Battle of North Anna

The Battle of North Anna was fought May 23–26, 1864, during the American Civil War (1861–1865). It came three days after the bloody Battle of Spotsylvania Court House during the Overland Campaign of 1864, the spring offensive in which the Union army's new general-in-chief, Ulysses S. Grant, stubbornly pursued Confederate general Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia all the way to the Confederate capital of Richmond. A number of small engagements along the North Anna River in central Virginia rather than a single pitched fight, the battle marked one of many instances when Lee managed to outmaneuver his more powerful foe. Still, the Battle of North Anna highlighted the exhaustion of both armies and led Grant to believe that the Confederates were nearing defeat. MORE...

 

Background

After the heavy fighting at Spotsylvania, Grant sought to lure the Army of Northern Virginia from its entrenchments and determined to use the Army of the Potomac's Second Corps, under Winfield Scott Hancock, as bait. Early on May 21, Hancock began a march eastward, screened by a slapdash collection of cavalry under Alfred A. T. Torbert. Around nine o'clock in the morning, Torbert's men encountered Confederate infantry traveling north, alerting Lee of the movement. Lee assumed that Grant was attempting to flank him and ordered his own infantry east with orders to concentrate north of Hanover Junction along the highly defensible banks of the North Anna River.

Lee's quick reaction put Grant in a bind. He had not expected the entire Army of Northern Virginia to take off after the lone Second Corps, but he had no choice but to react to his Confederate counterpart. (Grant was hardly the first general to lose the initiative to Lee.) By midnight on May 21, both armies were in motion toward the southeast. Most Confederate units had consolidated along the North Anna River by May 22, and Grant's men arrived by May 23.

The Battle

Fighting began on May 23. Lee had arranged his lines in an inverted V–shaped entrenchment with the apex protecting Ox Ford across the North Anna River. To his left, Union troops could cross at a shallow part of the river near Jericho Mill, while on his right Chesterfield Bridge provided an opportune crossing spot. Nevertheless, Lee's line remained strong because crossing would force Grant to divide his forces, while Lee could shift men efficiently along the interior lines of the V–shape. On the afternoon of May 23, the Union Fifth Corps (commanded by General Gouverneur K. Warren) managed to cross the river at Jericho Mill, while the Union Second Corps brushed aside defenders on the north side of the river at Chesterfield Bridge. The stage was set for the next day's fighting.

On May 24, Union forces roamed around the south side of the North Anna River, initially encountering little to no resistance. Hancock's Second Corps moved across the river at Chesterfield Bridge and confronted little opposition. Union spirits ran high in hopes that Lee had left the area. Those spirits fell when, at three o'clock, Hancock's troops ran into Confederates near Hanover Junction on Lee's right. At first, Union general John Gibbon thought little of these forces, and kept feeding in men in an attempt to brush them out of his way. It soon became apparent, however, that these were not stragglers but members of Lee's army. A similar situation prevailed at Ox Ford, where Union troops launched a futile assault against Confederate entrenchments. Confronted by strong Confederate positions, Union forces ceased their attacks. On May 25, Grant set his troops to work tearing up rail lines and damaging Confederate infrastructure. After the rather low-intensity fighting, Grant once again decided to move east on the evening of May 26 and morning of May 27.

Aftermath

Some Confederates maintained after the war that illness had prevented Lee from ordering an attack to annihilate the Union Second Corps. In Lee's Lieutenants (1942–1944), the historian Douglas Southall Freeman wrote of Lee's "intestinal ailment that had the usual effect of sharpening his temper and shaking his control of it." And he dramatized a scene in which Lee strongly rebuked his Third Corps commander, A. P. Hill, for not attacking in the tradition of Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson: "Why," Lee demanded of Hill, "did you not do as Jackson would have done—thrown your whole force upon those people and driven them back?"

Contemporary evidence fails to support the idea that Lee's health affected the battle; however, the Confederate high command clearly was not itself. Lee's most trusted lieutenant, James Longstreet, had been wounded earlier in the month at the Battle of the Wilderness. Like Lee, Hill was ill. And the Second Corps commander, Richard S. Ewell, had lost Lee's trust at Spotsylvania and was about to be transferred to Richmond. Regardless of why Lee seemed content to rest inside his entrenchments, Grant took the fact to mean that the Army of Northern Virginia was on its last legs; his strategy of wearing down the Confederate force had worked. This supposition would bear bitter fruit for the Army of the Potomac a week later at the bloody Battle of Cold Harbor.

Time Line

  • May 20, 1864, evening - Union general Winfield Scott Hancock marches his Second Corps toward the east of Confederate lines around Spotsylvania Court House. The move is part of a plan by Union general-in-chief Ulysses S. Grant to lure Confederate general Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia out of its trenches by exposing a single corps as bait.
  • May 21, 1864, 12:30 a.m. - Union general Winfield Scott Hancock and his Second Corps meet up with cavalry under Alfred A. T. Torbert, who proceeds to screen, or hide, the Union march from the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia.
  • May 21, 1864, 6 a.m. - The Union Second Corps under Winfield Scott Hancock clears the Confederate right flank in a move intended to bait Confederates to leave their trenches around Spotsylvania Court House.
  • May 21, 1864, 9 a.m. - Union general Alfred A. T. Torbert's cavalry encounters Confederate infantry at Milford Station. These Confederate troops are part of General George E. Pickett's division, which is making its way northward to join the Army of Northern Virginia.
  • May 21, 1864, 9 a.m. - Upon receiving reports of Union infantry and cavalry activity beyond his right flank, Confederate general Robert E. Lee determines that Union general-in-chief Ulysses S. Grant is once again attempting to move the bulk of his army beyond the Confederate right flank. Lee orders Richard S. Ewell's division to begin a march to counter Grant.
  • May 21, 1864, 10 a.m. - After intercepting several of Confederate general Robert E. Lee's dispatches, Ulysses S. Grant sees that Lee has moved more quickly, and in greater force, than he anticipated. Accordingly, Grant sends General Gouverneur K. Warren's Fifth Corps to support Winfield Scott Hancock and his Second Corps.
  • May 21, 1864, 11:40 a.m. - Confederate general Robert E. Lee orders George E. Pickett's division to Hanover Junction. He decides to concentrate Confederate forces there, and has them dig in behind the North Anna River.
  • May 21, 1864, 12 p.m. - Union general Winfield Scott Hancock's Second Corps, on a march designed to draw Confederates out of their trenches near Spotsylvania Court House, crosses the Mattapony River (also known as the Mattaponi River).
  • May 21, 1864, 4 p.m. - The remaining Sixth Corps of the Army of the Potomac under Union general Horatio G. Wright and Ambrose E. Burnside's independent Ninth Corps march eastward. Their move is part of a campaign designed by Ulysses S. Grant to draw Confederates out of their trenches around Spotsylvania Court House.
  • May 21, 1864, 5 p.m. - Confederate general Robert E. Lee launches an attack to test whether the Army of the Potomac still remains in force in its own entrenchments at Spotsylvania Court House. Despite receiving a stinging rebuke, Confederate troops manage to take sections of the Union earthworks. Lee realizes that Ulysses S. Grant is once again on the move.
  • May 21, 1864, 9 p.m. - Confederate troops under A. P. Hill begin to march east in pursuit of Union forces that, by now, have successfully lured Robert E. Lee's army from its trenches near Spotsylvania Court House.
  • May 22, 1864, 8 a.m. - The lead elements of Richard S. Ewell's Confederate corps reach the North Anna River in pursuit of Union troops under Ulysses S. Grant.
  • May 22, 1864, 4 p.m. - The last Confederate units reach the North Anna River, foiling Union general-in-chief Ulysses S. Grant's attempt to sidle around the right flank of the Army of Northern Virginia.
  • May 23, 1864 - Union general-in-chief Ulysses S. Grant consolidates the Army of the Potomac and Ambrose E. Burnside's Ninth Corps in order to attack the Army of Northern Virginia.
  • May 23, 1864, afternoon - The Union Fifth Corps under Gouverneur K. Warren crosses the North Anna River near Jericho Mill along Confederate general Robert E. Lee's left flank. The Union Second Corps under Winfield Scott Hancock approaches Chesterfield Bridge on Lee's right.
  • May 24, 1864 - Union general-in-chief Ulysses S. Grant orders a general advance against Confederate forces along the North Anna River in the morning. Initially, it goes well, with little Confederate resistance.
  • May 23, 1864, 5:45 p.m. - A Confederate division under Cadmus Wilcox assaults Union general Gouverneur K. Warren's men along the North Anna River near Jericho Mill before being driven off. Wilcox retreats to entrench.
  • May 23, 1864, 6 p.m. - Union general Winfield Scott Hancock and his Second Corps drive off Confederate defenders near Chesterfield Bridge. While Hancock remains on the north side of the North Anna River, he is in perfect position to cross the river the following day.
  • May 24, 1864, 3 p.m. - After crossing the North Anna River, Union general John Gibbon's men on the Union left wing encounter a line of well-defended Confederate trenches near Hanover Junction. Their advance is stymied.
  • May 24, 1864, 4 p.m. - Union general James H. Ledlie attempts to take the Confederate lines at Ox Ford, where his men are promptly mauled by the hard-hitting veteran Confederate division under William Mahone.
  • May 24, 1864, 6:45 p.m. - As fighting for the day ends, Confederate general Robert E. Lee's line becomes apparent to Union forces—a strong inverted V–shaped entrenchment with its apex at Ox Ford across the North Anna River. Contrary to reports from the morning, Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia remain in the area.
  • May 25, 1864 - Foiled in his attempts to dislodge Confederate forces under Robert E. Lee along the North Anna River, Ulysses S. Grant orders his men to destroy rail lines.
  • May 26, 1864 - Union cavalrymen begin to move eastward from their position along the North Anna River in order to begin clearing the way for a general movement of Ulysses S. Grant's men the following day.
  • May 27, 1864, 12 a.m. - The Union Army of the Potomac once again begins a move eastward, ending the Battle of North Anna.
Further Reading
Grimsley, Mark. And Keep Moving On: The Virginia Campaign, May–June 1864. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002.
Miller, J. Michael. "Even to Hell Itself": The North Anna Campaign, May 21–26, 1864. Lynchburg, Virginia: H. E. Howard, 1989.
Rhea, Gordon C. To the North Anna River: Grant and Lee, May 13–25, 1864. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2000.
Cite This Entry
  • APA Citation:

    Luebke, P. C. Battle of North Anna. (2012, November 29). In Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved from http://www.EncyclopediaVirginia.org/North_Anna_Battle_of.

  • MLA Citation:

    Luebke, Peter C. "Battle of North Anna." Encyclopedia Virginia. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 29 Nov. 2012. Web. READ_DATE.

First published: February 11, 2009 | Last modified: November 29, 2012


Contributed by Peter C. Luebke, a doctoral student in the department of history at the University of Virginia.