Encyclopedia Virginia: Jim Crow Era http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Anderson_William_A_1842-1930 Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:03:54 EST Anderson, William A. (1842–1930) http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_William_A_1842-1930 William A. Anderson, who came to be known as the "Lame Lion of the Confederacy," helped establish the Democratic Party's dominance in Virginia during and after the Reconstruction period. Wounded during the American Civil War (1861–1865), he was nominated to the House of Delegates in 1868 as a member of the Conservative Party, which sought to bring back the state's pre-war power structure. In 1883 Anderson was elected to the House of Delegates as a member of the Democratic Party (the successor of the Conservative Party). He helped cement Democratic control over Virginia by engineering the party's acceptance of the Readjusters' successful debt reduction policy and by co-sponsoring a law that gave control of elections to Democrats. In 1900 Anderson became head of the Virginia State Bar Association, and his presidential speech became the basis for the provisions in the Constitution of 1902 that disfranchised African American and poor white voters. (Anderson was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902.) He served as attorney general of Virginia from 1902 to 1910 and in the House of Delegates from 1918 to 1919. Anderson died at his home in Lynchburg in 1930.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:03:54 EST]]>
/Disfranchisement Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:55:25 EST <![CDATA[Disfranchisement]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Disfranchisement Disfranchisement (also called disenfranchisement) is the revocation of the right of suffrage. African American males voted in Virginia for the first time in October 1867, during Reconstruction (1865–1877), when the military governor of the state, John M. Schofield, ordered a referendum on whether to hold a convention to write a new state constitution and to elect delegates to serve in the convention. A majority of white Virginians disapproved of the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1870, which prohibited states from denying the vote to any man because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Ensuring that Virginia elections were set up to express the public opinion rather than suppress it was a task that took decades to complete. It was not until the abolition of the poll tax in the 1960s and adoption of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965 that black men and women registered and voted in appreciable numbers in Virginia outside a few urban precincts and that white men and women began to register and vote in significantly larger percentages than during the first half of the twentieth century.
Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:55:25 EST]]>
/Maggie_Lena_Walker_1864-1934 Tue, 12 Jul 2016 15:11:09 EST <![CDATA[Walker, Maggie Lena (1864–1934)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Maggie_Lena_Walker_1864-1934 Maggie Lena Walker was an African American entrepreneur and civic leader who broke traditional gender and discriminatory laws by becoming the first woman—white or black—to establish and become president of a bank in the United States—the Saint Luke Penny Savings Bank in Richmond. As of 2010, when it was known as Consolidated Bank and Trust Company, it was the oldest continually African American–operated bank in the United States. In her role as grand secretary of the Independent Order of Saint Luke, Walker also was indispensable in organizing a variety of enterprises that advanced the African American community while expanding the public role of women. Although as an African American woman in the post–Civil War South she faced social, economic, and political barriers in her life and business ventures, Walker, by encouraging investment and collective action, achieved tangible improvements for African Americans.
Tue, 12 Jul 2016 15:11:09 EST]]>
/Danville_Civil_Rights_Demonstrations_of_1963 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:57:01 EST <![CDATA[Danville Civil Rights Demonstrations of 1963]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Danville_Civil_Rights_Demonstrations_of_1963 The Danville civil rights demonstrations began peacefully late in May 1963 when local civil rights leaders organized demonstrations, sit-ins, and marches to protest segregation in all spheres, but especially in municipal government, employment, and public facilities. As protests accelerated, however, white authorities responded early in June with tough legal stratagems and violence, attacking demonstrators with clubs and fire hoses. Martin Luther King Jr.'s Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) all sent state and national leaders to Danville to assist the African American protesters, but to little avail. The legal resistance displayed by authorities—injunctions, ordinances, and court procedures condemned by the U.S. Justice Department—proved so effective and unyielding that protests were stymied, resulting in few immediate gains for African Americans.
Mon, 11 Jan 2016 14:57:01 EST]]>
/_Hard_Times_in_the_Sixth_Virginia_RichmondPlanet_December_24_1898 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:18:39 EST <![CDATA["Hard Times in the Sixth Virginia," Richmond Planet (December 24, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Hard_Times_in_the_Sixth_Virginia_RichmondPlanet_December_24_1898 Wed, 06 Jan 2016 13:18:39 EST]]> /_Negro_Officers_Richmond_Dispatch_June_5_1898 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 15:48:42 EST <![CDATA["Negro Officers," Richmond Dispatch (June 5, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Negro_Officers_Richmond_Dispatch_June_5_1898 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 15:48:42 EST]]> /_At_Work_for_the_Prizes_Washington_Post_May_27_1887 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 15:40:38 EST <![CDATA["At Work for the Prizes," Washington Post (May 27, 1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_At_Work_for_the_Prizes_Washington_Post_May_27_1887 Tue, 05 Jan 2016 15:40:38 EST]]> /African_American_Militia_Units_in_Virginia_1870-1899 Mon, 14 Dec 2015 16:21:37 EST <![CDATA[African American Militia Units in Virginia (1870–1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/African_American_Militia_Units_in_Virginia_1870-1899 African American militia units served as part of the Virginia state militia, the Virginia Volunteers, from 1872 until 1899. Although the General Assembly had long prohibited the arming of both enslaved and free blacks, African Americans still fought in all American wars from the French and Indian War (1754–1763) to the American Civil War (1861–1865). The first black militia unit to form in Virginia after the Civil War was the Attucks Guard, in Richmond. Established in 1870, the group joined the Virginia Volunteers two years later. By 1884, there were nineteen black companies, composed mostly of laboring men who sought recreational opportunities and social advancement. Faced with the high cost of membership—men provided their own uniforms—and poor discipline, membership dwindled to just eight companies by 1895. Between 1886 and 1895, black companies were called up five times, including in 1887, when Governor Fitzhugh Lee became the only southern governor to activate an all-black militia unit to help suppress a violent longshoremen's strike. During the Spanish-American War (1898), Virginia raised the all-black 6th Virginia Volunteers and contributed about a third of the men of the all-black 10th U.S. Volunteers, or so-called Immunes, a regiment of soldiers believed to be resistant to tropical diseases. The men of both regiments challenged the racist treatment they received while stationed in the Deep South, and the negative publicity that resulted led the governor to leave black companies out of the reconstituted Virginia Volunteers beginning in 1899.
Mon, 14 Dec 2015 16:21:37 EST]]>
/_Frivolous_Reasons_Richmond_Planet_June_11_1898 Mon, 14 Dec 2015 14:25:33 EST <![CDATA["Frivolous Reasons," Richmond Planet (June 11, 1898)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Frivolous_Reasons_Richmond_Planet_June_11_1898 Mon, 14 Dec 2015 14:25:33 EST]]> /_Griffin_Men_Did_Their_Duty_in_Checking_Drunken_Negroes_Atlanta_Constitution_March_10_1899 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:15:49 EST <![CDATA["Griffin Men Did Their Duty in Checking Drunken Negroes," Atlanta Constitution (March 10, 1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Griffin_Men_Did_Their_Duty_in_Checking_Drunken_Negroes_Atlanta_Constitution_March_10_1899 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 15:15:49 EST]]> /_The_Griffin_Episode_Atlanta_Constitution_March_19_1899 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 14:28:17 EST <![CDATA["The Griffin Episode," Atlanta Constitution (March 19, 1899)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Griffin_Episode_Atlanta_Constitution_March_19_1899 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 14:28:17 EST]]> /Indians_in_Virginia Mon, 23 Nov 2015 11:36:25 EST <![CDATA[Indians in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Indians_in_Virginia Indians have lived in the area now known as Virginia for thousands of years. Their histories, ancestral connections, and traditions are intertwined with the 6,000 square miles of Tidewater land the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Virginia called Tsenacomoco. The early inhabitants of Virginia were hunter-gatherers who followed the migratory patterns of animals. Over time, and as the region warmed, they settled into towns along riverbanks and outlined their homelands, developing intimate, balanced relationships with the animals, plants, and geographic formations. They hunted, fished, and farmed, and developed complex social and religious systems and vast trade networks. By the early 1600s, Virginia Indians lived in three broad cultural groups based on the language families found in the area: Algonquian, Iroquoian, and Siouan. Scholars know most about the Algonquian-speaking Indians of Tsenacomoco, who eventually grouped together into a paramount chiefdom. Led by Powhatan, the polity ultimately included twenty-eight to thirty-two small chiefdoms and tribes, stretching from the James to the Potomac rivers and encompassing much of Virginia's coastal plain. In 1607, Englishmen arrived and changed Indian life forever. In the midst of a severe drought, the colonists' demands for food and their inability to fully understand Indian cultural practices led in part to three protracted and violent conflicts over four decades, ending in 1646 with the Algonquian-speaking Indians largely subject to English rule. The General Assembly set aside land for the former tribes of Tsenacomoco, although in subsequent years some Indians were forced to move and some groups became dispersed. In the years that followed, they contributed to the developing American culture while working to maintain their own traditions during difficult periods of disease, hunger, forced relocations, and restrictive colonial and later statewide policies that curtailed their rights to travel unmolested through lands now occupied by settlers, to visit their traditional hunting and fishing grounds, and to testify in court on their own behalf. At the beginning of the twentieth century, a cultural renaissance bloomed and some scholars began to study Indian history more closely. At the same time, the General Assembly did much to deny Indian identity, including passing in 1924 the Act to Preserve Racial Integrity, which criminalized interracial marriage and separated Virginians into two simplified racial categories: white and colored. These wrongs were addressed in part by the Supreme Court's decision in Loving v. Virginia (1967) and by state legislation in the late 1980s that allowed Virginia Indians to change the racial designation on their birth certificates without cost. Virginia Indians in the twenty-first century actively cultivate their own culture while educating others about their history.
Mon, 23 Nov 2015 11:36:25 EST]]>
/Racial_Integrity_Laws_of_the_1920s Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:27:31 EST <![CDATA[Racial Integrity Laws (1924–1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Racial_Integrity_Laws_of_the_1920s Racial integrity laws were passed by the General Assembly to protect "whiteness" against what many Virginians perceived to be the negative effects of race-mixing. They included the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which prohibited interracial marriage and defined as white a person "who has no trace whatsoever of any blood other than Caucasian"; the Public Assemblages Act of 1926, which required all public meeting spaces to be strictly segregated; and a third act, passed in 1930, that defined as black a person who has even a trace of African American ancestry. This way of defining whiteness as a kind of purity in bloodline became known as the "one drop rule." These laws arrived at a time when a pseudo-science of white superiority called eugenics gained support by groups like the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, which argued that the mixing of whites, African Americans, and Virginia Indians could cause great societal harm, despite the fact that the races had been intermixed since European settlement. From his position as the state registrar of vital statistics, Walter A. Plecker micromanaged the racial classifications of Virginians, often worrying that blacks were attempting to pass as white. Virginia Indians were particularly incensed by the laws, and by Plecker in particular, because the state seemed intent on removing any legal recognition of Indian identity in favor of the broader category "colored." After one failed try, lawmakers largely achieved this goal in 1930, drawing negative reaction from the black press. The Racial Integrity Act remained on the books until 1967, when the U.S. Supreme Court, in Loving v. Virginia, found its prohibition of interracial marriage to be unconstitutional. In 2001, the General Assembly denounced the act, and eugenics, as racist.
Wed, 04 Nov 2015 15:27:31 EST]]>
/Corbin_Percy_Casino_1888-1952 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:52:19 EST <![CDATA[Corbin, Percy C. (1888–1952)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Corbin_Percy_Casino_1888-1952 Percy C. Corbin was a civil rights activist. A lawsuit he filed on behalf of his son, Corbin et al. v. County School Board of Pulaski County, Virginia, et al. (1950), led to one of only six successful lawsuits supported by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in its legal campaign to equalize school facilities before Brown v. Board of Education (1954). A Texas native and physician, Corbin established his practice in the town of Pulaski, where he helped combat an influenza outbreak in 1918 and attracted both black and white clients. Corbin fought to equalize school facilities and was active in the local black community. He died in 1952.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:52:19 EST]]>
/Copeland_Walter_Scott_1856-1928 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:50:49 EST <![CDATA[Copeland, Walter S. (1856–1928)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Copeland_Walter_Scott_1856-1928 Walter S. Copeland owned or co-owned important newspapers across Virginia including the Danville Register, Richmond Evening Leader, Roanoke Times, and Newport News Daily Press. Held in high esteem by his journalistic peers, he served four terms as president of the Virginia Press Association. Copeland supported Progressive reforms to improve welfare and education programs for poor whites, which he viewed as necessary for social order. He opposed the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s and supported what later became Hampton University. Yet Copeland became a strong backer of harsh segregation laws in his later years. He joined forces with John Powell, founder of the Anglo-Saxon Clubs, and supported the 1924 Virginia Act to Preserve Racial Integrity. Two years later Copeland and his newspapers crusaded for what became the Massenburg Bill, the strongest segregation law in the United States.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:50:49 EST]]>
/Cameron_William_Evelyn_1842-1927 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:41:05 EST <![CDATA[Cameron, William E. (1842–1927)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cameron_William_Evelyn_1842-1927 William E. Cameron was a veteran of the American Civil War (1861–1865), a journalist, a governor of Virginia (1882–1886), and a member of the Convention of 1901–1902. Cameron served in the Confederate army during the war, then worked as a journalist in Petersburg and Richmond, supporting the Conservative Party. Beginning in 1876, he was elected to three consecutive two-year terms as the mayor of Petersburg. Later in the 1870s he began to side with the Readjusters, a faction that sought to adjust the payment of Virginia's prewar debt. He won the governorship as a nominee of the Readjuster-Republican coalition in 1881. Cameron and the Readjusters issued a series of reforms, including repealing the poll tax, but his aggressive use of political patronage angered voters and his opponents. The revived Democratic Party, capitalizing on white supremacy and the electorate's unease over Cameron's tactics, took over the General Assembly in 1883. Cameron left politics after completing his term, but was elected in 1901 to a state constitutional convention. He played an influential role, advocating provisions that strengthened the governor's authority to discharge subordinate officials; defending legislative election of judges; and supporting reinstating the poll tax and other restrictions that disfranchised African American voters. Cameron returned to journalism in 1906, editing the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot until 1919. He died in Louisa County in 1927.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:41:05 EST]]>
/Button_Robert_Young_1899-1977 Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:32:31 EST <![CDATA[Button, Robert Y. (1899–1977)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Button_Robert_Young_1899-1977 Robert Y. Button was Virginia's attorney general from 1962 to 1970. The Culpeper native was among the many small-town attorneys who contributed to the success of Harry F. Byrd Sr.'s Democratic political machine. Button served for fifteen years in the Senate of Virginia, where he backed the Byrd Organization's policies of Massive Resistance and fiscal conservatism. During his two terms as attorney general his office defended Virginia's racial segregation laws, legislative reapportionment, voter registration procedures, and the poll tax. Most notably, his assistants lost in the landmark cases Griffin et al. v. County School Board of Prince Edward County et al. (1964), which invalidated the practice of closing county schools and funding private segregated academies, and Loving v. Virginia (1967), which invalidated Virginia's law against interracial marriages.
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 09:32:31 EST]]>
/Grand_Fountain_of_the_United_Order_of_True_Reformers Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:10:06 EST <![CDATA[Grand Fountain of the United Order of True Reformers]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Grand_Fountain_of_the_United_Order_of_True_Reformers The Grand Fountain of the United Order of True Reformers was an African American fraternal organization that became the largest and most successful black business enterprise in the United States between 1881 and 1910. William Washington Browne founded and organized the Grand Fountain in Richmond in January 1881. A former slave, veteran of the Union army during the American Civil War (1861–1865), teacher, and Methodist minister, Browne created the Grand Fountain with a renewed purpose and energy out of the languishing Grand United Order of True Reformers, which began in the 1870s in Alabama and Kentucky. Where the original order taught temperance and provided members with sick and death benefits, Browne's vision expanded into an enterprise that cultivated a growing black middle class by offering services that included a savings bank, a real estate company, a retirement home, and a youth and children's division that taught discipline, thrift, and business skills. Although the Grand Fountain operated until 1934, it was never the same after 1910, when an embezzlement scandal and a number of large loan defaults caused the bank to close its doors. Despite the organization's downfall, the order left a powerful legacy because it provided employment and business opportunities to African Americans and helped to establish community leaders and business networks amidst a period of Jim Crow laws and strict racial segregation in Virginia.
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:10:06 EST]]>
/Loving_v_Virginia_1967 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 14:22:25 EST <![CDATA[Loving v. Virginia (1967)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Loving_v_Virginia_1967 In Loving v. Virginia, decided on June 12, 1967, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously struck down Virginia's law prohibiting interracial marriages as a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. The appellants, Richard and Mildred Loving, of Caroline County, had married in Washington, D.C., in June 1958 and then returned to Virginia, where they were arrested. After pleading guilty, they were forced to leave the state. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed motions and appeals on their behalf beginning in 1963, and after the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals ruled against the Lovings in 1966, the U.S. Supreme Court heard their arguments. The case came after nearly 300 years of legislation in Virginia regulating interracial marriage and carefully defining which citizens could legally claim to be white. Two U.S. Supreme Court cases, Pace v. Alabama (1883) and Maynard v. Hill (1888), upheld the constitutionality of such laws. In 1924, the Act to Preserve Racial Integrity banned interracial marriage in Virginia while defining a white person as someone who had no discernible nonwhite ancestry. It was this law that the U.S. Supreme Court ruling said denied Virginians' "fundamental freedom" to marry. Loving v. Virginia is a landmark case, both in the history of race relations in the United States and in the ongoing political and cultural dispute over the proper definition of marriage.
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 14:22:25 EST]]>
/When_Marriages_No_Void_for_Want_of_Authority_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:43:45 EST <![CDATA[When Marriages Not Void for Want of Authority (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/When_Marriages_No_Void_for_Want_of_Authority_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:43:45 EST]]> /Person_Performing_Ceremony_of_Marriage_Between_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:41:57 EST <![CDATA[Person Performing Ceremony of Marriage Between; How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Person_Performing_Ceremony_of_Marriage_Between_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:41:57 EST]]> /Celebrating_Marriage_without_License_or_etc_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:40:33 EST <![CDATA[Celebrating Marriage without License, or, etc.; How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Celebrating_Marriage_without_License_or_etc_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:40:33 EST]]> /Marriage_of_White_Person_with_Colored_Person_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:38:35 EST <![CDATA[Marriage of White Person with Colored Person, How Punished (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Marriage_of_White_Person_with_Colored_Person_How_Punished_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:38:35 EST]]> /Preservation_of_Racial_Integrity_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:24:27 EST <![CDATA[Preservation of Racial Integrity (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Preservation_of_Racial_Integrity_1924 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:24:27 EST]]> /Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1930 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 13:06:19 EST <![CDATA[Colored Persons and Indians Defined (1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1930 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 13:06:19 EST]]> /Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1887 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 12:49:51 EST <![CDATA[Colored Persons and Indians Defined (1887)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1887 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 12:49:51 EST]]> /Separation_of_Races_1926 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 12:46:22 EST <![CDATA[Separation of Races (1926)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Separation_of_Races_1926 Wed, 23 Sep 2015 12:46:22 EST]]> /Atha_Sorrells_v_A_T_Shields_Clerk_Petition_for_Mandamus_November_14_1924 Tue, 22 Sep 2015 12:15:59 EST <![CDATA[Atha Sorrells v. A. T. Shields, Clerk, Petition for Mandamus (November 14, 1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Atha_Sorrells_v_A_T_Shields_Clerk_Petition_for_Mandamus_November_14_1924 Tue, 22 Sep 2015 12:15:59 EST]]> /An_Act_to_amend_and_re-enact_section_49_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_1887_1910 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:59:58 EST <![CDATA[An Act to amend and re-enact section 49 of the Code of Virginia, 1887 (1910)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_amend_and_re-enact_section_49_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_1887_1910 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:59:58 EST]]> /Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1924 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:43:07 EST <![CDATA[Colored Persons and Indians Defined (1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colored_Persons_and_Indians_Defined_1924 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:43:07 EST]]> /Danville_Riot_1883 Mon, 29 Jun 2015 15:52:26 EST <![CDATA[Danville Riot (1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Danville_Riot_1883 Mon, 29 Jun 2015 15:52:26 EST]]> /Confederate_Battle_Flag Fri, 26 Jun 2015 13:05:01 EST <![CDATA[Confederate Battle Flag]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Confederate_Battle_Flag The Confederate battle flag, initially authorized for units of the Confederate armed forces during the American Civil War (1861–1865), has become one of the most recognized, misunderstood, and controversial symbols in American history. Originally designed as a Confederate national flag by William Porcher Miles of South Carolina, it was rejected by the Confederate Congress but subsequently adopted by the Confederate army, which needed a banner that was easily distinguishable from the United States flag. The battle flag transformed into a national symbol as the Army of Northern Virginia, with which it was closely associated, also became an important symbol. It even was incorporated into the Confederacy's second and third national flags. Following the war, proponents of the Lost Cause used the battle flag to represent Southern valor and honor, although it also was implicitly connected to white supremacy. In the mid-twentieth century, the battle flag simultaneously became ubiquitous in American culture while, partly through the efforts of the Ku Klux Klan, becoming increasingly tied to racial violence and intimidation. African Americans conflated the battle flag to opposition to the civil rights movement, while neo-Confederates argued that its meaning had to do with states' rights and southern identity, not racial hatred. The political and social lines of dispute over the flag remain much the same at the beginning of the twenty-first century.
Fri, 26 Jun 2015 13:05:01 EST]]>
/Affidavit_of_Powhatan_Bouldin_November_14_1883 Thu, 25 Jun 2015 12:11:35 EST <![CDATA[Affidavit of Powhatan Bouldin (November 14, 1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Affidavit_of_Powhatan_Bouldin_November_14_1883 Thu, 25 Jun 2015 12:11:35 EST]]> /_The_Danville_Riot_Richmond_Dispatch_November_4_1883 Thu, 25 Jun 2015 11:53:11 EST <![CDATA["The Danville Riot," Richmond Dispatch (November 4, 1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Danville_Riot_Richmond_Dispatch_November_4_1883 Thu, 25 Jun 2015 11:53:11 EST]]> /_The_Danville_Massacre_New_York_Times_November_10_1883 Thu, 25 Jun 2015 11:38:39 EST <![CDATA["The Danville Massacre," New York Times (November 10, 1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Danville_Massacre_New_York_Times_November_10_1883 Thu, 25 Jun 2015 11:38:39 EST]]> /_The_Riot_in_Danville_Staunton_Spectator_November_6_1883 Thu, 25 Jun 2015 11:37:06 EST <![CDATA["The Riot in Danville," Staunton Spectator (November 6, 1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Riot_in_Danville_Staunton_Spectator_November_6_1883 Thu, 25 Jun 2015 11:37:06 EST]]> /_The_Danville_Massacre_Chicago_Tribune_February_16_1884 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 16:28:50 EST <![CDATA["The Danville Massacre," Chicago Tribune (February 16, 1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Danville_Massacre_Chicago_Tribune_February_16_1884 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 16:28:50 EST]]> /_Coalition_Rule_in_Danville_October_1883 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 16:10:15 EST <![CDATA["Coalition Rule in Danville" (October 1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_Coalition_Rule_in_Danville_October_1883 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 16:10:15 EST]]> /Testimony_of_Charles_D_Noel_November_13_1883 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 15:48:07 EST <![CDATA[Testimony of Charles D. Noel (November 13, 1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_of_Charles_D_Noel_November_13_1883 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 15:48:07 EST]]> /Testimony_of_Robert_J_Adams_February_19_1884 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 15:33:43 EST <![CDATA[Testimony of Robert J. Adams (February 19, 1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_of_Robert_J_Adams_February_19_1884 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 15:33:43 EST]]> /Testimony_of_Hense_Lawson_February_18_1884 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 15:18:15 EST <![CDATA[Testimony of Hense Lawson (February 18, 1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_of_Hense_Lawson_February_18_1884 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 15:18:15 EST]]> /Testimony_of_George_A_Lea_February_15_1884 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 14:06:05 EST <![CDATA[Testimony of George A. Lea (February 15, 1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_of_George_A_Lea_February_15_1884 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 14:06:05 EST]]> /Testimony_of_R_W_Glass_February_15_1884 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 15:53:14 EST <![CDATA[Testimony of R. W. Glass (February 15, 1884)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Testimony_of_R_W_Glass_February_15_1884 Mon, 22 Jun 2015 15:53:14 EST]]> /_The_Press_on_the_Danville_Riot_Richmond_Dispatch_November_6_1883 Fri, 19 Jun 2015 16:49:25 EST <![CDATA["The Press on the Danville Riot," Richmond Dispatch (November 6, 1883)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/_The_Press_on_the_Danville_Riot_Richmond_Dispatch_November_6_1883 Fri, 19 Jun 2015 16:49:25 EST]]> /Ku_Klux_Klan_in_Virginia Tue, 21 Apr 2015 10:58:18 EST <![CDATA[Ku Klux Klan in Virginia]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Ku_Klux_Klan_in_Virginia The Ku Klux Klan (KKK), also known as the Klan or the Invisible Empire, is a right-wing extremist organization that has emerged at three distinct periods of U.S. history: from 1865 to the 1870s, from 1915 to 1944, and from the 1950s to the present. In the name of white supremacy and the protection of "one-hundred percent Americanism," these Klan movements have targeted—through political rhetoric and violent actions—African Americans, immigrants, Catholics, Jews, and organized labor, as well as prostitution and the alcohol industry. While antipathy from political elites ensured that the Klan never gained the foothold in Virginia that it had in other states, it was most prominent in the Commonwealth during the 1920s and resurged during the 1950s and 1960s to target civil rights activists. During Reconstruction (1865–1877), the Klan was active in Virginia only for a period of several months before the newspapers that had once supported it condemned its use of violence. After the events of World War I (1914–1918) encouraged a heightened fear of "anti-American elements," the Klan was more efficiently mobilized and enjoyed a longer reign in Virginia, but was undone by legal restrictions on its violent activities, which included kidnappings, floggings, and at least one lynching. The Klan was reborn in the late 1950s to defend white supremacy against the threats of desegregation, but mounting pressure from civil rights groups led the white political establishment to commit to stamping out masked rallies and cross-burnings and making Virginia an inhospitable environment for Klan activity. The white political and social elite consistently decried the Klan, not because they were opposed to white supremacy but because they viewed the Klan's methods as crass and unsophisticated. Klan klaverns still exist in the Commonwealth, but there has been little public notice or concern of them since the late 1960s.
Tue, 21 Apr 2015 10:58:18 EST]]>
/Farmer_James_1920-1999 Thu, 05 Feb 2015 13:22:11 EST <![CDATA[Farmer, James (1920–1999)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farmer_James_1920-1999 James Farmer was a civil rights leader who pioneered sit-in demonstrations during the 1940s and led the Freedom Riders of 1961. After graduating from Wiley College, in Texas, Farmer moved to Chicago to serve as race relations secretary for the pacifist group Fellowship of Reconciliation. Dedicated to fighting Jim Crow laws, in 1942 Farmer helped form what became the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). The organization selected Farmer as its national director in 1961, bringing him to prominence. The violent reaction by southern whites to the Freedom Riders was the first in a series of confrontations and arrests for his work on behalf of African American civil rights. Farmer left CORE in 1966 and later served briefly in the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Farmer moved to Spotsylvania County about 1980 and became a professor at Mary Washington College in 1985. That year his book, Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement, was published. Farmer received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1998.
Thu, 05 Feb 2015 13:22:11 EST]]>
/Morgan_v_Virginia Mon, 20 Oct 2014 14:38:24 EST <![CDATA[Morgan v. Virginia (1946)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_v_Virginia In Morgan v. Virginia, decided on June 3, 1946, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down a Virginia law requiring racial segregation on commercial interstate buses as a violation of the commerce clause of the U.S. Constitution. The appellant, Irene Morgan, was riding a Greyhound bus from Hayes Store, in Gloucester County, to Baltimore, Maryland, in 1944 when she was arrested and convicted in Saluda for refusing to give up her seat to a white person. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) filed appeals on her behalf, and after the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals ruled against Morgan in 1945, the U.S. Supreme Court heard her arguments. The case came near the end of a string of decisions, dating back to 1878, in which various courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court, had found that the commerce clause did not support state laws that regulated commercial interstate passenger travel. Morgan v. Virginia was not a typical civil rights case in that it did not comment on a state's right to segregate whites from blacks. Still, Morgan's refusal to give up her seat foreshadowed Rosa Parks's more famous action a decade later and marked an early and important victory in the civil rights movement.
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 14:38:24 EST]]>
/Farmville_Protests_of_1963 Tue, 14 Oct 2014 10:27:22 EST <![CDATA[Farmville Protests of 1963]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Farmville_Protests_of_1963 The Farmville civil rights demonstrations began late in July 1963, when the Reverend L. Francis Griffin organized a direct-action campaign to, as he told reporters, "protest closed schools, delay in the courts, and segregation in its totality." Public schools in Prince Edward County and its county seat, Farmville, had been closed since June 1959, when county officials refused to levy taxes to operate schools rather than follow federal court orders to desegregate. The state government had abandoned its policy of Massive Resistance, but Prince Edward County remained steadfast and became the only place in the nation without public education. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Allen v. County School Board of Prince Edward County and later Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County had petitioned the federal judiciary to open the schools, but the case moved glacially through the courts. African Americans in Prince Edward County faced a variety of additional obstacles, such as discriminatory hiring practices and de facto and de jure segregation. The two-month direct action campaign Griffin launched that summer included picketing along Main Street, sit-ins, kneel-ins, try-ins, and economic boycotts. The protests ended in September 1963, after the formation of the Prince Edward Free School Association, a nonprofit organization that established and maintained an integrated school system in Prince Edward County until 1964, when the U.S. Supreme Court ordered the county to reopen its public schools. The Farmville protests did not end the county's racial discrimination, but they helped set the community on a path to change.
Tue, 14 Oct 2014 10:27:22 EST]]>
/Bowser_Rosa_L_Dixon_1855-1931 Wed, 03 Sep 2014 14:06:55 EST <![CDATA[Bowser, Rosa L. Dixon (1855–1931)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowser_Rosa_L_Dixon_1855-1931 Rosa L. Dixon Bowser, educator and civic leader, played a key role in implementing reforms that affected Virginia's African Americans. Bowser was most likely born enslaved. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), she moved to Richmond with her family and enrolled in public school, where she showed remarkable intelligence. She went on to become a teacher in Richmond's public schools. Her efforts on behalf of educators helped create Virginia's first professional African American teacher's association, and she later served as its president. Throughout her teaching career Bowser, like her contemporaries Janie Porter Barrett and Maggie Lena Walker, worked for societal improvement. She played a major role in African American reform organizations, industrial schools for black children, groups supporting universal woman suffrage, and associations publicly opposed to lynching and racial segregation. The first branch of the Richmond public library to be opened for African Americans was named for Bowser in 1925. She died of complications from diabetes in 1931 at her home in Richmond.
Wed, 03 Sep 2014 14:06:55 EST]]>
/Poll_Tax Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:08:18 EST <![CDATA[Poll Tax]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Poll_Tax A poll tax is a tax levied as a prerequisite for voting. After Reconstruction (1865–1877)—the twelve-year period of rebuilding that followed the American Civil War (1861–1865)—many southern states passed poll taxes in an effort to keep African Americans from voting. As a result, many African Americans (and other impoverished citizens) who could not afford to pay the poll tax were disfranchised and deprived of their rights as citizens. In 1870 the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was adopted, stipulating that an individual's right to vote could not be denied by any state on the basis of race or color. Southern state legislators, however, soon looked for other ways to keep the vote from African Americans, which inevitably, and perhaps by design, blocked some white Americans. In response, many state legislatures drew up grandfather clauses to ensure that non–African American constituents were included in the voting process. The U.S. Supreme Court declared grandfather clauses unconstitutional in 1915 and again in 1939, but poll taxes had greater longevity and remained in effect into the era of the civil rights movement. The Twenty-fourth Amendment, ratified in 1964, outlawed the use of this tax (or any other tax) as a pre-condition in voting in federal elections, and the 1966 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections extended this ruling, stating that the imposition of a poll tax in state elections violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:08:18 EST]]>
/Smith_Howard_Worth_1883-1976 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 13:28:44 EST <![CDATA[Smith, Howard Worth (1883–1976)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_Howard_Worth_1883-1976 Howard W. Smith, a Virginia Democratic congressman, was one of America's most powerful politicians from the New Deal to the Great Society. A master obstructionist who chaired the House Rules Committee, he used his power to fight the liberal agendas of presidential administrations from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Lyndon B. Johnson. He was particularly concerned about the influence of Communists and wrote the Alien Registration Act of 1940, legislation that eventually paved the way for government targeting of radicals during the Cold War. He also saw Communism at the heart of the civil rights movement and attempted to kill the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by introducing an amendment to include women under its provisions. Ironically, this helped the measure pass and stands as an important part of Smith's legacy.
Thu, 05 Jun 2014 13:28:44 EST]]>
/Morgan_v_Virginia_June_3_1946 Tue, 03 Jun 2014 17:05:50 EST <![CDATA[Morgan v. Virginia (June 3, 1946)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_v_Virginia_June_3_1946 Tue, 03 Jun 2014 17:05:50 EST]]> /Edmunds_Murrell_1898-1981 Wed, 28 May 2014 12:59:12 EST <![CDATA[Edmunds, Murrell (1898–1981)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Edmunds_Murrell_1898-1981 Murrell Edmunds was a poet, novelist, and playwright best known for his biting irony and his strident defense of African Americans during the Jim Crow era, when legislation in Virginia and throughout the South stripped blacks of many basic civil rights. An Army veteran, Edmunds gave up a law practice to write full-time, publishing books that were highly conventional formally but often controversial in their subject matter. He spent much of his career in New Orleans, Louisiana, away from the political judgments of Virginia, and there published one of his best works, Moon of My Delight (1960), a three-act play on race relations in the South following the American Civil War (1861–1865). Edmunds died in New Orleans in 1981.
Wed, 28 May 2014 12:59:12 EST]]>
/Wilson_Woodrow_1856-1924 Fri, 02 May 2014 14:34:48 EST <![CDATA[Wilson, Woodrow (1856–1924)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Wilson_Woodrow_1856-1924 Woodrow Wilson was president of Princeton University (1902–1910), governor of New Jersey (1911–1913), twenty-eighth president of the United States (1913–1921), and creator of the League of Nations. Although he was sometimes caricatured as a northern academic, Wilson was born in Staunton, Virginia, and considered himself to be southern. As such, he was the first southerner elected president since Zachary Taylor in 1848, and brought to the office a progressive zeal for reform, both economic and social, as well as the typical mindset of the southern white political class, which considered African Americans second-class citizens, that contributed to his decision strictly to segregate the federal workforce. He is perhaps best known for leading the United States into the World War I (1914–1918), despite an election vow to do otherwise, and for helping to negotiate the resulting Treaty of Versailles. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919.
Fri, 02 May 2014 14:34:48 EST]]>
/Hancock_Gordon_Blaine_1884-1970 Thu, 01 May 2014 10:12:50 EST <![CDATA[Hancock, Gordon Blaine (1884–1970)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Hancock_Gordon_Blaine_1884-1970 Gordon Blaine Hancock was a professor at Virginia Union University, pastor of Moore Street Baptist church in Richmond , and a leading spokesman for African American equality in the generation before the civil rights movement. Hancock co-founded the Richmond chapter of the Urban League and wrote newspaper columns for the Associated Negro Press, advising his mostly black audience on how to get by in tough times while still taking principled stands against segregation. His work with the Virginia Interracial Commission and the Southern Regional Council also suggested his willingness to be both outspoken and pragmatic in the midst of the fight against segregation—a fight, he wrote, that must be won "if the Negro is to survive."
Thu, 01 May 2014 10:12:50 EST]]>
/Morgan_v_Commonwealth_June_6_1945 Wed, 30 Apr 2014 14:30:32 EST <![CDATA[Morgan v. Commonwealth (June 6, 1945)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_v_Commonwealth_June_6_1945 Wed, 30 Apr 2014 14:30:32 EST]]> /Harrison_Burton_Mrs_1843-1920 Mon, 28 Apr 2014 16:36:37 EST <![CDATA[Harrison, Burton, Mrs., (1843–1920)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Harrison_Burton_Mrs_1843-1920 Mrs. Burton Harrison, also known as Constance Cary Harrison, was a prolific American novelist late in the nineteenth century who came from a prominent Virginia family. As a young woman, she witnessed the destruction of the American Civil War (1861–1865) and nursed the Confederate wounded in Manassas and Richmond. After the war, Harrison toured Europe, eventually married, and settled down in New York City. She was active in elite New York society and produced a large body of work, much of it popular serialized fiction and sentimental romance, in which she recorded the social mores of her time. The author of more than fifty works, including short stories, articles and essays, children's books, and short plays, she is best known for her 1911 autobiography, Recollections Grave and Gay.
Mon, 28 Apr 2014 16:36:37 EST]]>
/Chapter_161A_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:53:22 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 161A of the Code of Virginia § 4097z–dd (1930)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_161A_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:53:22 EST]]> /Jackson_Luther_Porter_1892-1950 Sun, 23 Mar 2014 12:34:24 EST <![CDATA[Jackson, Luther Porter (1892–1950)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Jackson_Luther_Porter_1892-1950 Luther Porter Jackson was an African American historian and one of Virginia's most important civil rights activists of the 1930s and 1940s. He was a professor of history at Virginia State College in Petersburg for nearly thirty years and authored Free Negro Labor and Property Holding in Virginia, 1830–1860 (1942), research that challenged stereotypes of antebellum blacks. Jackson was perhaps most important, however, as a political and social activist. He helped found the Petersburg League of Negro Voters in 1935, wrote a weekly newspaper column titled "Rights and Duties in a Democracy," and worked to challenge segregation in Richmond's public transit system.
Sun, 23 Mar 2014 12:34:24 EST]]>
/Muse_Benjamin_1898-1986 Fri, 28 Feb 2014 15:54:51 EST <![CDATA[Muse, Benjamin (1898–1986)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Muse_Benjamin_1898-1986 Benjamin Muse, a journalist based in Manassas, Virginia, emerged as one of the state's most prominent white liberals during the period of the Massive Resistance movement, which opposed the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 decision outlawing segregation in public schools, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Through a weekly column in the Washington Post, Muse criticized what he perceived to be the undemocratic practices of the Byrd Organization, the Virginia political machine led by U.S. senator and former governor Harry F. Byrd Sr., a Democrat. Muse also charged that Massive Resistance represented a desperate gamble by rural leaders to preserve the state's one-party system. Throughout the five-year crisis, Muse insisted that Virginia must comply with the Supreme Court's ruling, and he championed the efforts of white moderates and liberals from the cities and suburbs who opposed the state's plan, which amounted to abandoning public education rather than accepting any degree of racial integration. In 1959, after federal and state courts invalidated Virginia's school-closing scheme, Muse became the director of the Southern Leadership Project in order to spread the message of compliance with Brown to other states across the region.
Fri, 28 Feb 2014 15:54:51 EST]]>
/Crawford_Robert_Baxter_1895-1973 Fri, 24 Jan 2014 17:09:14 EST <![CDATA[Crawford, Robert B. (1895–1973)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Crawford_Robert_Baxter_1895-1973 Robert B. Crawford was president of the Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties, a grassroots political organization dedicated to preserving racial segregation in Virginia's public schools. Crawford, a veteran of World War I (1914–1918) and a former member of the Prince Edward County school board, helped organize the Defenders after the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) mandated the desegregation of public schools. The group helped propel Massive Resistance until 1959, after which its political clout declined rapidly. Crawford resigned as the Defenders' president in 1963, but supported the organization until it dissolved in 1967. He died in 1973.
Fri, 24 Jan 2014 17:09:14 EST]]>
/Defenders_of_State_Sovereignty_and_Individual_Liberties Wed, 23 Oct 2013 16:21:50 EST <![CDATA[Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Defenders_of_State_Sovereignty_and_Individual_Liberties The Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties, a grassroots political organization created in Petersburg in October 1954, was dedicated to preserving strict racial segregation in Virginia's public schools. A group of prominent Southside leaders formed the group following Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, the U.S. Supreme Court decision, handed down on May 17, 1954, that mandated the desegregation of public schools. Opening chapters across the state and employing a variety of tactics, the Defenders rigorously confronted the Brown mandate, influencing the state commission that bestowed its blessing on the policy of Massive Resistance and even the temporary closing of public schools in Warren County, Norfolk, and Charlottesville. When Massive Resistance was declared unconstitutional, the Defenders organized a Bill of Rights Crusade and protested in Richmond, but the group's support and influence was on the wane. It dissolved in 1967.
Wed, 23 Oct 2013 16:21:50 EST]]>
/Cox_Earnest_Sevier_1880-1966 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 12:01:35 EST <![CDATA[Cox, Earnest Sevier (1880–1966)]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cox_Earnest_Sevier_1880-1966 Earnest Sevier Cox was a committed white supremacist who advocated on behalf of anti-miscegenation laws and in 1922 cofounded with the composer John Powell the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, a Richmond-based, nationwide organization devoted to maintaining a strict separation of the races. In 1923, Cox published White America, a book that described his travels in Africa and argues that race-mixing would result in the collapse of "white civilization." He also wrote extensively on eugenics, a now discredited scientific movement aimed at proving the superiority of the white race. Together with composer Powell and Virginia state registrar Walter Plecker, Cox played an influential role in lobbying the Virginia General Assembly to pass the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, a strict anti-miscegenation law, and later the Massenburg Bill, which banned racial mixing in all public places. In 1924, Cox formed an unlikely alliance with the black nationalist Marcus Garvey based on their shared belief that the only way to save the races was for African Americans to relocate to Africa. Cox retired from the real estate business in 1958 and died in Richmond in 1966.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 12:01:35 EST]]>
/Negro_Organization_Society Wed, 15 May 2013 14:30:50 EST <![CDATA[Negro Organization Society]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Negro_Organization_Society The Negro Organization Society was a grassroots advocacy association that stressed community self-improvement for African Americans in Virginia during the Jim Crow era. Founded in 1912 at the Hampton Institute by Robert Russa Moton, its motto was "Better Schools, Better Health, Better Homes, Better Farms." Pursuit of these four goals was considered essential to the protection and welfare of black citizens, especially in rural areas where the great majority of Virginia's African Americans lived. Over the years, the organization's actions shifted from building schools to improving education by accrediting more institutions and improving teacher pay. By the 1950s, when the Negro Organization Society had begun to dissolve, the fight for African American civil rights had largely shifted from community and regional organizers to the court system.
Wed, 15 May 2013 14:30:50 EST]]>
/Lee_Robert_E_in_Memory Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:16:07 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Robert E. in Memory]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Robert_E_in_Memory Robert E. Lee, a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and president of Washington College in Lexington until his death in 1870, is one of the most revered figures in American history. Lee's place in history is complicated, however, and the way that he has been remembered has changed over time. During his own life, Lee modeled himself after the courtly and self-controlled George Washington and cultivated a sense of himself as a character in a drama and a prisoner of fate. After his death, Lee was less likely to be branded a traitor; instead, he became a symbol of the Lost Cause interpretation of the war, transformed into a crucial agent of sectional reconciliation. The Civil War, according to the Lost Cause, was not about slavery but about states' rights and, ultimately, the honor and bravery of white soldiers on both sides. In this regard, Lee served the needs of not just the Confederacy or of the South, but of all America. The civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s encouraged historians to engage a broader social and political canvas when writing about Lee, and this has led some scholars to challenge traditional conclusions about Lee's significance and meaning. Like Washington, Lee is the seminal figure in a transformational moment, but of a different sort. He is the symbol of a vision that failed, and yet also the redeemer of a cause that has lived a long and often tragic afterlife.
Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:16:07 EST]]>
/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 Tue, 12 Jun 2012 14:32:24 EST <![CDATA[Anti-Lynching Law of 1928]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 The Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, signed by Virginia governor Harry Flood Byrd Sr. on March 14, 1928, was the first measure in the nation that defined lynching specifically as a state crime. The bill's enactment marked the culmination of a campaign waged by Louis Isaac Jaffé, the editor of the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, who responded more forcefully than any other white Virginian to an increase in mob violence in the mid-1920s. Jaffé's efforts, however, which earned him a Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing in 1929, came to fruition only after the state's political and business leadership recognized that mob violence was a threat to their efforts to attract business and industry. Ironically, no white person was ever convicted of lynching an African American under the law.
Tue, 12 Jun 2012 14:32:24 EST]]>
/Massive_Resistance Wed, 29 Jun 2011 11:09:35 EST <![CDATA[Massive Resistance]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Massive_Resistance Massive Resistance was a policy adopted in 1956 by Virginia's state government to block the desegregation of public schools mandated by the U.S. Supreme Court in its 1954 ruling in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Advocated by U.S. senator Harry F. Byrd Sr., a conservative Democrat and former governor who coined the term, Massive Resistance reflected the racial views and fears of Byrd's power base in Southside Virginia as well as the senator's reflexive disdain for federal government intrusion into state affairs. When schools were shut down in Front Royal in Warren County , Charlottesville , and Norfolk to prevent desegregation, the courts stepped in and overturned the policy. In the end, Massive Resistance added more bitterness to race relations already strained by the resentments engendered by the caste system and delayed large-scale desegregation of Virginia's public schools for more than a decade. Meanwhile, Virginia's defiance served as an example for the states of the Lower South, and the legal vestiges of Massive Resistance lasted until early in the 1970s.
Wed, 29 Jun 2011 11:09:35 EST]]>
/Desegregation_in_Higher_Education Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:14:13 EST <![CDATA[Desegregation in Higher Education]]> http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Desegregation_in_Higher_Education The desegregation of higher education in Virginia was the result of a long legal and social process that began after the American Civil War (1861–1865) and did not end before the 1970s. When the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" public accommodations for blacks and whites were constitutional in the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the court established a sturdy legal basis for segregation. This ruling encouraged the Jim Crow era of legalized discrimination against blacks in the south. But the terminology of "separate but equal" eventually also created an opening for African Americans to demand educational opportunities and facilities equal to those available to whites. Educational opportunities for blacks were vastly inferior to whites, and segregation in higher education was entrenched in Virginia through World War II (1941–1945). But during the 1950s and 1960s, the first black students entered various graduate programs at the University of Virginia and the College of William and Mary, then undergraduate engineering programs at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and the University of Virginia, and finally general undergraduate programs at all historically white colleges and universities. In 1935 Alice Jackson failed to win admission to a graduate program at the University of Virginia, but Gregory Swanson, with the help of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and a ruling from a federal court, gained admission to the university's law school in 1950. Admittance into programs did not mean an immediate end to unfair and unequal treatment on campus, but by 1972 black students were able to enroll in Virginia in any curriculum and also live and eat in campus facilities.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:14:13 EST]]>