election to Governor; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (June 1, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Jefferson_s_Election_to_Governor_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_1_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:33:12 EST]]> /Thomas_Jefferson_s_Acceptance_Speech_for_the_Position_of_Governor_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_2_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:30:24 EST <![CDATA[Thomas Jefferson's Acceptance Speech for the Position of Governor; excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (June 2, 1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Thomas_Jefferson_s_Acceptance_Speech_for_the_Position_of_Governor_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_June_2_1779 Thu, 21 Jul 2016 15:30:24 EST]]> /Anderson_William_A_1842-1930 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:03:54 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, William A. (1842–1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_William_A_1842-1930 William A. Anderson, who came to be known as the "Lame Lion of the Confederacy," helped establish the Democratic Party's dominance in Virginia during and after the Reconstruction period. Wounded during the American Civil War (1861–1865), he was nominated to the House of Delegates in 1868 as a member of the Conservative Party, which sought to bring back the state's pre-war power structure. In 1883 Anderson was elected to the House of Delegates as a member of the Democratic Party (the successor of the Conservative Party). He helped cement Democratic control over Virginia by engineering the party's acceptance of the Readjusters' successful debt reduction policy and by co-sponsoring a law that gave control of elections to Democrats. In 1900 Anderson became head of the Virginia State Bar Association, and his presidential speech became the basis for the provisions in the Constitution of 1902 that disfranchised African American and poor white voters. (Anderson was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902.) He served as attorney general of Virginia from 1902 to 1910 and in the House of Delegates from 1918 to 1919. Anderson died at his home in Lynchburg in 1930.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:03:54 EST]]>
/Mahone_William_1826-1895 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:02:29 EST <![CDATA[Mahone, William (1826–1895)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Mahone_William_1826-1895 William Mahone was a Confederate general, Virginia senator (1863–1865), railroad tycoon, U.S. senator (1881–1887), and leader of the short-lived Readjuster Party. Known by his nickname, "Little Billy," Mahone was, in the words of a contemporary, "short in stature, spare almost to emaciation, with [a] long beard, and keen, restless eyes." He attended the Virginia Military Institute on scholarship, worked as a railroad engineer, and eventually became president of the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), he distinguished himself at the Battle of the Crater (1864), leading a successful counterattack that also involved the massacre of surrendered black troops. After the war, Mahone founded the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio Railroad, which, before it failed, served his business interests in Norfolk and Southside Virginia. In 1881, he was elected to the United States Senate as a member of the Readjuster Party, an unlikely coalition of poor whites and African Americans interested in repudiating a portion of the massive state debt and, in so doing, restoring social services such as free public education. One of the most successful biracial political coalitions in the New South, the Readjusters held power until 1886, when Mahone lost his Senate seat. A gubernatorial bid in 1889 failed, and Mahone died in Washington, D.C., in 1895.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:02:29 EST]]>
/Wells_Henry_Horatio_1823-1900 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:01:22 EST <![CDATA[Wells, Henry Horatio (1823–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wells_Henry_Horatio_1823-1900 Henry Horatio Wells, a Republican and a native of New York, served as governor of Virginia from April 1868 until September 1869. After attending school in Detroit, Michigan, where he was raised, Wells practiced law and served in the state legislature. He supported free public schools, temperance, and the abolition of slavery. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Wells served in a Michigan infantry regiment and then as provost marshal of Union-occupied Alexandria. He stayed on in Alexandria after the war, helping to found a railroad company and practicing law. In 1865, he publicly called for military rule of Virginia in order to protect the African American right to vote. When military rule came to pass, General John M. Schofield, commander of the First Military District, appointed Wells governor of Virginia, an office he held until the next year, when a new constitution was ratified and he lost statewide election as a Republican. Wells later served as a U.S. attorney for Virginia (1870–1872) and for the District of Columbia (1875–1880). He died in 1900.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:01:22 EST]]>
/Republican_Party_in_Virginia_During_the_Nineteenth_Century Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:00:28 EST <![CDATA[The Republican Party of Virginia in the Nineteenth Century]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Republican_Party_in_Virginia_During_the_Nineteenth_Century The Republican Party of Virginia was founded in 1856 and by the end of the century had become, with the Democratic Party, one of the state's two main political parties. Most of its earliest members lived in western Virginia. While not necessarily opposing slavery itself, these Republicans opposed both its expansion into the western territories and the political and economic advantages it bestowed on Piedmont and Tidewater Virginians. They also opposed secession in 1861. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), most of antebellum Virginia's Republicans lived in West Virginia. The few who were left had been Unionists but were now divided on questions such as African American civil rights and whether to allow former Confederates back into government. Newly enfranchised African Americans also flocked to the party. In 1869, a coalition of Conservative Party members and moderate Republicans—in opposition to radical Republicans—won all statewide offices. In 1881, 300 African American Republicans met in Petersburg and voted to endorse the Readjuster Party, formed in support of lowering, or "readjusting," the state debt in order to protect services such as free public schools. This alliance gave Readjusters control of the General Assembly, the governorship, and a seat in the U.S. Senate. In an environment of racial tensions, and just days after the Danville Riot of 1883, the Democratic Party (formerly the Conservatives) swept to power. No Republican won statewide office again until 1969.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:00:28 EST]]>
/Readjuster_Party_The Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:59:19 EST <![CDATA[Readjuster Party, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Readjuster_Party_The The Readjuster Party was the shortest-lived and most radical reforming political party in Virginia's history. Founded in February 1879, it won majorities in both houses of the General Assembly in the legislative election that autumn, and its candidates won all the statewide offices in 1881. The party rose to power because of the debt controversy, which involved disagreements about how to pay almost $34 million in state debt accrued before the American Civil War (1861–1865) on internal-improvement projects. By 1871, that number had risen to $45.6 million. The political faction called Funders resisted any reduction on the state debt lest it hurt Virginia's standing with creditors, while the Readjusters, seeing the debt as threatening important state programs such as public schools, sought to "readjust," or reduce the amount of the principal and the rate of interest. With a coalition of white farmers and working men, Democrats, Republicans, and African Americans, and under the leadership of the railroad executive and former Confederate general William Mahone, the party passed the Riddleberger Act of 1882, which reduced the principal of the debt and the interest owed. The next year, however, the Readjuster Party's candidates lost their legislative majorities, and its candidates for statewide office all lost in 1885, after which the party ceased to function.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:59:19 EST]]>
/Field_James_G_1826-1902 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:56:47 EST <![CDATA[Field, James Gaven (1826–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Field_James_G_1826-1902 James Gaven Field was attorney general of Virginia (1877–1882) and a Populist party leader. Born in Culpeper County, he taught school briefly and worked in California before returning to Virginia to study law. He served as the commonwealth's attorney of Culpeper County (1860) before volunteering for the Confederate army at the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865). He was wounded but remained with the Army of Northern Virginia until the surrender at Appomattox. An active Baptist and member of the Conservative Party, he continued to practice law and was appointed attorney general in 1877, arguing before the U.S. Supreme Court, in Ex Parte Virginia (1879), that Congress could not require local officials to allow African Americans on trial juries. Unable to secure a nomination for reelection, Field retired to Albemarle County, although he stayed active in Democratic Party politics. In the 1890s he became a prominent agricultural reformer and presided over the Populist party state convention in 1892. The national convention nominated him for vice president, losing in the general election to Grover Cleveland. Continuing to support Populist candidates in subsequent years, he ran unsuccessfully for a seat in the Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902. He died in Albemarle County in 1902.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:56:47 EST]]>
/Disfranchisement Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:55:25 EST <![CDATA[Disfranchisement]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Disfranchisement Disfranchisement (also called disenfranchisement) is the revocation of the right of suffrage. African American males voted in Virginia for the first time in October 1867, during Reconstruction (1865–1877), when the military governor of the state, John M. Schofield, ordered a referendum on whether to hold a convention to write a new state constitution and to elect delegates to serve in the convention. A majority of white Virginians disapproved of the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1870, which prohibited states from denying the vote to any man because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Ensuring that Virginia elections were set up to express the public opinion rather than suppress it was a task that took decades to complete. It was not until the abolition of the poll tax in the 1960s and adoption of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965 that black men and women registered and voted in appreciable numbers in Virginia outside a few urban precincts and that white men and women began to register and vote in significantly larger percentages than during the first half of the twentieth century.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:55:25 EST]]>
/Debt_Controversy_The_Virginia Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:54:13 EST <![CDATA[Debt Controversy, The Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Debt_Controversy_The_Virginia The Virginia debt controversy involved disagreements about how to pay almost $34 million in state debt accrued between 1822 and 1861. The money had been spent on the construction of canals, toll roads, and railroads, with the expectation that these would contribute toward Virginia's future economic vitality. After the American Civil War (1861–1865) and the creation of West Virginia, Virginia's economy was in tatters. In 1871, the General Assembly passed what came to be known as the Funding Act, which reduced the state debt, held West Virginia responsible for a third of the principal, and allowed interest-bearing coupons on debt bonds to be receivable for taxes. This caused a shortfall in revenue and conflict with West Virginia. In time, two competing parties rose to prominence. The Funders resisted any reduction on the state debt lest it hurt Virginia's standing with creditors, while the Readjusters, seeing the debt as threatening important state programs such as public schools, sought to "readjust," or lower, the principal. With a biracial political coalition, the Readjuster Party captured control of the General Assembly in 1879 and of the governor's office in 1881. In 1882, the assembly passed the Riddleberger Act, which reduced the principal of the debt and the interest owed. The Funders, having reorganized as Democrats, accepted the plan. With prompting from the U.S. Supreme Court, West Virginia agreed in 1919 to pay its third of the debt. Virginia's share of the debt was paid in 1937.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:54:13 EST]]>
/Conservative_Party_of_Virginia Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:52:29 EST <![CDATA[Conservative Party of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Conservative_Party_of_Virginia The Conservative Party of Virginia dominated the state's politics and government for a decade after its founding late in 1867, when it united people who opposed radical Republican reformers in Congress and in the state. In particular, Conservatives opposed giving the right to vote to African American men and denying it to men who had held Confederate political or military office during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Conservatives lost the first battle but won the second, and electoral successes in 1869 gave them the power to enact alternatives to Republican policies. Holding a majority in the General Assembly, the Conservatives helped create the state's first system of free public schools. By the end of the 1870s, however, the party collapsed during the political turmoil about payment of the antebellum state debt, which deeply divided the Conservatives. Some wanted to pay the debt in full, maintaining Virginia's good credit, while others argued for a "readjustment," lest the payments overwhelm other priorities, such as public schools. The party's division allowed a coalition of white and black voters, called Readjusters, and Republicans to gain temporary control of the state government. Following the subsequent collapse of that biracial coalition, many of the white Conservatives joined the reorganized and revived Democratic Party of Virginia.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:52:29 EST]]>
/Baldwin_John_Brown_1820-1873 Fri, 03 Jun 2016 10:15:17 EST <![CDATA[Baldwin, John Brown (1820–1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Baldwin_John_Brown_1820-1873 John Brown Baldwin was an attorney, member of the Virginia Convention of 1861, member of the Confederate House of Representatives (1861–1865), and Speaker of the House of Delegates (1865–1867). After attending the University of Virginia, Baldwin studied law in his native Staunton and became politically active on behalf of his law partner and brother-in-law Alexander H. H. Stuart, a Whig Party candidate for presidential elector in 1844. Baldwin served a term in the House of Delegates and, during the secession crisis of 1860–1861, was a staunch Unionist who, as a delegate to the secession convention, voted against leaving the Union, even meeting privately with U.S. president Abraham Lincoln in an attempt to find a compromise. After a brief stint in the Confederate army at the beginning of the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served in the Confederate Congress. After the war, he was a Conservative Party leader and, as Speaker of the House of Delegates, became such an expert on parliamentary law that the rules of the House became known as Baldwin's Rules. He was a moderate who supported limits on the rights of African Americans and, in 1869, as a member of the so-called Committee of Nine, met with U.S. president Ulysses S. Grant to negotiate the end of Reconstruction in Virginia. He died in 1873.
Fri, 03 Jun 2016 10:15:17 EST]]>
/Judges_of_the_Supreme_Court_of_Virginia Tue, 10 May 2016 14:20:22 EST <![CDATA[Judges of the Supreme Court of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judges_of_the_Supreme_Court_of_Virginia Tue, 10 May 2016 14:20:22 EST]]> /Farr_R_R_1845-1892 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:27:43 EST <![CDATA[Farr, R. R. (1845–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farr_R_R_1845-1892 Wed, 20 Apr 2016 16:27:43 EST]]> /Cabell_Joseph_C_1778-1856 Thu, 24 Mar 2016 08:08:30 EST <![CDATA[Cabell, Joseph C. (1778–1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cabell_Joseph_C_1778-1856 Joseph C. Cabell was member of the House of Delegates (1808–1810, 1831–1835) and the Senate of Virginia (1810–1829) and served as president of the James River and Kanawha Company (1835–1846). He also served as rector of the University of Virginia from 1834 to 1836 and again from 1845 to 1856. Born in Amherst County, Cabell studied law, including under St. George Tucker, whose stepdaughter he later married. Rather than practice, he embarked on a political career as a Jeffersonian Republican. He made little mark in the General Assembly, however, until in 1815 his friend Thomas Jefferson tapped him to lead the legislative fight to charter and fund Central College, or what later became the University of Virginia. Cabell successfully argued both for the need of a state university and for its establishment near Charlottesville. After his retirement from the assembly, Cabell leveraged his interest in economic development into leadership of the James River and Kanawha Company, which sought to build a canal between Richmond and the Ohio River. The canal reached only as far as Buchanan, in Botetourt County, and Cabell resigned the company's presidency in 1846. He died at his plantation in Nelson County a decade later.
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 08:08:30 EST]]>
/Brodnax_William_H_ca_1786-1834 Thu, 25 Feb 2016 15:53:08 EST <![CDATA[Brodnax, William H. (ca. 1786–1834)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brodnax_William_H_ca_1786-1834 William H. Brodnax was a member of the House of Delegates (1818–1819, 1830–1833) and of the Virginia constitutional convention of 1829. A native of Brunswick County, he studied and then practiced law in Petersburg and lived on a 1,600-acre plantation in Dinwiddie County. During the constitutional convention, he supported policies that extended white male suffrage while retaining most political advantages enjoyed by eastern Virginians over their western counterparts. As a brigadier general of the state militia, he led the welcoming escort of the marquis de Lafayette in 1824 and, in 1831, commanded the forces that put down Nat Turner's Rebellion. During the debate on slavery in the ensuing session of the General Assembly, he chaired a select committee and proposed a plan to colonize the state's free and enslaved African Americans. A member of the Whig Party and a supporter of states' rights, he died of cholera in 1834.
Thu, 25 Feb 2016 15:53:08 EST]]>
/Breckinridge_James_1763-1833 Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:33:36 EST <![CDATA[Breckinridge, James (1763–1833)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Breckinridge_James_1763-1833 James Breckinridge was member of the House of Delegates (1789–1791, 1796–1802, 1806–1808, 1819–1821, 1823–1824), the U.S. House of Representatives (1809–1817), and the board of visitors of the University of Virginia (1819–1833). Born near what is now Fincastle in what was then southern Augusta County, Breckinridge came from a powerful family. (His brother John Breckinridge served in the U.S. Senate and as U.S. attorney general.) After serving during the Revolutionary War (1775–1783), Breckinridge studied law under George Wythe, then opened a practice in Fincastle and began his long political career. He served several terms in the House of Delegates before being elected to Congress as a Federalist in 1809. Although he opposed war with Britain in 1812 he led the militia as a brigadier general, helping to shore up defenses around Washington, D.C., and Baltimore. Breckinridge served four terms in the House of Representatives and then returned to the House of Delegates in 1819. That same year he was appointed to the board of visitors of the newly established University of Virginia, serving until his death. Breckinridge lived on a large farm, Grove Hill, in Botetourt County, but also speculated in land and had a diverse set of business interests. He died at Grove Hill in 1833.
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:33:36 EST]]>
/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 Fri, 29 Jan 2016 10:38:31 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, St. George (1752–1827)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 St. George Tucker was a lawyer, teacher, poet, essayist, inventor, and judge. One of the most influential jurists and legal scholars in the early years of the United States, he sat on three courts in Virginia: the General Court (1789–1804), the Court of Appeals (1804–1811), and the U.S. District Court for the District of Virginia (and later the Eastern District of Virginia) (1813–1825). He also served as rector (1789–1790) and professor of law (1790–1804) at the College of William and Mary. His five-volume edition of Sir William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, published in 1803, was the first major treatise on American law. Born in Bermuda, Tucker studied law as an apprentice to George Wythe in Williamsburg, gaining admission to the bar in 1774. During the American Revolution (1775–1783) he smuggled needed supplies into Virginia and fought under Nathanael Greene at the Battle of Guilford Court House (1781) and under George Washington at the siege of Yorktown (1781). After the war he practiced in the county courts before being elevated to a judgeship. At William and Mary, he advocated the study of law as an academic discipline, and in 1796 he published A Dissertation on Slavery, his plan to gradually abolish slavery in Virginia. The General Assembly ignored it. Tucker married twice and had five surviving children, including the jurist and congressman Henry St. George Tucker and the writer and states' rights advocate Nathaniel Beverley Tucker. He died in Nelson County in 1827.
Fri, 29 Jan 2016 10:38:31 EST]]>
/Cowan_George_R_1837-1904 Tue, 12 Jan 2016 17:24:16 EST <![CDATA[Cowan, George R. (1837–1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cowan_George_R_1837-1904 George R. Cowan represented Russell and Buchanan counties at the Convention of 1867–1868. The son of a General Assembly member, Cowan served with Confederate forces during the American Civil War (1861–1865) until wounds led to an 1862 furlough. On the first day of 1863 he was elected Russell County's clerk and held the position until 1869. In 1867 he earned one of three spots as a delegate for the convention that would write a new state constitution. Described as "unreconstructed," he voted with the Conservatives on key issues, such as opposing the racial integration of public schools and challenging efforts to disfranchise white Virginians who had supported secession or the Confederacy. Cowan did not vote to adopt the new constitution, but along with other Conservatives did sign a public address protesting most of its provisions. By 1894 he had moved to the Oklahoma Territory and by 1904 was living in Colorado Springs, Colorado, where he died.
Tue, 12 Jan 2016 17:24:16 EST]]>
/Governors_of_Virginia Tue, 24 Nov 2015 13:06:09 EST <![CDATA[Governors of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Governors_of_Virginia Tue, 24 Nov 2015 13:06:09 EST]]> /Kemper_James_Lawson_1823-1895 Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:39:52 EST <![CDATA[Kemper, James Lawson (1823–1895)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Kemper_James_Lawson_1823-1895 James Lawson Kemper was a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865), who later served as governor of Virginia (1874–1877). Kemper volunteered in the Mexican War (1846–1848), but returned to his civilian life as a lawyer. He served five terms in the Virginia House of Delegates (1853–1863), including time as Speaker of the House (1861–1863). There he garnered a reputation for honesty and attention to duty. Kemper volunteered for service in 1861, and with his promotion in June 1862 became the Confederacy's youngest brigade commander. Badly wounded at Gettysburg in July 1863, Kemper oversaw the Virginia Reserve Forces for the remainder of the war. He helped found the Conservative Party during Reconstruction (1865–1877). Soundly defeating the Republican candidate in the 1873 gubernatorial race, Kemper found himself, as governor, at odds with previous supporters over his progressive stance on civil rights, prison reform, and public school improvements. Still suffering from his wound, Kemper retired to his law practice, and died in Orange County in 1895.
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:39:52 EST]]>
/Daniel_John_Warwick_1842-1910 Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:36:45 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, John Warwick (1842–1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_John_Warwick_1842-1910 John Warwick Daniel served as a member of the House of Delegates (1869–1872), of the Senate of Virginia (1875–1881), of the House of Representatives (1885–1887), of the U.S. Senate (1887–1910), and of the Convention of 1901–1902. Daniel earned the nickname "The Lame Lion of Lynchburg" after the American Civil War (1861–1865), when he suffered an injury that required him to use a crutch for the rest of his life. A gifted writer and orator, Daniel memorialized the Confederate war effort and spoke out against Reconstruction. He began his political career as a Conservative, became a prominent Funder late in the 1870s, and then in the 1880s helped rebuild the Democratic Party. At the Convention of 1901–1902, called to revise the state constitution, Daniel chaired the important Committee on the Elective Franchise. At first advocating less-onerous suffrage restrictions, he ultimately pushed for a more aggressive path that disfranchised most African Americans in Virginia, along with large numbers of poorer white citizens. Daniel spent his last years as an elder statesman of the Democratic Party, and died in 1910.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:36:45 EST]]>
/Bolling_Stith_1835-1916 Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:34:40 EST <![CDATA[Bolling, Stith (1835–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bolling_Stith_1835-1916 Stith Bolling was a politician whose fluid party affiliation illustrates the churning coalitions in Virginia after the American Civil War (1861–1865). Bolling began his professional career as a clerk and a few years later joined the Confederate cavalry. Rising to captain, he eventually led the largest cavalry company commander under Confederate general J. E. B. Stuart. In 1869 Bolling won election to the House of Delegates as part of a Conservative Party–moderate Republican coalition and captured a second term as a Conservative. He moved to Petersburg, where he joined William Mahone's Readjuster movement, which evolved from a Conservative faction to a short-lived party aligned with the Republicans. Both he and Mahone joined the Republicans after the Readjusters collapsed. Unlike Mahone he retained his popularity among whites and held high positions in the United Confederate Veterans' Army of Northern Virginia Department. Bolling died in Petersburg in 1916.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:34:40 EST]]>
/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:59:11 EST <![CDATA[Daniels, Edward D. (1828–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Edward D. Daniels was an agricultural reformer, newspaper editor, and an active member of the Republican Party. The Massachusetts-born Daniels worked as a geologist in Wisconsin, helped mount expeditions to establish abolitionist colonies in Kansas, served in the U.S. Army, and was involved in manufacturing in the Midwest before settling in Virginia in 1868, at his doctor's recommendation. That same year he bought Gunston Hall, the onetime home of George Mason, and tried to transform the plantation into a cooperative community of independent farmers and artisans. He hired African American laborers, instructed them in scientific farming techniques, and paid them relatively high wages. The venture was not profitable, however, and he sold the property in 1891, retaining a small piece of land for himself. Daniels extended his ambitions for reform into politics: he edited and published the Richmond Evening State Journal in support of the Republican Party, twice ran for office (and was twice defeated), and supported the nascent Readjusters. Daniels's financial troubles often thwarted his reform efforts, but a primary school for black children that he helped found survived into the 1920s. He died at his farm near Gunston Hall in 1916 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:59:11 EST]]>
/Daniel_Wilbur_Clarence_Dan_1914-1988 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:57:28 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Dan (1914–1988)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Wilbur_Clarence_Dan_1914-1988 Dan Daniel represented Danville in the House of Delegates (1960–1969) and served as representative from Virginia in the United States Congress (1969–1988). Prior to his election to public office, he served as the state and then national commander of the American Legion (1951; 1956), a platform he used to lobby for veterans' rights and benefits. A conservative whose views on integration aligned with those of United States senator Harry F. Byrd Sr., Daniel supported Massive Resistance and voted in favor of keeping the poll tax. During his nineteen years in Congress, he worked to strengthen national defense, supported United States president Richard M. Nixon during the Watergate scandal, and helped write the Omnibus Anti-Drug Act of 1985. On January 19, 1988, Daniel announced that he would not seek reelection to Congress due to his struggle with heart disease. He died four days later of an aortic dissection at the University of Virginia Medical Center in Charlottesville.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:57:28 EST]]>
/Daniel_Raleigh_Travers_1805-1877 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:55:14 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Raleigh T. (1805–1877)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Raleigh_Travers_1805-1877 Raleigh T. Daniel helped establish the Conservative Party in 1867. Daniel spent his antebellum political career as a Whig, winning a House of Delegates seat from Richmond in 1841. The Whig majority in the General Assembly selected Daniel to the first of two terms on the Council of State, a body that advised the governor, in 1845. He supported Constitutional Union candidate John Bell in the 1860 presidential election. After the American Civil War (1861–1865) he sought to promote white supremacy and marshal opposition to Republicans and radicals, especially from newly franchised African Americans. Daniel helped found the Conservative Party in 1867 and sat as its first chair until 1873. He returned to the House of Delegates in 1871 and was elected the state's attorney general two years later. During his four-year term as the Virginia government's top lawyer, he resisted federal efforts to protect African American voting rights.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:55:14 EST]]>
/Cameron_William_Evelyn_1842-1927 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:41:05 EST <![CDATA[Cameron, William E. (1842–1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cameron_William_Evelyn_1842-1927 William E. Cameron was a veteran of the American Civil War (1861–1865), a journalist, a governor of Virginia (1882–1886), and a member of the Convention of 1901–1902. Cameron served in the Confederate army during the war, then worked as a journalist in Petersburg and Richmond, supporting the Conservative Party. Beginning in 1876, he was elected to three consecutive two-year terms as the mayor of Petersburg. Later in the 1870s he began to side with the Readjusters, a faction that sought to adjust the payment of Virginia's prewar debt. He won the governorship as a nominee of the Readjuster-Republican coalition in 1881. Cameron and the Readjusters issued a series of reforms, including repealing the poll tax, but his aggressive use of political patronage angered voters and his opponents. The revived Democratic Party, capitalizing on white supremacy and the electorate's unease over Cameron's tactics, took over the General Assembly in 1883. Cameron left politics after completing his term, but was elected in 1901 to a state constitutional convention. He played an influential role, advocating provisions that strengthened the governor's authority to discharge subordinate officials; defending legislative election of judges; and supporting reinstating the poll tax and other restrictions that disfranchised African American voters. Cameron returned to journalism in 1906, editing the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot until 1919. He died in Louisa County in 1927.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:41:05 EST]]>
/Button_Robert_Young_1899-1977 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:32:31 EST <![CDATA[Button, Robert Y. (1899–1977)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Button_Robert_Young_1899-1977 Robert Y. Button was Virginia's attorney general from 1962 to 1970. The Culpeper native was among the many small-town attorneys who contributed to the success of Harry F. Byrd Sr.'s Democratic political machine. Button served for fifteen years in the Senate of Virginia, where he backed the Byrd Organization's policies of Massive Resistance and fiscal conservatism. During his two terms as attorney general his office defended Virginia's racial segregation laws, legislative reapportionment, voter registration procedures, and the poll tax. Most notably, his assistants lost in the landmark cases Griffin et al. v. County School Board of Prince Edward County et al. (1964), which invalidated the practice of closing county schools and funding private segregated academies, and Loving v. Virginia (1967), which invalidated Virginia's law against interracial marriages.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:32:31 EST]]>
/Brown_Edward_Wellington_d_1929 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:18:00 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Edward W. (d. 1929)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Edward_Wellington_d_1929 Edward W. Brown was a politician, editor, and minister. Born into slavery, he became his church's clerk at age twelve and later taught school in Prince George County. Brown was among the last successful African American politicians in the nineteenth century, serving as the county's commissioner of revenue from 1887 to 1895. He moved to Richmond the year after he left office, where he worked for the Grand Fountain United Order of True Reformers, a fraternal beneficiary organization. Eventually becoming editor of its weekly newspaper, the Reformer, Brown promoted the order's various enterprises while condemning the new segregation laws. The organization's finances collapsed in 1910, causing the removal of its officers. Brown became a Baptist preacher, but left the ministry in the mid-1920s to join his son's real estate and insurance agency in Norfolk. He died in 1929.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:18:00 EST]]>
/Bowden_Thomas_Russell_1841-1893 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:59:56 EST <![CDATA[Bowden, Thomas R. (1841–1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowden_Thomas_Russell_1841-1893 Thomas R. Bowden served as Virginia's attorney general from 1863 to 1869, first under the Restored government of Virginia and then, after the American Civil War (1861–1865), under the postwar government of Virginia. Bowden was a member of a prominent Unionist family in Williamsburg that left the town along with Union troops in 1862. The next year he won election as attorney general for the part of Virginia recognized by the United States. When the Confederacy collapsed in Virginia, he moved to Richmond and served as attorney general for the state. He and the rest of the Republican ticket lost in 1869 and soon thereafter he moved to Washington, D.C. He died in 1893.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:59:56 EST]]>
/Boothe_Gardner_Lloyd_1872-1964 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:55:54 EST <![CDATA[Boothe, Gardner L. (1872–1964)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Boothe_Gardner_Lloyd_1872-1964 Gardner L. Boothe was a Democratic Party leader in Alexandria for more than fifty years. Boothe became city attorney in 1897 and five years later was elected a member of the party's State Central Committee. That same year he was selected chairman of the Eighth District Committee, a position he held until 1952. Boothe aligned himself with the state's conservative establishment, backing stalwarts Harry F. Byrd Sr. and Howard W. Smith for decades. A member of the state's old guard, he presided over Alexandria's First National Bank for forty-six years; took an active role in local business, civic, and religious affairs; and offered his views on how the classic Virginia gentleman should act.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:55:54 EST]]>
/Bland_James_William_D_1844-1870 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:52:25 EST <![CDATA[Bland, J. W. D. (1844–1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_James_William_D_1844-1870 J. W. D. Bland was a highly respected African American politician during his brief career. Born free and educated, voters in Appomattox and Prince Edward counties elected him one of their delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868. He served on three major committees and reached out to conservative whites by opposing test oaths and disfranchisement for former Confederates. He was elected to the Senate of Virginia in 1869, where he became a conciliatory figure in a racially volatile era. Focusing on education, he sponsored a successful bill that established Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University). The next year Bland was among a large crowd attending a session of the Supreme Court of Appeals in the State Capitol. The floor collapsed, killing him and about sixty other observers.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:52:25 EST]]>
/Bland_Edward_David_1848-1927 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:49:12 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Edward D. (1848–1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Edward_David_1848-1927 Edward D. Bland served three terms in the House of Delegates and played a role in maintaining the volatile coalition between the Republicans and Readjusters. Bland was born a slave and eventually settled in Prince George County as a shoemaker. Known for his speaking, he became involved in local Republican politics. He advocated the alliance between his party and the Readjusters, and he ran for the General Assembly in 1879 with nomination of the former and de facto backing of the latter. The unwieldy partnership dominated Virginia politics for four years, and Bland won reelection in 1881 and again in 1883 even though a white supremacy campaign helped cause the Readjusters to collapse. He declined reelection for a fourth term, but remained a Republican organizer in the area. He died on his farm in Prince George County in 1927. In 1954, a housing project in Hopewell was named in his honor.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:49:12 EST]]>
/Blair_Francis_Simpson_1839-1899 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:35:05 EST <![CDATA[Blair, Francis S. (1839–1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_Francis_Simpson_1839-1899 Francis S. Blair helped found the short-lived Readjuster Party and served as Virginia's attorney general from 1882 to 1886. A veteran of the American Civil War (1861–1865), he established himself as a successful attorney in Wytheville. Blair, who preferred to be called Frank, entered politics as a populist. He clashed with the state's conservative political establishment, enthusiastically attacking foes for their strict plan to pay Virginia's pre–Civil War debt and their campaign to drive African Americans out of politics. The Readjusters, a coalition of reform-minded Democrats, Republicans, and black voters, sought to readjust the way the state paid its deficit. The new political force nominated Blair for attorney general in 1881. He was the leading vote-getter for the victorious ticket, and the party accomplished all of its main goals almost immediately. The quick success undermined the Readjusters' long-term future, and Blair lost his reelection bid in 1885. He returned to Wytheville and died in 1899.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:35:05 EST]]>
/Anderson_Joseph_Reid_1813-1892 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:17:17 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, Joseph R. (1813–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_Joseph_Reid_1813-1892 Joseph R. Anderson was an iron manufacturer and Confederate army officer during the American Civil War (1861–1865). In 1848 he purchased the Tredegar Iron Company, the largest producer of munitions, cannon, railroad iron, steam engines, and other ordnance for the Confederate government during the Civil War. One of Anderson's most notable decisions was to introduce slaves into skilled industrial work at the ironworks, and by 1864, more than half the workers at Tredegar were bondsmen. Anderson served as a brigadier general for the Confederate army, and fought and was wounded during the Seven Days' Battles. He resigned his commission in the Confederate Army in 1862 to resume control of the ironworks, and after the war, Anderson was a strong proponent for peace, hoping to keep the Union army from taking possession of the ironworks. He failed, but regained control of Tredegar after he was pardoned by U.S. president Andrew Johnson in 1865. By 1873 Anderson had doubled the factory's prewar capacity, and its labor force exceeded 1,000 men, many of them black laborers and skilled workmen who received equal pay with white workers. Though Tredegar failed to make the transition from iron to steel production late in the nineteenth century, the company survived into the 1980s. Anderson was a well-known member of the Richmond community, serving multiple terms on the Richmond City Council and in the House of Delegates before and after the war.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:17:17 EST]]>
/_An_ACT_providing_additional_protection_for_the_slave_property_of_citizens_of_this_commonwealth_1856 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:34:33 EST <![CDATA["An ACT providing additional protection for the slave property of citizens of this commonwealth" (1856)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_providing_additional_protection_for_the_slave_property_of_citizens_of_this_commonwealth_1856 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:34:33 EST]]> /_An_ACT_to_amend_an_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_1795 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:29:48 EST <![CDATA["An ACT to amend an act, intituled, 'An act to reduce into one the several acts concerning slaves, free negroes and mulattoes, and for other purposes'" (1795)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_ACT_to_amend_an_act_intituled_An_act_to_reduce_into_one_the_several_acts_concerning_slaves_free_negroes_and_mulattoes_and_for_other_purposes_1795 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:29:48 EST]]> /African_Americans_and_Politics_in_Virginia_1865-1902 Wed, 21 Oct 2015 13:19:27 EST <![CDATA[African Americans and Politics in Virginia (1865–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/African_Americans_and_Politics_in_Virginia_1865-1902 African Americans were deeply involved in Virginia politics from the American Civil War (1861–1865) until the first years of the twentieth century. Prior to 1865, Virginia law had restricted the vote to adult white men. With the abolition of slavery, African American men began to lobby for their full rights as citizens. In Norfolk, in May 1865, they even cast votes for the first time, although local electoral boards refused to count them. The first election in which black men voted and those votes were counted was for delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868, to which they elected two dozen of their own. Beginning in 1869, African Americans began to be elected to the General Assembly, mostly as Republicans and later as members of the biracial Readjuster Party. Some black politicians were more radical than others, but they generally advocated black civil rights, access to free public schools, and a refinancing of the state's large antebellum debt. Although records are scarce to document the fact, African American women were probably active behind the scenes, particularly in campaigns supporting public schools. Formal black participation in Virginia politics after the Civil War may have peaked in 1881, when the Readjusters swept statewide offices and took control of both houses of the assembly. In 1888, John Mercer Langston even won a contested election for House of Representatives, becoming the first African American from Virginia to serve in Congress and the only one prior to 1993. In the years that followed, however, white supremacist Democrats asserted control again, passing various laws to reduce black suffrage, which culminated in the Constitution of 1902 and a 50 percent reduction in the state's voters. African Americans largely did not participate again in formal state politics until after World War II (1939–1945).
Wed, 21 Oct 2015 13:19:27 EST]]>
/Virginia_Slavery_Debate_of_1831-1832_The Wed, 23 Sep 2015 16:55:44 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Slavery Debate of 1831–1832, The]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Slavery_Debate_of_1831-1832_The The Virginia slavery debate occurred in the House of Delegates during its 1831–1832 session and was prompted by a slave insurrection in August 1831 led by Nat Turner. In the months that followed, about forty petitions, signed by more than 2,000 Virginians, urged the General Assembly to engage the problems associated with slavery. Some petitions called for outright emancipation, others for colonization. Many focused on removing from the state free blacks, who were widely seen as a nefarious influence. The House established a select committee, and when the debate finally spilled over into the full body, in mid-January 1832, it focused on two resolutions. One, made by William O. Goode, called for the rejection of all petitions calling for emancipation. Another, made by Thomas Jefferson Randolph, asked the committee to prepare an emancipation plan to go before the state's voters. By taking up these questions, the House, in effect, considered whether to free Virginia's slaves. After vigorous debate, members declined to pass such a law, deciding instead that they "should await a more definite development of public opinion." In fact, pro-slavery, anti-abolitionist opinion hardened in Virginia in the years that followed, buttressed by arguments previewed in the House. Randolph believed that even having such an open debate should be considered a victory, while others lamented how divided the state was on the crucial question of slavery.
Wed, 23 Sep 2015 16:55:44 EST]]>
/First_Military_District Thu, 27 Aug 2015 17:17:48 EST <![CDATA[First Military District]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/First_Military_District Thu, 27 Aug 2015 17:17:48 EST]]> /Andrews_William_H_b_ca_1839 Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:09:37 EST <![CDATA[Andrews, William H. (b. ca. 1839)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Andrews_William_H_b_ca_1839 William H. Andrews was a member of the Convention of 1867–1868 and served in the House of Delegates (1870–1871). Little is known about him, although his appearances in the public record indicates a troubled man who struggled with alcoholism. Andrews won his seat in the convention called to rewrite Virginia's state constitution in a racially polarized vote. Although he served quietly during the convention and generally voted with the Radical Republicans, for unexplained reasons he became the only African American delegate to vote against the new constitution. He narrowly won election to the House of Delegates from Surry County in 1869, but he acted erratically during his term. He was arrested multiple times, accused of whipping a page, and charged with bribery. He served out his term despite several attempts to expel him from the House. Andrews disappeared from public records after his term.
Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:09:37 EST]]>
/Bayne_Thomas_ca_1824-1888 Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:06:50 EST <![CDATA[Bayne, Thomas (ca. 1824–1888)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bayne_Thomas_ca_1824-1888 Thomas Bayne was a member of the Convention of 1867–1868 and a Republican leader during Reconstruction. Bayne was born enslaved and was known as Samuel Nixon. Literate and possessing a keen intellect, he became an assistant dentist while working at his owner's Norfolk dental practice. His relative freedom of movement allowed him to work on the Underground Railroad until he fled to Massachusetts in 1855. There he adopted Thomas Bayne as his new name and established his own dental practice in New Bedford. Returning to Norfolk by 1865, he began working for African American equal rights as a political activist and an itinerant preacher. In 1867 the city's voters elected him as one of their delegates to the convention called to rewrite the state constitution. There he became the most powerful black leader of the Republican Party's radical faction, arguing forcefully for integrated public schools and equal suffrage. Bayne sought a congressional seat in 1869, but a split among party candidates doomed him to defeat. He reduced his role in state politics but remained active in local elections into the 1880s.
Thu, 27 Aug 2015 16:06:50 EST]]>
/Evans_William_W_d_1892 Tue, 25 Aug 2015 15:27:42 EST <![CDATA[Evans, William W. (d. 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Evans_William_W_d_1892 William W. Evans served one term in the House of Delegates (1887–1888). Evans, whose father served in both houses of the General Assembly, was born enslaved and became involved with politics by 1882, when Petersburg's voters elected him city gauger. By August 1887 Evans had become editor of the Virginia Lancet, a Republican newspaper that he used to advocate improvements in the political and material lives of African Americans. In November of that year he won a seat in the House of Delegates, representing Petersburg. He remained loyal to the Republican Party leader William Mahone during a bruising congressional race in 1888, ultimately won by the independent candidate John Mercer Langston. That year Evans obtained a law license and established a practice in Petersburg. Later he worked in Portsmouth until ill health caused him to move back to Petersburg, where he died in 1892.
Tue, 25 Aug 2015 15:27:42 EST]]>
/Glass_Carter_1858-1946 Thu, 20 Aug 2015 08:46:03 EST <![CDATA[Glass, Carter (1858–1946)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Glass_Carter_1858-1946 Carter Glass, a Democrat, served in the Senate of Virginia (1899–1902), as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902, and in the U.S. House of Representatives (1902–1918) and the U.S. Senate (1920–1946). He also served as secretary of the treasury (1918–1920) in the administration of President Woodrow Wilson. Often referred to as the father of the Federal Reserve banking system, he authored the Glass-Steagall Act of 1932—co-sponsored by Representative Henry B. Steagall, of Alabama—and the Banking Act of 1933. Born in Lynchburg, Glass left school early to work as a newspaper reporter. By 1888, he owned the Lynchburg News and later bought another Lynchburg paper, edited by his father, and consolidated the two. Small in stature but always outspoken, Glass educated himself in finance after being appointed to the House Banking and Currency Committee, carefully reconciling many competing interests into a workable Federal Reserve bill. In the U.S. Senate, he set aside a distaste for machine politics in return for, among other things, support in a run for president; he twice sought but never won the nomination. During the Great Depression, he joined Senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. in opposing President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal. At the start of World War II (1939–1945), however, he supported the president's efforts to prepare the nation for possible entry into the war. Glass died in office in 1946.
Thu, 20 Aug 2015 08:46:03 EST]]>
/Speech_by_William_B_Preston_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_16_1832 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:09:34 EST <![CDATA[Speech by William B. Preston to the House of Delegates (January 16, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_William_B_Preston_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_16_1832 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:09:34 EST]]> /Speech_by_William_H_Brodnax_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_19_1832 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:05:58 EST <![CDATA[Speech by William H. Brodnax to the House of Delegates (January 19, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_William_H_Brodnax_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_19_1832 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:05:58 EST]]> /Dungee_Shed_1831-1900 Fri, 24 Jul 2015 10:16:44 EST <![CDATA[Dungee, Shed (1831–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dungee_Shed_1831-1900 Shed Dungee represented Buckingham and Cumberland counties for two terms in the House of Delegates (1879–1882). Born enslaved, Dungee worked as a cobbler and later became a licensed preacher. He took his seat in 1879, thirty-two years after he reportedly accompanied his master for a term in the General Assembly. Dungee introduced an unsuccessful bill to end the restriction on interracial marriage, on the grounds that outlawing such intermarriage violated the U.S. Constitution. Despite pressure from President Rutherford B. Hayes to support the Funders, he sided with Readjusters in the debate over how to deal with Virginia's crippling pre-war debt. After winning reelection in 1881 he did not seek office in 1883, though he remained active in the Readjuster and Republican parties during the 1890s. Dungee died in Cumberland County in 1900.
Fri, 24 Jul 2015 10:16:44 EST]]>
/Dungey_Jesse_ca_1820-1884 Thu, 16 Jul 2015 15:43:35 EST <![CDATA[Dungey, Jesse (ca. 1820–1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dungey_Jesse_ca_1820-1884 Jesse Dungey served one term in the House of Delegates (1871–1873). A skilled laborer, he was born free and began acquiring land in 1847. He owned 248 acres by the time of his death. The Freedmen's Bureau recognized him as a community leader after the American Civil War (1861–1865), noting his work in building a school and church for African Americans. Elected in 1871 as a Republican to represent King William County, Dungey sided with the Readjusters in debates and early votes over how to settle Virginia's crippling pre-war debt. After his term in office he served as a minister and census enumerator for the county. He died in King William County in 1884.
Thu, 16 Jul 2015 15:43:35 EST]]>
/Brown_John_ca_1830-after_1900 Wed, 08 Jul 2015 15:06:49 EST <![CDATA[Brown, John (ca. 1830–after 1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_John_ca_1830-after_1900 John Brown represented Southampton County at the Convention of 1867–1868, called to rewrite Virginia's constitution. Brown was born enslaved, and before Emancipation his wife and children were sold and taken to Mississippi. How and why he entered politics after the American Civil War (1861–1865) is unknown, but he inspired a remarkable voter turnout during elections for the convention. White moderates who had been Whigs before the war sought African American support for the convention balloting. In an astonishing display of group cohesion, almost 98 percent of registered black men appeared at the polls on October 22, 1867. Brown received all 1,242 black voters to defeat his two white opponents. The turnout and support for Brown was a remarkable event in the county where Nat Turner's Rebellion of 1831 took place. Brown's political career did not continue after the convention. He likely never learned to read or write and died sometime between 1900 and 1910.
Wed, 08 Jul 2015 15:06:49 EST]]>
/Delaney_McDowell_ca_1844-after_1924 Wed, 08 Jul 2015 15:02:48 EST <![CDATA[Delaney, McDowell (ca. 1844–after 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Delaney_McDowell_ca_1844-after_1924 McDowell Delaney represented Amelia County for one term in the House of Delegates (1871–1873). Born to free parents, Delaney worked for a Confederate infantry company during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and likely held a job later with the Freedmen's Bureau. He entered politics by 1869, when he lost a race for the county's House of Delegates seat. Two years later Delaney won by a large margin and sided with the majority in trying to circumvent the Funding Act of 1871. Divisions within the local Republican Party likely caused his failed reelection bid, though he did represent Amelia at a state convention of African Americans in 1875. In subsequent years Delaney served in a variety of local offices, including justice of the peace, coroner, and constable. He also became engaged in such occupations as operating an ordinary, repairing bridges, teaching, ministering in a Baptist church, and farming. He moved to Cumberland County and successfully applied for a Confederate pension in 1924. The date and location of his death are unknown.
Wed, 08 Jul 2015 15:02:48 EST]]>
/Ruffin_Robert_D_1842-1916 Wed, 08 Jul 2015 14:24:35 EST <![CDATA[Ruffin, Robert D. (1842–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ruffin_Robert_D_1842-1916 Robert D. Ruffin was a lawyer, sheriff, and member of the House of Delegates (1875–1876) who achieved financial success in real estate. Born enslaved, he faced controversy throughout his long public life. In 1874 voters in Alexandria (later Arlington) County elected him sheriff, possibly the first African American to hold the position in state history, but he resigned as pressure mounted over his residency. The following year he won election to represent Dinwiddie County in the House of Delegates. He survived a challenge to his election from his opponent, who claimed that Ruffin was not a resident of the county, and he introduced three bills that died in committee. His tenure is most notable for his being expelled from the assembly in 1876 when the overwhelming majority of delegates believed Ruffin stole money from the first door keeper. Ruffin, a lawyer who engaged in real estate, rose from slave to owner of lands reportedly worth millions of dollars. His financial climb was matched by a large number of lawsuits and arrests. To what degree his troubles stemmed from wrongdoing or a cutthroat political climate is unknown. In his later years, he moved to Chicago, Illinois, where he died in 1916.
Wed, 08 Jul 2015 14:24:35 EST]]>
/Evans_Joseph_P_1835-1889 Wed, 08 Jul 2015 10:57:38 EST <![CDATA[Evans, Joseph P. (1835–1889)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Evans_Joseph_P_1835-1889 Wed, 08 Jul 2015 10:57:38 EST]]> /Speech_by_James_H_Gholson_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_12_1832 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:33:39 EST <![CDATA[Speech by James H. Gholson to the House of Delegates (January 12, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_James_H_Gholson_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_12_1832 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:33:39 EST]]> /Edmundson_Isaac_ca_1840-1927 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:29:53 EST <![CDATA[Edmundson, Isaac (ca. 1840–1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edmundson_Isaac_ca_1840-1927 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:29:53 EST]]> /Dickey_William_R_1823-1903 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:23:33 EST <![CDATA[Dickey, William R. (1823–1903)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dickey_William_R_1823-1903 Tue, 07 Jul 2015 08:23:33 EST]]> /Jones_Peter_K_ca_1834-1895 Mon, 06 Jul 2015 14:35:14 EST <![CDATA[Jones, Peter K. (ca. 1834–1895)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jones_Peter_K_ca_1834-1895 Peter K. Jones represented Greensville and Sussex counties in the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868 and then served four terms in the House of Delegates (1869–1877). Born free in Petersburg, he first acquired property in 1857. Soon after the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865), he became active in politics and began urging blacks to become self-sufficient and advocating for black suffrage and unity. He moved to Greensville County about 1867, and that same year he won a seat at the convention required by the Reconstruction Acts to write a new state constitution. A member of the convention's radical faction, Jones voted in favor of granting the vote to African American men and against segregating public schools. He represented Greensville County for four consecutive terms from 1869 to 1877. During his time in office he worked tirelessly to protect the rights of African Americans. By 1881 Jones had moved to Washington, D.C., and he continued his work in support of African American interests and of the Republican Party. He died in Washington in 1895.
Mon, 06 Jul 2015 14:35:14 EST]]>
/Massey_John_E_1819-1901 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:52:08 EST <![CDATA[Massey, John E. (1819–1901)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Massey_John_E_1819-1901 John E. Massey served as the lieutenant governor of Virginia (1886–1890), a member of the General Assembly (1873­–1879), and an influential member of two Virginia political parties. Born in Spotsylvania County, he served as a Baptist minister before the American Civil War (1861–1865), earning him the nickname Parson Massey. He won election to the General Assembly in 1873 as a Conservative, but joined the new Readjuster Party in 1879. After he lost his seat in the Senate, the Readjusters appointed Massey auditor of public accounts in 1879. He broke with Readjuster leader William Mahone in 1882 and the next year Massey helped revive the Democratic Party. As part of a Democratic sweep in 1885, Massey won election as lieutenant governor, supporting the disfranchisement of African Americans. In 1889 the assembly voted him to the first of two terms as state superintendent of public instruction. During his tenure, he promoted summer teacher training institutes but endorsed a proposal that would limit already meager appropriations for African American schools. He selected the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University) as the site for a state-supported summer normal institutes for teacher education. He remained active in the Baptist Church throughout his life, supported the temperance movement, and died on April 24, 1901, in Charlottesville, after having been elected to the upcoming constitutional convention.
Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:52:08 EST]]>
/John_E_Massey_Debts_and_Taxes_or_Obligations_and_Resources_of_Virginia_1875 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 13:55:13 EST <![CDATA[Debts and Taxes, or Obligations and Resources of Virginia by John E. Massey (1875)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/John_E_Massey_Debts_and_Taxes_or_Obligations_and_Resources_of_Virginia_1875 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 13:55:13 EST]]> /_amp_Kemper_s_Address_to_the_Senate_and_House_of_Delegates_amp_December_5_1877 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 13:50:17 EST <![CDATA[Address to the General Assembly by Governor James L. Kemper (December 5, 1877)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_amp_Kemper_s_Address_to_the_Senate_and_House_of_Delegates_amp_December_5_1877 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 13:50:17 EST]]> /Funder_Governor_Frederick_William_Mackay_Holliday_s_message_vetoing_the_Barbour_Bill_February_27_1878 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 13:46:03 EST <![CDATA[Governor Fred W. M. Holliday's message vetoing the Barbour Bill (February 27, 1878)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Funder_Governor_Frederick_William_Mackay_Holliday_s_message_vetoing_the_Barbour_Bill_February_27_1878 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 13:46:03 EST]]> /Extract_from_Readjuster_Governor_William_Evelyn_Cameron_s_annual_message_to_the_General_Assembly_December_5_1883 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 13:35:51 EST <![CDATA[Extract from Readjuster Governor William Evelyn Cameron's annual message to the General Assembly (December 5, 1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Extract_from_Readjuster_Governor_William_Evelyn_Cameron_s_annual_message_to_the_General_Assembly_December_5_1883 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 13:35:51 EST]]> /Fayerman_George_d_1890 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 15:30:14 EST <![CDATA[Fayerman, George (d. 1890)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fayerman_George_d_1890 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 15:30:14 EST]]> /Speech_by_Samuel_McDowell_Moore_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_11_1832 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 15:01:45 EST <![CDATA[Speech by Samuel McDowell Moore to the House of Delegates (January 11, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Speech_by_Samuel_McDowell_Moore_to_the_House_of_Delegates_January_11_1832 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 15:01:45 EST]]> /Petition_from_Women_of_Fluvanna_County_November_24_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:59:52 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Women of Fluvanna County (November 24, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Women_of_Fluvanna_County_November_24_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:59:52 EST]]> /Petition_from_Citizens_of_Hanover_County_December_11_and_14_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:58:11 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Citizens of Hanover County (December 11 and 14, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Citizens_of_Hanover_County_December_11_and_14_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:58:11 EST]]> /Petition_from_Inhabitants_of_Fauquier_County_December_7_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:56:46 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Inhabitants of Fauquier County (December 7, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Inhabitants_of_Fauquier_County_December_7_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:56:46 EST]]> /Loudoun_County_Anti-Slave_Resolution_December_30_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:54:40 EST <![CDATA[Loudoun County Anti-Slave Resolution (December 30, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Loudoun_County_Anti-Slave_Resolution_December_30_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:54:40 EST]]> /Petition_from_Citizens_of_Culpeper_County_December_9_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:52:51 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Citizens of Culpeper County (December 9, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Citizens_of_Culpeper_County_December_9_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:52:51 EST]]> /Excerpts_from_Governor_John_Floyd_s_Message_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:48:29 EST <![CDATA[Excerpts from Governor John Floyd's Message to the General Assembly (December 6, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Excerpts_from_Governor_John_Floyd_s_Message_to_the_General_Assembly_December_6_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:48:29 EST]]> /Petition_from_the_Society_of_Friends_Charles_City_County_December_14_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:45:52 EST <![CDATA[Petition from the Society of Friends, Charles City County (December 14, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_the_Society_of_Friends_Charles_City_County_December_14_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:45:52 EST]]> /Petition_from_Women_of_Augusta_County_January_19_1832 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:44:09 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Women of Augusta County (January 19, 1832)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Women_of_Augusta_County_January_19_1832 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:44:09 EST]]> /Petition_from_Inhabitants_of_Washington_County_December_17_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:41:50 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Inhabitants of Washington County (December 17, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Inhabitants_of_Washington_County_December_17_1831 Wed, 10 Jun 2015 14:41:50 EST]]> /Petition_from_Citizens_of_Northampton_County_December_6_1831 Tue, 09 Jun 2015 14:18:43 EST <![CDATA[Petition from Citizens of Northampton County (December 6, 1831)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Petition_from_Citizens_of_Northampton_County_December_6_1831 Tue, 09 Jun 2015 14:18:43 EST]]> /Davis_Cephas_L_ca_1839-1907 Thu, 21 May 2015 17:35:37 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Cephas L. (ca. 1839–1907)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Cephas_L_ca_1839-1907 Cephas L. Davis represented Charlotte and Mecklenburg counties in the Senate of Virginia for one term (1879–1880). Born into slavery, he became free at the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). He spent much of the 1870s as a pastor and teacher in Mecklenburg, though it appears controversy drove him from the ministry temporarily. In 1879 he ran for the state senate as a Republican, winning narrowly in a three-way race. Davis later joined the Readjuster Party, saying that the new party's members treated him as an equal. He did not seek reelection, but he remained involved in local politics. In 1887 he moved to North Carolina, where he taught school, and served as a principal and pastor. Davis spent his final years in Philadelphia, where he died in 1907.
Thu, 21 May 2015 17:35:37 EST]]>
/Faulcon_William_1841-by_1904 Thu, 21 May 2015 17:22:41 EST <![CDATA[Faulcon, William (1841–by 1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Faulcon_William_1841-by_1904 William Faulcon represented Surry and Prince George counties for one term in the House of Delegates (1885–1887). Probably born into slavery, after the American Civil War (1861–1865) he operated a blacksmith's shop. He began purchasing land in Surry County in 1879, eventually acquiring ninety acres. Little is known about how he became involved in politics, but local Republicans nominated him for the House of Delegates in 1885. Faulcon won the seat handily, but he did not present legislation or speak on the record during the term's first session. He submitted a few bills on behalf of Surry County residents during the extra session. Faulcon was the Republican nominee for the seat in 1891, but he withdrew from the race before election day. He continued to farm in Surry County and died by 1904.
Thu, 21 May 2015 17:22:41 EST]]>
/Harris_Alfred_W_1853-1920 Thu, 21 May 2015 17:16:03 EST <![CDATA[Harris, Alfred W. (1853–1920)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harris_Alfred_W_1853-1920 Alfred W. Harris introduced the bill that chartered Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (later Virginia State University) during his time in the House of Delegates (1881–1888). Born enslaved in Fairfax County, during the American Civil War (1861–1865) his family moved to Alexandria, where he attended a school operated by the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands and later the city's first segregated public schools. He won a seat on the Alexandria common council as a twenty-year-old and became a lawyer. Harris relocated in Petersburg and in 1881 won the first of four consecutive terms term in the House of Delegates, representing Dinwiddie County. He played key roles in Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute's first years, serving as its de facto treasurer and the first secretary of the board of visitors. Harris strongly supported the Readjuster and later Republican Party leader William Mahone, even backing his candidate in the 1888 congressional election against John Mercer Langston. After leaving the House of Delegates, Harris served as a Newport News specials customs inspector and a Petersburg census enumerator. He resigned his post after being arrested and exonerated twice on charges of theft. Following a stroke, Harris died in his Petersburg home in 1920.
Thu, 21 May 2015 17:16:03 EST]]>
/Constitutional_Convention_Virginia_1901-1902 Wed, 20 May 2015 10:57:45 EST <![CDATA[Constitutional Convention, Virginia (1901–1902)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Constitutional_Convention_Virginia_1901-1902 The Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902 produced the Virginia Constitution of 1902 and is an important example of post-Reconstruction efforts to restore white supremacy in the American South by disenfranchising large numbers of blacks and working-class whites. Remaining in effect until July 1, 1971, the constitution did much to shape Virginia politics in the twentieth century—a politics dominated by a conservative Democratic Party that fiercely resisted the New Deal, the New Frontier, the Great Society, the civil rights movement, and, with special fervor, federally mandated public school desegregation. Yet the significance of the 1901–1902 convention extends beyond Virginia in that it demonstrates the irony of how Progressive Era reforms nationwide often resulted in state legislation that was far from progressive.
Wed, 20 May 2015 10:57:45 EST]]>
/Dodson_Amos_A_1856-1888 Tue, 12 May 2015 17:32:55 EST <![CDATA[Dodson, Amos A. (1856–1888)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dodson_Amos_A_1856-1888 Amos A. Dodson served one term in the House of Delegates (1883–1884). Born into slavery in Mecklenburg County, Dodson after the American Civil War (1861–1865) began balancing a carpentry apprenticeship during the day and studying in his time away from work. He parlayed his education into a ten-year stint as a teacher beginning in 1872. Later he worked as a railroad clerk with the help of Readjuster Party leader William Mahone. Dodson prevailed in an intra-party struggle for the Readjuster nomination for the House of Delegates in 1883 and then won the general election. He did not seek reelection, though he remained active in politics. Dodson moved to Knoxville, Tennessee in 1886, entering the undertaking business. Known as an eloquent speaker, his public career ended with his death in 1888.
Tue, 12 May 2015 17:32:55 EST]]>
/Brisby_William_H_1836-1916 Tue, 12 May 2015 15:27:03 EST <![CDATA[Brisby, William H. (1836–1916)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brisby_William_H_1836-1916 William H. Brisby served one term in the House of Delegates (1869–1871), representing New Kent County. Brisby, who had an African American and Pamunkey Indian background, was born free and acquired enough money to establish his own blacksmith shop in 1860. He served as a blacksmith for a Confederate cavalry company to avoid impressment during the American Civil War (1861–1865), but also helped slaves and Union prisoners escape. The suspicion of the latter led to two imprisonments. By 1867 Brisby had entered politics as a Republican and he won a seat in the General Assembly two years later by just nineteen votes. He spent ten years on the New Kent County's board of supervisors and was a longtime justice of the peace. Brisby was strict and sometimes violent with his family, driving his sons out of the house. Late in life he began to suffer from dementia and died in 1916 at the Central State Hospital, in Petersburg, of kidney failure.
Tue, 12 May 2015 15:27:03 EST]]>
/Perkins_Fountain_M_1816_or_1817-1896 Fri, 01 May 2015 08:36:14 EST <![CDATA[Perkins, Fountain M. (1816 or 1817–1896)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Perkins_Fountain_M_1816_or_1817-1896 Fountain M. Perkins was born into slavery and later served one term in the House of Delegates (1869–1871). An overseer on his owner's farm, by 1867 he was a preacher and had become a political figure. A local official with the Freedmen's Bureau considered him a prominent man in Louisa County. Perkins began speaking at political meetings and was considered a candidate for the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868, the first election in which Virginia's African American men could vote. In 1869 he won one of the county's two seats in the House of Delegates. He voted to ratify the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which the state was required to do before being readmitted to the United States. Perkins did not run for reelection in 1871 but stayed active in politics during the next two decades, attending local Republican meetings, sitting as an election judge, and serving on the state central committee. He acquired property and farmed, and then, in 1896, died of the effects of paralysis in Louisa County.
Fri, 01 May 2015 08:36:14 EST]]>
/Norton_Daniel_M_later_Daniel_McNorton_d_1918 Fri, 13 Feb 2015 10:08:55 EST <![CDATA[Norton, Daniel M., later Daniel McNorton (d. 1918)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Norton_Daniel_M_later_Daniel_McNorton_d_1918 Daniel M. Norton, one of three brothers elected to the General Assembly, was a physician who served in the Senate of Virginia (1871–1873, 1877–1887). Born enslaved, he escaped to New York in the mid-1850s. He learned the medical profession and by 1865 moved to Yorktown, where he quickly became a leader among the area's freedpeople. The region's voters elected him to the state Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868 and he later served for twelve years in the Senate of Virginia. Norton often clashed with the Republican Party's leadership and launched unsuccessful candidacies for the U.S. House of Representatives late in the 1860s and early in the 1870s. Norton aligned with the Readjuster Party in its early stages and played a key role in bringing African American voters into the short-lived, but powerful faction. He later clashed with political leader William Mahone, who engineered his removal from the Senate of Virginia. Norton owned considerable property in Yorktown, including the historic customs house. By 1910, he and his family were using the surname McNorton, although it is unclear why. He died in Hampton in 1918.
Fri, 13 Feb 2015 10:08:55 EST]]>
/Norton_F_S_d_1893 Fri, 13 Feb 2015 09:57:00 EST <![CDATA[Norton, F. S. (d. 1893)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Norton_F_S_d_1893 F. S. Norton, one of three brothers elected to the General Assembly, served one term in the House of Delegates (1869–1871) and later sat on Williamsburg's city council (by 1879–1882). Born enslaved, he represented James City County and Williamsburg from 1869 until 1871, during which time he voted with the majority to ratify the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution as required by Congress before Virginia could be readmitted to the United States. Norton often differed politically from the Yorktown-based brothers, Daniel M. Norton and Robert Norton. He embraced Radical Republicanism in the 1860s while his brothers were more sympathetic with the Conservative Party. They all later joined the Readjuster Party, but he withdrew and supported the Republicans against his brothers. He identified himself as a Democrat in his later years. Norton died of unknown causes at his Williamsburg home in 1893.
Fri, 13 Feb 2015 09:57:00 EST]]>
/Echols_Edward_1849-1914 Mon, 26 Jan 2015 14:08:19 EST <![CDATA[Echols, Edward (1849–1914)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Echols_Edward_1849-1914 Edward Echols served a term as lieutenant governor (1892–1902) and represented the Staunton area in the General Assembly (1883–1897, 1906–1914). The son and nephew of members of the Convention of 1861, Echols entered the House of Delegates as the Democratic Party's nearly century-long hegemony over Virginia politics began. As lieutenant governor he presided over the Senate of Virginia when the General Assembly passed legislation calling for a referendum on a new state constitutional convention that ultimately slashed the voting rights of African Americans. Elected to the Senate of Virginia after his term, he helped forge a compromise that allowed the 1914 referendum that brought statewide Prohibition to the state.
Mon, 26 Jan 2015 14:08:19 EST]]>
/Carter_James_B_ca_1816-1870 Fri, 23 Jan 2015 17:26:50 EST <![CDATA[Carter, James B. (ca. 1816–1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_James_B_ca_1816-1870 Fri, 23 Jan 2015 17:26:50 EST]]> /Democratic_Party_of_Virginia Thu, 15 Jan 2015 16:53:10 EST <![CDATA[Democratic Party of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Democratic_Party_of_Virginia The Democratic Party, the dominant political party in Virginia from the 1880s to the 1960s, can trace its origins to the early years of the republic, when disputes over domestic and foreign policies gave birth to the Republican (Democratic-Republican) and Federalist parties. In the 1830s, while Andrew Jackson was president, the name "Democratic" began to gain currency among his supporters. Opposition to Jackson's policies resulted in the formation of a party known as the Whigs. Two-party competition continued in the Old Dominion until the eve of the American Civil War (1861–1865). During Reconstruction (1865–1877), Congress mandated the enfranchisement of black males. Former Democrats and Whigs established the Conservative Party. After Reconstruction, the Conservatives triumphed, but soon they lost power to an interracial coalition known as the Readjusters. In 1883 the Conservative Party changed its name to the Democratic Party. They regained control of the General Assembly that same year, and the governorship two years later. Their control solidified by the suffrage provisions of the Virginia Constitution of 1902, the Democrats were immune to challenge in statewide elections for decades—the only meaningful competition was in the Democratic primary. Early in the twentieth century, party leader Thomas S. Martin and later Harry F. Byrd Sr. developed political organizations based on the support of local officials across the state, but by the 1960s the Byrd Organization was in decline: changes in federal civil rights laws, federal court decisions, the arrival of many newcomers in the state, the rise of the modern Republican Party, and the passing of the old generation of Democratic leaders initiated a party realignment. In the 1970s Virginia's political parties were philosophically more in tune with their respective national parties. Since then, two-party competition has characterized Virginia politics. Virginia Democrats made history by electing an African American as governor in 1989 and giving the state's electoral vote to Barack Obama, the first African American to be the candidate of a major party for president, in 2008.
Thu, 15 Jan 2015 16:53:10 EST]]>
/Burwell_Nathaniel_1750-1814 Thu, 18 Dec 2014 16:37:18 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Nathaniel (1750–1814)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Nathaniel_1750-1814 Nathaniel Burwell was appointed to the James City County Court, served in the county militia, represented James City County in the House of Delegates (1778–1779), and was elected to the Convention of 1788 to consider the proposed constitution of the United States. The son of Carter Burwell, Nathaniel Burwell spent part of his adulthood at Carter's Grove plantation in James City County. He was a major landholder in the region, owning small industrial operations such as an iron forge and two gristmills. Later he built Carter Hall in what became Clarke County.
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 16:37:18 EST]]>
/Bolling_Samuel_P_1819-1900 Mon, 17 Nov 2014 16:59:36 EST <![CDATA[Bolling, Samuel P. (1819–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bolling_Samuel_P_1819-1900 Samuel P. Bolling was a member of the House of Delegates from Cumberland County, the owner of a brickyard in Farmville, and an entrepreneur with enough wealth and success to attract national attention. Born enslaved, Bolling developed skills as a mechanic and manager. He began acquiring property after the American Civil War (1861–1865), purchasing more than 1,000 acres in Cumberland County. A front-page article in the Cleveland Gazette, published in 1886, estimated the value of his brick-making operation and country house at $40,000. Bolling joined the Readjuster Party in 1880 and served in a series of local positions, including the county board of supervisors. In 1885 he won the House of Delegates seat his son Phillip S. Bolling had captured two years earlier. Because of their similar names later works confused the two men. In his later years the elder Bolling sold part of his property to the area's poorer African Americans and contributed land for an industrial school. He died on his Cumberland County farm in 1900.
Mon, 17 Nov 2014 16:59:36 EST]]>
/Bolling_Phillip_S_ca_1849-1892 Mon, 17 Nov 2014 16:44:15 EST <![CDATA[Bolling, Phillip S. (ca. 1849–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bolling_Phillip_S_ca_1849-1892 Mon, 17 Nov 2014 16:44:15 EST]]> /Almond_James_Lindsay_Jr_1898-1986 Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:20:25 EST <![CDATA[Almond, James Lindsay Jr. (1898–1986)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Almond_James_Lindsay_Jr_1898-1986 J. Lindsay Almond Jr. was a governor of Virginia (1958–1962) whose name became synonymous with Massive Resistance, the legislative effort used to prevent school desegregation in light of the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, Supreme Court of the United States ruling in 1954. A Democrat and member of the Byrd Organization, Almond is famous for closing public schools in Charlottesville, Norfolk, and Front Royal in 1958 rather than integrating them. When the state and federal courts declared his actions illegal, Almond submitted, thus effectively ending the era of Massive Resistance to desegregation in Virginia.
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:20:25 EST]]>
/Fain_Sarah_Lee_1888-1962 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 09:27:06 EST <![CDATA[Fain, Sarah Lee (1888–1962)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fain_Sarah_Lee_1888-1962 Sarah Lee Fain was one of the first two women elected to serve in the Virginia General Assembly following ratification in 1920 of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which gave American women the right to vote. When she took her seat as a delegate from Norfolk in January 1924, Fain and her legislative colleague Helen Timmons Henderson, of Buchanan County, became pioneers whose presence in the Virginia State Capitol signaled the start of women's full participation in the political life of the state. Virginia changed slowly, however, and six more decades would pass before women served in the state's legislature in appreciable numbers.
Mon, 15 Sep 2014 09:27:06 EST]]>
/Fenwick_Charles_R_1900-1969 Sun, 14 Sep 2014 12:23:24 EST <![CDATA[Fenwick, Charles R. (1900–1969)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fenwick_Charles_R_1900-1969 Charles R. Fenwick served as a Democratic member of the House of Delegates (1940–1945) and the Senate of Virginia (1948–1969) and played a key political role in the development of Northern Virginia after World War II (1939–1945). Fenwick entered politics in the 1930s as a member of the Byrd Organization and represented Arlington County for three terms in the House of Delegates. After an unsuccessful attempt to secure the Democratic nomination for lieutenant governor, Fenwick was elected to the Senate of Virginia in 1947. During the 1950s he opposed the statewide program of Massive Resistance to public-school desegregation, instead supporting local-option plans. He served as the University of Virginia's rector and helped to establish the branch of the university that in 1972 became George Mason University. Fenwick led efforts to regulate the region's public transportation, develop a regional subway system, and establish an authority to build airports in the state. Fenwick died in 1969, while still serving n the Senate. The main library at George Mason University and the Washington, D.C., Metro's Fourteenth Street bridge across the Potomac River are named in his honor.
Sun, 14 Sep 2014 12:23:24 EST]]>
/Denny_Collins_1899-1964 Sun, 14 Sep 2014 11:29:23 EST <![CDATA[Denny, Collins (1899–1964)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Denny_Collins_1899-1964 Collins Denny, the son of the Methodist bishop Collins Denny, served as a key lawyer for Virginia's segregationists. Aligned with the dominant faction of the Democratic Party led by Harry F. Byrd Sr., Denny entered the state's conservative political establishment in the 1930s as an assistant attorney general of Virginia. In 1948 he co-wrote a resolution with Governor William M. Tuck that condemned President Harry S. Truman's civil rights policies and supported the so-called Dixiecrats in that year's presidential election. After the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), he helped create the staunchly segregationist Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties and became its legal counsel. Prince Edward County, which closed its public schools rather than desegregate, also hired Denny when it was challenged by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He represented the school boards of two other counties when their segregationist policies were challenged. He died in 1964 after several years of poor health.
Sun, 14 Sep 2014 11:29:23 EST]]>
/Barbour_John_S_1820-1892 Tue, 02 Sep 2014 10:19:45 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, John S. (1820–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_John_S_1820-1892 John S. Barbour served as a United States senator, but his biggest effect on Virginia's political history came from his organizational skills. Barbour hailed from a politically active family and joined the House of Delegates in his twenties. After four years in the General Assembly, the Orange and Alexandria Railroad (later the Virginia Midland Railway) named him its president. Barbour held the position for thirty-four years. He began his rivalry with fellow transportation leader and politician William Mahone when railroad consolidation accelerated after the American Civil War (1861–1865). He reentered politics in 1880 when the Funder wing of the Conservative Party nominated him for Congress, winning the first of three terms. Three years later he became state chairman of the party, now called the Democratic Party, and led it to convincing win in that year's elections over Mahone's Readjuster Party. By emphasizing white supremacy and animosity to Mahone's political power while accepting the Readjusters' financial reforms, Barbour engineered the start of the Democrats' nearly century-long domination of Virginia politics.
Tue, 02 Sep 2014 10:19:45 EST]]>
/Davis_Harry_B_1893-1987 Thu, 21 Aug 2014 07:59:11 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Harry B. (1893–1987)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Harry_B_1893-1987 Harry B. Davis was a longtime Democratic member of the House of Delegates, representing Princess Anne County and Virginia Beach. Beginning his state political career in the 1930s, he rose to become an influential figure in the General Assembly during the next two decades. Following the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 ruling, in Brown v. Board of Education, that mandatory racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional, Davis supported local option plans for desegregation and tuition grants for white students to attend private, segregated schools. While hardly an integrationist, Davis's key role in opposing Massive Resistance, the statewide plan to oppose school segregation, alienated him from the staunchly segregationist Byrd Organization and cost him his political career: in 1959, a candidate backed by the organization defeated Davis in the Democratic primary. Davis returned to Virginia Beach and died in Norfolk in 1987.
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 07:59:11 EST]]>
/Conn_Raphael_M_1805-1887 Thu, 21 Aug 2014 06:05:04 EST <![CDATA[Conn, Raphael M. (1805–1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Conn_Raphael_M_1805-1887 Raphael M. Conn voted twice for secession at the Convention of 1861. Conn lived near the town of Mount Jackson in Shenandoah County and held a series of local offices, including militia officer, justice of the peace, and sheriff. He represented the county in the House of Delegates from 1838 to 1841. A secessionist, Conn was elected by a large majority as one of his county's representatives to the convention called to consider Virginia's course of action during the secession crisis. He was one of only fifteen delegates representing constituencies west of the Blue Ridge Mountains who voted in favor of secession when the first vote failed on April 4. He voted for session again on April 17, when the measure passed the convention. Conn commanded the 43rd Virginia, a regiment of volunteers, early in the American Civil War (1861–1865) and served as the county clerk from 1863 to 1865. He died in Warren County in 1887.
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 06:05:04 EST]]>
/Bowden_Henry_Moseley_1819-1871 Sun, 17 Aug 2014 11:22:45 EST <![CDATA[Bowden, Henry M. (1819–1871)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowden_Henry_Moseley_1819-1871 Sun, 17 Aug 2014 11:22:45 EST]]> /Baskervill_Britton_1863-1892 Sun, 10 Aug 2014 08:21:18 EST <![CDATA[Baskervill, Britton (1863–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Baskervill_Britton_1863-1892 Britton Baskervill represented Mecklenburg County for one term in the General Assembly (1887–1888). Born enslaved, he acquired an education after the American Civil War (1861–1865) and taught school as one of his occupations. In 1887 Republican Party leader William Mahone engineered Baskervill's nomination as the party's candidate to the House of Delegates. The African American majority among the county's electorate provided Baskervill an easy victory over his Democratic opponent in the general election. He stood by Mahone in 1888 when most African Americans supported the independent congressional candidacy of John Mercer Langston. A year later, however, Baskervill lost Mahone's political support and with it the Republican Party's nomination for the seat in 1889. Baskervill returned to teaching and farming, never again holding public office.
Sun, 10 Aug 2014 08:21:18 EST]]>
/Ash_William_H_1859-1908 Sun, 10 Aug 2014 07:58:24 EST <![CDATA[Ash, William H. (1859–1908)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ash_William_H_1859-1908 William H. Ash represented Amelia and Nottoway counties in the House of Delegates during the 1887–1888 session. Ash was born enslaved and graduated from Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University). He settled in Burkeville as a teacher and helped establish the first statewide organization for African American educators in 1884. Three years later the Republicans selected Ash as their candidate for the House of Delegates but his ties to party leader William Mahone likely cost him renomination in 1889. He remained an educator and was an agricultural instructor at Virginia Normal and Industrial Institute (later Virginia State University) at the time of his death in 1908.
Sun, 10 Aug 2014 07:58:24 EST]]>
/Loving_v_Virginia_June_12_1967 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:19:24 EST <![CDATA[Loving v. Virginia (June 12, 1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Loving_v_Virginia_June_12_1967 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:19:24 EST]]> /Dalton_John_N_1931-1986 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 13:22:41 EST <![CDATA[Dalton, John N. (1931–1986)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dalton_John_N_1931-1986 John N. Dalton, a successful lawyer, businessman, and farmer, was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates (1966–1972) and the Senate of Virginia (1972–1973), and served as lieutenant governor (1974–1978) and as governor (1978–1982). He was the first Republican lieutenant governor of the twentieth century. His term as governor came during a period of dramatic realignment in which the Republican Party, long overshadowed by the Democratic Byrd Organization, became competitive in state elections for the first time in nearly a century. In fact, Dalton's rapid climb from state legislator to governor paralleled Virginia's transition from a one-party, Democratic state, typical of the "Solid South," to a competitive, two-party system. The third in a trio of Republican governors of Virginia during the 1970s, Dalton stressed economic development, conservative fiscal management, and Republican party-building.
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 13:22:41 EST]]>
/Battle_John_Stewart_1890-1972 Sat, 19 Jul 2014 10:18:39 EST <![CDATA[Battle, John Stewart (1890–1972)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Battle_John_Stewart_1890-1972 John Stewart Battle was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates (1930–1934) and the Senate of Virginia (1934–1950), and served as governor of Virginia (1950–1954). A loyal Democrat in line with the Byrd Organization, the state machine run by U.S. senator Harry F. Byrd Sr., Battle overcame a spirited challenge by three fellow Democrats to win the 1949 gubernatorial primary. His greatest achievement as governor was a massive school construction program to accommodate the first wave of the baby boom. Battle gained national recognition when he addressed the 1952 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois, in an effort to prevent the Virginia delegation from losing its vote due to a disagreement over a loyalty oath. Although the U.S. Supreme Court did not announce its 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas—which mandated the desegregation of public schools—until after Battle left office, civil rights issues were emerging during his term. In a somewhat ironic end to his public service, Battle, a segregationist, was appointed by U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower to the U.S. Civil Rights Commission in 1957.
Sat, 19 Jul 2014 10:18:39 EST]]>
/Chilton_Samuel_1805-1867 Thu, 10 Jul 2014 17:10:40 EST <![CDATA[Chilton, Samuel (1805–1867)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chilton_Samuel_1805-1867 Samuel Chilton was a lawyer, a member of the House of Representatives (1843–1845), and a member of the Convention of 1850–1851, the purpose of which was the revision of the Virginia constitution. He is best known for sitting on a committee appointed during the convention to report on the apportionment of the General Assembly. Chilton supported calculating legislative representation on the basis of population and property holding, but proposed a key compromise with western delegates who held opposing views. His plan for apportionment passed, and on July 31, 1851, Chilton voted with the majority in favor of the final version of the state constitution. Chilton moved to Washington, D.C., by 1853, when he joined the American (Know Nothing) Party. In 1859 he and Hiram Griswold represented John Brown for the final two days of the treason trial that followed Brown's 1859 raid on Harpers Ferry. Though Chilton tried to appeal the guilty verdict, he was unsuccessful, and ultimately was forced to testify before a Senate committee about the circumstances surrounding his hiring and subsequent payment. After the trial, Chilton reportedly was offered and refused a position on Abraham Lincoln's administration. He died in Warrenton on January 7, 1867.
Thu, 10 Jul 2014 17:10:40 EST]]>
/Virginia_Statute_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1786 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:23:23 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Statute_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1786 The Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom was drafted by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the General Assembly on January 16, 1786, before being signed into law three days later. The statute affirms the rights of Virginians to choose their faiths without coercion; separates church and state; and, while acknowledging the right of future assemblies to change the law, concludes that doing so would "be an infringement of a natural right." Jefferson's original bill "for establishing religious freedom," drafted in 1777 and introduced in 1779, was tabled in the face of opposition among powerful members of the established Church of England. Then, in 1784, a resolution calling for a tax to support all Christian sects excited such opposition that James Madison saw an opportunity to reintroduce Jefferson's bill. It passed both houses of the General Assembly with minimal changes to its text. One of the most eloquent statements of religious freedom ever written, the statute influenced both the drafting of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the United States Supreme Court's understanding of religious freedom. Jefferson considered it one of his crowning achievements and a necessary bulwark against tyranny.
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:23:23 EST]]>
/Poll_Tax Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:08:18 EST <![CDATA[Poll Tax]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Poll_Tax A poll tax is a tax levied as a prerequisite for voting. After Reconstruction (1865–1877)—the twelve-year period of rebuilding that followed the American Civil War (1861–1865)—many southern states passed poll taxes in an effort to keep African Americans from voting. As a result, many African Americans (and other impoverished citizens) who could not afford to pay the poll tax were disfranchised and deprived of their rights as citizens. In 1870 the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was adopted, stipulating that an individual's right to vote could not be denied by any state on the basis of race or color. Southern state legislators, however, soon looked for other ways to keep the vote from African Americans, which inevitably, and perhaps by design, blocked some white Americans. In response, many state legislatures drew up grandfather clauses to ensure that non–African American constituents were included in the voting process. The U.S. Supreme Court declared grandfather clauses unconstitutional in 1915 and again in 1939, but poll taxes had greater longevity and remained in effect into the era of the civil rights movement. The Twenty-fourth Amendment, ratified in 1964, outlawed the use of this tax (or any other tax) as a pre-condition in voting in federal elections, and the 1966 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections extended this ruling, stating that the imposition of a poll tax in state elections violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:08:18 EST]]>
/Byrd_Harry_Flood_Sr_1887-1966 Sun, 22 Jun 2014 11:24:04 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, Harry Flood (1887–1966)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Harry_Flood_Sr_1887-1966 Harry F. Byrd served as a Virginia state senator (1915–1925), governor (1926–1930), and United States senator (1933–1965), was the father of a U.S. senator, and for forty years led the Democratic political machine known as the Byrd Organization. By virtue of both his service and power, he was one of the most prominent Virginians of the twentieth century. But much of that power was wielded in mostly vain opposition to the New Deal's big-government programs and the civil rights legislation of the 1960s. As governor he instituted a popular downsizing of state government that increased efficiency, but the end of his career was marked by his now-infamous "massive resistance" to federally mandated school desegregation.
Sun, 22 Jun 2014 11:24:04 EST]]>
/Seal_of_the_Commonwealth_of_Virginia Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:30:10 EST <![CDATA[Seal of the Commonwealth of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Seal_of_the_Commonwealth_of_Virginia The Seal of the Commonwealth of Virginia—called for at the Convention of 1776 and designed by George Wythe—pictures on the front the Roman goddess of virtue, the word "Virginia," and the Commonwealth's motto, Sic Semper Tyrannis, or "thus always to tyrants." On the reverse side are three more goddesses and the word Perseverando ("by persevering"). The seal has remained largely unchanged since 1779, although at the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865), Unionists in western Virginia established the Restored government of Virginia, adding the words "Liberty and Union" to both sides of the seal. In 1873, the General Assembly removed the words, and in 1903, another ordinance described the seal in essentially the same language as in 1776. The Virginia Convention of 1861, which adopted the Ordinance of Secession, also adopted a state flag that featured the front, or obverse, side of the seal against a background of deep blue.
Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:30:10 EST]]>
/Booker_George_William_1821-1884 Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:17:30 EST <![CDATA[Booker, George William (1821–1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Booker_George_William_1821-1884 George William Booker's political career, which included a term in Congress (1869–1871), provides an example of the shifting political alliances during and after the American Civil War (1861–1865). A strong Unionist during the secession crisis, he voted for the Ordinance of Secession to avoid reprisals from his neighbors. A post as justice of the peace kept him from military service during the Civil War. Booker won election to the House of Delegates in 1865 representing Henry County and aligned himself with former Whig John Minor Botts during the formation of Virginia's Republican Party. The Republicans nominated him for attorney general in 1868, but elections were postponed. The next year he won a seat in the House of Representatives as a True Republican, an alliance between moderate members of his party and Democratic-aligned Conservatives in opposition to the Radical Republicans. He moderated his earlier anti-secession views and advocated an amnesty for former Confederates. Declining a run for a second term, he returned to the House of Delegates where he became one of the Conservative Party's floor leaders. He died near Martinsville in 1884.
Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:17:30 EST]]>
/An_Act_to_admit_the_State_of_Virginia_to_Representation_in_the_Congress_of_the_United_States_January_26_1870 Thu, 19 Jun 2014 10:30:04 EST <![CDATA[An Act to admit the State of Virginia to Representation in the Congress of the United States (January 26, 1870)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_admit_the_State_of_Virginia_to_Representation_in_the_Congress_of_the_United_States_January_26_1870 Thu, 19 Jun 2014 10:30:04 EST]]> /Byrne_Leslie_1946- Sun, 15 Jun 2014 10:10:47 EST <![CDATA[Byrne, Leslie (1946– )]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrne_Leslie_1946- Leslie Byrne was the first woman elected to the U.S. Congress from Virginia, serving as a Democrat for one term, from January 3, 1993, until January 3, 1995. Byrne emerged as a skilled fund-raiser and hard-nosed campaigner, but her tenure in Congress was marked by Democratic defeats over health care issues and her own sometimes difficult relationships with fellow representatives. In addition to her term in Congress, Byrne served in the House of Delegates (1986–1992) and the Senate of Virginia (2000–2003). She also served as the White House Director of Consumer Affairs under U.S. president Bill Clinton.
Sun, 15 Jun 2014 10:10:47 EST]]>
/Carson_William_Edward_1870-1942 Sun, 15 Jun 2014 08:08:48 EST <![CDATA[Carson, William Edward (1870–1942)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carson_William_Edward_1870-1942 William E. Carson, chairman of the Commission on Conservation and Development, was a Virginia businessman whose friendship with Harry F. Byrd elevated him to political prominence in Virginia in the 1920s. Disagreements with the more-powerful Byrd over commission matters and his own political ambitions, however, led to a falling out. Though Byrd declined to renew Carson's commission appointment in 1934, Carson remained chairman of the Democratic committee in the Seventh District until 1940.
Sun, 15 Jun 2014 08:08:48 EST]]>
/_An_act_for_regulating_conveyances_1785 Sat, 17 May 2014 15:09:10 EST <![CDATA["An act for regulating conveyances" (1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_regulating_conveyances_1785 Sat, 17 May 2014 15:09:10 EST]]> /Peery_George_Campbell_1873-1952 Thu, 01 May 2014 17:24:04 EST <![CDATA[Peery, George Campbell (1873–1952)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Peery_George_Campbell_1873-1952 George Campbell Peery, a Democratic ally of Harry F. Byrd Sr., served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1923–1929) and as governor of Virginia (1934–1938). Peery made his first mark on Virginia's political map and brought a great victory to the Democratic Party when he wrested control of Southwest Virginia's "Fighting Ninth" Congressional District from two decades of Republican occupation. As Byrd's handpicked choice to replace outgoing governor John Garland Pollard, Peery instituted a number of reforms and policies of lasting impact. A Byrd Organization disciple, Peery valued economic thrift and small government, but was not afraid to support more progressive policies when they were politically and economically advantageous. He advocated, for instance, increased funding for public education and recommended that the state adopt an unemployment insurance plan. Peery also created the Department of Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control to regulate alcohol sales and consumption in a post-prohibition Virginia.
Thu, 01 May 2014 17:24:04 EST]]>
/Spong_William_Belser_Jr_1920-1997 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 17:34:25 EST <![CDATA[Spong, William Belser Jr. (1920–1997)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Spong_William_Belser_Jr_1920-1997 William Belser Spong Jr. was a Virginia lawyer and politician who served in the House of Delegates (1954–1955), the Senate of Virginia (1956–1966), and the United States Senate (1966–1973). He was born in Portsmouth on September 29, 1920, to William Belser Spong and Emily Nichols Spong. He attended public schools in Portsmouth and attended Hampden-Sydney College before receiving a law degree from the University of Virginia in 1947. Spong served in the 93rd Bomber Group of the Eighth Air Force during World War II (1939–1945). He was admitted to the Virginia Bar in 1947 and practiced law in Portsmouth. At the same time he lectured in law and government at the College of William and Mary.
Fri, 25 Apr 2014 17:34:25 EST]]>
/Chapter_46B_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:37:48 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 46B of the Code of Virginia § 1095h–m (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_46B_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:37:48 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_CXCII_of_the_Code_of_1873 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:34:45 EST <![CDATA[Chapter CXCII of the Code of Virginia (1873)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_CXCII_of_the_Code_of_1873 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:34:45 EST]]> /Chapter_357_of_Acts_and_Joint_Resolutions_Amending_the_Constitution_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_Virginia_1910 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:04:21 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 357 of Acts and Joint Resolutions (Amending the Constitution) of the General Assembly of the State of Virginia (1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_357_of_Acts_and_Joint_Resolutions_Amending_the_Constitution_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_Virginia_1910 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:04:21 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_17_of_Acts_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_1866 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:54:24 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 17 of Acts of the General Assembly of the State of Virginia (1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_17_of_Acts_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_1866 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:54:24 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_CIX_of_the_Code_of_1849 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:36:48 EST <![CDATA[Chapter CIX of the Code of Virginia (1849)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_CIX_of_the_Code_of_1849 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:36:48 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_CIII_of_the_Code_of_1860 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:10:01 EST <![CDATA[Chapter CIII of the Code of Virginia (1860)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_CIII_of_the_Code_of_1860 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:10:01 EST]]> /Loving_v_Commonwealth_March_7_1966 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:46:56 EST <![CDATA[Loving v. Commonwealth (March 7, 1966)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Loving_v_Commonwealth_March_7_1966 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:46:56 EST]]> /Kinney_v_The_Commonwealth_October_3_1878 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:11:41 EST <![CDATA[Kinney v. the Commonwealth (October 3, 1878)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Kinney_v_The_Commonwealth_October_3_1878 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:11:41 EST]]> /Opinion_of_Judge_Leon_M_Bazile_January_22_1965 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:00:46 EST <![CDATA[Opinion of Judge Leon M. Bazile (January 22, 1965)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Opinion_of_Judge_Leon_M_Bazile_January_22_1965 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:00:46 EST]]> /Judgment_Against_Richard_and_Mildred_Loving_January_6_1959 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:52:14 EST <![CDATA[Judgment Against Richard and Mildred Loving (January 6, 1959)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Judgment_Against_Richard_and_Mildred_Loving_January_6_1959 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:52:14 EST]]> /Naim_v_Naim_June_13_1955 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:51:16 EST <![CDATA[Naim v. Naim (June 13, 1955)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Naim_v_Naim_June_13_1955 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:51:16 EST]]> /Dinwiddie_Emily_Wayland_1879-1949 Wed, 02 Apr 2014 17:01:14 EST <![CDATA[Dinwiddie, Emily Wayland (1879–1949)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dinwiddie_Emily_Wayland_1879-1949 Emily Wayland Dinwiddie was a social worker and reformer. Born in Virginia, she helped to professionalize and systematize social work. She drew on her experience as a tenement inspector in New York, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh to write handbooks, manuals, and forms. In her reports Dinwiddie placed an emphasis on maintaining high standards of public health and sanitation in city tenements. In 1918 she joined the American Red Cross in France, and continued to work for the organization until 1922. Five years later Dinwiddie became director of the Children's Bureau at the Virginia State Board of Public Welfare. She also took a leave of absence to write Virginia State Hospitals for Mental Patients (1934), a comprehensive report of the state's public mental hospitals. Dinwiddie moved to Kansas in 1934 to work for the Emergency Relief Administration. She retired from public service in 1938 and died in Virginia in 1949.
Wed, 02 Apr 2014 17:01:14 EST]]>
/Henderson_Helen_Timmons_1877-1925 Sun, 30 Mar 2014 12:16:48 EST <![CDATA[Henderson, Helen Timmons (1877–1925)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Henderson_Helen_Timmons_1877-1925 Helen Timmons Henderson, from the town of Council in Buchanan County, served in the Virginia House of Delegates (1924–1925), one of the first two women elected to that body (the other was Norfolk's Sarah Lee Fain). She die before having the opportunity to run for a second term.
Sun, 30 Mar 2014 12:16:48 EST]]>
/Holton_A_Linwood_1923- Mon, 24 Mar 2014 11:37:55 EST <![CDATA[Holton, A. Linwood (1923– )]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Holton_A_Linwood_1923- A. Linwood Holton was a governor of Virginia (1970–1974) and the first Republican to hold the office since Reconstruction (1865–1877). Hailing from Big Stone Gap in southwest Virginia, Holton was among the "Mountain and Valley" Republicans who began to gain statewide support in the 1950s in opposition to the Byrd Organization and in support of public school desegregation. Holton won a narrow race for governor in 1969 with a coalition that included a substantial number of African American and white working-class voters. As governor, he declared an end to Massive Resistance, the state's anti–desegregation policy, announcing, "The era of defiance is behind us." In 1970, he was photographed escorting his daughter Tayloe into a nearly all-black high school in Richmond. In addition, Holton reorganized the executive branch, worked to clean Virginia's polluted waters, and helped create a unified Ports Authority in Hampton Roads. He was not able to overcome increasing factionalism among state Republicans, however, and the party lost a series of statewide elections in the 1970s. A bold and decisive progressive on matters of race relations, he did much to break the Democrats' one-party dominance of Virginia's political life. He was less successful at imprinting his own moderate conservative philosophy on the Virginia Republican Party.
Mon, 24 Mar 2014 11:37:55 EST]]>
/Letcher_John_1813-1884 Sat, 08 Mar 2014 17:52:05 EST <![CDATA[Letcher, John (1813–1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Letcher_John_1813-1884 John Letcher was a lawyer, newspaper editor, member of the United States House of Representatives (1851–1859), and governor of Virginia (1860–1864) during the American Civil War (1861–1865). In a career that lasted decades, he weathered radical shifts of opinion and power by consistently positioning himself as a moderate, supporting, for instance, increased commercial ties between the eastern and western portions of the state and more political representation for western counties, codified in the Convention of 1850–1851. He advocated for a gradual emancipation of slaves and resisted the entreaties of radical secessionists while still arguing on behalf of states' rights. Western support and a divided Whig Party helped him narrowly win the governorship as a Democrat in 1859, but his term was often a difficult one. He ably mobilized Virginia for war and then threw the state's tremendous resources behind the Confederacy. But his willingness to requisition for the Confederacy needed supplies such as salt caused controversy at home, as did his support of impressments. Letcher returned to Lexington in 1864, ran for the Confederate Congress and lost, and was briefly imprisoned at the conclusion of the war. After his release, he resumed his law career, returning to state politics before dying in 1884.
Sat, 08 Mar 2014 17:52:05 EST]]>
/Martin_Thomas_Staples_1847-1919 Thu, 06 Mar 2014 15:16:17 EST <![CDATA[Martin, Thomas Staples (1847–1919)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Martin_Thomas_Staples_1847-1919 Thomas Staples Martin was a railroad attorney, a longtime U.S. senator from Virginia (serving from 1895 until 1919), and an architect of the state Democratic Party machine that during his time was known as the Martin Organization. A quiet, behind-the-scenes political player, Martin rose through the party ranks largely due to his influence with powerful railroad interests. Under the leadership of Martin's mentor, John S. Barbour Jr., Democrats reestablished control of state politics that, since Reconstruction (1865–1877), had been in the hands of Republicans and Readjusters. Then, in 1893, in a huge and unexpected upset, Martin defeated former Confederate general and Virginia governor Fitzhugh Lee for election to Barbour's U.S. Senate seat, allowing him to take control of the party and, to a large extent, the state. Accused by his critics of bribery and corruption, Martin stayed in power and managed to rise to the position of Senate Majority Leader at least in part because of his pragmatic willingness to forge coalitions between the competing conservative and progressive wings of the Democratic Party. As a result, Martin's political machine and its successor, the Byrd Organization, dominated Virginia politics until the 1960s.
Thu, 06 Mar 2014 15:16:17 EST]]>
/Montague_Andrew_Jackson_1862-1937 Sun, 02 Mar 2014 13:22:31 EST <![CDATA[Montague, Andrew Jackson (1862–1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Montague_Andrew_Jackson_1862-1937 Andrew Jackson Montague served as attorney general of Virginia (1898–1902), as governor of Virginia (1902–1906), and as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1913–1937). Elected governor during the turbulent Progressive reform era of the early twentieth century, Montague advocated for a direct primary system and for the improvement of Virginia's public schools and roads. Despite his powerful oratory skills and popularity, Montague lacked the political will to lobby vigorously for his agenda and was held back further by opposition from Thomas Staples Martin, architect of the state Democratic Party machine, and by an economically and socially conservative political climate. In 1905 he challenged Martin for his U.S. Senate seat, but lost the primary election. Montague served as the dean of Richmond College Law School and practiced law in Richmond before being elected in 1912 to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served a lackluster twenty-four-year tenure.
Sun, 02 Mar 2014 13:22:31 EST]]>
/Allan_Edgar_1842-1904 Wed, 26 Feb 2014 11:25:35 EST <![CDATA[Allan, Edgar (1842–1904)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Allan_Edgar_1842-1904 Edgar Allan was one of Virginia's leading Republicans from 1867 until 1902. A native of England who fought with George A. Custer's cavalry during the American Civil War (1861–1865), Allan settled in Prince Edward County as a farmer in 1865. He then taught himself law and established a Farmville practice. The region's African American voters elected him to the Constitutional Convention of 1867–1868. Though mocked as "Yankee" Allan, he spent twelve years as Prince Edward's commonwealth's attorney and three years in the Senate of Virginia. In 1883 he moved to Richmond, becoming a prosperous lawyer. In 1892 he helped Bettie Thomas Lewis, daughter of a former slave and a wealthy white man, claim her inheritance. Eight years later he lost a bid for Congress, and Republicans aligned with U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt took control of the state party from Allan's group in 1902. Sickly, in pain, and emotionally devastated by the loss of political power, Allan committed suicide in 1904.
Wed, 26 Feb 2014 11:25:35 EST]]>
/Tucker_George_1775-1861 Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, George (1775–1861)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_George_1775-1861 George Tucker was a lawyer, philosopher, economist, historian, novelist, politician, and teacher. Born in Bermuda and cousin to the famed jurist St. George Tucker, Tucker served in the House of Delegates (1815–1816) representing Pittsylvania County and won election to three terms in the United States House of Representatives (1819–1825) before, at the invitation of Thomas Jefferson, joining the faculty of the newly opened University of Virginia in Charlottesville. Tucker owned slaves but opposed slavery as a moral evil. During debate over the Missouri Compromise (1820), he argued that emancipation was impractical and that slavery would eventually die out. By the end of his life, his opposition to abolitionists had turned him into an apologist for the "peculiar institution." He was the author of a novel of the U.S. South that dramatized the evils of slavery, The Valley of Shenandoah (1824); two science fiction novels, including A Voyage to the Moon (1827); a biography of Jefferson (1837); a four-volume history of the United States (1856–1857); and numerous essays on aesthetics, metaphysics, causality, morality, economics, slavery, and the nature of progress. Tucker was married three times, including to relatives of William Byrd II and George Washington. He died in 1861 from injuries he sustained after being hit by a falling cotton bale.
Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST]]>
/Attorneys_General_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 16:09:22 EST <![CDATA[Attorneys General of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Attorneys_General_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 16:09:22 EST]]> /Lieutenant_Governors_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 15:50:22 EST <![CDATA[Lieutenant Governors of Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lieutenant_Governors_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 15:50:22 EST]]> /Pollard_John_Garland_1871-1937 Tue, 07 Jan 2014 12:40:56 EST <![CDATA[Pollard, John Garland (1871–1937)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Pollard_John_Garland_1871-1937 John Garland Pollard was a progressive Democrat who served as delegate to the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902, attorney general of Virginia (1914–1918), and governor (1930–1934). Handpicked by Harry F. Byrd Sr. to be his gubernatorial successor, Pollard left a legacy as governor that was clouded by the fact that he took office on the eve of the Great Depression. While independent-minded, Pollard was never able to get fully out from under the thumb of Byrd (supposedly he would remark while patting his belly that he had become so rotund by "swallowing the Byrd machine"). Byrd's control over Pollard and Virginia's political environment was particularly evident in the initiative to legalize alcohol when Byrd went around Pollard to senator William M. Tuck to gather the General Assembly together in order to push through a state referendum to repeal Prohibition and establish the state-run Alcoholic Beverage Control Board. Outside of politics, Pollard was an educator and member of several public and philanthropic commissions and organizations. As a practicing attorney, he wrote Pollard's Code of Virginia, which became an often-consulted reference work on the laws of Virginia. He also served briefly as a professor of constitutional law and history at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg. In 1936 Pollard helped to found the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts in Richmond, the first state art museum in the United States, and served as president of the museum's board of directors.
Tue, 07 Jan 2014 12:40:56 EST]]>
/Price_James_Hubert_1878-1943 Mon, 06 Jan 2014 10:14:17 EST <![CDATA[Price, James H. (1878-1943)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Price_James_Hubert_1878-1943 James H. Price was a governor of Virginia (1938–1942) who advocated for a series of progressive policies designed to help those hurt by the Great Depression of the 1930s. His most notable achievement came in 1938 with the enactment of an Old Age Assistance Plan that enabled Virginians to receive federal Social Security benefits. Throughout his term, Price battled with United States Senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. and members of his political machine over policy and patronage issues. While Price won some of these battles, by 1940 Byrd and the Byrd Organization had derailed his legislative agenda, leaving a defeated Price to spend most of his last two years in office helping to mobilize Virginia for war.
Mon, 06 Jan 2014 10:14:17 EST]]>
/Reynolds_J_Sargeant_1936-1971 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 14:04:19 EST <![CDATA[Reynolds, J. Sargeant (1936–1971)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Reynolds_J_Sargeant_1936-1971 J. Sargeant Reynolds was a member of the House of Delegates (1966–1967) and the Senate of Virginia (1968–1969) and was the lieutenant governor of Virginia (1970–1971). The son of industrialist Richard S. Reynolds Jr., he enjoyed the advantages of wealth and social position, but used his privilege to advocate for the less fortunate. Reynolds positioned himself as a moderate and won support across the political spectrum despite his more liberal goals, which included education improvement, economic development, and equal opportunity regardless of race. The Virginia Democrats' most promising candidate for the 1973 gubernatorial race, Reynolds was diagnosed with an inoperable brain tumor in the summer of 1970. After undergoing radiation treatments, he was able to preside over the state senate in January 1971. That April, at a whites-only political gathering in Southside Virginia, he denounced the Byrd Organization's Massive Resistance policy and defiance of United States Supreme Court decisions such as Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg, North Carolina (1971), which upheld the busing of schoolchildren for the purpose of desegregation. Thereafter, his health declined: further radiation treatments weakened his immune system, and he contracted pneumonia. He died on June 13, 1971, at age thirty-four.
Sun, 05 Jan 2014 14:04:19 EST]]>
/Robb_Charles_S_1939- Sun, 05 Jan 2014 13:27:07 EST <![CDATA[Robb, Charles S. (1939– )]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robb_Charles_S_1939- Charles S. "Chuck" Robb served as lieutenant governor (1978–1982) and governor of Virginia (1982–1986) and for two terms as U.S. senator (1989–2001). The son-in-law of U.S. president Lyndon B. Johnson, Robb entered Virginia politics as a "celebrity" without the customary résumé of serving in lower office. A Democrat, Robb was instrumental in reviving his party's fortunes in the state after a period of Republican dominance. His election in 1981 ushered in the first of three consecutive Democratic governorships. A moderate, Robb also played a role in national politics, moving his party to the center but never seeking national office himself. His promising career was tarnished by a series of scandals and he was ultimately defeated for reelection in 2000.
Sun, 05 Jan 2014 13:27:07 EST]]>
/Robertson_A_Willis_1887-1971 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 09:56:34 EST <![CDATA[Robertson, A. Willis (1887–1971)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Robertson_A_Willis_1887-1971 A. Willis Robertson served in the Senate of Virginia (1916–1922), the United States House of Representatives (1933–1946), and the United States Senate (1946–1966). His career closely paralleled that of his friend and mentor, Harry F. Byrd, the leader of the Democratic Party in Virginia. They were born within two weeks of each other and only a few streets apart in Martinsburg, West Virginia, in 1887. They began their service in the Virginia state senate on the same day in 1916, and arrived at the United States Congress—Byrd to the Senate, Robertson to the House—on the same day in 1933. Though he stood with Byrd on many issues, including civil rights, Robertson asserted his independence from Byrd's political machine, the Byrd Organization, throughout his twenty-year senatorial career. Robertson differed from Byrd in his views on foreign policy and in his support of Democratic presidential candidate Adlai Stevenson in 1952 and 1956; in addition, Robertson was not a strong supporter of Byrd's Massive Resistance policy. In 1966 Robertson lost his Senate seat to William B. Spong, a more liberal Democrat from Portsmouth.
Sun, 05 Jan 2014 09:56:34 EST]]>
/Stanley_Thomas_Bahnson_1890-1970 Mon, 30 Dec 2013 17:54:58 EST <![CDATA[Stanley, Thomas B. (1890-1970)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Stanley_Thomas_Bahnson_1890-1970 Thomas B. Stanley served as governor of Virginia (1954–1958) during the turbulent first years of Massive Resistance to school desegregation. His initial reaction to the 1954 Supreme Court of the United States decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas was moderate, but Stanley, a politician of few gifts, was unable to curb increasing calls for a defiant stance to school desegregation. Stanley eventually followed the lead of more conservative Democrats and backed legislation designed to maintain what supporters called "separate but equal" schools.
Mon, 30 Dec 2013 17:54:58 EST]]>
/Clements_James_H_1831-1900 Thu, 12 Dec 2013 14:23:58 EST <![CDATA[Clements, James H. (1831–1900)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clements_James_H_1831-1900 Thu, 12 Dec 2013 14:23:58 EST]]> /Commodore_Aaron_1819_or_1820-1892 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 16:15:53 EST <![CDATA[Commodore, Aaron (1819 or 1820–1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Commodore_Aaron_1819_or_1820-1892 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 16:15:53 EST]]> /Clark_Matt_ca_1844-after_1892 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:57:16 EST <![CDATA[Clark, Matt (ca. 1844–after 1892)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Clark_Matt_ca_1844-after_1892 Matt Clark represented Halifax County in the House of Delegates from 1874 to 1875. Born enslaved, by 1870 he had become a property owner and was literate. Three years later he won election as a Halifax County justice of the peace and as a member of the House of Delegates. Clark seldom spoke on the House floor and introduced only a few resolutions, including one that supported the improvement of living conditions at the Central Lunatic Asylum (later Central State Hospital) in Petersburg. A Republican, he and other African Americans became dissatisfied with the party's white leadership and attended a state convention that established the short-lived Laboring Men's Mechanics' Union Association. Clark did not seek reelection in 1875. His last known appearance in public records came in 1892 in a Halifax County personal property tax list.
Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:57:16 EST]]>
/Cox_Henry_1832-after_1910 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:05:27 EST <![CDATA[Cox, Henry (1832–after 1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cox_Henry_1832-after_1910 Henry Cox served as a member of the House of Delegates for eight years. He was born in Powhatan County, whether free or enslaved is not certain. The 1870 census listed him as a farmer who was able to read and write. Cox represented Powhatan and Chesterfield counties in the House of Delegates beginning in 1869 and, following a redistricting of the assembly, won three more consecutive terms as the sole delegate from Powhatan County. In 1872 he was part of a multistate delegation that met with President Ulysses S. Grant to discuss federal civil rights legislation. When his fourth term ended, Cox did not seek reelection. He moved to Washington, D.C., about 1881, and last appears in public records in 1910.
Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:05:27 EST]]>
/Dabbs_Isaac_ca_1848-after_1910 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:02:40 EST <![CDATA[Dabbs, Isaac (ca. 1848–after 1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Dabbs_Isaac_ca_1848-after_1910 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:02:40 EST]]> /Wilder_Lawrence_Douglas_1931- Mon, 11 Nov 2013 13:10:02 EST <![CDATA[Wilder, Lawrence Douglas (1931– )]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wilder_Lawrence_Douglas_1931- L. Douglas Wilder was governor of Virginia from 1990 until 1994. His was a political career of many firsts: the grandson of slaves, he was the first African American elected governor of any state in America. He was the first black member of the Virginia Senate in the twentieth century. And he was the first African American to win statewide office in Virginia when he was elected lieutenant governor in 1985. A Democrat, he ran briefly for United States president in 1991 and in 2004 was elected mayor of Richmond, serving until 2008.
Mon, 11 Nov 2013 13:10:02 EST]]>
/Bryan_Daniel_ca_1789-1866 Wed, 02 Oct 2013 17:12:45 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, Daniel (ca. 1789–1866)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_Daniel_ca_1789-1866 Daniel Bryan was a poet, a lawyer, and a member of the Senate of Virginia (1818–1820) representing Rockingham and Shenandoah counties. Publishing his works in periodicals and short books, he wrote in a neoclassical style that was fashionable at the beginning of his literary career but that had fallen out of favor by the end of his life. He corresponded with several important figures of his day, including Edgar Allan Poe, who praised Bryan's verse. Bryan is now remembered chiefly for his epic about Daniel Boone, a minor poem that provides a wealth of information about American ideals and aspirations early in the nineteenth century. As a Virginia senator, Bryan opposed slavery and during the American Civil War (1861–1865), he was a staunch Unionist. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1866.
Wed, 02 Oct 2013 17:12:45 EST]]>
/Curtiss_Gaston_G_1819-1872 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:11:55 EST <![CDATA[Curtiss, Gaston G. (1819–1872)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Curtiss_Gaston_G_1819-1872 Gaston G. Curtiss served as a member of the Convention of 1867–1868. He grew up in Oswego County, New York, and arrived in Virginia about 1861. Four years later he purchased land near what is now the seat of Bedford County and became active in the radical branch of the Republican Party. Newly enfranchised African American voters elected Curtiss to the constitutional convention where he chaired the Committee on the Executive Department of Government. He voted for the new constitution, which included among its reforms universal manhood suffrage, the establishment of a public school system, and more elective local offices. In 1869 he lost a bid for the House of Representatives.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:11:55 EST]]>
/Brown_Goodman_1840-1929 Thu, 15 Aug 2013 16:44:17 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Goodman (1840–1929)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Goodman_1840-1929 Goodman Brown represented Prince George and Surry counties in the House of Delegates. He came from a free, property-owning African American family. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Brown served in the U.S. Navy as a cabin boy aboard the USS Maratanza. In the 1870s he became involved in politics and later was an ally of Readjuster leader William Mahone. As chairman of the Surry County Readjuster Committee, Brown used his relationship with Mahone to seek patronage positions for local men. When the Readjuster Party ceased to exist, Brown followed Mahone into the Republican Party. Winning the party's nomination for the local House of Delegates seat in 1887, he soundly defeated his Democratic opponent in the general election. Although he did not seek reelection in 1889, Brown remained one of Surry County's most important African American citizens.
Thu, 15 Aug 2013 16:44:17 EST]]>
/Carr_David_Green_1809-1883 Tue, 13 Aug 2013 11:15:10 EST <![CDATA[Carr, David Green (1809–1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carr_David_Green_1809-1883 David Green Carr served as a member of the Convention of 1867–1868 and the Senate of Virginia (1869–1871). He was born in Otsego County, New York, in 1809 and purchased a Dinwiddie County farm in 1853. He became active in Virginia's Republican Party after the American Civil War, and in 1867 Dinwiddie and Prince George county voters elected him as one of their two representatives to the state constitutional convention. He voted in favor of the new constitution, which included such reforms as universal manhood suffrage and the establishment of a public school system. In 1869 Carr, a member of the party's radical faction, won a seat in the state senate. He became Petersburg's collector of customs in 1870. He left the position by 1874, but he reacquired the job in 1877 and held it until his death in 1883.
Tue, 13 Aug 2013 11:15:10 EST]]>
/Branch_Tazewell_1828-1925 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 16:29:29 EST <![CDATA[Branch, Tazewell (1828–1925)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Branch_Tazewell_1828-1925 Tazewell Branch was born enslaved in Prince Edward County and later served two terms in the House of Delegates. Learning to read and write, Branch worked as a shoemaker and was known for his intelligence. By 1873 he owned land in Farmville and sat on the town council. That same year he won a seat in the General Assembly. Branch, who was respected by African Americans and whites, won reelection two years later as a member of a coalition that included the moderate factions of Prince Edward County's Republicans and Conservatives. He dropped out of politics after his second term, and his income declined as mass-produced footwear undermined his shoemaking business. His biggest legacy might have come from his children, who became educated and led successful careers in teaching and medicine.
Thu, 18 Jul 2013 16:29:29 EST]]>
/_An_Act_declaring_tenants_of_lands_or_slaves_in_taille_to_hold_the_same_in_fee_simple_1776 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:43:13 EST <![CDATA["An Act declaring tenants of lands or slaves in taille to hold the same in fee simple" (1776)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_declaring_tenants_of_lands_or_slaves_in_taille_to_hold_the_same_in_fee_simple_1776 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:43:13 EST]]> /Members_of_the_Virginia_State_Corporation_Commission Mon, 17 Sep 2012 10:23:35 EST <![CDATA[Members of the Virginia State Corporation Commission]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Members_of_the_Virginia_State_Corporation_Commission Mon, 17 Sep 2012 10:23:35 EST]]> /Antilynching_Law_of_1928 Tue, 12 Jun 2012 14:32:24 EST <![CDATA[Anti-Lynching Law of 1928]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 The Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, signed by Virginia governor Harry Flood Byrd Sr. on March 14, 1928, was the first measure in the nation that defined lynching specifically as a state crime. The bill's enactment marked the culmination of a campaign waged by Louis Isaac Jaffé, the editor of the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, who responded more forcefully than any other white Virginian to an increase in mob violence in the mid-1920s. Jaffé's efforts, however, which earned him a Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing in 1929, came to fruition only after the state's political and business leadership recognized that mob violence was a threat to their efforts to attract business and industry. Ironically, no white person was ever convicted of lynching an African American under the law.
Tue, 12 Jun 2012 14:32:24 EST]]>
/A_Memorial_and_Remonstrance_by_James_Madison_1785 Mon, 14 May 2012 11:49:55 EST <![CDATA["A Memorial and Remonstrance" by James Madison (1785)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Memorial_and_Remonstrance_by_James_Madison_1785 "A Memorial and Remonstrance Against Religious Assessments," anonymously authored by James Madison and published on or about June 20, 1785, argues against a resolution by the House of Delegates, adopted on November 11, 1784, to levy a so-called General Assessment to benefit all Christian sects, including dissenters against the established Church of England. The resolution excited such opposition, and petitions like Madison's such support, that Madison was emboldened to reintroduce Thomas Jefferson's Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, which passed the General Assembly on January 16, 1786.
Mon, 14 May 2012 11:49:55 EST]]>
/An_Act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_1786 Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:31:15 EST <![CDATA[An Act for establishing religious Freedom (1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_1786 "An Act for establishing religious Freedom" was drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1777, introduced into the House of Delegates in 1779, reintroduced in 1785, and finally adopted by the full General Assembly on January 16, 1786. This manuscript version of what has come to be known as the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom was signed alongside three other laws on January 19. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:31:15 EST]]>
/Tax_on_Religion_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_1784 Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:10:12 EST <![CDATA[Tax on Religion; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (1784)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tax_on_Religion_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_1784 In this excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates, the House adopts a resolution supporting "a moderate tax or contribution, annually," to benefit all Christian sects, including dissenters from the established Church of England. The resolution, which eventually failed, excited such opposition that James Madison was emboldened to reintroduce Thomas Jefferson's Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, which was passed by the General Assembly on January 16, 1786.
Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:10:12 EST]]>
/Debate_and_Passage_of_An_act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_in_the_House_of_Delegates_and_the_Senate_of_Virginia_1785-1786 Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:37:32 EST <![CDATA[Debate and Passage of "An act for establishing religious Freedom" in the House of Delegates and the Senate of Virginia (1785–1786)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Debate_and_Passage_of_An_act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_in_the_House_of_Delegates_and_the_Senate_of_Virginia_1785-1786 In these excerpts from the Journal of the House of Delegates and the Journal of the Senate of the Commonwealth of Virginia, the General Assembly debates and finally passes the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom, originally drafted by Thomas Jefferson.
Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:37:32 EST]]>
/A_Bill_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1779 Thu, 19 Apr 2012 14:17:28 EST <![CDATA[A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom (1779)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Bill_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1779 A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1777, was introduced to the House of Delegates on June 12, 1779, but eventually tabled. James Madison reintroduced a slightly different version in 1785, which was passed by the General Assembly on January 16, 1786.
Thu, 19 Apr 2012 14:17:28 EST]]>
/Massive_Resistance Wed, 29 Jun 2011 11:09:35 EST <![CDATA[Massive Resistance]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Massive_Resistance Massive Resistance was a policy adopted in 1956 by Virginia's state government to block the desegregation of public schools mandated by the U.S. Supreme Court in its 1954 ruling in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Advocated by U.S. senator Harry F. Byrd Sr., a conservative Democrat and former governor who coined the term, Massive Resistance reflected the racial views and fears of Byrd's power base in Southside Virginia as well as the senator's reflexive disdain for federal government intrusion into state affairs. When schools were shut down in Front Royal in Warren County , Charlottesville , and Norfolk to prevent desegregation, the courts stepped in and overturned the policy. In the end, Massive Resistance added more bitterness to race relations already strained by the resentments engendered by the caste system and delayed large-scale desegregation of Virginia's public schools for more than a decade. Meanwhile, Virginia's defiance served as an example for the states of the Lower South, and the legal vestiges of Massive Resistance lasted until early in the 1970s.
Wed, 29 Jun 2011 11:09:35 EST]]>
/Byrd_Organization Thu, 07 Apr 2011 10:46:00 EST <![CDATA[Byrd Organization]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Organization The Byrd Organization was a state political machine headed by Harry F. Byrd (1887–1966), a Democratic state senator, governor, and United States senator who, for more than forty years, used his power and influence to dominate the political life of Virginia. Inheriting an already tight party organization that for decades had emphasized small government and a limited franchise, Byrd prioritized fiscal conservatism—a policy he pithily dubbed "pay as you go"—and, on those grounds, opposed many of fellow Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal programs. Byrd and his organization are perhaps best known, however, for their fierce opposition to a 1954 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that mandated the desegregation of public schools. The resulting Massive Resistance movement led to the shutdown of schools in Charlottesville, Front Royal, and Norfolk before the federal and state courts overturned state antidesegregation policies. It also effectively ended the organization's decades-long hold on power in the state.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 10:46:00 EST]]>
/Highway_Bond_Referendum_1923 Tue, 23 Nov 2010 10:58:45 EST <![CDATA[Highway Bond Referendum, 1923]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Highway_Bond_Referendum_1923 The 1923 Highway Bond Referendum was defeated by voters after a long and bruising battle in the General Assembly where state senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. emerged as a real political force. At issue was how to pay for much-needed road improvement. While bonds were popular at first, Byrd had managed to muster a fierce and stubborn opposition, arguing that a gas tax, instead of bonds, would allow the state to adopt a "pay-as-you-go" policy that was more fiscally responsible. Byrd's behind-the-scenes machinations foreshadowed the political powerhouse he was about to become—as Virginia's governor, as a U.S. senator, and as head of the Byrd Organization, a statewide Democratic Party machine.
Tue, 23 Nov 2010 10:58:45 EST]]>